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Sample records for improved phoneme discrimination

  1. [Improvement in Phoneme Discrimination in Noise in Normal Hearing Adults].

    PubMed

    Schumann, A; Garea Garcia, L; Hoppe, U

    2017-02-01

    Objective: The study's aim was to examine the possibility to train phoneme-discrimination in noise with normal hearing adults, and its effectivity on speech recognition in noise. A specific computerised training program was used, consisting of special nonsense-syllables with background noise, to train participants' discrimination ability. Material and Methods: 46 normal hearing subjects took part in this study, 28 as training group participants, 18 as control group participants. Only the training group subjects were asked to train over a period of 3 weeks, twice a week for an hour with a computer-based training program. Speech recognition in noise were measured pre- to posttraining for the training group subjects with the Freiburger Einsilber Test. The control group subjects obtained test and restest measures within a 2-3 week break. For the training group follow-up speech recognition was measured 2-3 months after the end of the training. Results: The majority of training group subjects improved their phoneme discrimination significantly. Besides, their speech recognition in noise improved significantly during the training compared to the control group, and remained stable for a period of time. Conclusions: Phonem-Discrimination in noise can be trained by normal hearing adults. The improvements have got a positiv effect on speech recognition in noise, also for a longer period of time.

  2. Discrimination of phoneme length differences in word and sentence contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Norimune; Carrell, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The ability of listeners to discriminate phoneme duration differences within word and sentence contexts was measured. This investigation was part of a series of studies examining the audibility and perceptual importance of speech modifications produced by stuttering intervention techniques. Just noticeable differences (jnd's) of phoneme lengths were measured via the parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) task, an adaptive tracking procedure. The target phonemes were digitally manipulated to vary from normal (130 m) to prolonged (210 m) duration in 2-m increments. In the first condition the phonemes were embedded in words. In the second condition the phonemes were embedded within words, which were further embedded in sentences. A four-interval forced-choice (4IAX) task was employed on each trial, and the PEST procedure determined the duration at which each listener correctly detected a difference between the normal duration and the test duration 71% of the time. The results revealed that listeners were able to reliably discriminate approximately 15-m differences in word context and 10-m differences in sentence context. An independent t-test showed a difference in discriminability between word and sentence contexts to be significant. These results indicate that duration differences were better perceived within a sentence context.

  3. Auditory Phoneme Discrimination in Illiterates: Mismatch Negativity--A Question of Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaadt, Gesa; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    These days, illiteracy is still a major problem. There is empirical evidence that auditory phoneme discrimination is one of the factors contributing to written language acquisition. The current study investigated auditory phoneme discrimination in participants who did not acquire written language sufficiently. Auditory phoneme discrimination was…

  4. Phonetic, Phonemic, and Phonological Factors in Cross-Language Discrimination of Phonotactic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that multiple levels of linguistic information play a role in the perception and discrimination of non-native phonemes. This study examines the interaction of phonetic, phonemic and phonological factors in the discrimination of non-native phonotactic contrasts. Listeners of Catalan, English, and Russian are presented…

  5. Learning to Hear by Learning to Speak: The Effect of Articulatory Training on Arab Learners' English Phonemic Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebaugh, Gary; Roche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore English pronunciation teaching within an English as an International Language (EIL) framework, arguing that teaching learners how to produce English phonemes can lead to an improvement in their aural ability. English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners often have difficulty discriminating between and producing…

  6. Phonetic, phonemic, and phonological factors in cross-language discrimination of phonotactic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    Previous research indicates that multiple levels of linguistic information play a role in the perception and discrimination of non-native phonemes. This study examines the interaction of phonetic, phonemic and phonological factors in the discrimination of non-native phonotactic contrasts. Listeners of Catalan, English, and Russian are presented with an initial #CC-#CəC contrast in a discrimination task. For the Catalan group, the phonemes and their phonetic implementation were native, but the #CC phonotactics were not. For Russian listeners, the phonemes and phonetic implementation were not native but Russian allows a large number of #CC sequences. For English listeners, none of the phonetics, phonemes, nor phonotactics are native. Two task variables, stimuli length and order of presentation, were also manipulated. Results showed that the Russian listeners were most accurate overall, suggesting that the presence of the phonotactic structure in the listeners' native language may be more important than either phonemic or phonetic information. The interaction between the task manipulations and the linguistic variables is also addressed.

  7. Discrimination of Phonemic Vowel Length by Japanese Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Sogabe, Yuko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Japanese has a vowel duration contrast as one component of its language-specific phonemic repertory to distinguish word meanings. It is not clear, however, how a sensitivity to vowel duration can develop in a linguistic context. In the present study, using the visual habituation-dishabituation method, the authors evaluated infants' abilities to…

  8. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  9. Activations of human auditory cortex to phonemic and nonphonemic vowels during discrimination and memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Harinen, Kirsi; Rinne, Teemu

    2013-08-15

    We used fMRI to investigate activations within human auditory cortex (AC) to vowels during vowel discrimination, vowel (categorical n-back) memory, and visual tasks. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the vowel discrimination task would be associated with increased activations in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), while the vowel memory task would enhance activations in the posterior STG and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). In particular, we tested the hypothesis that activations in the IPL during vowel memory tasks are associated with categorical processing. Namely, activations due to categorical processing should be higher during tasks performed on nonphonemic (hard to categorize) than on phonemic (easy to categorize) vowels. As expected, we found distinct activation patterns during vowel discrimination and vowel memory tasks. Further, these task-dependent activations were different during tasks performed on phonemic or nonphonemic vowels. However, activations in the IPL associated with the vowel memory task were not stronger during nonphonemic than phonemic vowel blocks. Together these results demonstrate that activations in human AC to vowels depend on both the requirements of the behavioral task and the phonemic status of the vowels.

  10. The Use of Handheld Devices for Improved Phonemic Awareness in a Traditional Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna-McBee, Cristy Ann

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching strategies that improve the development of phonemic awareness are important to ensure students are fluent readers by third grade. The use of handheld devices to improve phonemic awareness with kindergarten students may be such a strategy, but no research exists that evaluates the use of these devices. This study explored the…

  11. Benefits of Phoneme Discrimination Training in a Randomized Controlled Trial of 50- to 74-Year-Olds With Mild Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Henshaw, Helen; Clark, Daniel P. A.; Moore, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (i) evaluate the efficacy of phoneme discrimination training for hearing and cognitive abilities of adults aged 50 to 74 years with mild sensorineural hearing loss who were not users of hearing aids, and to (ii) determine participant compliance with a self-administered, computer-delivered, home- and game-based auditory training program. Design: This study was a randomized controlled trial with repeated measures and crossover design. Participants were trained and tested over an 8- to 12-week period. One group (Immediate Training) trained during weeks 1 and 4. A second waitlist group (Delayed Training) did no training during weeks 1 and 4, but then trained during weeks 5 and 8. On-task (phoneme discrimination) and transferable outcome measures (speech perception, cognition, self-report of hearing disability) for both groups were obtained during weeks 0, 4, and 8, and for the Delayed Training group only at week 12. Results: Robust phoneme discrimination learning was found for both groups, with the largest improvements in threshold shown for those with the poorest initial thresholds. Between weeks 1 and 4, the Immediate Training group showed moderate, significant improvements on self-report of hearing disability, divided attention, and working memory, specifically for conditions or situations that were more complex and therefore more challenging. Training did not result in consistent improvements in speech perception in noise. There was no evidence of any test-retest effects between weeks 1 and 4 for the Delayed Training group. Retention of benefit at 4 weeks post-training was shown for phoneme discrimination, divided attention, working memory, and self-report of hearing disability. Improved divided attention and reduced self-reported hearing difficulties were highly correlated. Conclusions: It was observed that phoneme discrimination training benefits some but not all people with mild hearing loss. Evidence presented here

  12. Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD)[R]/Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS)[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) Program[R]" (currently called the "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS) Program[R]") is designed to teach students skills to successfully decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to…

  13. Precursors and Consequences of Phonemic Length Discrimination Ability Problems in Children with Reading Disabilities and Familial Risk for Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Martin, Maisa; Richardson, Ulla; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the importance of phonemic length discrimination ability on reading and spelling skills among children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and among children with typical reading skills, as well as the role of prereading skills in reading and spelling development in children with reading…

  14. Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences as Cues to Spelling Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Paul R.; And Others

    This study sought to analyze phoneme/grapheme correspondences in a 17,310-entry word list drawn from the Thorndike-Lorge word list and Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Phase one of the research, which has also been reported separately, also sought to determine how closely American-English orthography approximates the alphabetic…

  15. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Schaadt, Gesa; Illner, Franziska K; van der Meer, Elke; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-02-01

    Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS) that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  16. Les phonemes, j'aime (I Love Phonemes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneman-Pougatch, Massia

    1986-01-01

    Outlines interesting approaches and exercises for pronunciation instruction in the French class. The focus is on auditory discrimination, integration, phoneme-grapheme correspondence, and creativity with sounds. (MSE)

  17. Development of non-native vowel discrimination: Improvement without exposure.

    PubMed

    Mazuka, Reiko; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Tsuji, Sho

    2014-02-01

    The present study tested Japanese 4.5- and 10-month old infants' ability to discriminate three German vowel pairs, none of which are contrastive in Japanese, using a visual habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Japanese adults' discrimination of the same pairs was also tested. The results revealed that Japanese 4.5-month old infants discriminated the German /bu:k/-/by:k/ contrast, but they showed no evidence of discriminating the /bi:k/-/be:k/ or /bu:k/-/bo:k/ contrasts. Japanese 10-month old infants, on the other hand, discriminated the German /bi:k/-/be:k/ contrast, while they showed no evidence of discriminating the /bu:k/-/by:k/ or /bu:k/-/bo:k/ contrasts. Japanese adults, in contrast, were highly accurate in their discrimination of all of the pairs. The results indicate that discrimination of non-native contrasts is not always easy even for young infants, and that their ability to discriminate non-native contrasts can improve with age even when they receive no exposure to a language in which the given contrast is phonemic.

  18. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  19. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    PubMed Central

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

  20. Review of neural rehabilitation programs for dyslexia: how can an allophonic system be changed into a phonemic one?

    PubMed Central

    Serniclaes, Willy; Collet, Gregory; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Neural investigations suggest that there are three possible core deficits in dyslexia: phonemic, grapho-phonemic, and graphemic. These investigations also suggest that the phonemic deficit resides in a different mode of speech perception which is based on allophonic (subphonemic) units rather than phonemic units. Here we review the results of remediation methods that tap into each of these core deficits, and examine how the methods that tap into the phonemic deficit might contribute to the remediation of allophonic perception. Remediation of grapho-phonemic deficiencies with a new computerized phonics training program (GraphoGame) might be able to surpass the limits of classical phonics training programs, particularly with regard to reading fluency. Remediation of visuo-graphemic deficiencies through exposure to enhanced letter spacing is also promising, although children with dyslexia continued to read more slowly than typical readers after this type of training. Remediation of phonemic deficiencies in dyslexia with programs based solely on phonemic awareness has a limited impact on reading. This might be due to the persistence of a covert deficit in phonemic perception. Methods based on slowed speech enhance the perception not only of phonemic features but also of allophonic features, and this is probably why they have not been found to be effective in meta-analyses. Training of phonemic perception with a perceptual fading paradigm, a method that improves precision in identification and discrimination around phonemic boundaries, has yielded promising results. However, studies with children at risk for dyslexia and dyslexic adults have found that even when behavioral data do not reflect allophonic perception, it can nevertheless be present in neural recordings. Further investigations should seek to confirm that the perceptual fading paradigm is beneficial for reading, and that it renders perception truly phonemic. PMID:25759679

  1. A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Lorna F

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

  2. Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Begoña; Baus, Cristina; Escera, Carles; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2008-10-21

    Human beings differ in their ability to master the sounds of their second language (L2). Phonetic training studies have proposed that differences in phonetic learning stem from differences in psychoacoustic abilities rather than speech-specific capabilities. We aimed at finding the origin of individual differences in L2 phonetic acquisition in natural learning contexts. We consider two alternative explanations: a general psychoacoustic origin vs. a speech-specific one. For this purpose, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from two groups of early, proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who differed in their mastery of the Catalan (L2) phonetic contrast /e-epsilon/. Brain activity in response to acoustic change detection was recorded in three different conditions involving tones of different length (duration condition), frequency (frequency condition), and presentation order (pattern condition). In addition, neural correlates of speech change detection were also assessed for both native (/o/-/e/) and nonnative (/o/-/ö/) phonetic contrasts (speech condition). Participants' discrimination accuracy, reflected electrically as a mismatch negativity (MMN), was similar between the two groups of participants in the three acoustic conditions. Conversely, the MMN was reduced in poor perceivers (PP) when they were presented with speech sounds. Therefore, our results support a speech-specific origin of individual variability in L2 phonetic mastery.

  3. Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Begoña; Baus, Cristina; Escera, Carles; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2008-01-01

    Human beings differ in their ability to master the sounds of their second language (L2). Phonetic training studies have proposed that differences in phonetic learning stem from differences in psychoacoustic abilities rather than speech-specific capabilities. We aimed at finding the origin of individual differences in L2 phonetic acquisition in natural learning contexts. We consider two alternative explanations: a general psychoacoustic origin vs. a speech-specific one. For this purpose, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from two groups of early, proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who differed in their mastery of the Catalan (L2) phonetic contrast /e-ε/. Brain activity in response to acoustic change detection was recorded in three different conditions involving tones of different length (duration condition), frequency (frequency condition), and presentation order (pattern condition). In addition, neural correlates of speech change detection were also assessed for both native (/o/-/e/) and nonnative (/o/-/ö/) phonetic contrasts (speech condition). Participants' discrimination accuracy, reflected electrically as a mismatch negativity (MMN), was similar between the two groups of participants in the three acoustic conditions. Conversely, the MMN was reduced in poor perceivers (PP) when they were presented with speech sounds. Therefore, our results support a speech-specific origin of individual variability in L2 phonetic mastery. PMID:18852470

  4. The relationship between articulatory control and improved phonemic accuracy in childhood apraxia of speech: A longitudinal case study

    PubMed Central

    Grigos, Maria I.; Kolenda, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Jaw movement patterns were examined longitudinally in a 3-year-old male with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and compared with a typically developing control group. The child with CAS was followed for 8 months, until he began accurately and consistently producing the bilabial phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/. A movement tracking system was used to study jaw duration, displacement, velocity, and stability. A transcription analysis determined the percentage of phoneme errors and consistency. Results showed phoneme-specific changes which included increases in jaw velocity and stability over time, as well as decreases in duration. Kinematic parameters became more similar to patterns seen in the controls during final sessions where tokens were produced most accurately and consistently. Closing velocity and stability, however, were the only measures to fall within a 95% confidence interval established for the controls across all three target phonemes. These findings suggest that motor processes may differ between children with CAS and their typically developing peers. PMID:20030551

  5. Evaluation of phoneme perception based on the digitalized phoneme test in children with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Olgierd; Sekula, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis of congenital defect of hearing poses new challenges for a multidisciplinary team of pedoaudiologists, ENT (ear-nose-throat) specialists and speech therapists. This study assessed the perception of phonemes in children with a cochlear implant and the possibilities of applying acoustical solutions in the audiologic evaluation. The participants were 17 implanted children, aged 5-9 years, who received a cochlear implant when they were from 18 months to 3 years old. Detection thresholds and discrimination score were assessed. This study also aimed at verifying the possibilities of applying the digital audioprocessing algorithm in clinical practice. The test based on the phonemes aa, uu, ii, ss, sh (Ling 5 sound test) was used. The test was modified in the frequency domain - the main aim of this modification was to improve the precision of the reconstruction of the audible threshold. The results indicated significant correlations between pure tone audiometry results and thresholds of phoneme detection [dB SPL]. The identification score in this group was 95-100% for sound pressure level 65 dB SPL.

  6. Improved density discrimination using agfacontour film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodding, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A technique was developed for obtaining tone separations from black and white photographic materials. Agfacontour film and photographic derivatives are utilized to improve the density discrimination and decrease the density range from 0.45 to 0.08 units. This increase in capability extends the usefulness of tone separations to a wider range of subject matter and problem areas.

  7. Phonemes and Production.

    PubMed

    Dell, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    This comment offers observations that support Hickok's claim that phoneme sized representations are involved more in speech production than speech perception, but notes that languages may vary with regard to the importance of the phoneme.

  8. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

  9. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants’ VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  10. Word Boxes Improve Phonemic Awareness, Letter-Sound Correspondences, and Spelling Skills of At-Risk Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesey, Susan; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2015-01-01

    Early literacy skills are critical for success in school, yet many children fail to obtain these skills in a timely manner leaving them unable to perform at minimal academic expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of word box instruction, a research-based intervention designed to promote phonemic awareness, on the…

  11. Letter Knowledge Precipitates Phoneme Segmentation, but Not Phoneme Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, but there is little research examining the nature of this relationship. This article aims to elucidate this relationship by considering the links between letter knowledge and two sub-skills of phoneme awareness: phoneme segmentation and phoneme invariance. Two studies…

  12. The relationship between pronunciation and listening discrimination when Japanese natives are learning English.

    PubMed

    Shimamune, S; Smith, S L

    1995-01-01

    Two Japanese students were taught to pronounce and discriminate English words that contain unfamiliar phonemic contrasts (e.g., rock and lock). Teaching pronunciation was found to be easier than teaching listening discrimination. Teaching listening discrimination resulted in collateral improvement in pronunciation and, to a lesser extent, vice versa.

  13. Hidden Conditional Neural Fields for Continuous Phoneme Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    In this paper, we propose Hidden Conditional Neural Fields (HCNF) for continuous phoneme speech recognition, which are a combination of Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRF) and a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and inherit their merits, namely, the discriminative property for sequences from HCRF and the ability to extract non-linear features from an MLP. HCNF can incorporate many types of features from which non-linear features can be extracted, and is trained by sequential criteria. We first present the formulation of HCNF and then examine three methods to further improve automatic speech recognition using HCNF, which is an objective function that explicitly considers training errors, provides a hierarchical tandem-style feature and includes a deep non-linear feature extractor for the observation function. We show that HCNF can be trained realistically without any initial model and outperforms HCRF and the triphone hidden Markov model trained by the minimum phone error (MPE) manner using experimental results for continuous English phoneme recognition on the TIMIT core test set and Japanese phoneme recognition on the IPA 100 test set.

  14. DISCRIMINATION TRAINING AND SELF-EVALUATION IN THE TEACHING OF PRONUNCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENNING, WILLIAM A.

    AN EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF PHONEME DISCRIMINATION TRAINING UPON THE ABILITY OF SUBJECTS TO DISCRIMINATE AMONG FRENCH PHONEMES AND TO DISCRIMINATE FRENCH PHONEMES FROM THEIR ENGLISH NEAR-EQUIVALENTS, TO IMITATE THE PRONUNCIATION OF FRENCH PHONEMES, AND TO MAKE VALID JUDGMENTS OF THEIR OWN PRONUNCIATION. THREE GROUPS OF…

  15. Discrimination slope and integrated discrimination improvement - properties, relationships and impact of calibration.

    PubMed

    Pencina, Michael J; Fine, Jason P; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2016-10-03

    Discrimination slope, defined as the slope of a linear regression of predicted probabilities of event derived from a prognostic model on the binary event status, has recently gained popularity as a measure of model performance. It is as a building block for the integrated discrimination improvement that equals the difference in discrimination slopes between the two models being compared. Several authors have pointed out that it does not make sense to apply the integrated discrimination improvement and discrimination slope when working with mis-calibrated models, whereas others have raised concerns about the ability of improving discrimination slope without adding new information. In this paper, we show that under certain assumptions the discrimination slope is asymptotically related to two other R-squared measures, one of which is a rescaled version of the Brier score, known to be proper. Furthermore, we illustrate how a simple recalibration makes the slope equal to the rescaled Brier R-squared metric. We also show that the discrimination slope can be interpreted as a measure of reduction in expected regret for the Gini-Brier regret function. Using theoretical and practical examples, we illustrate how all of these metrics are affected by different levels of model mis-calibration. In particular, we demonstrate that simple recalibration ascertaining calibration in-the-large and calibration slope equal to 1 are not sufficient to correct for some forms of mis-calibration. We conclude that R-squared metrics, including the discrimination slope, offer an attractive choice for quantifying model performance as long as one accounts for their sensitivity to model calibration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Phonemic Awareness in Dutch Kindergartners: Effects of Task, Phoneme Position, and Phoneme Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide more insight in the relative difficulty of four tasks testing phonemic awareness: (a) blending, (b) isolation, (c) segmentation, and (d) deletion. At the same time the roles of phoneme position and phoneme class were taken into account in a fully balanced way. To this purpose, 141 kindergartners were…

  17. Harmonic segregation through mistuning can improve fundamental frequency discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joshua G W; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between harmonic frequency resolution and fundamental frequency (f(0)) discrimination. Consistent with earlier studies, f(0) discrimination of a diotic bandpass-filtered harmonic complex deteriorated sharply as the f(0) decreased to the point where only harmonics above the tenth were presented. However, when the odd harmonics were mistuned by 3%, performance improved dramatically, such that performance nearly equaled that found with only even harmonics present. Mistuning also improved performance when alternating harmonics were presented to opposite ears (dichotic condition). In a task involving frequency discrimination of individual harmonics within the complexes, mistuning the odd harmonics yielded no significant improvement in the resolution of individual harmonics. Pitch matches to the mistuned complexes suggested that the even harmonics dominated the pitch for f(0)'s at which a benefit of mistuning was observed. The results suggest that f(0) discrimination performance can benefit from perceptual segregation based on inharmonicity, and that poor performance when only high-numbered harmonics are present is not due to limited peripheral harmonic resolvability. Taken together with earlier results, the findings suggest that f(0) discrimination may depend on auditory filter bandwidths, but that spectral resolution of individual harmonics is neither necessary nor sufficient for accurate f(0) discrimination.

  18. Using Oral-Motor Cues to Develop Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marilyn

    The Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program, an oral-motor approach to beginning reading instruction, causes students to become aware of the oral-facial characteristics of phonemes by calling conscious attention to the motor characteristics of each sound. This aspect of phoneme production is connected to visual and auditory cues to provide…

  19. Sound categories or phonemes?

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.

  20. Effects of articulation training on the production of trained and untrained phonemes in conversations and formal tests.

    PubMed

    Paatsch, L E; Blamey, P J; Sarant, J Z

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of articulation training for specific phonemes on the production of phonemes in conversational language samples, the 108 Single Word Articulation Test (Paatsch, 1997), and the Phonetic Level Evaluation (Ling, 1976). Speech production skills of 12 hearing-impaired children were assessed using these evaluation tools pre- and posttraining. A total of six phonemes were selected for each child to be trained during 15-to 20-minute daily sessions throughout an 8-week speech production program. Three phonemes, with a particularly high error rate, were trained at a phonetic level (category 1) while three phonemes, with an intermediate error rate of 40% to 70%, were trained at a phonological level (category 2). Results showed improvements in the percentage of correctly articulated category 1 phonemes and category 2 phonemes. The improvements for category 2 phonemes were larger than for category 1 phonemes for all test materials. It may be that phonological level training is more effective than phonetic level training or that phonemes with an intermediate error rate are easier to train than phonemes with a high error rate. Untrained vowels and consonants also improved slightly after training. Phonological process analysis showed that many of the errors apparent in the trained phonemes also had occurred in the untrained phonemes. This may have resulted in the generalization and carryover of taught speech skills into other aspects of the child's spoken language.

  1. Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Zanesco, Anthony P; Jacobs, Tonya L; King, Brandon G; Rosenberg, Erika L; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Mangun, George R; Saron, Clifford D

    2010-06-01

    The ability to focus one's attention underlies success in many everyday tasks, but voluntary attention cannot be sustained for extended periods of time. In the laboratory, sustained-attention failure is manifest as a decline in perceptual sensitivity with increasing time on task, known as the vigilance decrement. We investigated improvements in sustained attention with training (approximately 5 hr/day for 3 months), which consisted of meditation practice that involved sustained selective attention on a chosen stimulus (e.g., the participant's breath). Participants were randomly assigned either to receive training first (n = 30) or to serve as waiting-list controls and receive training second (n = 30). Training produced improvements in visual discrimination that were linked to increases in perceptual sensitivity and improved vigilance during sustained visual attention. Consistent with the resource model of vigilance, these results suggest that perceptual improvements can reduce the resource demand imposed by target discrimination and thus make it easier to sustain voluntary attention.

  2. Training improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a psychophysical task.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Raymond L; Shannon, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cochlear implant (CI) rate discrimination can be improved through training. Six adult CI users took part in a study that included 32 h of training and assessment on rate discrimination measures. Rate difference limens (DLs) were measured from 110 to 3520 Hz in octave steps using 500 ms biphasic pulse trains; the target and standard stimuli were loudness-balanced with the target always at an adaptively lower rate. DLs were measured at four electrode positions corresponding to basal, mid-basal, mid-apical, and apical locations. Procedural variations were implemented to determine if rate discrimination was impacted by random variations in stimulus amplitude or by amplitude modulation. DLs improved by more than a factor of 2 across subjects, electrodes, and standard rates. Factor analysis indicated that the effect of training was comparable for all electrodes and standard rates tested. Neither level roving nor amplitude modulation had a significant effect on rate DLs. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that training can significantly improve CI rate discrimination on a psychophysical task.

  3. Evidence for a Simplicity Principle: Teaching Common Complex Grapheme-to-Phonemes Improves Reading and Motivation in At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Victoria; Savage, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of teaching common complex grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) on reading and reading motivation for at-risk readers using a randomised control trial design with taught intervention and control conditions. One reading programme taught children complex GPCs ordered by their frequency of occurrence in…

  4. Acute moderate exercise improves mnemonic discrimination in young adults.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Kazuya; Hyodo, Kazuki; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Yassa, Michael A; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and improves memory functions in both humans and animals. The DG is known to play a role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences, a fundamental component of episodic memory. While long-term voluntary exercise improves pattern separation, there is little evidence of alterations in DG function after an acute exercise session. Our previous studies showing acute moderate exercise-enhanced DG activation in rats, and acute moderate exercise-enhanced prefrontal activation and executive function in humans, led us to postulate that acute moderate exercise may also activate the hippocampus, including more specifically the DG, thus improving pattern separation. We thus investigated the effects of a 10-min moderate exercise (50% V̇O2peak ) session, the recommended intensity for health promotion, on mnemonic discrimination (a behavioral index of pattern separation) in young adults. An acute bout of moderate exercise improved mnemonic discrimination performance in high similarity lures. These results support our hypothesis that acute moderate exercise improves DG-mediated pattern separation in humans, proposing a useful human acute-exercise model for analyzing the neuronal substrate underlying acute and regular exercise-enhanced episodic memory based on the hippocampus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  6. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David A.; Mesgarani, Nima; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) and neighboring brain regions play a key role in human language processing. Previous studies have attempted to reconstruct speech information from brain activity in the STG, but few of them incorporate the probabilistic framework and engineering methodology used in modern speech recognition systems. In this work, we describe the initial efforts toward the design of a neural speech recognition (NSR) system that performs continuous phoneme recognition on English stimuli with arbitrary vocabulary sizes using the high gamma band power of local field potentials in the STG and neighboring cortical areas obtained via electrocorticography. Approach. The system implements a Viterbi decoder that incorporates phoneme likelihood estimates from a linear discriminant analysis model and transition probabilities from an n-gram phonemic language model. Grid searches were used in an attempt to determine optimal parameterizations of the feature vectors and Viterbi decoder. Main results. The performance of the system was significantly improved by using spatiotemporal representations of the neural activity (as opposed to purely spatial representations) and by including language modeling and Viterbi decoding in the NSR system. Significance. These results emphasize the importance of modeling the temporal dynamics of neural responses when analyzing their variations with respect to varying stimuli and demonstrate that speech recognition techniques can be successfully leveraged when decoding speech from neural signals. Guided by the results detailed in this work, further development of the NSR system could have applications in the fields of automatic speech recognition and neural prosthetics.

  7. Sounds activate visual cortex and improve visual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenfeng; Störmer, Viola S; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-07-16

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound.

  8. Sounds Activate Visual Cortex and Improve Visual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Viola S.; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound. PMID:25031419

  9. Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated November 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing"® program is designed to improve reading and spelling skills by teaching students the skills needed to decode and encode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. The WWC has updated its 2008 review of "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing"® to include 16 new studies, two of which…

  10. Recurrent Coupling Improves Discrimination of Temporal Spike Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Wei; Leibold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous presence of recurrent synaptic connections in sensory neuronal systems, their general functional purpose is not well understood. A recent conceptual advance has been achieved by theories of reservoir computing in which recurrent networks have been proposed to generate short-term memory as well as to improve neuronal representation of the sensory input for subsequent computations. Here, we present a numerical study on the distinct effects of inhibitory and excitatory recurrence in a canonical linear classification task. It is found that both types of coupling improve the ability to discriminate temporal spike patterns as compared to a purely feed-forward system, although in different ways. For a large class of inhibitory networks, the network’s performance is optimal as long as a fraction of roughly 50% of neurons per stimulus is active in the resulting population code. Thereby the contribution of inactive neurons to the neural code is found to be even more informative than that of the active neurons, generating an inherent robustness of classification performance against temporal jitter of the input spikes. Excitatory couplings are found to not only produce a short-term memory buffer but also to improve linear separability of the population patterns by evoking more irregular firing as compared to the purely inhibitory case. As the excitatory connectivity becomes more sparse, firing becomes more variable, and pattern separability improves. We argue that the proposed paradigm is particularly well-suited as a conceptual framework for processing of sensory information in the auditory pathway. PMID:22586392

  11. Musical competence and phoneme perception in a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2017-02-15

    We investigated whether musical competence was associated with the perception of foreign-language phonemes. The sample comprised adult native-speakers of English who varied in music training. The measures included tests of general cognitive abilities, melody and rhythm perception, and the perception of consonantal contrasts that were phonemic in Zulu but not in English. Music training was associated positively with performance on the tests of melody and rhythm perception, but not with performance on the phoneme-perception task. In other words, we found no evidence for transfer of music training to foreign-language speech perception. Rhythm perception was not associated with the perception of Zulu clicks, but such an association was evident when the phonemes sounded more similar to English consonants. Moreover, it persisted after controlling for general cognitive abilities and music training. By contrast, there was no association between melody perception and phoneme perception. The findings are consistent with proposals that music- and speech-perception rely on similar mechanisms of auditory temporal processing, and that this overlap is independent of general cognitive functioning. They provide no support, however, for the idea that music training improves speech perception.

  12. Phonemic Support in Children's Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; McCutchen, Deborah

    A study investigated the role of phonemic information in young readers' silent reading comprehension. Subjects, 56 children in grades 2 and 4, from Seattle parochial schools, were blocked into groups based on their grade and skill level (skilled and less skilled). Each subject saw 48 sentences presented in a random order on an Apple II…

  13. Predictors of phoneme and stress perception in undergraduate students of singing.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Susan E; Lauter, Judith L; Dalton, Deborah A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate vocal music majors' diction acquisition abilities for singing in a nonnative language (as rated both by themselves and by their studio voice teachers) and their scores on an objective test of phonemic and stress perception. Ten students with varying levels of university voice training served as participants. The results showed significant negative correlations between each of the teachers' four ratings and the students' scores on the phonemic awareness subtest. In addition, 20% of the students demonstrated evidence of underdeveloped phonemic awareness skills, as indicated by their below average test performance. Considerable individual differences were also observed in the students' abilities to track phonemes within a sequence of phonemes, count and track syllables within a sequence of syllables, and track combinations of phoneme and syllable changes in sequence, as evidenced by subtest performance scores. These findings corroborate existing reports which indicate that approximately 30% of the population does not fully develop phonemic awareness skills in the absence of special training. The findings support the utility of this objective test of phonemic and stress perception as a means of identifying students who will have difficulty with diction acquisition, and point to possibilities for pretraining to improve their response to diction instruction.

  14. Statistical analysis of Chinese phonemic contrast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    Two phonemes that may induce minimal pairs constitute a phonemic contrast. Some phonemic contrasts may disappear for various reasons, which, nevertheless, does not seem to seriously impede linguistic communication. Does it mean that the disappeared phonemic contrasts are unimportant? In our study, we calculated the proportions (here termed degree of contrast) of minimal pairs to the words in which the two contrastive phonemes occur and explored the role of phonemic contrasts in the phonemic combinations. The degree of contrast of phonemes reflects the relation between phonemes. Our results indicate that (1) the average degree of contrast of Chinese phonemes declines exponentially with the increase in the number of syllables, rapidly approaching zero; (2) the average degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature and of the consonants that are absent in some Chinese dialects is significantly higher than that of other consonants; (3) the degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature is not significantly different from that of the consonants absent in some Chinese dialects; (4) Chinese phonemic combinations exhibit high degree of sparsity, which increases exponentially with the number of syllables and rapidly approaches 1. All these results show that the high degree of sparsity and the low degree of contrast of human languages not only leave enough room for new words, new dialects and new languages to appear but also contribute to effective and reliable communication, because a few phonemic mistakes are not likely to cause wrong decoding (sound recognition) and failed communication.

  15. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with or without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Barry J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). A second objective was…

  16. On the Structure of Phoneme Categories in Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Hanson, Helen M.; Marrone, Nicole; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe cochlear implant users' phoneme labeling, discrimination, and prototypes for a vowel and a sibilant contrast, and to assess the effects of 1 year's experience with prosthetic hearing. Method: Based on naturally produced clear examples of "boot," "beet," "said," and "shed" by 1 male and 1 female speaker, continua with 13…

  17. Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS) [R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS)[R] program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth[R] [ADD] program) is designed to teach students skills to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. The program is individualized to meet student needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or…

  18. Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing[R] (LiPS[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing"[R] ("LiPS"[R]) program (formerly called the "Auditory Discrimination in Depth"[R] ["ADD"] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. Thirty-one studies reviewed by the What Works…

  19. Phonemic Awareness: A Complex Developmental Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Janet A.; Hoffman, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a developmental model of language (Situational- Discourse-Semantics or SDS), along with a constellation or neuro-network model, to describe the developmental emergence of phonemic awareness. Ten sources of phonemic awareness are profiled along with developmental continuum, providing an integrated view of this complex development.…

  20. Learning Phonemes with a Proto-Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew; Peperkamp, Sharon; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery.…

  1. Real-Time Wavelength Discrimination for Improved Neutron Discrimination in CLYC

    SciTech Connect

    Hornback, Donald Eric; Hu, Michael Z.; Bell, Zane W.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of optical filters on the pulse shape discrimination properties of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator crystals. By viewing the scintillation light through various optical filters, we attempted to better distinguish between neutron and gamma ray events in the crystal. We applied commercial interference and colored glass filters in addition to fabricating quantum dot (QD) filters by suspending QDs in plastic films and glass. QD filters ultimately failed because of instability of the QDs with respect to oxidation when exposed to ambient air, and the tendency of the QDs to aggregate in the plastic. Of the commercial filters, the best results were obtained with a bandpass interference filter covering the spectral region containing core-valence luminescence (CVL) light. However, the PSD response of filtered CLYC light was always poorer than the response exhibited by unfiltered light because filters always reduced the amount of light available for signal processing.

  2. Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Treiman, Rebecca; van Ooijen, Brit

    2010-01-01

    The phoneme detection task is widely used in spoken-word recognition research. Alphabetically literate participants, however, are more used to explicit representations of letters than of phonemes. The present study explored whether phoneme detection is sensitive to how target phonemes are, or may be, orthographically realized. Listeners detected…

  3. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients' perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function.

  4. Phonemic carryover perseveration: word blends.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2004-11-01

    This article will outline and describe the aphasic disorder of recurrent perseveration and will demonstrate how it interacts with the retrieval and production of spoken words in the language of fluent aphasic patients who have sustained damage to the left (dominant) posterior temporoparietal lobe. We will concentrate on the various kinds of sublexical segmental perseverations (the so-called phonemic carryovers of Santo Pietro and Rigrodsky) that most often play a role in the generation of word blendings. We will show how perseverative blends allow the clinician to better understand the dynamics of word and syllable production in fluent aphasia by scrutinizing the "onset/rime" and "onset/superrime" constituents of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, respectively. We will demonstrate to the speech language pathologist the importance of the trochee stress pattern and the possibility that its metrical template may constitute a structural unit that can be perseverated.

  5. Improved Discrimination of Influenza Forecast Accuracy Using Consecutive Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Kandula, Sasikiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The ability to predict the growth and decline of infectious disease incidence has advanced considerably in recent years. In particular, accurate forecasts of influenza epidemiology have been developed using a number of approaches. Methods: Within our own group we produce weekly operational real-time forecasts of influenza at the municipal and state level in the U.S. These forecasts are generated using ensemble simulations depicting local influenza transmission dynamics, which have been optimized prior to forecast with observations of influenza incidence and data assimilation methods. The expected accuracy of a given forecast can be inferred in real-time through quantification of the agreement (e.g. the variance) among the ensemble of simulations. Results: Here we show that forecast expected accuracy can be further discriminated with the additional consideration of the streak or persistence of the forecast—the number of consecutive weeks the forecast has converged to the same outcome. Discussion: The findings indicate that the use of both the streak and ensemble agreement provides a more detailed and informative assessment of forecast expected accuracy. PMID:26512336

  6. Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

    This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

  7. Active engagement improves primary auditory cortical neurons' ability to discriminate temporal modulation.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Mamiko; Johnson, Jeffrey S; O'Connor, Kevin N; Sutter, Mitchell L

    2012-07-04

    The effect of attention on single neuron responses in the auditory system is unresolved. We found that when monkeys discriminated temporally amplitude modulated (AM) from unmodulated sounds, primary auditory cortical (A1) neurons better discriminated those sounds than when the monkeys were not discriminating them. This was observed for both average firing rate and vector strength (VS), a measure of how well neurons temporally follow the stimulus' temporal modulation. When data were separated by nonsynchronized and synchronized responses, the firing rate of nonsynchronized responses best distinguished AM- noise from unmodulated noise, followed by VS for synchronized responses, with firing rate for synchronized neurons providing the poorest AM discrimination. Firing rate-based AM discrimination for synchronized neurons, however, improved most with task engagement, showing that the least sensitive code in the passive condition improves the most with task engagement. Rate coding improved due to larger increases in absolute firing rate at higher modulation depths than for lower depths and unmodulated sounds. Relative to spontaneous activity (which increased with engagement), the response to unmodulated sounds decreased substantially. The temporal coding improvement--responses more precisely temporally following a stimulus when animals were required to attend to it--expands the framework of possible mechanisms of attention to include increasing temporal precision of stimulus following. These findings provide a crucial step to understanding the coding of temporal modulation and support a model in which rate and temporal coding work in parallel, permitting a multiplexed code for temporal modulation, and for a complementary representation of rate and temporal coding.

  8. Machine Learning for Discriminating Quantum Measurement Trajectories and Improving Readout.

    PubMed

    Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, Jay M; Córcoles, A D; Chow, Jerry M

    2015-05-22

    Current methods for classifying measurement trajectories in superconducting qubit systems produce fidelities systematically lower than those predicted by experimental parameters. Here, we place current classification methods within the framework of machine learning (ML) algorithms and improve on them by investigating more sophisticated ML approaches. We find that nonlinear algorithms and clustering methods produce significantly higher assignment fidelities that help close the gap to the fidelity possible under ideal noise conditions. Clustering methods group trajectories into natural subsets within the data, which allows for the diagnosis of systematic errors. We find large clusters in the data associated with T1 processes and show these are the main source of discrepancy between our experimental and ideal fidelities. These error diagnosis techniques help provide a path forward to improve qubit measurements.

  9. Machine Learning for Discriminating Quantum Measurement Trajectories and Improving Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, Jay M.; Córcoles, A. D.; Chow, Jerry M.

    2015-05-01

    Current methods for classifying measurement trajectories in superconducting qubit systems produce fidelities systematically lower than those predicted by experimental parameters. Here, we place current classification methods within the framework of machine learning (ML) algorithms and improve on them by investigating more sophisticated ML approaches. We find that nonlinear algorithms and clustering methods produce significantly higher assignment fidelities that help close the gap to the fidelity possible under ideal noise conditions. Clustering methods group trajectories into natural subsets within the data, which allows for the diagnosis of systematic errors. We find large clusters in the data associated with T1 processes and show these are the main source of discrepancy between our experimental and ideal fidelities. These error diagnosis techniques help provide a path forward to improve qubit measurements.

  10. Effects of Rhyming, Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness Instruction on Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.; Connell, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Sixteen Head Start classrooms, involving 128 children, were randomly assigned to three approaches for augmenting early literacy instruction: (a) instruction in phoneme segmentation, blending, and letter-sound relationships, (b) rhyming instruction and (c) vocabulary instruction. The phoneme segmentation approach was more effective in promoting…

  11. Application of Innovative Hemocytometric Parameters and Algorithms for Improvement of Microcytic Anemia Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van Pelt, Johannes; Bartels, Piet C M

    2015-06-03

    Hemocytometric parameters like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), reticulocyte count, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are frequently established for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia in subjects with microcytic erythropoiesis. However, no single marker or combination of tests is optimal for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia. This is the reason why many algorithms have been introduced. However, application of conventional algorithms, only resulted in appropriate classification of 30-40% of subjects. In this mini-review the efficacy of innovative hematological parameters for detection of alterations in RBCs has been considered. It refers to parameters concerning hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes and the percentages microcytic and hypochromic RBCs, for discrimination between subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or thalassemia as well as a combination of both. A new discriminating tool including the above mentioned parameters was developed, based on two precondition steps and discriminating algorithms. The percentage microcytic RBCs is considered in the first precondition step. MCV, RDW-SD and RBC count are applied in the second precondition step. Subsequently, new algorithms, including conventional as well as innovative hematological parameters, were assessed for subgroups with microcytic erythropoiesis. The new algorithms for IDA discrimination yielded results for sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 97%, positive and negative predictive values of 74% and 98% respectively. The algorithms for β-thalassemia discrimination revealed similar results (74%, 98%, 75% and 99% respectively). We advocate that innovative algorithms, including parameters reflecting hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes, are integrated in an easily accessible software program linked to the hematology equipment to improve the discrimination between IDA and

  12. Application of Innovative Hemocytometric Parameters and Algorithms for Improvement of Microcytic Anemia Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van Pelt, Johannes; Bartels, Piet C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytometric parameters like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), reticulocyte count, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are frequently established for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia in subjects with microcytic erythropoiesis. However, no single marker or combination of tests is optimal for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia. This is the reason why many algorithms have been introduced. However, application of conventional algorithms, only resulted in appropriate classification of 30-40% of subjects. In this mini-review the efficacy of innovative hematological parameters for detection of alterations in RBCs has been considered. It refers to parameters concerning hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes and the percentages microcytic and hypochromic RBCs, for discrimination between subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or thalassemia as well as a combination of both. A new discriminating tool including the above mentioned parameters was developed, based on two precondition steps and discriminating algorithms. The percentage microcytic RBCs is considered in the first precondition step. MCV, RDW-SD and RBC count are applied in the second precondition step. Subsequently, new algorithms, including conventional as well as innovative hematological parameters, were assessed for subgroups with microcytic erythropoiesis. The new algorithms for IDA discrimination yielded results for sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 97%, positive and negative predictive values of 74% and 98% respectively. The algorithms for β-thalassemia discrimination revealed similar results (74%, 98%, 75% and 99% respectively). We advocate that innovative algorithms, including parameters reflecting hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes, are integrated in an easily accessible software program linked to the hematology equipment to improve the discrimination between IDA and

  13. Grapheme-phoneme acquisition of deaf preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign language and had average to low-average receptive vocabulary skills and varied speech perception skills acquired all correspondences after instruction. They were also able to use that knowledge while reading words. On a posttest, the children were able to decode graphemes into corresponding phonemes and identified about half of the words that were included during instruction. However, they did not identify any novel words. Descriptive analyses suggest that the children used Visual Phonics as an effective mnemonic device to recall correspondences and that deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers, even those with no speech perception abilities, benefited from explicit instruction in the grapheme-phoneme relationship using multimodality support.

  14. Relationship between phonemic and lingual awareness.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Patricia; Fucci, Donald

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to assess the relationship between knowledge of speech sounds (phonemes) and lingual awareness in normal adult speakers of English. The study also examined subjects' descriptions of lingual contact. 36 subjects (M age=19.6, SD=.71) who were enrolled in an undergraduate phonetics class participated. All passed a speech and hearing screening and reported having received no prior speech therapy or classes in articulation, phonetics, or speech science. During the first class meeting, the subjects were given two tests. The measure of phonemic awareness consisted of (a) judging which two (out of three) printed words began (or ended) with the same phoneme, (b) counting, substituting, reversing phonemes in words, and (c) indicating primary stress in two-syllable words. The lingual awareness test consisted of subjects imitating a syllable, then responding to a multiple-choice question regarding (a) tongue position (front to back), (b) tongue height (high to low), (c) contact with the teeth, and (d) contact with other oral cavity structures. Subjects were requested to imitate the syllable prior to answering each question, e.g., "Say tuh. Did you feel your tongue in the front, middle, or back of your mouth?" Seven English phonemes (t, k, s, sh, r, l, and voiceless th) were presented in a consonant-vowel syllable with the central vowel "uh." Subjects were aided by a line drawing of the oral cavity. A significant correlation of .53 was found between the two tests, suggesting that individuals who possess greater awareness of speech sounds tend to exhibit heightened lingual awareness. Sound-symbol knowledge was the best predictor of lingual awareness. Subjects had the most difficulty describing lingual contact for phonemes that are often troublesome for children to articulate (sh, r, l, and s).

  15. Performance Improvements of the Phoneme Recognition Algorithm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    present time, there are commercially available speech recognition machines that perform limited speech recognition. There are still major drawbacks to...to recognize. Even though the training period has been made fairly painless to the user, it still severely limits the vocabulary the machine can...this information to perform the recognition routines. 47 ..- 7f Alterations to the templates’ spectrum file was limited to changing values in the

  16. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients’ perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  17. The Effects of Syllable Instruction on Phonemic Awareness in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Nuspl, Janae J.; Wilkerson, Kimberly; Beddes, Sarah Rose

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Preschooler instruction for speech sound awareness typically teaches a progression of speech units from sentences to phonemes, ending at simple first phoneme activities. This study investigates the effects of teaching advanced tasks of phoneme blending and segmenting with and without the larger speech unit of the syllable. Method:…

  18. Homophone Dominance Modulates the Phonemic-Masking Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2000-01-01

    Finds (1) positive phonemic-masking effects occurred for dominant homophones; (2) null phonemic-masking effects occurred for subordinate homophones; and (3) subordinate homophones were much more likely to be falsely identified as their dominant mate. Suggests the source of these null phonemic-masking is itself a phonology effect. Concludes…

  19. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  20. Training in Phonemic Segmentation: The Effects of Visual Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstholt, Mariette T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effects of different types of computer-assisted phonemic segmentation training on phonemic segmentation, reading, and spelling of children with learning disabilities. Finds that phonemic segmentation training using visual support has no advantage over auditory training alone. Suggests that preschoolers and children with reading and…

  1. Fully optimized discrimination of physiological responses to auditory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Stepan Y; Chari, Sharmila; Rapp, Paul E; Weinstein, Steven L; Given, Barbara K; Schiff, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    The use of multivariate measurements to characterize brain activity (electrical, magnetic, optical) is widespread. The most common approaches to reduce the complexity of such observations include principal and independent component analyses (PCA and ICA), which are not well suited for discrimination tasks. We addressed two questions: first, how do the neurophysiological responses to elongated phonemes relate to tone and phoneme responses in normal children, and, second, how discriminable are these responses. We employed fully optimized linear discrimination analysis to maximally separate the multi-electrode responses to tones and phonemes, and classified the response to elongated phonemes. We find that discrimination between tones and phonemes is dependent upon responses from associative regions of the brain apparently distinct from the primary sensory cortices typically emphasized by PCA or ICA, and that the neuronal correlates corresponding to elongated phonemes are highly variable in normal children (about half respond with neural correlates of tones and half as phonemes). Our approach is made feasible by the increase in computational power of ordinary personal computers and has significant advantages for a wide range of neuronal imaging modalities. PMID:18430975

  2. Using phase to recognize English phonemes and their distinctive features in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Perreau-Guimaraes, Marcos; Carvalhaes, Claudio; Suppes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms used by the human brain to identify phonemes remain unclear. We recorded the EEG signals evoked by repeated presentation of 12 American English phonemes. A support vector machine model correctly recognized a high percentage of the EEG brain wave recordings represented by their phases, which were expressed in discrete Fourier transform coefficients. We show that phases of the oscillations restricted to the frequency range of 2–9 Hz can be used to successfully recognize brain processing of these phonemes. The recognition rates can be further improved using the scalp tangential electric field and the surface Laplacian around the auditory cortical area, which were derived from the original potential signal. The best rate for the eight initial consonants was 66.7%. Moreover, we found a distinctive phase pattern in the brain for each of these consonants. We then used these phase patterns to recognize the consonants, with a correct rate of 48.7%. In addition, in the analysis of the confusion matrices, we found significant similarity–differences were invariant between brain and perceptual representations of phonemes. These latter results supported the importance of phonological distinctive features in the neural representation of phonemes. PMID:23185010

  3. SOME QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF RUSSIAN CONSONANT PHONEME DISCRIMINATION. PSYCHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    WITH THE INTENTION OF APPLYING A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF LEARNING TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, A TWO-PART EXPERIMENT USING TWO SETS OF 20 STUDENTS WAS CONDUCTED AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY. IN EXPERIMENT I THE SS (SUBJECTS) WERE ASKED TO DISTINGUISH DIFFERENCE OR SAMENESS IN PAIRS OF INITIAL RUSSIAN SYLLABLES. THESE 144 SYLLABLES WERE GROUPED INTO…

  4. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  5. Phonemic Analysis: Effects of Word Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuder, Robert; van Bon, Wim H. J.

    The phonemic effects of word length, consonant-vowel structure, syllable structure, and meaning on word segmentation were investigated in two experiments with young children. The decentration hypothesis, which predicts that children who habitually direct their attention to word meaning would concentrate better at analyzing a spoken form without…

  6. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function.

  7. Music and Phonemic Awareness: The Kindergarten Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Cheyrl M.

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001), schools have become aware of the consequences of successfully teaching children to read. A major building block in early childhood education includes the decoding of phonemes, rhymes, and the rhythm of spoken and written word. As reading is crucial to success in any subject area or career…

  8. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  9. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  10. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning.

  11. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  12. Statistical properties of Chinese phonemic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan

    2011-04-01

    The study of properties of speech sound systems is of great significance in understanding the human cognitive mechanism and the working principles of speech sound systems. Some properties of speech sound systems, such as the listener-oriented feature and the talker-oriented feature, have been unveiled with the statistical study of phonemes in human languages and the research of the interrelations between human articulatory gestures and the corresponding acoustic parameters. With all the phonemes of speech sound systems treated as a coherent whole, our research, which focuses on the dynamic properties of speech sound systems in operation, investigates some statistical parameters of Chinese phoneme networks based on real text and dictionaries. The findings are as follows: phonemic networks have high connectivity degrees and short average distances; the degrees obey normal distribution and the weighted degrees obey power law distribution; vowels enjoy higher priority than consonants in the actual operation of speech sound systems; the phonemic networks have high robustness against targeted attacks and random errors. In addition, for investigating the structural properties of a speech sound system, a statistical study of dictionaries is conducted, which shows the higher frequency of shorter words and syllables and the tendency that the longer a word is, the shorter the syllables composing it are. From these structural properties and dynamic properties one can derive the following conclusion: the static structure of a speech sound system tends to promote communication efficiency and save articulation effort while the dynamic operation of this system gives preference to reliable transmission and easy recognition. In short, a speech sound system is an effective, efficient and reliable communication system optimized in many aspects.

  13. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system.

  14. Characterization of local complex structures in a recurrence plot to improve nonlinear dynamic discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.

  15. The transmission of phoneme-level information by multichannel tactile speech perception aids.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, J M; Percy, M E

    1995-08-01

    Current research on the effectiveness of tactile aids for speech perception by hearing-impaired persons suggests that substantial training, lasting over months or years, is necessary for users to achieve maximal benefits from a tactile device. A number of studies have demonstrated the usefulness of training programs that include an analytic component, such as phoneme training, together with more synthetic tasks such as sentence identification and speech tracking. However, particularly in programs for children, it is desirable to structure training experiences so that easy distinctions are trained first, and more difficult distinctions are approached only later in training. In the present study, a systematic evaluation of phoneme-level information provided by the Tactaid VII, a multichannel tactile aid, was performed. Adult subjects were tested in minimal pairs and closed set phoneme discrimination and identification tasks under tactile aid alone, speechreading alone, and speechreading plus tactile aid conditions, to provide an inventory of stimulus identifiability and permit ranking of discriminations as easy or more difficult. Because these rankings might differ as a function of coarticulation effects, three different vowel contexts were tested for consonant stimuli. Results indicated that there were indeed considerable differences across vowel contexts, and that the /ae/ vowel context yielded the most identifiable stimuli. These data could be used by teachers and therapists to construct viable stimulus sets for training programs for tactile aid users.

  16. Phonemic Segmentation, Not Onset-Rime Segmentation, Predicts Early Reading and Spelling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Hulme, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Gives children (ages 5+ to 9+) four tests of phonological skill to investigate relationships between these measures and their predictive relationship with reading and spelling ability. Finds performance at phonemic segmentation, rhyme sound categorization, and alliteration sound categorization improved with age, but all groups performed onset-rime…

  17. Gonadal Hormones and Voluntary Exercise Interact to Improve Discrimination Ability in a Set-Shift Task

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Rifken, Katharine M.; Toufexis, Donna J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to improve multiple facets of health, including cognitive function. Rodent studies have suggested that exercise has robust effects on the hippocampus, and on tasks that require the hippocampus. However, studies of the effects of exercise in humans often focus on the benefits to cognitive processes that engage areas outside of the hippocampus, such as executive function. Additionally, when exercise’s cognitive benefits are examined, consideration of both males and females, and gonadal hormones, is rarely made. Here we looked at the interaction of gonadal hormones and exercise in terms of the ability of male and female rats to learn to discriminate rewarded from unrewarded arms in a T-maze based on either brightness (white vs. black) or texture (rough vs. smooth), and then to set-shift (a measure of executive function), where this required discrimination based on the opposite dimension. Gonadectomized or intact males and females had access to running wheels for two weeks before being tested. Intact males and females given access to unlocked running wheels performed better at the initial discrimination (Set 1) compared to intact males and females with locked running wheels, but not at the set-shift (Set 2). No advantage of exercise was observed in gonadectomized rats. PMID:23978149

  18. Improving Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination using Attenuation Models of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M; Rodgers, A J; Ford, S R; Gok, R; Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-06

    In the past year, we have made significant progress on developing and calibrating methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using high-frequency regional P/S amplitude ratios. Closely-spaced earthquakes and explosions generally discriminate easily using this method, as demonstrated by recordings of explosions from test sites around the world. In relatively simple geophysical regions such as the continental parts of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula (YSKP) we have successfully used a 1-D Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction methodology (1-D MDAC) to extend the regional P/S technique over large areas. However in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East, or the mixed oceanic-continental paths for the YSKP the lateral variations in amplitudes are not well predicted by 1-D corrections and 1-D MDAC P/S discrimination over broad areas can perform poorly. We have developed a new technique to map 2-D attenuation structure in the crust and upper mantle. We retain the MDAC source model and geometrical spreading formulation and use the amplitudes of the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg), to develop a simultaneous multi-phase approach to determine the P-wave and S-wave attenuation of the lithosphere. The methodology allows solving for attenuation structure in different depth layers. Here we show results for the P and S-wave attenuation in crust and upper mantle layers. When applied to the Middle East, we find variations in the attenuation quality factor Q that are consistent with the complex tectonics of the region. For example, provinces along the tectonically-active Tethys collision zone (e.g. Turkish Plateau, Zagros) have high attenuation in both the crust and upper mantle, while the stable outlying regions like the Indian Shield generally have low attenuation. In the Arabian Shield, however, we find that the low attenuation in this Precambrian crust is underlain by a high-attenuation upper mantle similar to the nearby Red

  19. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 3He neutron detector using subspace learning methods

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, C. L.; Funk, L. L.; Riedel, R. A.; ...

    2017-02-10

    3He gas based neutron linear-position-sensitive detectors (LPSDs) have been applied for many neutron scattering instruments. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio on the orders of 105-106. The NGD ratios of 3He detectors need to be improved for even better scientific results from neutron scattering. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) analyses of waveforms were proposed for obtaining better NGD ratios, based on features extracted from rise-time, pulse amplitude, charge integration, a simplified Wiener filter, and the cross-correlation between individual and template waveforms of neutron and gamma events. Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) and threemore » multivariate analyses (MVAs) of the features were performed. The NGD ratios are improved by about 102-103 times compared with the traditional PHA method. Finally, our results indicate the NGD capabilities of 3He tube detectors can be significantly improved with subspace-learning based methods, which may result in a reduced data-collection time and better data quality for further data reduction.« less

  20. Noise Improves Visual Motion Discrimination via a Stochastic Resonance-Like Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario; De la Torre-Valdovinos, Braniff; Manjarrez, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon in which adding a moderate amount of noise can improve the signal-to-noise ratio and performance of non-linear systems. SR occurs in all sensory modalities including the visual system in which noise can enhance contrast detection sensitivity and the perception of ambiguous figures embedded in static scenes. Here, we explored how adding background white pixel-noise to a random dot motion (RDM) stimulus produced changes in visual motion discrimination in healthy human adults. We found that, although the average reaction times (RTs) remained constant, an intermediate level of noise improved the subjects’ ability to discriminate motion direction in the RDM task. The psychophysical responses followed an inverted U-like function of the input noise, whereas the incorrect responses with short RTs did not exhibit such modulation by external noise. Moreover, by applying stimulus and noisy signals to different eyes, we found that the SR phenomenon occurred presumably in the primary visual cortex, where these two signals first converge. Our results suggest that a SR-like phenomenon mediates the improvement of visual motion perception in the RDM task. PMID:27932960

  1. Particle Backtracking Improves Breeding Subpopulation Discrimination and Natal-Source Identification in Mixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; Brodnik, Reed M.; Carreon-Martinez, Lucia; DeVanna, Kristen M.; Fryer, Brian J.; Heath, Daniel D.; Reichert, Julie M.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a novel method to improve the use of natural tagging approaches for subpopulation discrimination and source-origin identification in aquatic and terrestrial animals with a passive dispersive phase. Our method integrates observed site-referenced biological information on individuals in mixed populations with a particle-tracking model to retrace likely dispersal histories prior to capture (i.e., particle backtracking). To illustrate and test our approach, we focus on western Lake Erie’s yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population during 2006–2007, using microsatellite DNA and otolith microchemistry from larvae and juveniles as natural tags. Particle backtracking showed that not all larvae collected near a presumed hatching location may have originated there, owing to passive drift during the larval stage that was influenced by strong river- and wind-driven water circulation. Re-assigning larvae to their most probable hatching site (based on probabilistic dispersal trajectories from the particle backtracking model) improved the use of genetics and otolith microchemistry to discriminate among local breeding subpopulations. This enhancement, in turn, altered (and likely improved) the estimated contributions of each breeding subpopulation to the mixed population of juvenile recruits. Our findings indicate that particle backtracking can complement existing tools used to identify the origin of individuals in mixed populations, especially in flow-dominated systems. PMID:25799555

  2. Particle backtracking improves breeding subpopulation discrimination and natal-source identification in mixed populations.

    PubMed

    Fraker, Michael E; Anderson, Eric J; Brodnik, Reed M; Carreon-Martinez, Lucia; DeVanna, Kristen M; Fryer, Brian J; Heath, Daniel D; Reichert, Julie M; Ludsin, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a novel method to improve the use of natural tagging approaches for subpopulation discrimination and source-origin identification in aquatic and terrestrial animals with a passive dispersive phase. Our method integrates observed site-referenced biological information on individuals in mixed populations with a particle-tracking model to retrace likely dispersal histories prior to capture (i.e., particle backtracking). To illustrate and test our approach, we focus on western Lake Erie's yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population during 2006-2007, using microsatellite DNA and otolith microchemistry from larvae and juveniles as natural tags. Particle backtracking showed that not all larvae collected near a presumed hatching location may have originated there, owing to passive drift during the larval stage that was influenced by strong river- and wind-driven water circulation. Re-assigning larvae to their most probable hatching site (based on probabilistic dispersal trajectories from the particle backtracking model) improved the use of genetics and otolith microchemistry to discriminate among local breeding subpopulations. This enhancement, in turn, altered (and likely improved) the estimated contributions of each breeding subpopulation to the mixed population of juvenile recruits. Our findings indicate that particle backtracking can complement existing tools used to identify the origin of individuals in mixed populations, especially in flow-dominated systems.

  3. Statistical and Machine-Learning Classifier Framework to Improve Pulse Shape Discrimination System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R.; Kaplan, A.

    2015-10-28

    Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is a variety of statistical classifier. Fully-­realized statistical classifiers rely on a comprehensive set of tools for designing, building, and implementing. PSD advances rely on improvements to the implemented algorithm. PSD advances can be improved by using conventional statistical classifier or machine learning methods. This paper provides the reader with a glossary of classifier-­building elements and their functions in a fully-­designed and operational classifier framework that can be used to discover opportunities for improving PSD classifier projects. This paper recommends reporting the PSD classifier’s receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its behavior at a gamma rejection rate (GRR) relevant for realistic applications.

  4. Phoneme and Word Scoring in Speech-in-Noise Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Tina M.; Ellis, Emily M.; Baltzell, Lucas S.; McMillan, Garnett P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding speech in background noise is difficult for many individuals; however, time constraints have limited its inclusion in the clinical audiology assessment battery. Phoneme scoring of words has been suggested as a method of reducing test time and variability. The purposes of this study were to establish a phoneme scoring rubric and use it in testing phoneme and word perception in noise in older individuals and individuals with hearing impairment. Method Words were presented to 3 participant groups at 80 dB in speech-shaped noise at 7 signal-to-noise ratios (−10 to 35 dB). Responses were scored for words and phonemes correct. Results It was not surprising to find that phoneme scores were up to about 30% better than word scores. Word scoring resulted in larger hearing loss effect sizes than phoneme scoring, whereas scoring method did not significantly modify age effect sizes. There were significant effects of hearing loss and some limited effects of age; age effect sizes of about 3 dB and hearing loss effect sizes of more than 10 dB were found. Conclusion Hearing loss is the major factor affecting word and phoneme recognition with a subtle contribution of age. Phoneme scoring may provide several advantages over word scoring. A set of recommended phoneme scoring guidelines is provided. PMID:26989823

  5. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Y. Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shinohara, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm.

  6. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurementa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.; Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shinohara, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2014-11-01

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm.

  7. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurementa)

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Y.; Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A.; Isobe, M.; Shinohara, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm. PMID:25430297

  8. Virtual Channel Discrimination is Improved by Current Focusing in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Landsberger, David M.; Srinivasan, Arthi G.

    2009-01-01

    Cochlear implant users' spectral resolution is limited by both the number of implanted electrodes and channel interactions between electrodes. Current steering (virtual channels) between two adjacent monopolar electrodes has been used to increase the number of spectral channels across the electrode array. However, monopolar stimulation is associated with large current spread and increased channel interaction. Current focusing across three adjacent electrodes (tripolar stimulation) has been used to reduce electrode current spread and improve channel selectivity. In the present study, current steering and current focusing were combined within a four-electrode stimulation pattern (quadrupolar virtual channels), thereby addressing the need for both increased channels and reduced current spread. Virtual channel discrimination was measured in 7 users of the Advanced Bionics Clarion II or HiRes 90K implants; virtual channel discrimination was compared between monopolar and quadrupolar virtual channels at three stimulation sites. The results showed that quadrupolar virtual channels provided better spectral resolution than monopolar virtual channels. The results suggested that quadrupolar virtual channels might provide the “best of both worlds” improving the number of spectral channels while reducing channel interactions. PMID:19383534

  9. Iterated Class-Specific Subspaces for Speaker-Dependent Phoneme Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    to represent this speaker/ phoneme combination. For the individual speaker experiments, we chose model order for each speaker/ phoneme combination in...separately trained a model on each speaker/ phoneme combination. In phoneme - class (PC) classifier training, we grouped all speakers of a given phoneme into a...single phoneme . When the subspace is limited, CSIS may be able to find a better statistical model of the distribu- tiuon. A second piece of evidence that

  10. A real-time phoneme counting algorithm and application for speech rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aharonson, Vered; Aharonson, Eran; Raichlin-Levi, Katia; Sotzianu, Aviv; Amir, Ofer; Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava

    2017-03-01

    Adults who stutter can learn to control and improve their speech fluency by modifying their speaking rate. Existing speech therapy technologies can assist this practice by monitoring speaking rate and providing feedback to the patient, but cannot provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of speaking rate. Moreover, most technologies are too complex and costly to be used for home practice. We developed an algorithm and a smartphone application that monitor a patient's speaking rate in real time and provide user-friendly feedback to both patient and therapist. Our speaking rate computation is performed by a phoneme counting algorithm which implements spectral transition measure extraction to estimate phoneme boundaries. The algorithm is implemented in real time in a mobile application that presents its results in a user-friendly interface. The application incorporates two modes: one provides the patient with visual feedback of his/her speech rate for self-practice and another provides the speech therapist with recordings, speech rate analysis and tools to manage the patient's practice. The algorithm's phoneme counting accuracy was validated on ten healthy subjects who read a paragraph at slow, normal and fast paces, and was compared to manual counting of speech experts. Test-retest and intra-counter reliability were assessed. Preliminary results indicate differences of -4% to 11% between automatic and human phoneme counting. Differences were largest for slow speech. The application can thus provide reliable, user-friendly, real-time feedback for speaking rate control practice.

  11. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response.

  12. Deficits in Discrimination after Experimental Frontal Brain Injury Are Mediated by Motivation and Can Be Improved by Nicotinamide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R.; Jacobs, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI. PMID:24934504

  13. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI.

  14. Improving mb:Ms discrimination using phase matched filters derived from regional group velocity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Hazler, S; Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R

    1999-07-23

    This study reports on the ongoing investigation of surface wave group velocity dispersion across the Middle East and North Africa. Using broadband data gathered from various sources, we have measured group velocity using a multiple narrow-band filter method. To date, we have examined over 13,500 seismograms and made quality measurements for about 6500 Rayleigh and 3500 Love wave paths. A conjugate gradient method is used to perform the group velocity tomography at several periods. There is excellent agreement between short period structure and large known sedimentary features. Longer period structure is sensitive to crustal thickness, particularly the contrast between continental and oceanic regions and thicker crusts found beneath erogenic zones. We also find slow upper mantle velocities along rift systems. Correlation between the inversion results and known major tectonic features gives us confidence in our surface wave group velocities. Accurate group velocity maps can be used to construct phase matched filters. The filters can improve weak surface waves by compressing the dispersed signal. We are particularly interested in using the filters to calculate regionally determined M{sub s} measurements, which we hope can be used to extend the threshold of m{sub b}:M{sub s} discriminants to lower magnitude levels. A preliminary analysis of surface wave data processed using phase matched filters indicates a significant improvement in increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving magnitude estimates. Where signal-to-noise is very poor, phase matched filtering can still be useful in lowering the upper bound on M{sub s} measurements. We propose a series of tests in order to analyze the utility of phase matched filters. Goals of the study include determining at what distance and magnitude ranges we can expect to see improvement using the filters and the overall effect of the filters on discrimination capability. We also propose to look at seismic velocity models of

  15. Perception of Phonemic Length and Its Relation to Reading and Spelling Skills in Children with Family Risk for Dyslexia in the First Three Grades of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Richardson, Ulla; Martin, Maisa; Leiwo, Matti; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability to discriminate phonemic length and the association of this ability with reading accuracy, reading speed, and spelling accuracy in Finnish children throughout Grades 1-3. Method: Reading-disabled (RDFR, n = 35) and typically reading children (TRFR, n = 69) with family risk for dyslexia and typically reading control…

  16. Efficient approach to Chinese phoneme mouth-shape recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao; Ma, Shaoping; Zhang, Bo

    2001-09-01

    Recent research results show the recognition rates of all kinds mouth-shape recognition systems are not high enough because of the improper feature selection and extraction for mouth-shape images and the false classification for those features on the boundary of different categories. This paper presents a statistical approach, called CPMSR, for mouth-shape recognition at the phoneme level. The feature-extracting module for this approach is based on research results of phonetics and personal investigation at a deaf school. The analyzing module employs Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, which is a useful tool dealing with boundary points problem. With these improvements our experiment achieved the satisfactory recognition rate of over 90% for 5 vowels and 24 consonants' mouth-shapes.

  17. Phonemic Code Dependence Varies with Previous Exposure to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey L.; Zecker, Steven G.

    Reading researchers and theorists are sharply divided as to how meaning is obtained from the printed word. Three current explanations are that (1) meaning is accessed directly, without any intermediate processes; (2) meaning is accessed only through an intermediate phonemic stage; and (3) both direct access and phonemic mediation can occur. To…

  18. Relation of the Verbal Transformation and the Phonemic Restoration Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obusek, Charles J.; Warren, Richard M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the relationship between illusory changes of repeated words (verbal transformations) and illusory presence of phonemes replaced by noise (phonemic restorations); paper presented at the 82nd meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Denver, Colorado, October 1971, and supported in part by a University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Graduate…

  19. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  20. Nurturing Phonemic Awareness and Alphabetic Knowledge in Pre-Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhaus, Patricia L.

    Reading research continues to identify phonemic awareness and knowledge of the alphabetic principle as key factors in the literacy acquisition process and to indicate that they greatly facilitate decoding efforts. While research indicates that phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge are necessary to literacy acquisition, many early childhood…

  1. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  2. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  3. Food quality and conspicuousness shape improvements in olfactory discrimination by mice.

    PubMed

    Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2017-01-25

    How animals locate nutritious but camouflaged prey items with increasing accuracy is not well understood. Olfactory foraging is common in vertebrates and the nutritional desirability of food should influence the salience of odour cues. We used signal detection analysis to test the effect of nutritional value relative to the conspicuousness of food patches on rates of foraging improvement of wild house mice Mus musculus searching for buried food (preferred peanuts or non-preferred barley). Olfactory cues were arranged to make food patches conspicuous or difficult to distinguish using a novel form of olfactory camouflage. Regardless of food type or abundance, mice searching for conspicuous food patches performed significantly better than mice searching for camouflaged patches. However, food type influenced how mice responded to different levels of conspicuousness. Mice searching for peanuts improved by similar rates regardless of whether food was easy or hard to find, but mice searching for barley showed significant differences, improving rapidly when food was conspicuous but declining in accuracy when food was camouflaged. Our results demonstrate a fundamental tenet of olfactory foraging that nutritional desirability influences rates of improvement in odour discrimination, enabling nutritious but camouflaged prey to be located with increasing efficiency.

  4. The Effects of Training Parents in Teaching Phonemic Awareness on the Phonemic Awareness and Early Reading of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Patricia Fisher

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to research the difference in parental training in phonemic awareness on the achievements of their children who had been identified as struggling readers. Subjects were children from ten kindergarten and first grade classrooms residing in federally subsidized housing. An experimental group (the phonemic awareness trained…

  5. Predicting Growth of Nonword Reading and Letter-Sound Knowledge Following Rime- And Phoneme-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The present study sought to extend a recent study by Savage, Carless and Stuart, by looking at the pre-test phonological skills that predicted improvements in letter-sound knowledge and nonword reading. Results showed overall that phoneme manipulation predicted improvements in nonword reading and letter-sound knowledge even when pre-test scores on…

  6. Improved Fluorescent Protein Contrast and Discrimination by Optically Controlling Dark State Lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cheng; Dickson, Robert M

    2017-02-16

    Modulation and optical control of photoswitchable fluorescent protein (PS-FP) dark state lifetimes drastically improves sensitivity and selectivity in fluorescence imaging. The dark state population of PS-FPs generates an out-of-phase fluorescence component relative to the sinusoidally modulated 488 nm laser excitation. Because this apparent phase advanced emission results from slow recovery to the fluorescent manifold, we hasten recovery and, therefore, modulation frequency by varying coillumination intensity at 405 nm. As 405 nm illumination regenerates the fluorescent ground state more rapidly than via thermal recovery, we experimentally demonstrate that secondary illumination can control PS-FPs dark state lifetime to act as an additional dimension for discriminating spatially and spectrally overlapping emitters. This experimental combination of out of phase imaging after optical modulation (OPIOM) and synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) optically controls the fluorescent protein dark state lifetimes for improved time resolution, with the resulting modulation-based selective signal recovery being quantitatively modeled. The combined experimental results and quantitative numerical simulations further demonstrate the potential of SAFIRe-OPIOM for wide-field biological imaging with improved speed, sensitivity, and optical resolution over other modulation-based fluorescence microscopies.

  7. An Improved Method for Discriminating ECG Signals using Typical Nonlinear Dynamic Parameters and Recurrence Quantification Analysis in Cardiac Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chang, C Q; Fung, P C W; Chau, K T; Chan, F H Y

    2005-01-01

    The discrimination of ECG signals using nonlinear dynamic parameters is of crucial importance in the cardiac disease therapy and chaos control for arrhythmia defibrillation in the cardiac system. However, the discrimination results of previous studies using features such as maximal Lyapunov exponent (λmax) and correlation dimension (D2) alone are somewhat limited in recognition rate. In this paper, improved methods for computing λmaxand D2are purposed. Another parameter from recurrence quantification analysis is incorporated to the new multi-feature Bayesian classifier with λmaxand D2so as to improve the discrimination power. Experimental results have verified the prediction using Fisher discriminant that the maximal vertical line length (Vmax) from recurrence quantification analysis is the best to distinguish different ECG classes. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show improved and excellent overall accuracy (96.3%), average sensitivity (96.3%) and average specificity (98.15%) for discriminating sinus, premature ventricular contraction and ventricular flutter signals.

  8. Improved discrimination among similar agricultural plots using red-and-green-based pseudo-colour imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    The effects of a pseudo-colour imaging method were investigated by discriminating among similar agricultural plots in remote sensing images acquired using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (Indiana, USA) and the Landsat 7 satellite (Fergana, Uzbekistan), and that provided by GoogleEarth (Toyama, Japan). From each dataset, red (R)-green (G)-R-G-blue yellow (RGrgbyB), and RGrgby-1B pseudo-colour images were prepared. From each, cyan, magenta, yellow, key black, L*, a*, and b* derivative grayscale images were generated. In the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer image, pixels were selected for corn no tillage (29 pixels), corn minimum tillage (27), and soybean (34) plots. Likewise, in the Landsat 7 image, pixels representing corn (73 pixels), cotton (110), and wheat (112) plots were selected, and in the GoogleEarth image, those representing soybean (118 pixels) and rice (151) were selected. When the 14 derivative grayscale images were used together with an RGB yellow grayscale image, the overall classification accuracy improved from 74 to 94% (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer), 64 to 83% (Landsat), or 77 to 90% (GoogleEarth). As an indicator of discriminatory power, the kappa significance improved 1018-fold (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) or greater. The derivative grayscale images were found to increase the dimensionality and quantity of data. Herein, the details of the increases in dimensionality and quantity are further analysed and discussed.

  9. Estimation of phoneme-specific HMM topologies for the automatic recognition of dysarthric speech.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Morales, Santiago-Omar

    2013-01-01

    Dysarthria is a frequently occurring motor speech disorder which can be caused by neurological trauma, cerebral palsy, or degenerative neurological diseases. Because dysarthria affects phonation, articulation, and prosody, spoken communication of dysarthric speakers gets seriously restricted, affecting their quality of life and confidence. Assistive technology has led to the development of speech applications to improve the spoken communication of dysarthric speakers. In this field, this paper presents an approach to improve the accuracy of HMM-based speech recognition systems. Because phonatory dysfunction is a main characteristic of dysarthric speech, the phonemes of a dysarthric speaker are affected at different levels. Thus, the approach consists in finding the most suitable type of HMM topology (Bakis, Ergodic) for each phoneme in the speaker's phonetic repertoire. The topology is further refined with a suitable number of states and Gaussian mixture components for acoustic modelling. This represents a difference when compared with studies where a single topology is assumed for all phonemes. Finding the suitable parameters (topology and mixtures components) is performed with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Experiments with a well-known dysarthric speech database showed statistically significant improvements of the proposed approach when compared with the single topology approach, even for speakers with severe dysarthria.

  10. An Improved Method for High-throughput Discrimination and Enumeration of Sedimentary Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morono, Y.; Kallmeyer, J.; Terada, T.; Inagaki, F.; IODP Expedition 329 Shipboard Science Party

    2011-12-01

    Detection and enumeration of microbial life in marine subsurface environments provides primary information on the extent and habitability of the Earth's biosphere. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful tool for identifying and enumerating fluorescence-stained cells with high throughput, using fluorescent intensity, range of wavelength, and cell size. FCM is widely used in medical sciences and aquatic microbial ecology. However, mineral grains and difficulties in distinguishing between life cells and non-specific background fluorescence prevented FCM to be applied for counting microbial cells in sediment or rock samples. SYBR Green I-stained cells can be distinguished from non-biological background signals based on differences in their fluorescence spectra. Here we extended this technique to FCM analysis by modifying the cell detachment protocol using a density gradient method, and then standardized an FCM cell counting method for various types of marine subsurface sediments. Microbial cells in sediment samples could effectively be detached and analyzed discriminatively with FCM. The high capacity of FCM to count particles (up to 10,000 cells/sec) and its high sensitivity will provide information about microbial cell abundance at high spatial resolution and with unprecedented accuracy. This improved cell count method will be useful to evaluate samples with high depth resolution, including narrow geochemical and geological interfaces as potential specific microbial niches, and may even help to asses very low population densities at the fringe of the biosphere.

  11. Improved fission neutron energy discrimination with 4He detectors through pulse filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ting; Liang, Yinong; Rolison, Lucas; Barker, Cathleen; Lewis, Jason; Gokhale, Sasmit; Chandra, Rico; Kiff, Scott; Chung, Heejun; Ray, Heather; Baciak, James E.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents experimental and computational techniques implemented for 4He gas scintillation detectors for induced fission neutron detection. Fission neutrons are produced when natural uranium samples are actively interrogated by 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction neutrons. Fission neutrons of energies greater than 2.45 MeV can be distinguished by their different scintillation pulse height spectra since 4He detectors retain incident fast neutron energy information. To enable the preferential detection of fast neutrons up to 10 MeV and suppress low-energy event counts, the detector photomultiplier gain is lowered and trigger threshold is increased. Pile-up and other unreliable events due to the interrogating neutron flux and background radiation are filtered out prior to the evaluation of pulse height spectra. With these problem-specific calibrations and data processing, the 4He detector's accuracy at discriminating fission neutrons up to 10 MeV is improved and verified with 252Cf spontaneous fission neutrons. Given the 4He detector's ability to differentiate fast neutron sources, this proof-of-concept active-interrogation measurement demonstrates the potential of special nuclear materials detection using a 4He fast neutron detection system.

  12. A dynamic attenuator improves spectral imaging with energy-discriminating, photon counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2015-03-01

    Energy-discriminating, photon counting (EDPC) detectors have high potential in spectral imaging applications but exhibit degraded performance when the incident count rate approaches or exceeds the characteristic count rate of the detector. In order to reduce the requirements on the detector, we explore the strategy of modulating the X-ray flux field using a recently proposed dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator. A previous paper studied this modulation for photon counting detectors but did not explore the impact on spectral applications. In this work, we modeled detection with a bipolar triangular pulse shape (Taguchi et al., 2011) and estimated the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of material selective and equivalent monoenergetic images, assuming deterministic errors at high flux could be corrected. We compared different materials for the dynamic attenuator and found that rare earth elements, such as erbium, outperformed previously proposed materials such as iron in spectral imaging. The redistribution of flux reduces the variance or dose, consistent with previous studies on benefits with conventional detectors. Numerical simulations based on DICOM datasets were used to assess the impact of the dynamic attenuator for detectors with several different characteristic count rates. The dynamic attenuator reduced the peak incident count rate by a factor of 4 in the thorax and 44 in the pelvis, and a 10 Mcps/mm (2) EDPC detector with dynamic attenuator provided generally superior image quality to a 100 Mcps/mm (2) detector with reference bowtie filter for the same dose. The improvement is more pronounced in the material images.

  13. LLNL Identification Program: Regional Body-Wave Correction Surfaces and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Rodgers, A.J.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Mayeda, K.M.; Sicherman, A.; Harris, D.B.

    2001-07-27

    LLNL identification research is focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, which can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. Many studies have shown that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6-to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we use our revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure. This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. The MDAC residuals are kriged to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. The MDAC residuals allow the exploration of all possible ratios and multivariate combinations of ratios for their discrimination power. We also make use of the MDAC spectra and the noise spectra to determine the expected detectability of each phase and use that to optimize the multivariate discriminants as a function of location. We quantify the discrimination power using the misidentified event trade-off curves and an equi-probable measure. We evaluate the correction surfaces using a cross-validation technique. The result is an end-to-end validation and discrimination

  14. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Olivier; Abraham, Nixon M; Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features, thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. We found that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) were dynamically reformatted in the network on the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in an ensemble of output neurons, mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. Notably, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicted behavioral discrimination performance during the learning phase. Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimulus distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition.

  15. The Ganong paradigm: Converging evidence supporting initial phoneme weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Erik C.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2003-10-01

    In the present experiment we investigate whether the initial phoneme is given more weight in word recognition [W. D. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh, Cognit. Psych. 10, 29-63 (1978)] or if all phonemes in a word are weighted equally [C. M. Connine, D. G. Blasko, and D. Titone, J. Mem. Lang. 32, 193-210 (1993)]. Using the Ganong paradigm [W. F. Ganong, JEP:HPP. 6, 110-125 (1980)], participants were instructed to categorize a final ambiguous fricative in the target items, which included both words and pseudowords. Pseudowords were created by changing either the initial or a medial phoneme within the words. For example, the word diminish was altered to create the pseudowords timinish and dimimish. In addition, initial and medial phonemes were altered by either one or three distinctive features. The differences in the labeling of the final ambiguous fricative in the target items led to the conclusion that the initial phoneme is weighted more heavily. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  16. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  17. Improved Discrimination of Bacterial Spore Species With Ft-Ir Spectroscopy by Pretreatment With Autoclaving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    species of bacterial endospores: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus globigii, Bacillus megaterium , Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium perfringens. Discrimination...subtilis strain PS832, a prototropic laboratory strain derived from strain 168 and Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 were prepared in liqiud SNB (B... Bacillus cereus is known to cause food poisoning. Some potentially pathogenic microorganisms, specifically from the genera Bacillus and Clostridium

  18. Voluntary Exercise Improves Performance of a Discrimination Task through Effects on the Striatal Dopamine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a…

  19. The Differential Outcomes Effect: A Useful Tool to Improve Discriminative Learning in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estévez, Angeles F.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most robust and reliable learning phenomena documented in the animal learning literature is the enhancement of discriminative performance by differential outcomes. To date, very few studies have focused on this effect in humans. The results obtained in these studies support the potential use of the differential outcomes procedure in…

  20. Improved synthetic discriminant function performance using Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Drayton, S H; Cottrell, D M; Davis, J E

    1990-06-10

    Synthetic discriminant functions (SDFs) made using Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters are shown to yield increased performance relative to SDFs constructed using conventional binary phase-only filters. We present both computer simulations and experimental results in which these SDFs are written onto the magnetooptic spatial light modulator.

  1. Do Item-Discrimination Indices Really Help Us To Improve Our Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    Item-discrimination indices are numbers calculated from test data that are used in assessing the effectiveness of individual test questions. This article asserts that the indices are so unreliable as to suggest that countless good questions may have been discarded over the years. It considers how the indices, and hence overall test reliability,…

  2. Voluntary exercise improves performance of a discrimination task through effects on the striatal dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a D1R antagonist into the DLS prior to discrimination learning facilitated the performance of nonexercising rats but not exercising rats. Infusing a D2R antagonist impaired the performance of exercising rats but not nonexercising rats. Exercise-associated facilitation of this task may rely on an exercise-induced decrease in D1R and increase in D2R activation in the DLS. PMID:24934332

  3. Improving Earthquake and Explosion Discrimination by Using Love and Rayleigh Wave Magnitudes (Postprint) Annual Report 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Rayleigh=2.9). Based on background noise levels, we conclude the Ms(VMAX)-Love must have been less than 2.5 (similar conclusion reached by Kohl et al...Benz for their assistance with this collaboration and research. We thank Drs. Jack Murphy, Eli Baker, Paul Richards, and Jeff Stevens for suggestions...discriminant. Maxwell Technologies Final Report. 23 p. Kohl , B., J. R., Murphy, J. Stevens, and T. J. Bennett (2011). Exploitation of the IMS and

  4. Abstract phoneme representations in the left temporal cortex: magnetic mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Brattico, Elvira; Huotilainen, Minna; Galunov, Valery; Soloviev, Alexei; Sams, Mikko; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Näätänen, Risto

    2002-10-07

    We investigated the brain mechanisms enabling one automatically discriminate phoneme category irrespective of the large inter-speaker variability in the acoustic features of the voices. For this purpose, subjects were presented with 450 different speech stimuli, each uttered by a different speaker, belonging to three vowel categories, while a 306-channel magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was obtained to record the magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm), elicited only when sensory memory traces for repetitive sounds are formed in the auditory cortex. Despite this wide acoustic variation, category changes elicited prominent MMNm responses, which were considerably stronger in the left than in the right hemisphere in the right-handed subjects. These results implicate the presence of long-term memory traces for vowels, which can recognize the vowel-specific invariant code enabling correct vowel percept even in the presence of realistic acoustic variation.

  5. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations.

    PubMed

    Creanza, Nicole; Ruhlen, Merritt; Pemberton, Trevor J; Rosenberg, Noah A; Feldman, Marcus W; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2015-02-03

    Worldwide patterns of genetic variation are driven by human demographic history. Here, we test whether this demographic history has left similar signatures on phonemes-sound units that distinguish meaning between words in languages-to those it has left on genes. We analyze, jointly and in parallel, phoneme inventories from 2,082 worldwide languages and microsatellite polymorphisms from 246 worldwide populations. On a global scale, both genetic distance and phonemic distance between populations are significantly correlated with geographic distance. Geographically close language pairs share significantly more phonemes than distant language pairs, whether or not the languages are closely related. The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. However, the geographic distribution of phoneme inventory sizes does not follow the predictions of a serial founder effect during human expansion out of Africa. Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. This finding suggests that relatively isolated languages are more susceptible to phonemic change than languages with many neighbors. Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution.

  6. Investigating the Importance of the Least Supported Phoneme on Visual Word Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The least supported phoneme refers to the phoneme position within a word with which the fewest phonological neighbors overlap. Recently, it has been argued that the number of neighbors coinciding with the least supported phoneme is a critical determinant of pronunciation latencies. The current research tested this claim by comparing naming…

  7. Initial Insights into Phoneme Awareness Intervention for Children with Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clendon, Sally; Gillon, Gail; Yoder, David

    2005-01-01

    This study provides insights into the benefits of phoneme awareness intervention for children with complex communication needs (CCN). The specific aims of the study were: (1) to determine whether phoneme awareness skills can be successfully trained in children with CCN; and (2) to observe any transfer effects to phoneme awareness tasks not…

  8. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  9. Computer Program to Convert Word Orthography to Phoneme Equivalents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leton, Donald A.

    A computer program to convert the orthography of English words to phoneme equivalents was developed. For purposes of this study, a grapheme was defined as the minimum unit of orthography to which a segmental phoneme, a unitary phoneme combination, or a nonphoneme would be associated. An informational processing model for automatic reading was then…

  10. When Variability Matters More than Meaning: The Effect of Lexical Forms on Use of Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /"d"/ and /"t"/ in "daddy" and "tiger", respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they…

  11. Sensitivity to Rhymes, Syllables, and Phonemes in Literacy Acquisition in Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between different levels of phonological awareness and literacy acquisition in Portuguese. Finds that phonemic awareness plays an important role in alphabetic literacy acquisition. Notes that both sensitivity to phonemic similarity and phonemic segmentation skills significantly predicted reading and spelling ability,…

  12. Spatial release from masking improves sound pattern discrimination along a biologically relevant pulse-rate continuum in gray treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jessica L.; Buerkle, Nathan P.; Bee, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frogs form large choruses during the mating season in which males produce loud advertisement calls to attract females and repel rival males. High background noise levels in these social aggregations can impair vocal perception. In humans, spatial release from masking contributes to our ability to understand speech in noisy social groups. Here, we tested the hypothesis that spatial separation between target signals and ‘chorus-shaped noise’ improves the ability of female gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) to perform a behavioral discrimination task based on perceiving differences in the pulsatile structure of advertisement calls. We used two-stimulus choice tests to measure phonotaxis (approach toward sound) in response to calls differing in pulse rate along a biologically relevant continuum between conspecific (50 pulses s−1) and heterospecific (20 pulses s−1) calls. Signals were presented in quiet, in colocated noise, and in spatially separated noise. In quiet conditions, females exhibited robust preferences for calls with relatively faster pulse rates more typical of conspecific calls. Behavioral discrimination between calls differing in pulse rate was impaired in the presence of colocated noise but similar between quiet and spatially separated noise conditions. Our results indicate that spatial release from energetic masking facilitates a biologically important temporal discrimination task in frogs. We discuss these results in light of previous work on spatial release from masking in frogs and other animals. PMID:24055623

  13. The Necessity of the Alphabetic Principle to Phonemic Awareness Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Carlson, Coleen; Moats, Louisa; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which curricular choice and incorporation of phonemic awareness (PA) into the kindergarten curriculum affects growth in kindergarten literacy skills and first-grade reading and spelling outcomes. Provides large-scale classroom support for findings on PA reported by the National Reading Panel. (SG)

  14. The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

  15. Techniques for decoding speech phonemes and sounds: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C.; Holby, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques studied involve conversion of speech sounds into machine-compatible pulse trains. (1) Voltage-level quantizer produces number of output pulses proportional to amplitude characteristics of vowel-type phoneme waveforms. (2) Pulses produced by quantizer of first speech formants are compared with pulses produced by second formants.

  16. Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

  17. Phonemic Awareness Education with an ESL Class. Action Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Anne Y.

    This study was designed to include a segment of phonemic awareness in a multi-level English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom as learning progress seemed to be inhibited in part by a lack of understanding of the structure of the English language. A survey was developed and administered to measure student progress to establish a baseline.…

  18. Training Phoneme Blending Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona; Snowling, Maggie; Buckley, Sue; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a 6-week programme of teaching designed to support the development of phoneme blending skills in children with Down syndrome (DS). Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver the intervention to individual children in daily 10-15-minute sessions, within a broader context of reading and language…

  19. A Brief Critique of Chomsky's Challenge to Classical Phonemic Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ngar-Fun

    1994-01-01

    Phonemic phonology became important because it provided a descriptive account of dialects and languages that had never been transcribed before, and it derives its greatest strength from its practical orientation, which has proved beneficial to language teaching and learning. Noam Chomsky's criticisms of it are largely unjust because he has not…

  20. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Crane, Jodie M S; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Townsend, Simon W

    2015-06-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B) in different arrangements (AB or BAB) to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language.

  1. Dating the origin of language using phonemic diversity.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Charles; Mathew, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Language is a key adaptation of our species, yet we do not know when it evolved. Here, we use data on language phonemic diversity to estimate a minimum date for the origin of language. We take advantage of the fact that phonemic diversity evolves slowly and use it as a clock to calculate how long the oldest African languages would have to have been around in order to accumulate the number of phonemes they possess today. We use a natural experiment, the colonization of Southeast Asia and Andaman Islands, to estimate the rate at which phonemic diversity increases through time. Using this rate, we estimate that present-day languages date back to the Middle Stone Age in Africa. Our analysis is consistent with the archaeological evidence suggesting that complex human behavior evolved during the Middle Stone Age in Africa, and does not support the view that language is a recent adaptation that has sparked the dispersal of humans out of Africa. While some of our assumptions require testing and our results rely at present on a single case-study, our analysis constitutes the first estimate of when language evolved that is directly based on linguistic data.

  2. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  3. Improving the estimation of psychometric functions in 2AFC discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Ulrich and Vorberg (2009) presented a method that fits distinct functions for each order of presentation of standard and test stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, which removes the contaminating influence of order effects from estimates of the difference limen. The two functions are fitted simultaneously under the constraint that their average evaluates to 0.5 when test and standard have the same magnitude, which was regarded as a general property of 2AFC tasks. This constraint implies that physical identity produces indistinguishability, which is valid when test and standard are identical except for magnitude along the dimension of comparison. However, indistinguishability does not occur at physical identity when test and standard differ on dimensions other than that along which they are compared (e.g., vertical and horizontal lines of the same length are not perceived to have the same length). In these cases, the method of Ulrich and Vorberg cannot be used. We propose a generalization of their method for use in such cases and illustrate it with data from a 2AFC experiment involving length discrimination of horizontal and vertical lines. The resultant data could be fitted with our generalization but not with the method of Ulrich and Vorberg. Further extensions of this method are discussed.

  4. Learning discriminative distance functions for valve retrieval and improved decision support in valvular heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Vitanovski, Dime; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Tsymal, Alexey; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Huber, Martin; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Disorders of the heart valves constitute a considerable health problem and often require surgical intervention. Recently various approaches were published seeking to overcome the shortcomings of current clinical practice,that still relies on manually performed measurements for performance assessment. Clinical decisions are still based on generic information from clinical guidelines and publications and personal experience of clinicians. We present a framework for retrieval and decision support using learning based discriminative distance functions and visualization of patient similarity with relative neighborhood graphsbased on shape and derived features. We considered two learning based techniques, namely learning from equivalence constraints and the intrinsic Random Forest distance. The generic approach enables for learning arbitrary user-defined concepts of similarity depending on the application. This is demonstrated with the proposed applications, including automated diagnosis and interventional suitability classification, where classification rates of up to 88.9% and 85.9% could be observed on a set of valve models from 288 and 102 patients respectively.

  5. Improving target discrimination ability of active polarization imagers by spectral broadening.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lijo; Boffety, Matthieu; Goudail, François

    2015-12-28

    Active polarization imagers using liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) usually operate at one given wavelength for the sake of polarimetric accuracy. However, this often requires to use narrowband filters which reduces the amount of light entering the system and thus the signal-to-noise ratio. For applications where good target/background discriminability (contrast) is required rather than polarimetric accuracy, this may not be the best choice. In this Article, we address contrast optimization in the case of broadband active polarimetric imaging for target detection applications. Through numerical and experimental studies, we show that broadening the spectrum of the light entering the system can increase the contrast between two regions of a scene. Furthermore, we show that this contrast can be further increased by taking into account the spectral dependence of the scene and of the polarimetric properties of the imaging system in the optimization of the measurement procedure.

  6. Face adaptation does not improve performance on search or discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, Minna; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Fine, Ione

    2008-01-04

    The face adaptation effect, as described by M. A. Webster and O. H. MacLin (1999), is a robust perceptual shift in the appearance of faces after a brief adaptation period. For example, prolonged exposure to Asian faces causes a Eurasian face to appear distinctly Caucasian. This adaptation effect has been documented for general configural effects, as well as for the facial properties of gender, ethnicity, expression, and identity. We began by replicating the finding that adaptation to ethnicity, gender, and a combination of both features induces selective shifts in category appearance. We then investigated whether this adaptation has perceptual consequences beyond a shift in the perceived category boundary by measuring the effects of adaptation on RSVP, spatial search, and discrimination tasks. Adaptation had no discernable effect on performance for any of these tasks.

  7. Combining discriminative SVM models for the improved recognition of investigator names in medical articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators are people who are listed as members of corporate organizations but not entered as authors in an article. Beginning with journals published in 2008, investigator names are required to be included in a new bibliographic field in MEDLINE citations. Automatic extraction of investigator names is necessary due to the increase in collaborative biomedical research and consequently the large number of such names. We implemented two discriminative SVM models, i.e., SVM and structural SVM, to identify named entities such as the first and last names of investigators from online medical journal articles. Both approaches achieve good performance at the word and name chunk levels. We further conducted an error analysis and found that SVM and structural SVM can offer complementary information about the patterns to be classified. Hence, we combined the two independently trained classifiers where the SVM is chosen as a base learner with its outputs enhanced by the predictions from the structural SVM. The overall performance especially the recall rate of investigator name retrieval exceeds that of the standalone SVM model.

  8. EEG epoch selection: lack of alpha rhythm improves discrimination of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Francisco J; Oliveira, Eliezyer F; Kanda, Paulo A M

    2016-08-01

    In this work we propose a detailed EEG epoch selection method and compare epochs with rare and abundant alpha rhythm (AR) of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls. Epochs were classified as Dominant Alpha Scenario (DAS) and Rare Alpha Scenario (RAS) according to the AR percentage (energy within the 8-13 Hz bandwidth) in O1, O2 and Oz electrodes. Participants were divided into four groups: 17 DAS controls (N1), 15 DAS mild-AD patients (AD1), 12 RAS controls (N2) and 15 RAS mild-AD patients (AD2). We found out that scenario factor (DAS vs. RAS, two-way ANOVA) is significant over a great amount of electrode-bandwidth situations. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA showed significant differences between RAS AD and RAS controls in much more situations as compared to DAS. This is the first study using AD awake EEG reporting the decisive influence of alpha rhythm on epoch selection, where our results revealed that, contrary to what was initially expected, EEG epochs with poor alpha (RAS) discriminate mild AD much better than those presenting richer alpha content (DAS).

  9. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children with Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…

  10. Effect of an auditory training program on reading, phoneme awareness, and language.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Daniel; Hedrick, Mark S; Swanson, Lori A

    2006-08-01

    This investigation examined the effect of an auditory training program, Fast ForWord-Language, with 26 children ages 7 to 10 years. As two subgroups based on reading ability, all children received 6 wk. of intervention. Thresholds for three conditions of backward masking were obtained pre- and postintervention, and 6 mo. afterward. Immediately following the intervention period, backward masking thresholds improved for all backward masking conditions. Participants also showed increases in language skills and in phoneme awareness but not in reading skills. Six months after intervention, there were improvements in thresholds for backward masking but no improvements in language or reading skills for either group. This study calls into question the efficacy of an intensive auditory training program to improve reading skills.

  11. Unilateral Auditory Cortex Lesions Impair or Improve Discrimination Learning of Amplitude Modulated Sounds, Depending on Lesion Side

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Holger; Deutscher, Anke; Tziridis, Konstantin; Scheich, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental principle of brain organization is bilateral symmetry of structures and functions. For spatial sensory and motor information processing, this organization is generally plausible subserving orientation and coordination of a bilaterally symmetric body. However, breaking of the symmetry principle is often seen for functions that depend on convergent information processing and lateralized output control, e.g. left hemispheric dominance for the linguistic speech system. Conversely, a subtle splitting of functions into hemispheres may occur if peripheral information from symmetric sense organs is partly redundant, e.g. auditory pattern recognition, and therefore allows central conceptualizations of complex stimuli from different feature viewpoints, as demonstrated e.g. for hemispheric analysis of frequency modulations in auditory cortex (AC) of mammals including humans. Here we demonstrate that discrimination learning of rapidly but not of slowly amplitude modulated tones is non-uniformly distributed across both hemispheres: While unilateral ablation of left AC in gerbils leads to impairment of normal discrimination learning of rapid amplitude modulations, right side ablations lead to improvement over normal learning. These results point to a rivalry interaction between both ACs in the intact brain where the right side competes with and weakens learning capability maximally attainable by the dominant left side alone. PMID:24466338

  12. Paper spray mass spectrometry and PLS-DA improved by variable selection for the forensic discrimination of beers.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Amador, Victória Silva; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2016-10-12

    Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class. Parameters affecting the paper spray ionization were examined and optimized. The best MS signal stability and intensity was obtained while using the positive ion mode, with PS(+) mass spectra characterized by intense pairs of signals corresponding to sodium and potassium adducts of malto-oligosaccharides. Discrimination was not apparent neither by using visual inspection nor principal component analysis (PCA). However, supervised classification models provided high rates of sensitivity and specificity. A PLS-DA model using full scan mass spectra were improved by variable selection with ordered predictors selection (OPS), providing 100% of reliability rate and reducing the number of variables from 1701 to 60. This model was interpreted by detecting fifteen variables as the most significant VIP (variable importance in projection) scores, which were therefore considered diagnostic ions for this type of beer counterfeit.

  13. The effect of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, T T; Sorri, M J; Löppönen, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception in Finnish-speaking postlingually deafened adults. Phoneme recognition was studied with 100 prerecorded nonsense syllables (open-set) presented at 70 dB SPL, auditorily only, in a free-field situation. Ten subjects were tested before implantation both with and without a hearing aid (HA), and 3, 6 and 12 months after switching on the implant. Before implantation without a HA, the subjects did not recognize vowels, consonants or syllables. Four of the subjects used a HA before implantation, and the mean recognition scores of these subjects were 34% for vowels, 28% for consonants and 13% for syllables. One year after switching on the implant, the mean recognition scores were 77% for vowels, 66% for consonants and 46% for syllables. According to phonological analysis vowels appear to be easier to perceive than consonants during the first stage after multichannel cochlear implantation.

  14. The Missing-Phoneme Effect in Aural Prose Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Klein, Raymond M; Babineau, Mireille; Christie, John; Gow, David W

    2016-07-01

    When participants search for a target letter while reading for comprehension, they miss more instances if the target letter is embedded in frequent function words than in less frequent content words. This phenomenon, called the missing-letter effect, has been considered a window on the cognitive mechanisms involved in the visual processing of written language. In the present study, one group of participants read two texts for comprehension while searching for a target letter, and another group listened to a narration of the same two texts while listening for the target letter's corresponding phoneme. The ubiquitous missing-letter effect was replicated and extended to a missing-phoneme effect Item-based correlations between the reading and listening tasks were high, which led us to conclude that both tasks involve cognitive processes that reading and listening have in common and that both processes are rooted in psycholinguistically driven allocation of attention.

  15. Effects of grapheme-to-phoneme probability on writing durations.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J; Kandel, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    The relative involvement of the lexical and sublexical routes across different writing tasks remains a controversial topic in the field of handwriting production research. The present article reports two experiments examining whether or not the probability of a grapheme-to-phoneme (G-P) mapping affected production during copy of polyvalent graphemes embedded in French (Exps. 1a and 1b) and Spanish (Exp. 2) known words. The relative probabilities of two different G-P mappings associated with the same polyvalent grapheme were manipulated (higher vs. lower probability). In Experiment 1a, we used the polyvalent French grapheme E. Writing durations revealed that the interletter intervals (ILIs) located before and after this letter were shorter and that the letter itself was executed faster in the condition of higher probability of the G-P mapping (e.g., S E RVICE, "service") than in the lower-probability condition (e.g., S E MAINE, "week"). In Experiment 1b, we used the sequence TI (e.g., VIC TI ME-MAR TI EN, "victim-Martian"), which is less frequent. In this case, we failed to observe significant differences between the conditions. In Experiment 2, effects similar to those obtained in Experiment 1a were found with Spanish words using different pronunciations of the letter C (e.g., DES C ANSO-DES C ENSO, "rest-descent"). Altogether, these results reveal that the link between a grapheme and a phoneme is weighted according to its probability in the language. Moreover, they suggest that a two-phase route linking graphemes to phonemes and phonemes to graphemes is functional during copy.

  16. [Improved learning capacity and discrimination performance of neural networks in pattern recognition of biosignals].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, L; Rienäcker, U

    1992-04-01

    Pattern recognition was an important goal in the early work on artificial neural networks. Without arousing dramatic speculation, the paper describes, how a "natural" method of dealing with the configuration of the input layer can considerably improve learning behaviour and classification rate of a modified multi-layered perception with backpropagation of the error learning rule. Using this method, recognition of complex patterns in electrophysiological signals can be performed more accurately, without rules or complicated heuristic procedures. The proposed technique is demonstrated using recognition of the J-point in the ECG as an example.

  17. Improving image contrast and material discrimination with nonlinear response in bimodal atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Forchheimer, Robert; Haviland, David B

    2015-02-10

    Atomic force microscopy has recently been extented to bimodal operation, where increased image contrast is achieved through excitation and measurement of two cantilever eigenmodes. This enhanced material contrast is advantageous in analysis of complex heterogeneous materials with phase separation on the micro or nanometre scale. Here we show that much greater image contrast results from analysis of nonlinear response to the bimodal drive, at harmonics and mixing frequencies. The amplitude and phase of up to 17 frequencies are simultaneously measured in a single scan. Using a machine-learning algorithm we demonstrate almost threefold improvement in the ability to separate material components of a polymer blend when including this nonlinear response. Beyond the statistical analysis performed here, analysis of nonlinear response could be used to obtain quantitative material properties at high speeds and with enhanced resolution.

  18. Improving image contrast and material discrimination with nonlinear response in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Forchheimer, Robert; Haviland, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy has recently been extented to bimodal operation, where increased image contrast is achieved through excitation and measurement of two cantilever eigenmodes. This enhanced material contrast is advantageous in analysis of complex heterogeneous materials with phase separation on the micro or nanometre scale. Here we show that much greater image contrast results from analysis of nonlinear response to the bimodal drive, at harmonics and mixing frequencies. The amplitude and phase of up to 17 frequencies are simultaneously measured in a single scan. Using a machine-learning algorithm we demonstrate almost threefold improvement in the ability to separate material components of a polymer blend when including this nonlinear response. Beyond the statistical analysis performed here, analysis of nonlinear response could be used to obtain quantitative material properties at high speeds and with enhanced resolution. PMID:25665933

  19. Improving image contrast and material discrimination with nonlinear response in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Forchheimer, Robert; Haviland, David B.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy has recently been extented to bimodal operation, where increased image contrast is achieved through excitation and measurement of two cantilever eigenmodes. This enhanced material contrast is advantageous in analysis of complex heterogeneous materials with phase separation on the micro or nanometre scale. Here we show that much greater image contrast results from analysis of nonlinear response to the bimodal drive, at harmonics and mixing frequencies. The amplitude and phase of up to 17 frequencies are simultaneously measured in a single scan. Using a machine-learning algorithm we demonstrate almost threefold improvement in the ability to separate material components of a polymer blend when including this nonlinear response. Beyond the statistical analysis performed here, analysis of nonlinear response could be used to obtain quantitative material properties at high speeds and with enhanced resolution.

  20. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  1. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. L.; Riedel, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods.

  2. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cai -Lin; Riedel, Richard A.

    2016-01-14

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at SNS. Traditional pulse-height analysis (PHA) for neutron-gamma discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, five digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms from PMTs were proposed using: i). pulse-amplitude histogram; ii). power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse amplitude; iii). two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from Wiener filter; iv). an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter; and v). a cross-correlation (CC) coefficient between an individual waveform and a reference. The NGD ratios can be 1-102 times those from traditional PHA method. A brighter scintillator GS2 has better NGD ratio than GS20, but lower neutron detection efficiency. The ultimate NGD ratio is related to the ambient, high-energy background events. Moreover, our results indicate the NGD capability of neutron Anger cameras can be improved using digital signal analysis methods and brighter neutron scintillators.

  3. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Cai -Lin; Riedel, Richard A.

    2016-01-14

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at SNS. Traditional pulse-height analysis (PHA) for neutron-gamma discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, five digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms from PMTs were proposed using: i). pulse-amplitude histogram; ii). power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse amplitude; iii). two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from Wiener filter; iv). an effective amplitude (m)more » obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter; and v). a cross-correlation (CC) coefficient between an individual waveform and a reference. The NGD ratios can be 1-102 times those from traditional PHA method. A brighter scintillator GS2 has better NGD ratio than GS20, but lower neutron detection efficiency. The ultimate NGD ratio is related to the ambient, high-energy background events. Moreover, our results indicate the NGD capability of neutron Anger cameras can be improved using digital signal analysis methods and brighter neutron scintillators.« less

  4. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a {sup 6}Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. L. Riedel, R. A.

    2016-01-15

    A {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 10{sup 4}. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a{sub 1}, b{sub 0}) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods.

  5. Improved signal discrimination in tectonomagnetism: Discovery of a volcanomagnetic effect at Kilauea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.M.; Stacey, F.D.; Zablocki, C.J.; Olson, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Cancellation of extraterrestrial magnetic disturbances by taking simple differences between total field readings at spaced stations is imperfect. It is shown that improvement is possible when three component observatory data are available from a single station in the general, but not necessarily immediate, vicinity of an array of total field stations used in a tectonomagnetic study. The local effects of a magnetic disturbance field depend upon its orientation, so that local field differences are more effectively generated by certain orientations of the disturbance field. The orientation of the disturbance field which correlates best with a local difference field is determined by a least-squares method, so that the correlated vector signal can be routinely subtracted from the difference field record. Application of the technique to daily averages of records from three synchronised proton magnetometers on Kilauea volcano reveals a 1.5-nT change in the local field at the time of a flank eruption in May, 1973. This effect was obscured by noise in the raw difference field data. ?? 1979.

  6. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Nicole; Ruhlen, Merritt; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide patterns of genetic variation are driven by human demographic history. Here, we test whether this demographic history has left similar signatures on phonemes—sound units that distinguish meaning between words in languages—to those it has left on genes. We analyze, jointly and in parallel, phoneme inventories from 2,082 worldwide languages and microsatellite polymorphisms from 246 worldwide populations. On a global scale, both genetic distance and phonemic distance between populations are significantly correlated with geographic distance. Geographically close language pairs share significantly more phonemes than distant language pairs, whether or not the languages are closely related. The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. However, the geographic distribution of phoneme inventory sizes does not follow the predictions of a serial founder effect during human expansion out of Africa. Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. This finding suggests that relatively isolated languages are more susceptible to phonemic change than languages with many neighbors. Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution. PMID:25605893

  7. Improving GOMOS High Resolution Temperature validation by discriminating atmospheric gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirino Iannone, Rosario; Casadio, Stefano; Saavedra de Miguel, Lidia; De Laurentis, Marta; Brizzi, Gabriele; Dehn, Angelika

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves play an important role in the thermodynamic processes of the atmosphere. The gravity waves, once generated in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, propagate upward and deposit their energy and momentum when dissipating. These atmospheric waves can cause strong fluctuations in the thermal structure of the middle and upper atmosphere. The satellite temperature retrievals, together with innovative analysis methods, are often used to provide constraints for model parameterization, which can improve the treatment of these phenomena in climate-prediction models, as the temperature profiles are expected to present wave-like structures due to the global distribution of the gravity-wave momentum flux. The analysis of temperature variability as a function of spatial and temporal separation indicates that gravity wave activity has impacts also on validation study site selection. The aim of this study is to analyse the characteristics of the atmospheric gravity waves detectable in the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) High Resolution Temperature Profiles (HRTP). These are collected over altitudes ranging from 18 to 35 km, in the 2002 to 2012 time period. The GOMOS instrument is a medium-resolution star-occultation spectrometer operating in the ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) spectral range, onboard of the ESA/ENVISAT platform. The HRTP products are the result of the analysis of the two fast photometer measurements, and the retrieval is based on a GPS-like inversion scheme (Kyrola et al., 2010). Following our new approach, based on the use of the "Morlet" wavelet transform (Torrence and Compo, 1998), it is possible to capture the vertical amplitude and phase of waves of very different size along the temperature profile. The wavy signal is estimated and subtracted to the original profile, thus providing a "wave-free" profile. Comparison of wave-free temperature profiles and gravity wave structures with those

  8. Tracking independence and merging of prosodic and phonemic processing across infancy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Angelika; Schild, Ulrike; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2017-03-02

    Recent evidence suggests division of labor in phonological analysis underlying speech recognition. Adults and children appear to decompose the speech stream into phoneme-relevant information and into syllable stress. Here we investigate whether both speech processing streams develop from a common path in infancy, or whether there are two separate streams from early on. We presented stressed and unstressed syllables (spoken primes) followed by initially stressed early learned disyllabic German words (spoken targets). Stress overlap and phoneme overlap between the primes and the initial syllable of the targets varied orthogonally. We tested infants 3, 6 and 9 months after birth. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed stress priming without phoneme priming in the 3-month-olds; phoneme priming without stress priming in the 6-month-olds; and phoneme priming, stress priming as well as an interaction of both in 9-month-olds. In general the present findings reveal that infants start with separate processing streams related to syllable stress and to phoneme-relevant information; and that they need to learn to merge both aspects of speech processing. In particular the present results suggest (i) that phoneme-free prosodic processing dominates in early infancy; (ii) that prosody-free phoneme processing dominates in middle infancy; and (iii) that both types of processing are operating in parallel and can be merged in late infancy.

  9. Phoneme, Grapheme, Onset-Rime and Word Analysis in Braille with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.; Hoekman, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of sighted pre-school children were taught to name six braille letters: one group received phoneme instruction and the other grapheme instruction. Ten boys and ten girls (average age 4:5 years) participated. There was a statistically significant advantage for the phoneme group (Experiment 1). In a repeated measures design, 16 sighted…

  10. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  11. Phoneme-Specific Nasal Emission in Children with and without Physical Anomalies of the Velopharyngeal Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Falzone, Sally J.; Graham, Minnie S.

    1990-01-01

    Phoneme-specific nasal emission was identified in 36 children, age 3-16; 19 children had no orofacial mechanism anomalies, whereas 17 had findings ranging from minor to severe. The 2 groups were more alike than different in speech behaviors. Five patterns of phoneme-specific nasal emission were exhibited by 2 or more children. (Author/JDD)

  12. Using a Lag Reinforcement Schedule to Increase Phonemic Variability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler-Platten, Kate; Grow, Laura L.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Bertone, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Shaping functional vocal language is difficult when an individual has not yet acquired an echoic repertoire and does not emit sufficient phonemes (i.e., speech sounds) for shaping. Few studies have evaluated interventions to increase the frequency and breadth of phonemes. The current study extended Esch, Esch, and Love (2009) by evaluating the…

  13. Tucker Signing as a Phonics Instruction Tool to Develop Phonemic Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Amanda Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To develop reading acquisition in an effective way, it is necessary to take into account three goals during the process: automatic word recognition, or development of phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, and a desire for reading. This article focuses on promoting phonemic awareness in English as a second language through a program called…

  14. The Role of Phoneme and Onset-Rime Awareness in Second Language Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Corinne A.; Savage, Robert; Erdos, Caroline; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the link between phoneme and onset-rime awareness and reading outcomes in children learning to read in a second language (L2). Closely matched phoneme and onset-rime awareness tasks were administered in English and French in the spring of kindergarten to English-dominant children in French immersion programmes (n=98).…

  15. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  16. Implications for Later Reading of a Naming Speed Deficit Accompanying a Phonemic Awareness Deficit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Patricia Greig

    A study examined the theory that partially independent deficits in phonemic awareness and symbol naming speed contribute to reading disability. Subjects of the study were chosen from six second-grade classrooms to represent poor and average readers, rather than a regular class distribution. On the basis of AAT (phonemic deletion scores) and DNS…

  17. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  18. Effects of Semantic Predictability on Children's Preservation of a Phonemic Voice Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles-Luce, Jan; Dressler, Kelly M.; Ragonese, Elvira

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the effects of semantic predictability on children's preservation of the /t/-/d/ phonemic voice contrast. Children in three age groups completed testing. Twelve adults acted as controls. There were age-related effects in the influence of semantic predictability on the preservation of a phonemic voice contrast. Differences produced by…

  19. Phoneme Restoration Methods Reveal Prosodic Influences on Syntactic Parsing: Data from Bulgarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyneshka-Raleva, Iglika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces and evaluates a new methodology for studying aspects of human language processing and the factors to which it is sensitive. It makes use of the phoneme restoration illusion (Warren, 1970). A small portion of a spoken sentence is replaced by a burst of noise. Listeners typically mentally restore the missing phoneme(s),…

  20. Paced Reading in Semantic Dementia: Word Knowledge Contributes to Phoneme Binding in Rapid Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Grogan, John; Mapelli, Cristina; Isella, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) show deficits in phoneme binding in immediate serial recall: when attempting to reproduce a sequence of words that they no longer fully understand, they show frequent migrations of phonemes between items (e.g., cap, frog recalled as "frap, cog"). This suggests that verbal short-term memory emerges directly from…

  1. The Influence of Specific Phonemic Awareness Processes on the Reading Comprehension of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Taub, Gordon E.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates the primary difference between strong and weak readers is their phonemic awareness skills. However, there is no consensus regarding which specific components of phonemic awareness contribute most robustly to reading comprehension. In this study, the relationship among sound blending, sound segmentation, and reading comprehension…

  2. When variability matters more than meaning: the effect of lexical forms on use of phonemic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-09-01

    During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /d/ and /t/ in daddy and tiger, respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they struggle to generalize the use of phonemic contrasts to novel syllabic contexts (Thiessen, 2007; Thiessen & Yee, 2010). Further, in prior research, infants have been provided only with experience in lexical forms that refer to novel objects, while many lexical forms in the natural environment do not have easily identified visual referents. The experiments in this article show that even lexical forms without referents can facilitate use of phonemic contrasts. Additionally, the results indicate that when lexical forms provide infants with enough variability (for example, a consonant followed by multiple different vowels), infants are able to generalize to novel contexts.

  3. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  4. An Orthographic Effect in Phoneme Processing, and Its Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Anne; Davis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In three phoneme goodness rating experiments, listeners heard phonetic tokens varying along a continuum centered on /s/, occurring finally in isolated word or non-word tokens. An effect of spelling appeared in Experiment 1: native English-speakers’ goodness ratings for the best /s/ tokens were significantly higher in words spelled with S (e.g., bless) than in words spelled with C (e.g., voice). Since the tokens were in fact identical in each word, this effect indicates less than optimal evaluation performance. No spelling effect appeared when non-native speakers rated the same materials in Experiment 2, indicating that the observed difference could not be due to acoustic characteristics of the S- versus C-words. In Experiment 3, native English-speakers’ ratings for /s/ did not differ in non-words rhyming with words consistently spelled with S (e.g., pless) or with words consistently spelled with C (e.g., floice); i.e., no effects of lexical rhyme analogs appeared. It is concluded that the findings are better explained in terms of phonemic decisions drawing upon lexical information where convenient than by obligatory influence of lexical knowledge upon pre-lexical processing. PMID:22347203

  5. Dynamic afferent synapses to decision-making networks improve performance in tasks requiring stimulus associations and discriminations.

    PubMed

    Bourjaily, Mark A; Miller, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Animals must often make opposing responses to similar complex stimuli. Multiple sensory inputs from such stimuli combine to produce stimulus-specific patterns of neural activity. It is the differences between these activity patterns, even when small, that provide the basis for any differences in behavioral response. In the present study, we investigate three tasks with differing degrees of overlap in the inputs, each with just two response possibilities. We simulate behavioral output via winner-takes-all activity in one of two pools of neurons forming a biologically based decision-making layer. The decision-making layer receives inputs either in a direct stimulus-dependent manner or via an intervening recurrent network of neurons that form the associative layer, whose activity helps distinguish the stimuli of each task. We show that synaptic facilitation of synapses to the decision-making layer improves performance in these tasks, robustly increasing accuracy and speed of responses across multiple configurations of network inputs. Conversely, we find that synaptic depression worsens performance. In a linearly nonseparable task with exclusive-or logic, the benefit of synaptic facilitation lies in its superlinear transmission: effective synaptic strength increases with presynaptic firing rate, which enhances the already present superlinearity of presynaptic firing rate as a function of stimulus-dependent input. In linearly separable single-stimulus discrimination tasks, we find that facilitating synapses are always beneficial because synaptic facilitation always enhances any differences between inputs. Thus we predict that for optimal decision-making accuracy and speed, synapses from sensory or associative areas to decision-making or premotor areas should be facilitating.

  6. Nonword Recall and Phonemic Discrimination in Four- to Six-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Laxon, Veronica; Carnegie, Emma; Wright, Sheila; Horslen, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has established that the degree of "wordlikeness" of nonwords affects young children's nonword repetition performance. Experiment 1 examined the possibility that output processes are responsible for the wordlikeness effect by using a probed recall procedure. Wordlikeness was defined in terms of phonological neighbourhood density,…

  7. Direct classification of all American English phonemes using signals from functional speech motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugler, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Schuele, Stephan U.; Rosenow, Joshua; Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Although brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be used in several different ways to restore communication, communicative BCI has not approached the rate or efficiency of natural human speech. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has precise spatiotemporal resolution that enables recording of brain activity distributed over a wide area of cortex, such as during speech production. In this study, we sought to decode elements of speech production using ECoG. Approach. We investigated words that contain the entire set of phonemes in the general American accent using ECoG with four subjects. Using a linear classifier, we evaluated the degree to which individual phonemes within each word could be correctly identified from cortical signal. Main results. We classified phonemes with up to 36% accuracy when classifying all phonemes and up to 63% accuracy for a single phoneme. Further, misclassified phonemes follow articulation organization described in phonology literature, aiding classification of whole words. Precise temporal alignment to phoneme onset was crucial for classification success. Significance. We identified specific spatiotemporal features that aid classification, which could guide future applications. Word identification was equivalent to information transfer rates as high as 3.0 bits s-1 (33.6 words min-1), supporting pursuit of speech articulation for BCI control.

  8. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B C; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2014-09-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime-target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel ("almond") and manDAT ("mandate"; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime-target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition.

  9. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  10. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  11. When Majority Doesn't Rule: The Use of Discrimination Indices to Improve the Quality of MCQs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiavaroli, Neville; Familari, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of item analysis to assist examiners in evaluating the quality and validity of their MCQ exam questions. The generation of item analysis, particularly discrimination index, has long been established practice in professional testing and credentialing organisations and some disciplines in tertiary education, but its use…

  12. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed.

  13. Development of Single/Geminate Obstruent Discrimination by Japanese Infants: Early Integration of Durational and Nondurational Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation…

  14. Processing of syllable stress is functionally different from phoneme processing and does not profit from literacy acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B. C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Speech is characterized by phonemes and prosody. Neurocognitive evidence supports the separate processing of each type of information. Therefore, one might suggest individual development of both pathways. In this study, we examine literacy acquisition in middle childhood. Children become aware of the phonemes in speech at that time and refine phoneme processing when they acquire an alphabetic writing system. We test whether an enhanced sensitivity to phonemes in middle childhood extends to other aspects of the speech signal, such as prosody. To investigate prosodic processing, we used stress priming. Spoken stressed and unstressed syllables (primes) preceded spoken German words with stress on the first syllable (targets). We orthogonally varied stress overlap and phoneme overlap between the primes and onsets of the targets. Lexical decisions and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) for the targets were obtained for pre-reading preschoolers, reading pupils and adults. The behavioral and ERP results were largely comparable across all groups. The fastest responses were observed when the first syllable of the target word shared stress and phonemes with the preceding prime. ERP stress priming and ERP phoneme priming started 200 ms after the target word onset. Bilateral ERP stress priming was characterized by enhanced ERP amplitudes for stress overlap. Left-lateralized ERP phoneme priming replicates previously observed reduced ERP amplitudes for phoneme overlap. Groups differed in the strength of the behavioral phoneme priming and in the late ERP phoneme priming effect. The present results show that enhanced phonological processing in middle childhood is restricted to phonemes and does not extend to prosody. These results are indicative of two parallel processing systems for phonemes and prosody that might follow different developmental trajectories in middle childhood as a function of alphabetic literacy. PMID:24917838

  15. Mapping phonemic processing zones along human perisylvian cortex: an electro-corticographic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Molholm, Sophie; Mercier, Manuel R.; Liebenthal, Einat; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J.; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system is organized such that progressively more complex features are represented across successive cortical hierarchical stages. Just when and where the processing of phonemes, fundamental elements of the speech signal, is achieved in this hierarchy remains a matter of vigorous debate. Non-invasive measures of phonemic representation have been somewhat equivocal. While some studies point to a primary role for middle/anterior regions of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), others implicate the posterior STG. Differences in stimulation, task and inter-individual anatomical/functional variability may account for these discrepant findings. Here, we sought to clarify this issue by mapping phonemic representation across left perisylvian cortex, taking advantage of the excellent sampling density afforded by intracranial recordings in humans. We asked whether one or both major divisions of the STG were sensitive to phonemic transitions. The high signal-to-noise characteristics of direct intracranial recordings allowed for analysis at the individual participant level, circumventing issues of inter-individual anatomic and functional variability that may have obscured previous findings at the group level of analysis. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an electro-physiological response elicited by changes in repetitive streams of stimulation, served as our primary dependent measure. Oddball configurations of pairs of phonemes, spectro-temporally matched non-phonemes, and simple tones were presented. The loci of the MMN clearly differed as a function of stimulus type. Phoneme representation was most robust over middle/anterior STG/STS, but was also observed over posterior STG/SMG. These data point to multiple phonemic processing zones along perisylvian cortex, both anterior and posterior to primary auditory cortex. This finding is considered within the context of a dual stream model of auditory processing in which functionally distinct ventral and dorsal auditory

  16. Automatic Recognition of Phonemes Using a Syntactic Processor for Error Correction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    OF PHONEMES USING A SYNTACTIC PROCESSOR FOR ERROR CORRECTION THESIS AFIT/GE/EE/8D-45 Robert B. ’Taylor 2Lt USAF Approved for public release...distribution unlimilted. AbP AFIT/GE/EE/ 80D-45 AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF PHONEMES USING A SYNTACTIC PROCESSOR FOR ERROR CORRECTION THESIS Presented to the...Testing ..................... 37 Bayes Decision Rule for Minimum Error ........... 37 Bayes Decision Rule for Minimum Risk ............ 39 Mini Max Test

  17. Teacher candidates' mastery of phoneme-grapheme correspondence: massed versus distributed practice in teacher education.

    PubMed

    Sayeski, Kristin L; Earle, Gentry A; Eslinger, R Paige; Whitenton, Jessy N

    2017-04-01

    Matching phonemes (speech sounds) to graphemes (letters and letter combinations) is an important aspect of decoding (translating print to speech) and encoding (translating speech to print). Yet, many teacher candidates do not receive explicit training in phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Difficulty with accurate phoneme production and/or lack of understanding of sound-symbol correspondence can make it challenging for teachers to (a) identify student errors on common assessments and (b) serve as a model for students when teaching beginning reading or providing remedial reading instruction. For students with dyslexia, lack of teacher proficiency in this area is particularly problematic. This study examined differences between two learning conditions (massed and distributed practice) on teacher candidates' development of phoneme-grapheme correspondence knowledge and skills. An experimental, pretest-posttest-delayed test design was employed with teacher candidates (n = 52) to compare a massed practice condition (one, 60-min session) to a distributed practice condition (four, 15-min sessions distributed over 4 weeks) for learning phonemes associated with letters and letter combinations. Participants in the distributed practice condition significantly outperformed participants in the massed practice condition on their ability to correctly produce phonemes associated with different letters and letter combinations. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed.

  18. Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing?

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but spectral structure less so. This study asked how well speech recognition is supported if CI users shift attention to salient cues not weighted strongly by native speakers. METHOD Twenty adults with CIs participated. The /bɑ/-/wɑ/ contrast was used because spectral and amplitude structure varies in correlated fashion for this contrast. Adults with normal hearing weight the spectral cue strongly but the amplitude cue negligibly. Three measurements were made: labeling decisions, spectral and amplitude discrimination, and word recognition. RESULTS Outcomes varied across listeners: Some weighted the spectral cue strongly, some weighted the amplitude cue, and some weighted neither. Spectral discrimination predicted spectral weighting. Spectral weighting explained the most variance in word recognition. Age of onset of hearing loss predicted spectral weighting but not unique variance in word recognition. CONCLUSION The weighting strategies of listeners with normal hearing likely support speech recognition best, so efforts in implant design, fitting, and training should focus on developing those strategies.

  19. Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: in general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but spectral structure less so. This study asked how well speech recognition is supported if CI users shift attention to salient cues not weighted strongly by native speakers. Method 20 adults with CIs participated. The /bɑ/-/wɑ/ contrast was used because spectral and amplitude structure varies in correlated fashion for this contrast. Normal-hearing adults weight the spectral cue strongly, but the amplitude cue negligibly. Three measurements were made: labeling decisions, spectral and amplitude discrimination, and word recognition. Results Outcomes varied across listeners: some weighted the spectral cue strongly, some weighted the amplitude cue, and some weighted neither. Spectral discrimination predicted spectral weighting. Spectral weighting explained the most variance in word recognition. Age of onset of hearing loss predicted spectral weighting, but not unique variance in word recognition. Conclusions The weighting strategies of listeners with normal hearing likely support speech recognition best, so efforts in implant design, fitting, and training should focus on developing those strategies. PMID:24686722

  20. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2004-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NSimproved the ability to identify CS stimuli from pretest to post-test, but not WD and NS stimuli. In contrast, the effect of training using WD or NS stimuli generalized to all the stimulus conditions. These results suggest that the perception training utilizing the auditory input, in which acoustic information is the only clue to identify phonemes, is effective in cultivation of aural comprehension. Implications for foreign language education will be discussed. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortices Transiently Improves Tactile Spatial Discrimination in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Otaka, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Ragert, Patrick; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT) to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the affected and non-affected index fingers before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds for the affected index finger during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction.

  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortices Transiently Improves Tactile Spatial Discrimination in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Otaka, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Ragert, Patrick; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT) to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the affected and non-affected index fingers before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds for the affected index finger during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction. PMID:27064531

  3. Phoneme contrasts with two, same-talker speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mishler, Pamela

    2003-04-01

    People often have difficulty hearing speech in the presence of concurrent conversations. This well-known cocktail-party effect can be parsed into energetic and informational masking effects. The purpose of this study was to measure and model the effects of energetic and informational masking that occur when two words, spoken by the same talker are heard at the same time. The word identification test used in the experiments was the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). The MRT was used as both the stimulus and the masker, which afforded a multitude of consonant contrasts. The phrases were presented monaurally at 75 dB SPL over Sennheiser HD-520 headphones to four normal hearing listeners. The independent variables included 30 pairs of MRT word lists spoken by three male and three female talkers. The dependent variable was the percent correct identifications of the two consonants. Listeners performed at 94% correct for the first word choice and 72% correct for the second word choice. The distribution of errors was analyzed by place of articulation, manner of articulation, and speech-to-speech-ratio of the phoneme pairs and compared to articulation index predictions for speech intelligibility.

  4. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: consonants.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize consonants after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Consonant recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. Responses were coded for phoneme errors, and proportions of correct responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for recognition and confusions. Two years after the switch-on, the mean recognition of consonants was 71% (95% confidence interval = 68-73%). The manner of articulation was easier to classify than the place of articulation, and the consonants [s], [r], [k], [t], [p], [n], and [j] were easier to recognize than [h], [m], [l], and [v]. Adaptation to electrical hearing with a multichannel cochlear implant was successful, but consonants with alveolar, palatal, or velar transitions (high F2) were better recognized than consonants with labial transitions (low F2). The locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with better recognition was at the frequencies 1.5-2 kHz, whereas the locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with poorer recognition was at 1.2-1.4 kHz. A tendency to confuse consonants with the closest consonant with higher F2 transition was also noted.

  5. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: vowels.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize vowels after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Vowel recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. The responses were coded for phoneme errors, and 95% confidence intervals for recognition and confusions were calculated. The average vowel recognition was 68% (95% confidence interval = 66-70%) 6 months after switch-on and 80% (95% confidence interval = 78-82%) 24 months after switch-on. The vowels [ae], [u], [i], [o], and [a] were the easiest to recognize, and the vowels [y], [e], and [ø] were the most difficult. In conclusion, adaptation to electrical hearing using a multichannel cochlear implant was achieved well; but for at least 2 years, given two vowels with either F1 or F2 at roughly the some frequencies, confusions were drawn more towards the closest vowel with the next highest F1 or F2.

  6. Discriminating harmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gerald; Mason, Christine R.; Brughera, Andrew; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter

    2003-08-01

    Simultaneous tones that are harmonically related tend to be grouped perceptually to form a unitary auditory image. A partial that is mistuned stands out from the other tones, and harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies can readily be perceived as separate auditory objects. These phenomena are evidence for the strong role of harmonicity in perceptual grouping and segregation of sounds. This study measured the discriminability of harmonicity directly. In a two interval, two alternative forced-choice (2I2AFC) paradigm, the listener chose which of two sounds, signal or foil, was composed of tones that more closely matched an exact harmonic relationship. In one experiment, the signal was varied from perfectly harmonic to highly inharmonic by adding frequency perturbation to each component. The foil always had 100% perturbation. Group mean performance decreased from greater than 90% correct for 0% signal perturbation to near chance for 80% signal perturbation. In the second experiment, adding a masker presented simultaneously with the signals and foils disrupted harmonicity. Both monaural and dichotic conditions were tested. Signal level was varied relative to masker level to obtain psychometric functions from which slopes and midpoints were estimated. Dichotic presentation of these audible stimuli improved performance by 3-10 dB, due primarily to a release from ``informational masking'' by the perceptual segregation of the signal from the masker.

  7. Phonemic Fluency and Brain Connectivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Potter, Guy G.; Diaz, Michele T.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Lad, Eleonora M.; Johnson, Micah A.; Cousins, Scott W.; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  8. Distinct functional connectivity of the hippocampus during semantic and phonemic fluency.

    PubMed

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Oren, Noga; Hendler, Talma; Shapira-Lichter, Irit

    2015-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are typically used in neuropsychological practice for assessment of language function in a variety of neurological disorders. Recently, it has been shown that the hippocampus, a region thought to be exclusive to the domain of memory, is also involved in tests of semantic fluency. The present study further explores hippocampal contribution to verbal fluency using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and examining mean activity and inter-regional functional connectivity with known task-related brain regions. Given the clear lateralization of brain areas involved in language, lateralization of hippocampal involvement in semantic and phonemic word fluency was also investigated. Different hippocampal recruitment during semantic and phonemic fluency was found: greater change in activity was seen during semantic fluency, as compared with phonemic fluency. This pattern was obtained in the right and the left hippocampus, with no lateralization effects. Functional connectivity analyses corroborate the notion of selective contribution of the hippocampus to semantic fluency. During the semantic fluency task, connectivity levels between the hippocampi and components of the semantic network did not differ from connectivity levels within the semantic network. In contrast, during the phonemic fluency task, the hippocampi were less correlated with components of the phonemic network, as compared to the within phonemic network connectivity. Importantly, hippocampal connectivity with the semantic network was task-dependent and restricted to periods of semantic fluency performance. Altogether, results suggest that the right and the left hippocampus are integral components of the brain network that selectively supports verbal semantic fluency, but not phonemic fluency.

  9. HMM-ModE – Improved classification using profile hidden Markov models by optimising the discrimination threshold and modifying emission probabilities with negative training sequences

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Desai, Dhwani K; Nandi, Soumyadeep; Lynn, Andrew M

    2007-01-01

    Background Profile Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are statistical representations of protein families derived from patterns of sequence conservation in multiple alignments and have been used in identifying remote homologues with considerable success. These conservation patterns arise from fold specific signals, shared across multiple families, and function specific signals unique to the families. The availability of sequences pre-classified according to their function permits the use of negative training sequences to improve the specificity of the HMM, both by optimizing the threshold cutoff and by modifying emission probabilities to minimize the influence of fold-specific signals. A protocol to generate family specific HMMs is described that first constructs a profile HMM from an alignment of the family's sequences and then uses this model to identify sequences belonging to other classes that score above the default threshold (false positives). Ten-fold cross validation is used to optimise the discrimination threshold score for the model. The advent of fast multiple alignment methods enables the use of the profile alignments to align the true and false positive sequences, and the resulting alignments are used to modify the emission probabilities in the original model. Results The protocol, called HMM-ModE, was validated on a set of sequences belonging to six sub-families of the AGC family of kinases. These sequences have an average sequence similarity of 63% among the group though each sub-group has a different substrate specificity. The optimisation of discrimination threshold, by using negative sequences scored against the model improves specificity in test cases from an average of 21% to 98%. Further discrimination by the HMM after modifying model probabilities using negative training sequences is provided in a few cases, the average specificity rising to 99%. Similar improvements were obtained with a sample of G-Protein coupled receptors sub-classified with

  10. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before the out-of-Africa dispersal; (iii) an increase in the phonemic accumulation rate with the number of speakers per unit area. Numerical simulations show that the predictions of the model agree with the observed decrease of linguistic diversity with increasing distance from the most likely origin of the out-of-Africa dispersal. Thus, the proposal that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity is viable, if three strong assumptions are satisfied. PMID:27122180

  11. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    PubMed

    Fort, Joaquim; Pérez-Losada, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before the out-of-Africa dispersal; (iii) an increase in the phonemic accumulation rate with the number of speakers per unit area. Numerical simulations show that the predictions of the model agree with the observed decrease of linguistic diversity with increasing distance from the most likely origin of the out-of-Africa dispersal. Thus, the proposal that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity is viable, if three strong assumptions are satisfied.

  12. The effect of harmonic context on phoneme monitoring in vocal music.

    PubMed

    Bigand, E; Tillmann, B; Poulin, B; D'Adamo, D A; Madurell, F

    2001-08-01

    The processing of a target chord depends on the previous musical context in which it has appeared. This harmonic priming effect occurs for fine syntactic-like changes in context and is observed irrespective of the extent of participants' musical expertise (Bigand & Pineau, Perception and Psychophysics, 59 (1997) 1098). The present study investigates how the harmonic context influences the processing of phonemes in vocal music. Eight-chord sequences were presented to participants. The four notes of each chord were played with synthetic phonemes and participants were required to quickly decide whether the last chord (the target) was sung on a syllable containing the phoneme /i/ or /u/. The musical relationship of the target chord to the previous context was manipulated so that the target chord acted as a referential tonic chord or as a congruent but less structurally important subdominant chord. Phoneme monitoring was faster for the tonic chord than for the subdominant chord. This finding has several implications for music cognition and speech perception. It also suggests that musical and phonemic processing interact at some stage of processing.

  13. Enhanced Syllable Discrimination Thresholds in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo; Lakshminarayanan, Kala; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT) and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities. PMID:24339875

  14. Stochastic Model for Phonemes Uncovers an Author-Dependency of Their Usage

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.

    2016-01-01

    We study rank-frequency relations for phonemes, the minimal units that still relate to linguistic meaning. We show that these relations can be described by the Dirichlet distribution, a direct analogue of the ideal-gas model in statistical mechanics. This description allows us to demonstrate that the rank-frequency relations for phonemes of a text do depend on its author. The author-dependency effect is not caused by the author’s vocabulary (common words used in different texts), and is confirmed by several alternative means. This suggests that it can be directly related to phonemes. These features contrast to rank-frequency relations for words, which are both author and text independent and are governed by the Zipf’s law. PMID:27058596

  15. Categorical speech perception during active discrimination of consonants and vowels.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Christian F; Uesaki, Maiko; Ono, Kentaro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2014-11-01

    Categorical perception of phonemes describes the phenomenon that, when phonemes are classified they are often perceived to fall into distinct categories even though physically they follow a continuum along a feature dimension. While consonants such as plosives have been proposed to be perceived categorically, the representation of vowels has been described to be more continuous. We aimed at testing this difference in representation at a behavioral and neurophysiological level using human magnetoencephalography (MEG). To this end, we designed stimuli based on natural speech by morphing along a phonological continuum entailing changes of the voiced stop-consonant or the steady-state vowel of a consonant-vowel (CV) syllable. Then, while recording MEG, we presented participants with consecutive pairs of either same or different CV syllables. The differences were such that either both CV syllables were from within the same category or belonged to different categories. During the MEG experiment, the participants actively discriminated the stimulus pairs. Behaviorally, we found that discrimination was easier for the between-compared to the within-category contrast for both consonants and vowels. However, this categorical effect was significantly stronger for the consonants compared to vowels, in line with a more continuous representation of vowels. At the neural level, we observed significant repetition suppression of MEG evoked fields, i.e. lower amplitudes for physically same compared to different stimulus pairs, at around 430 to 500ms after the onset of the second stimulus. Source reconstruction revealed generating sources of this repetition suppression effect within left superior temporal sulcus and gyrus, posterior to Heschl׳s gyrus. A region-of-interest analysis within this region showed a clear categorical effect for consonants, but not for vowels, providing further evidence for the important role of left superior temporal areas in categorical representation

  16. Phonemic Awareness and the Teaching of Reading. A Position Statement from the Board of Directors of the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This position paper considers the complex relation between phonemic awareness and reading. The paper seeks to define phonemic awareness (although there is no single definition), stating that it is typically described as an insight about oral language and in particular about the segmentation of sounds that are used in speech communication. It also…

  17. Learning Arabic Sounds: A Guide to the Pronunciation of the Phonemes of Arabic for Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberto, Shelley M.

    The purpose of this guide is to teach English speakers accurate pronunciation of the Modern Standard Arabic phonemes. Included are discussions concerning attitudes toward language learning in general, basic linguistic concepts, a descriptive survey of the phonemes with detailed instructions for their production, and lists of minimal pairs…

  18. The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program for Reading, Spelling, and Speech: The LiPS Program. Third Edition. [Multimedia Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindamood, Patricia; Lindamood, Phyllis

    This kit presents the "Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS) Program for Reading, Spelling, and Speech," a program designed to promote the development of an oral-motor, visual, and auditory feedback system that enables all students, including students with learning disabilities, to prove the identity, number, and order of phonemes in…

  19. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  20. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  1. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Drills on Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Performance in a Later Learned Alphabetic Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Rhea A.; Farrier, Merle J.; Paulson, Lucy Hart; Chu, Xianhua

    This study examined the effectiveness of phonemic awareness drills on phonological awareness and word reading performance in English of Mainland Chinese students in primary school. Employing a nonequivalent control group design, the research questions explored: (1) whether phonemic awareness drills promoted phonological awareness with the English…

  2. Teaching Phoneme Segmenting and Blending as Critical Early Literacy Skills: An Experimental Analysis of Minimal Textual Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Persampieri, Michael; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; LaFleur, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine blending and segmenting of phonemes as an instance of small, textual response classes that students learn to combine to produce whole word reading. Using an A/B/A/B design, a phoneme segmenting and blending condition that included differential reinforcement for response classes at the level of…

  3. Neural Network Classifier Architectures for Phoneme Recognition. CRC Technical Note No. CRC-TN-92-001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treurniet, William

    A study applied artificial neural networks, trained with the back-propagation learning algorithm, to modelling phonemes extracted from the DARPA TIMIT multi-speaker, continuous speech data base. A number of proposed network architectures were applied to the phoneme classification task, ranging from the simple feedforward multilayer network to more…

  4. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction.

  5. Using pH variations to improve the discrimination of wines by 3D front face fluorescence spectroscopy associated to Independent Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rita; Bouveresse, Delphine Jouan-Rimbaud; Locquet, Nathalie; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2016-06-01

    Wine composition in polyphenols is related to the variety of grape that it contains. These polyphenols play an essential role in its quality as well as a possible protective effect on human health. Their conjugated aromatic structure renders them fluorescent, which means that 3D front-face fluorescence spectroscopy could be a useful tool to differentiate among the grape varieties that characterize each wine. However, fluorescence spectra acquired simply at the natural pH of wine are not always sufficient to discriminate the wines. The structural changes in the polyphenols resulting from modifications in the pH induce significant changes in their fluorescence spectra, making it possible to more clearly separate different wines. 9 wines belonging to three different grape varieties (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir) and from 9 different producers, were analyzed over a range of pHs. Independent Components Analysis (ICA) was used to extract characteristic signals from the matrix of unfolded 3D front-face fluorescence spectra and showed that the introduction of pH as an additional parameter in the study of wine fluorescence improved the discrimination of wines.

  6. Multisensory Integration of Visual and Vestibular Signals Improves Heading Discrimination in the Presence of a Moving Object

    PubMed Central

    Dokka, Kalpana; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and animals are fairly accurate in judging their direction of self-motion (i.e., heading) from optic flow when moving through a stationary environment. However, an object moving independently in the world alters the optic flow field and may bias heading perception if the visual system cannot dissociate object motion from self-motion. We investigated whether adding vestibular self-motion signals to optic flow enhances the accuracy of heading judgments in the presence of a moving object. Macaque monkeys were trained to report their heading (leftward or rightward relative to straight-forward) when self-motion was specified by vestibular, visual, or combined visual-vestibular signals, while viewing a display in which an object moved independently in the (virtual) world. The moving object induced significant biases in perceived heading when self-motion was signaled by either visual or vestibular cues alone. However, this bias was greatly reduced when visual and vestibular cues together signaled self-motion. In addition, multisensory heading discrimination thresholds measured in the presence of a moving object were largely consistent with the predictions of an optimal cue integration strategy. These findings demonstrate that multisensory cues facilitate the perceptual dissociation of self-motion and object motion, consistent with computational work that suggests that an appropriate decoding of multisensory visual-vestibular neurons can estimate heading while discounting the effects of object motion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Objects that move independently in the world alter the optic flow field and can induce errors in perceiving the direction of self-motion (heading). We show that adding vestibular (inertial) self-motion signals to optic flow almost completely eliminates the errors in perceived heading induced by an independently moving object. Furthermore, this increased accuracy occurs without a substantial loss in the precision. Our results thus demonstrate that

  7. Clinical Appraisal of Spelling Ability and Its Relationship to Phonemic Awareness (Blending, Segmenting, Elision, and Reversal), Phonological Memory, and Reading in Reading Disabled, ADHD, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Judith M.; Hynd, George W.; Knight, Deborah F.; Hall, Josh; Hiemenz, Jennifer R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests 78 children (8- to 12-year-olds) on cognitive, linguistic, academic, phonemic awareness, and memory ability. Explores the relationship between phonemic awareness, phonological memory, reading and spelling. Finds that phonemic awareness tasks are significantly correlated with reading decoding and spelling measures with slightly higher…

  8. Improvements in the search for potential biomarkers by proteomics: application of principal component and discriminant analyses for two-dimensional maps evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana María; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; Páez de la Cadena, María

    2007-04-15

    In this study, we evaluated if the application of multivariate analysis on the data obtained from two-dimensional protein maps could mean an improvement in the search for protein markers. First, we performed a classical proteomic study of the differential expression of serum N-glycoproteins in colorectal cancer patients. Then, applying principal component analysis (PCA) we assessed the utility of the 2-D protein pattern and certain subsets of spots as a tool to distinguish control and case samples, and tested the accuracy of the classification model by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). On the other hand we looked for altered spots by univariate statistics and then analysed them as a cluster by PCA and LDA. We found that those proteins combined presented a theoretical sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Finally, the spots with known protein identity were analysed by multivariate methods, finding a subgroup that behaved as the most obvious candidates for further validation trials.

  9. Auditory Word Comprehension Impairment in Acute Stroke: Relative Contribution of Phonemic versus Semantic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Pitz, Eleanor; Hillis, Argye E.; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Auditory word comprehension was assessed in a series of 289 acute left hemisphere stroke patients. Participants decided whether an auditorily presented word matched a picture. On different trials, words were presented with a matching picture, a semantic foil, or a phonemic foil. Participants had significantly more trouble with semantic foils…

  10. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  11. Learning of a Formation Principle for the Secondary Phonemic Function of a Syllabic Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.; Thompson, G. Brian; Yamada, Megumi; Meissel, Kane

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed in Japanese children learning to read that there is an early and rapid shift from exclusive reading of hiragana as syllabograms to the dual-use convention in which some hiragana also represent phonemic elements. Such rapid initial learning appears contrary to the standard theories of reading acquisition that require…

  12. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Parkinson’s Disease: Influence of Clinical and Demographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Obeso, Ignacio; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Lázaro; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Changes of cognitive function in PD have been extensively documented and defined as a ‘frontal’ type executive dysfunction. One of the main components of this executive dysfunction is the impairment of verbal fluency. The aim of the present study was to assess semantic and phonemic fluency in a large sample of PD patients and to investigate the effect of clinical and sociodemographic variables on verbal fluency in this patient group. Three hundred patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who were consecutive referrals to our clinic and 50 age and education matched healthy controls completed the phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Both phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were significantly impaired in PD patients relative to matched controls. Stage of illness, presence of depression, education and age influenced verbal fluency measures. Regression analyses established that global measures of cognitive ability (MMSE) and executive function (FAB) and side of onset of motor symptoms predicted 36–37% of variance of phonemic or semantic verbal fluency measures. Thus, future studies aimed at assessing cognitive functioning in PD patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) should adequately take into account several factors (stage of illness, depression, executive functioning) which may potentially influence performance on verbal fluency tasks. PMID:22530265

  13. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  14. Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näätänen, Risto; Lehtokoski, Anne; Lennes, Mietta; Cheour, Marie; Huotilainen, Minna; Iivonen, Antti; Vainio, Martti; Alku, Paavo; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Luuk, Aavo; Allik, Jüri; Sinkkonen, Janne; Alho, Kimmo

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents of such speech specificity postulate the existence of language-dependent memory traces, which are activated in the processing of speech1-3 but not when equally complex, acoustic non-speech stimuli are processed. Here we report the existence of these traces in the human brain. We presented to Finnish subjects the Finnish phoneme prototype /e/ as the frequent stimulus, and other Finnish phoneme prototypes or a non-prototype (the Estonian prototype /õ/) as the infrequent stimulus. We found that the brain's automatic change-detection response, reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN)4-10, was enhanced when the infrequent, deviant stimulus was a prototype (the Finnish /ö/) relative to when it was a non-prototype (the Estonian /õ/). These phonemic traces, revealed by MMN, are language-specific, as /õ/ caused enhancement of MMN in Estonians. Whole-head magnetic recordings11,12 located the source of this native-language, phoneme-related response enhancement, and thus the language-specific memory traces, in the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere.

  15. African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

  16. Development of the Ability to Lexically Encode Novel Second Language Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners must often learn to perceive and produce novel L2 phoneme contrasts. Although both research and intuition suggest that these difficulties can be overcome to some extent with exposure to the L2, it is not known what consequences this kind of learning has for the phonological structure of the L2 lexicon. We present an…

  17. Contemporary Issues in Phoneme Production by Hearing-Impaired Persons: Physiological and Acoustic Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Nancy S.; Whitehead, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This paper on physiologic correlates of speech production in children and youth with hearing impairments focuses specifically on the production of phonemes and includes data on respiration for speech production, phonation, speech aerodynamics, articulation, and acoustic analyses of speech by hearing-impaired persons. (Author/DB)

  18. Training Reading and Phoneme Awareness Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles; Brigstocke, Sophie; Carroll, Julia M.; Nasir, Louise; Snowling, M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a short-term reading intervention study involving 15 children with Down syndrome (DS) who attended mainstream schools. The intervention programme taught children phoneme segmentation and blending skills in the context of learning letter-sounds and working with words in books. The children were taught by their learning support…

  19. Phonemic Awareness Instruction: Contribution of Articulatory Segmentation to Novice Beginners' Reading and Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castiglioni-Spalten, Maria L.; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether kindergartners who were taught to segment words into phonemes either by monitoring articulatory gestures or by manipulating blocks would benefit in their ability to read and spell. Suggests that awareness of articulatory gestures facilitates the activation of graphophonemic connections that helps children identify written words…

  20. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  1. The Acquisition of Dialectal Phonemes in a Study Abroad Context: The Case of the Castilian Theta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knouse, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the incorporation of dialectal variants in second language (L2) pronunciation and how the learning context intersects with this acquisition. Specifically, this research examines to what extent L2 learners of Spanish acquire the regional phoneme /[theta]/ from north-central Spain in both study abroad (SA) and…

  2. Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence in Beginning Reading of Disadvantaged Five Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    In order to determine the effect of grapheme-phoneme correspondence on beginning reading, word acquisition as related to the degree of regularity of the word was used as a measurement. Twenty children enrolled in a preschool project for culturally disadvantaged children at Peabody College were randomly assigned to two groups. One group used the…

  3. Accelerating the Development of Reading, Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Skills in Initial Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; Watson, Joyce E.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-old new school entrants taught by a synthetic phonics method had better reading, spelling and phonemic awareness than two groups taught analytic phonics. The synthetic phonics children were the only ones that could read by analogy, and they also showed better reading of irregular words and nonwords. For…

  4. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for the Impact of Regional Variation on Phoneme Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2009-01-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the impact of phonological variation resulting from a vowel merger on phoneme perception. The perception of the /e/-/[epsilon]/ contrast which does not exist in Southern French-speaking regions, and which is in the process of merging in Northern French-speaking regions, was compared to the…

  5. Semantic and Phonemic Listener Confusions in a Case of Isolated Congenital Aglossia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty; Vento-Wilson, Margaret; Von Berg, Shelley; Iskarous, Khalil; Kim, Namhee; Rogers, Kelly; Young, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article is the second in a series that examines the intelligibility of a person with congenital aglossia (PWCA). Specific factors examined in this study included (a) intelligibility for meaningful words versus nonsense words, (b) intelligibility for consonant-vowel-consonant words (CVCs) as a function of phonemic segment types, and (c)…

  6. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  7. Phonological Competition within the Word: Evidence from the Phoneme Similarity Effect in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of spoken production have not specifically addressed whether the phonemes of a word compete with each other for selection during phonological encoding (e.g., whether /t/ competes with /k/ in cat). Spoken production theories were evaluated and found to fall into three classes, theories positing (1) no competition, (2) competition among…

  8. Neural Correlates in the Processing of Phoneme-Level Complexity in Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeil; Iverson, Gregory K.; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how articulatory complexity at the phoneme level is manifested neurobiologically in an overt production task. fMRI images were acquired from young Korean-speaking adults as they pronounced bisyllabic pseudowords in which we manipulated phonological complexity defined in terms of vowel duration and instability (viz., COMPLEX:…

  9. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  10. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Vallely, Megann; Anderson, Julie D.; Sussman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the phonological working memory of adults who stutter through the use of a non-word repetition and a phoneme elision task. Participants were 14 adults who stutter (M = 28 years) and 14 age/gender matched adults who do not stutter (M = 28 years). For the non-word repetition task, the participants had…

  11. Use of Syntactic Segmentation and Stressed Syllable Location in Phonemic Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Wayne A.; And Others

    Automatic speech recognition is expected to be more successful when syntactically-related information is incorporated into early stages of recognition. Phonemic decisions, in particular, are expected to be more accurate and less ambiguous when contextual information is considered. A computer program detected about 90% of all boundaries between…

  12. Learning phonemic vowel length from naturalistic recordings of Japanese infant-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Bion, Ricardo A H; Miyazawa, Kouki; Kikuchi, Hideaki; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    In Japanese, vowel duration can distinguish the meaning of words. In order for infants to learn this phonemic contrast using simple distributional analyses, there should be reliable differences in the duration of short and long vowels, and the frequency distribution of vowels must make these differences salient enough in the input. In this study, we evaluate these requirements of phonemic learning by analyzing the duration of vowels from over 11 hours of Japanese infant-directed speech. We found that long vowels are substantially longer than short vowels in the input directed to infants, for each of the five oral vowels. However, we also found that learning phonemic length from the overall distribution of vowel duration is not going to be easy for a simple distributional learner, because of the large base-rate effect (i.e., 94% of vowels are short), and because of the many factors that influence vowel duration (e.g., intonational phrase boundaries, word boundaries, and vowel height). Therefore, a successful learner would need to take into account additional factors such as prosodic and lexical cues in order to discover that duration can contrast the meaning of words in Japanese. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account the naturalistic distributions of lexicons and acoustic cues when modeling early phonemic learning.

  13. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  14. Prosodic and Phonemic Awareness in Children's Reading of Long and Short Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2016-01-01

    Phonemic and prosodic awareness are both phonological processes that operate at different levels: the former at the level of the individual sound segment and the latter at the suprasegmental level across syllables. Both have been shown to be related to word reading in young readers. In this study we examine how these processes are differentially…

  15. Phoneme frequency effects in jargon aphasia: a phonological investigation of nonword errors.

    PubMed

    Robson, Jo; Pring, Tim; Marshall, Jane; Chiat, Shula

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the nonwords produced by a jargon speaker, LT. Despite presenting with severe neologistic jargon, LT can produce discrete responses in picture naming tasks thus allowing the properties of his jargon to be investigated. This ability was exploited in two naming tasks. The first showed that LT's nonword errors are related to their targets despite being generally unrecognizable. This relatedness appears to be a general property of his errors suggesting that they are produced by lexical rather than nonlexical means. The second naming task used a set of stimuli controlled for their phonemic content. This allowed an investigation of target phonology at the level of individual phonemes. Nonword responses maintained the English distribution of consonants and showed a significant relationship to the target phonologies. A strong influence of phoneme frequency was identified. High frequency consonants showed a pattern of frequent but indiscriminate use. Low frequency consonants were realised less often but were largely restricted to target related contexts rarely appearing as error phonology. The findings are explained within a lexical activation network with the proposal that the resting levels of phoneme nodes are frequency sensitive. Predictions for the recovery of jargon aphasia and suggestions for future investigations are made.

  16. Phoneme Manipulation Not Onset-Rime Manipulation Ability Is a Unique Predictor of Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Background: Phonological awareness is known to be an excellent predictor of later reading acquisition. It remains unclear, however, whether phoneme manipulation alone best explains this association or whether an additional direct contribution of onset-rime awareness is predictive. This issue is explored here. Method: A longitudinal study is…

  17. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  18. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  19. Using a Multimodal Approach to Facilitate Articulation, Phonemic Awareness, and Literacy in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieretti, Robert A.; Kaul, Sandra D.; Zarchy, Razi M.; O'Hanlon, Laureen M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this research study was to examine the benefit of a using a multimodal approach to speech sound correction with preschool children. The approach uses the auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic modalities and includes a unique, interactive visual focus that attempts to provide a visual representation of a phonemic category. The…

  20. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  1. The Crosslanguage Intelligibility of Phonemes, Sources of Interference in International Voice Communication. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Patricia Maurine; And Others

    The intelligibility of crosslanguage voice communication in American English was studied in situations where the phonemes of that language are uttered by American speakers and identified by speakers of German, French, and Mexican Spanish and in situations where they are uttered by speakers of German, French, and Mexican Spanish and identified by…

  2. Functional hemispheric specialization in processing phonemic and prosodic auditory changes in neonates.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Takeshi; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kojima, Shozo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hokuto, Isamu; Ikeda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Takao; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb) changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus), with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized.

  3. A COMPARISON OF THE SEGMENTAL PHONEMES OF BAZILIAN PORTUGUESE AND AMERICAN SPANISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID M.

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN OUTLINE COMPARING THE SEGMENTAL PHONEMES (AND THEIR PRINCIPAL ALLOPHONES) OF COLLOQUIAL BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE WITH THOSE OF STANDARD SPOKEN AMERICAN SPANISH. THE ANALYSIS IS DESIGNED TO REVEAL ONLY THE MAJOR PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN TEACHING THE PHONOLOGY OF BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE TO SPANISH SPEAKERS AND TO PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR…

  4. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  5. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

  6. Functional Hemispheric Specialization in Processing Phonemic and Prosodic Auditory Changes in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, Takeshi; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kojima, Shozo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hokuto, Isamu; Ikeda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Takao; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb) changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus), with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized. PMID:21954386

  7. Improving the efficiency of multisensory integration in older adults: audio-visual temporal discrimination training reduces susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Setti, Annalisa; Stapleton, John; Leahy, Daniel; Walsh, Cathal; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-08-01

    From language to motor control, efficient integration of information from different sensory modalities is necessary for maintaining a coherent interaction with the environment. While a number of training studies have focused on training perceptual and cognitive function, only very few are specifically targeted at improving multisensory processing. Discrimination of temporal order or coincidence is a criterion used by the brain to determine whether cross-modal stimuli should be integrated or not. In this study we trained older adults to judge the temporal order of visual and auditory stimuli. We then tested whether the training had an effect in reducing susceptibility to a multisensory illusion, the sound induced flash illusion. Improvement in the temporal order judgement task was associated with a reduction in susceptibility to the illusion, particularly at longer Stimulus Onset Asynchronies, in line with a more efficient multisensory processing profile. The present findings set the ground for more broad training programs aimed at improving older adults׳ cognitive performance in domains in which efficient temporal integration across the senses is required.

  8. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  9. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  10. Response function of NE213 scintillator for 0.5-6 MeV neutrons measured by an improved pulse shape discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, C. S.

    1998-02-01

    Using the pulse shape discrimination method combined with the time of flight technique, we have obtained the response function of a 2″ diameter × 2″ thick NE213 scintillator by measuring directly the proton recoil energy spectrum of 0.5-6 MeV prompt neutrons from a 252Cf source. Three parameters, time of flight (TOF), pulse shape discrimination (PSD) and recoil energy (RE), were recorded in an event-by-event mode with a TOF gate. We attempted to improve the determination of maximum proton recoil energies equal to incident neutron energies by employing two analysis methods. First, we attempted to separate better neutrons from coexisting gamma rays in the PSD spectrum by projecting neutron channels of the PSD spectrum onto both TOF and RE spectra in a cubic matrix constructed by the three-parameter data. The resulting two-dimensional matrix composed of TOF and RE channels was free from gamma rays and corresponding Compton-recoiled electrons, and then projected with neutron energy bins of 0.05 MeV wide determined by TOF. Finally, to determine the maximum proton recoil energies from each RE spectrum with a realistic function, accounting for the nonlinear response of the NE213 scintillator due to the quenching effect, we performed a least-squares fit to the RE spectrum using the four-parameter function. The response function obtained in the present work agrees well with previous experimental results obtained by Gul et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 278 (1989) 470) and a Monte Carlo study by Cecil et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 161 (1979) 439).

  11. S 38093, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and improves context discrimination task in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Samuels, Benjamin A.; Mendez-David, Indira; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie; Faye, Charlène; Mekiri, Maryam; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Gardier, Alain M.; Hen, René; Sors, Aurore; David, Denis J.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies designed to increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) may have therapeutic potential for reversing memory impairments. H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists also may be useful for treating cognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether these ligands have effects on AHN. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 28-day treatment with S 38093, a novel brain-penetrant antagonist/inverse agonist of H3 receptors, on AHN (proliferation, maturation and survival) in 3-month-old and in aged 16-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of S 38093 treatment on 7-month-old APPSWE Tg2576 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer’s disease, were also assessed. In all tested models, chronic treatment with S 38093 stimulated all steps of AHN. In aged animals, S 38093 induced a reversal of age-dependent effects on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) BDNF-IX, BDNF-IV and BDNF-I transcripts and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Finally, the effects of chronic administration of S 38093 were assessed on a neurogenesis-dependent “context discrimination (CS) test” in aged mice. While ageing altered mouse CS, chronic S 38093 treatment significantly improved CS. Taken together, these results provide evidence that chronic S 38093 treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and may provide an innovative strategy to improve age-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:28218311

  12. Soil type recognition as improved by genetic algorithm-based variable selection using near infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtu; Zhao, Jinsong; Wang, Qiubing; Sui, Yueyu; Wang, Jingkuan; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xudong; Liang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Soil types have traditionally been determined by soil physical and chemical properties, diagnostic horizons and pedogenic processes based on a given classification system. This is a laborious and time consuming process. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can comprehensively characterize soil properties, and may provide a viable alternative method for soil type recognition. Here, we presented a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) method based on the NIR spectra for the accurate recognition of the types of 230 soil samples collected from farmland topsoils (0–10 cm), representing 5 different soil classes (Albic Luvisols, Haplic Luvisols, Chernozems, Eutric Cambisols and Phaeozems) in northeast China. We found that the PLSDA had an internal validation accuracy of 89% and external validation accuracy of 83% on average, while variable selection with the genetic algorithm (GA and GA-PLSDA) improved this to 92% and 93%. Our results indicate that the GA variable selection technique can significantly improve the accuracy rate of soil type recognition using NIR spectroscopy, suggesting that the proposed methodology is a promising alternative for recognizing soil types using NIR spectroscopy. PMID:26086823

  13. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  14. Improving Treatment of Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea with Laser and/or Topical Therapy Through Enhanced Discrimination of its Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Schäfer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that can present with a variety of cutaneous symptoms. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is a subtype characterized by flushing (transient erythema), persistent central facial erythema (background erythema), and telangiectasias. The severity of individual symptoms differs in each patient, which can complicate the selection of an appropriate treatment strategy. Evaluation of these specific symptoms has been greatly improved by the routine use of diagnostic tools such as (video) dermatoscopy. Following a thorough clinical assessment, treatment decisions should be made based on the proportion of these individual symptoms in individual patients. Brimonidine 0.33% gel is recommended in the symptomatic treatment of facial erythema, and there is evidence for the efficacy of laser/light-based therapies in the treatment of erythema and telangiectasias. In patients presenting with both marked background erythema and telangiectasias, initial treatment with brimonidine 0.33% gel to target the erythema followed by laser/light-based therapy for the telangiectasias has been shown to be an effective combination in clinical practice. This article aims to facilitate treatment decision-making in clinical practice through: 1) better differentiation of the main symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and 2) practical advice for the selection of appropriate treatments, based on clinical case examples. PMID:27672409

  15. Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid-Based Discrimination between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls after Correction for Ventricular Volumes.

    PubMed

    van Waalwijk van Doorn, Linda J C; Gispert, Juan D; Kuiperij, H Bea; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Arighi, Andrea; Baldeiras, Inês; Blennow, Kaj; Bozzali, Marco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Cavedo, Enrica; Emek-Savaş, Derya D; Eren, Erden; Eusebi, Paolo; Farotti, Lucia; Fenoglio, Chiara; Ormaechea, Juan Fortea; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Galimberti, Daniela; Genc, Sermin; Greco, Viviana; Hampel, Harald; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Liu, Yawu; Lladó, Albert; Lleó, Alberto; Nobili, Flavio M; Oguz, Kader K; Parnetti, Lucilla; Pereira, João; Picco, Agnese; Pikkarainen, Maria; de Oliveira, Catarina Resende; Saka, Esen; Salvadori, Nicola; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Santana, Isabel; Scarpini, Elio; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Tarducci, Roberto; Teunissen, Charlotte; Tsolaki, Magda; Urbani, Andrea; Vilaplana, Eduard; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Wallin, Asa K; Yener, Görsev; Molinuevo, José L; Meulenbroek, Olga; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using CSF biomarker data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 730 subjects, from 13 European Memory Clinics. We developed a Matlab-algorithm for standardized automated segmentation analysis of T1 weighted MRI scans in SPM8 for determining VV, and computed its ratio with total intracranial volume (TIV) as proxy for total CSF volume. The diagnostic power of CSF biomarkers (and their combination), either corrected for VV/TIV ratio or not, was determined by ROC analysis. CSF Aβ42 levels inversely correlated to VV/TIV in the whole study population (Aβ42: r = -0.28; p < 0.0001). For CSF t-tau and p-tau, this association only reached statistical significance in the combined MCI and AD group (t-tau: r = -0.15; p-tau: r = -0.13; both p < 0.01). Correction for differences in VV/TIV improved the differentiation of AD versus controls based on CSF Aβ42 alone (AUC: 0.75 versus 0.81) or in combination with t-tau (AUC: 0.81 versus 0.91). In conclusion, differences in VV may be an important confounder in interpreting CSF Aβ42 levels.

  16. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  17. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  18. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  19. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  20. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  1. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  2. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex CRISPR genotyping: improving efficiency, throughput and discriminative power of 'spoligotyping' with new spacers and a microbead-based hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Abadia, Edgar; Refregier, Guislaine; Tafaj, Silva; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Guillard, Bertrand; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond; Sola, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to implement a microbead-based 'spoligotyping' technique and to evaluate improvements by the addition of a panel of 25 extra spacers that we expected to provide an increased resolution on principal genetic group 1 (PGG 1) strains. We confirmed the high sensitivity and reproducibility of the classical technique using the 43 spacer panel and we obtained perfect agreement between the membrane-based and the microbead-based techniques. We further demonstrated an increase in the discriminative power of an extended 68 spacer format for differentiation of PGG 1 clinical isolates, in particular for the East African-Indian clade. Finally, we define a limited yet highly informative reduced 10 spacer panel set which could offer a more cost-effective option for implementation in resource-limited countries and that could decrease the need for additional VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) genotyping work in molecular epidemiological studies. We also present an economic analysis comparing membrane-based and microbead-based techniques.

  4. D-amphetamine improves attention performance in adolescent Wistar, but not in SHR rats, in a two-choice visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Cogrel, Nicolas; Massé, Fabienne; Chauvin, Virgile; Brault, Léa; David, Sabrina; Trovero, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    The validity of spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored by comparing SHR with Wistar rats in a test of attention, the two-choice visual discrimination task (2-CVDT). Animals were 4-5 weeks old during the training phase of the experiment and 6-7 weeks old during the testing phase in which they were tested with D-amphetamine, a stimulant drug used for the treatment of ADHD. As compared to Wistar, SHR showed a slightly better attention performance, a slightly lower impulsivity level, and a lower general activity during the training phase, but these differences disappeared or lessened thereafter, during the testing phase. D-amphetamine (0.5, 1 mg/kg) improved attention performance in Wistar, but not in SHR, and did not modify impulsivity and activity in the two strains. In conclusion, the present study did not demonstrate that SHR represents a valid model of ADHD, since it did not show face validity regarding the behavioral symptoms of ADHD and predictive validity regarding the effect of a compound used for the treatment of ADHD. On the other hand, this study showed that the 2-CVDT may represent a suitable tool for evaluating in adolescent Wistar rats the effect on attention of compounds intended for the treatment of ADHD.

  5. Visemic Processing in Audiovisual Discrimination of Natural Speech: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Cyril; Otzenberger, Helene; Gounot, Daniel; Sock, Rudolph; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle

    2012-01-01

    In a noisy environment, visual perception of articulatory movements improves natural speech intelligibility. Parallel to phonemic processing based on auditory signal, visemic processing constitutes a counterpart based on "visemes", the distinctive visual units of speech. Aiming at investigating the neural substrates of visemic processing in a…

  6. Pronounceability: a measure of language samples based on children's mastery of the phonemes employed in them.

    PubMed

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2003-06-01

    56 samples (n > half a million phonemes) of names (e.g., men's, women's jets'), song lyrics (e.g., Paul Simon's, rap, Beatles'), poems (frequently anthologized English poems), and children's materials (books directed at children ages 3-10 years) were used to study a proposed new measure of English language samples--Pronounceability-based on children's mastery of some phonemes in advance of others. This measure was provisionally equated with greater "youthfulness" and "playfulness" in language samples and with less "maturity." Findings include the facts that women's names were less pronounceable than men's and that poetry was less pronounceable than song lyrics or children's materials. In a supplementary study, 13 university student volunteers' assessments of the youth of randomly constructed names was linearly related to how pronounceable each name was (eta = .8), providing construct validity for the interpretation of Pronounceability as a measure of Youthfulness.

  7. Pure anarthria with predominantly sequencing errors in phoneme articulation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanji, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Tabuchi, M; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Itoyama, Y

    2001-12-01

    A 77-year-old left-handed man presented with pure anarthria following cerebral infarction. The lesion was restricted to the right precentral gyrus extending to the immediately underlying subcortical white matter and the frontal part of the insular cortex. Qualitative analysis of anarthria revealed that half of the phonemic-articulatory errors in spontaneous speech were sequencing ones. Sequential errors were detected at the phoneme level in both consonants and vowels, and at the syllable level. Most of the sequential errors were pre-positioning. Sequential errors were observed both within and across words. In clear contrast with anarthria, writing and comprehension was preserved, which suggested the problem was limited to oral expression. Our findings provide further support that the precentral gyrus and/or the insular cortex of the language dominant hemisphere is responsible for the temporal sequencing of the articulatory programming.

  8. Patterns of English phoneme confusions by native and non-native listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Anne; Weber, Andrea; Smits, Roel; Cooper, Nicole

    2004-12-01

    Native American English and non-native (Dutch) listeners identified either the consonant or the vowel in all possible American English CV and VC syllables. The syllables were embedded in multispeaker babble at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, 8, and 16 dB). The phoneme identification performance of the non-native listeners was less accurate than that of the native listeners. All listeners were adversely affected by noise. With these isolated syllables, initial segments were harder to identify than final segments. Crucially, the effects of language background and noise did not interact; the performance asymmetry between the native and non-native groups was not significantly different across signal-to-noise ratios. It is concluded that the frequently reported disproportionate difficulty of non-native listening under disadvantageous conditions is not due to a disproportionate increase in phoneme misidentifications. .

  9. Multisensory speech perception in autism spectrum disorder: From phoneme to whole-word perception.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Baum, Sarah H; Segers, Magali; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-03-24

    Speech perception in noisy environments is boosted when a listener can see the speaker's mouth and integrate the auditory and visual speech information. Autistic children have a diminished capacity to integrate sensory information across modalities, which contributes to core symptoms of autism, such as impairments in social communication. We investigated the abilities of autistic and typically-developing (TD) children to integrate auditory and visual speech stimuli in various signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Measurements of both whole-word and phoneme recognition were recorded. At the level of whole-word recognition, autistic children exhibited reduced performance in both the auditory and audiovisual modalities. Importantly, autistic children showed reduced behavioral benefit from multisensory integration with whole-word recognition, specifically at low SNRs. At the level of phoneme recognition, autistic children exhibited reduced performance relative to their TD peers in auditory, visual, and audiovisual modalities. However, and in contrast to their performance at the level of whole-word recognition, both autistic and TD children showed benefits from multisensory integration for phoneme recognition. In accordance with the principle of inverse effectiveness, both groups exhibited greater benefit at low SNRs relative to high SNRs. Thus, while autistic children showed typical multisensory benefits during phoneme recognition, these benefits did not translate to typical multisensory benefit of whole-word recognition in noisy environments. We hypothesize that sensory impairments in autistic children raise the SNR threshold needed to extract meaningful information from a given sensory input, resulting in subsequent failure to exhibit behavioral benefits from additional sensory information at the level of whole-word recognition. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cracking the Dual Code: Toward a Unitary Model of Phoneme Identification

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Donald J.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    The results of five experiments on the nature of the speech code and on the role of sentence context on speech processing are reported. The first three studies test predictions from the dual code model of phoneme identification (Foss, D. J., & Blank, M. A. Cognitive Psychology, 1980, 12, 1–31). According to that model, subjects in a phoneme monitoring experiment respond to a prelexical code when engaged in a relatively easy task, and to a postlexical code when the task is difficult. The experiments controlled ease of processing either by giving subjects multiple targets for which to monitor or by preceding the target with a similar-sounding phoneme that draws false alarms. The predictions from the model were not sustained. Furthermore, evidence for a paradoxical nonword superiority effect was observed. In Experiment IV reaction times (RTs) to all possible /d/-initial CVCs were gathered. RTs were unaffected by the target item's status as a word or nonword. but they were affected by the internal phonetic structure of the target-bearing item. Vowel duration correlated highly (0.627) with RTs. Experiment V examined previous work purporting to demonstrate that semantic predictability affects how the speech code is processed, in particular that semantic predictability leads to responses based upon a postlexical code. That study found “predictability” effects when words occurred in isolation; further, it found that vowel duration and other phonetic factors can account parsimoniously for the existing results. These factors also account for the apparent nonword superiority effects observed earlier. Implications of the present work for theoretical models that stress the interaction between semantic context and speech processing are discussed, as are implications for use of the phoneme monitoring task. PMID:25520528

  11. Design of Phoneme MIDI Codes Using the MIDI Encoding Tool “Auto-F” and Realizing Voice Synthesizing Functions Based on Musical Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modegi, Toshio

    Using our previously developed audio to MIDI code converter tool “Auto-F”, from given vocal acoustic signals we can create MIDI data, which enable to playback the voice-like signals with a standard MIDI synthesizer. Applying this tool, we are constructing a MIDI database, which consists of previously converted simple harmonic structured MIDI codes from a set of 71 Japanese male and female syllable recorded signals. And we are developing a novel voice synthesizing system based on harmonically synthesizing musical sounds, which can generate MIDI data and playback voice signals with a MIDI synthesizer by giving Japanese plain (kana) texts, referring to the syllable MIDI code database. In this paper, we propose an improved MIDI converter tool, which can produce temporally higher-resolution MIDI codes. Then we propose an algorithm separating a set of 20 consonant and vowel phoneme MIDI codes from 71 syllable MIDI converted codes in order to construct a voice synthesizing system. And, we present the evaluation results of voice synthesizing quality between these separated phoneme MIDI codes and their original syllable MIDI codes by our developed 4-syllable word listening tests.

  12. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy

    PubMed Central

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. Results: The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Conclusion: Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. PMID:27759830

  13. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    PubMed

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home.

  14. The voiced pronunciation of initial phonemes predicts the gender of names.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-04-01

    Although it is known that certain names gain popularity within a culture because of historical events, it is unknown how names become associated with different social categories in the first place. We propose that vocal cord vibration during the pronunciation of an initial phoneme plays a critical role in explaining which names are assigned to males versus females. This produces a voiced gendered name effect, whereby voiced phonemes (vibration of the vocal cords) are more associated with male names, and unvoiced phonemes (no vibration of the vocal cords) are more associated with female names. Eleven studies test this association between voiced names and gender (a) using 270 million names (more than 80,000 unique names) given to children over 75 years, (b) names across 2 cultures (the U.S. and India), and (c) hundreds of novel names. The voiced gendered name effect was mediated through how hard or soft names sounded, and moderated by gender stereotype endorsement. Although extensive work has demonstrated morphological and physical cues to gender (e.g., facial, bodily, vocal), this work provides a systematic account of name-based cues to gender. Overall, the current research extends work on sound symbolism to names; the way in which a name sounds can be symbolically related to stereotypes associated with its social category.

  15. Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, A.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of an erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: The processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of 'all or nothing': The maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also thoroughly analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.

  16. Nonword repetition and phoneme elision skills in school-age children who do and do not stutter.

    PubMed

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and age- and sex-matched CNS (mean = 11.8 years, SD = 2.0 years). Each talker group was further subdivided into two age groups: younger (N = 7; 8-11.5 years) and older (N = 7; 11.6-15 years). Repeated-measures analyses were conducted on the accuracy and response time (in seconds) data. In nonword repetition, the CWS showed a trend for lower per cent of correct phonemes at the two-syllable level compared with the CNS. In phoneme elision, the younger CWS showed a significantly lower accuracy rate than the older CWS at the two- and three-syllable nonword lengths, while similar differences were not evident between the younger versus older CNS at any of the nonword lengths. No accuracy difference in phoneme elision was noted between the two talker groups. Group differences in speech initiation times were also not evident in either of the tasks. Findings from nonword repetition offer tentative support for difficulties experienced by school-age CWS in phonemic encoding/working memory abilities. Findings from the phoneme elision task suggest a complex pattern of age-dependent performance by the CWS. Comparison of response accuracy and speech initiation times in both the tasks failed to show speed-accuracy trade-off strategies in either of the groups.

  17. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia…

  18. Reading: Phonemic Awareness, Vocabulary Acquisition, Teaching and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakof, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    To spread the word that reading instruction must be based on research and to improve the preparation of teachers to teach reading, this edition of "Basic Education" emphasizes some of the most significant findings of recent reading research and suggests how these findings should translate into immediate action and policy. The first article, "A…

  19. A Neurophysiological Investigation of Non-native Phoneme Perception by Dutch and German Listeners.

    PubMed

    Bien, Heidrun; Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1) experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2) phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative // and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of // for German speakers) and /t/ (typical pronunciation of // for Dutch speakers). Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN) by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent vs. the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns.

  20. A Neurophysiological Investigation of Non-native Phoneme Perception by Dutch and German Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Heidrun; Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1) experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2) phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative /𝜃/ and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of /𝜃/ for German speakers) and /t/ (typical pronunciation of /𝜃/ for Dutch speakers). Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN) by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent vs. the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns. PMID:26858685

  1. Indexing cortical entrainment to natural speech at the phonemic level: Methodological considerations for applied research.

    PubMed

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2017-02-27

    Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech processing from cortical activity. One such approach was recently introduced and showed that it is possible to use electroencephalography (EEG) to index cortical processing at the level of phonemes from responses to continuous natural speech. However, a large amount of data was required for such analyses. This limits the usefulness of this approach for assessing speech processing in particular cohorts for whom data collection is difficult. Here, we used EEG data from 10 subjects to assess whether measures reflecting phoneme-level processing could be reliably obtained using only 10 min of recording time from each subject. This was done successfully using a generic modeling approach wherein the data from a training group composed of 9 subjects were combined to derive robust predictions of the EEG signal for new subjects. This allowed the derivation of indices of cortical activity at the level of phonemes and the disambiguation of responses to specific phonetic features (e.g., stop, plosive, and nasal consonants) with limited data. This objective approach has the potential to complement psychometric measures of speech processing in a wide variety of subjects.

  2. Reducing Stigma and Discrimination to Improve Child Health and Survival in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Promising Approaches and Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Usha S.; Stangl, Anne L.; De Zalduondo, Barbara; Brady, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The social processes of stigmatization and discrimination can have complex and devastating effects on the health and welfare of families and communities, and thus on the environments in which children live and grow. The authors conducted a literature review to identify interventions for reducing the stigma and discrimination that impede child health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on nutrition, HIV/AIDS, neonatal survival and infant health, and early child development. Despite broad consensus on the importance of stigma and discrimination as barriers to access and uptake of health information and services, the authors found a dearth of research and program evaluations directly assessing effective interventions in the area of child health except in the area of reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination. While the literature demonstrates that poverty and social exclusion are often stigma-laden and impede adult access to health information and services, and to education relevant to family planning, child rearing, nutrition, health promotion, and disease prevention, the child health literature does not document direct connections between these known mediators of child health and the stigmatization of either children or their caregivers. The child health field would greatly benefit from more research to understand and address stigma as it relates to child health and well-being. The authors suggest applying a framework, adapted from the HIV stigma field, to direct future research and the adaptation of existing strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination to address social and health-related stigmas affecting children and their families. PMID:25207451

  3. Reducing stigma and discrimination to improve child health and survival in low- and middle-income countries: promising approaches and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Usha S; Stangl, Anne L; De Zalduondo, Barbara; Brady, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The social processes of stigmatization and discrimination can have complex and devastating effects on the health and welfare of families and communities, and thus on the environments in which children live and grow. The authors conducted a literature review to identify interventions for reducing the stigma and discrimination that impede child health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on nutrition, HIV/AIDS, neonatal survival and infant health, and early child development. Despite broad consensus on the importance of stigma and discrimination as barriers to access and uptake of health information and services, the authors found a dearth of research and program evaluations directly assessing effective interventions in the area of child health except in the area of reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination. While the literature demonstrates that poverty and social exclusion are often stigma-laden and impede adult access to health information and services, and to education relevant to family planning, child rearing, nutrition, health promotion, and disease prevention, the child health literature does not document direct connections between these known mediators of child health and the stigmatization of either children or their caregivers. The child health field would greatly benefit from more research to understand and address stigma as it relates to child health and well-being. The authors suggest applying a framework, adapted from the HIV stigma field, to direct future research and the adaptation of existing strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination to address social and health-related stigmas affecting children and their families.

  4. The architecture of speech production and the role of the phoneme in speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Speech production has been studied within a number of traditions including linguistics, psycholinguistics, motor control, neuropsychology, and neuroscience. These traditions have had limited interaction, ostensibly because they target different levels of speech production or different dimensions such as representation, processing, or implementation. However, closer examination of reveals a substantial convergence of ideas across the traditions and recent proposals have suggested that an integrated approach may help move the field forward. The present article reviews one such attempt at integration, the state feedback control model and its descendent, the hierarchical state feedback control model. Also considered is how phoneme-level representations might fit in the context of the model. PMID:24489420

  5. The Role of Number Sense in the Identification and Prevention of Mathematics Disability: A Consideration of the Phonemic Awareness/Number Sense Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Sally; Kemp, Coral

    2004-01-01

    In a 1999 paper Gersten and Chard proposed that number sense might be to mathematics what phonemic awareness is to reading. They explained the role of phonemic awareness in reading acquisition and its influence on reading research and argued that an understanding of the concept of number sense could be equally influential in the field of…

  6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Two Theoretically Motivated Computer-Assisted Reading Interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona; Kujala, Janne; Richardson, Ulla; Lyytinen, Heikki; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We report an empirical comparison of the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions (CARI) based on the Finnish GraphoGame CARI: English GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime) and English GraphoGame Phoneme (GG Phoneme). Participants were 6-7-year-old students who had been identified by their teachers as being…

  7. Assessing the Effects of the "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" Program with Preschool Children with Developmental Delays: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isakson, Lisa; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" on the phonemic awareness skills of 5 preschool children with developmental delays. The children received 60 of the 110 lessons included in this program over 5 months. They were pre- and posttested using the kindergarten level Initial Sound Fluency and Phoneme…

  8. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  9. Kindergarten Literacy Assessment of English Only and English Language Learner Students: An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Three Phonemic Awareness Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…

  10. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  11. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  12. Training Children to Copy and to Discriminate Letterlike Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    1975-01-01

    Reproduction training improved performance only on the reproduction test; discrimination training improved performance only on the discrimination test. The effects of discrimination were seen both on forms used in training and on other similar forms, while the effects of reproduction training were seen only on trained forms. (Author/BJG)

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients. PMID:28050309

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Valéria de Carvalho; Rieder, Carlos R M; da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients.

  15. Neural correlates in the processing of phoneme-level complexity in vowel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeil; Iverson, Gregory K; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    We investigated how articulatory complexity at the phoneme level is manifested neurobiologically in an overt production task. fMRI images were acquired from young Korean-speaking adults as they pronounced bisyllabic pseudowords in which we manipulated phonological complexity defined in terms of vowel duration and instability (viz., COMPLEX: /tiɯi/ > MID-COMPLEX: /tiye/ > SIMPLE: /tii/). Increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann Areas (BA) 44 and 47), supplementary motor area and anterior insula was observed for the articulation of COMPLEX sequences relative to MID-COMPLEX; this was the case with the articulation of MID-COMPLEX relative to SIMPLE, except that the pars orbitalis (BA 47) was dominantly identified in the Broca's area. The differentiation indicates that phonological complexity is reflected in the neural processing of distinct phonemic representations, both by recruiting brain regions associated with retrieval of phonological information from memory and via articulatory rehearsal for the production of COMPLEX vowels. In addition, the finding that increased complexity engages greater areas of the brain suggests that brain activation can be a neurobiological measure of articulo-phonological complexity, complementing, if not substituting for, biomechanical measurements of speech motor activity.

  16. Effect of speech-intrinsic variations on human and automatic recognition of spoken phonemes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernd T; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the gap between the recognition performance of human listeners and an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system with special focus on intrinsic variations of speech, such as speaking rate and effort, altered pitch, and the presence of dialect and accent. Second, it is investigated if the most common ASR features contain all information required to recognize speech in noisy environments by using resynthesized ASR features in listening experiments. For the phoneme recognition task, the ASR system achieved the human performance level only when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was increased by 15 dB, which is an estimate for the human-machine gap in terms of the SNR. The major part of this gap is attributed to the feature extraction stage, since human listeners achieve comparable recognition scores when the SNR difference between unaltered and resynthesized utterances is 10 dB. Intrinsic variabilities result in strong increases of error rates, both in human speech recognition (HSR) and ASR (with a relative increase of up to 120%). An analysis of phoneme duration and recognition rates indicates that human listeners are better able to identify temporal cues than the machine at low SNRs, which suggests incorporating information about the temporal dynamics of speech into ASR systems.

  17. Functional connectivity in resting state as a phonemic fluency ability measure.

    PubMed

    Miró-Padilla, Anna; Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ávila, César

    2017-03-01

    There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest. Results showed that the higher FC between the thalamus and the cerebellum, and the lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula and between the supplementary motor area and the right insula were associated with better performance on the FAS test. Regression analyses revealed that the first two FCs contributed independently to this better phonemic fluency, reflecting a more general attentional factor (FC between thalamus and cerebellum) and a more specific fluency factor (FC between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula). The results support the Spontaneous Trait Reactivation hypothesis, which explains how resting-state derived measures may reflect individual differences in cognitive abilities.

  18. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  19. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  20. Three-year-olds' production of Australian English phonemic vowel length as a function of prosodic context

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Durational contrasts are used not only to signal phrasal boundaries and focused constituents, but also to make phonemic distinctions. Boundary and focus effects can therefore interact with phonemic length contrasts, presenting a challenge for learners. Boundary effects are most clearly seen in the syllable rhyme, where the nucleus and coda are longer in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position, the magnitude of lengthening diminishing leftward from the end of the word. In the case of focus, where the nucleus and coda are also lengthened, the magnitude of lengthening diminishes rightwards toward the end of the word. The goal of this paper was therefore to compare productions of the phonemic vowel length contrast /ɐː/ vs /ɐ/ in adults and 3-yr-old children learning Australian English in the face of competing demands from boundary and focus lengthening. The results showed that the children maintain the /ɐː/ vs /ɐ/ contrast across prosodic contexts. They are also able to implement an adult-like pattern of boundary-related lengthening, but are still developing focus-related lengthening. The findings suggest that these 3-yr-olds have good command of the phonemic vowel length contrast, but are still fine-tuning language-specific aspects of temporal organization (i.e., the vowel-coda trading relationship) within the rhyme. PMID:24606283

  1. The Relation between Speech Perception and Phonemic Awareness: Evidence from Low-SES Children and Children with Chronic OM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan

    1996-01-01

    This study of 41 children (ages 7 and 8) studied the effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and chronic otitis media (OM) on speech perception and phonemic awareness. Findings indicated the children with low SES did poorly on both kinds of tasks whether or not they had chronic OM. (CR)

  2. The Effects of Intervention in Phonemic Awareness on the Reading Achievement of English Language Learners in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Students entering school with little knowledge of English do not have the foundation in place to develop reading skills. This lack of foundation puts English Learners at a disadvantage that they struggle to overcome. The purpose of the quantitative study was twofold: (a) to determine whether measures of phonemic awareness are predictive of end of…

  3. Some Suggestions on the Role of Systematic Phonemics in Child Phonology. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David

    The major purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion on the validity of systematic phonemics in the area of language acquisition. This is not an attempt to write a phonology, but rather an outline of some theoretical and formal devices that may be used for gaining insight into the phonological system of the child. An evaluation procedure…

  4. The Effects of Daily Opportunities To Draw and Write on Kindergarten Children's Ability To Represent Phonemes in their Spelling Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, M. Elizabeth; And Others

    This quasi-experimental study measured the effects of daily opportunities to draw and write on kindergarten children's ability to represent phonemes in their spelling inventions. All students involved in the study had previously been tested using the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test and placed in developmentally appropriate kindergarten…

  5. Three-year-olds' production of Australian English phonemic vowel length as a function of prosodic context.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-03-01

    Durational contrasts are used not only to signal phrasal boundaries and focused constituents, but also to make phonemic distinctions. Boundary and focus effects can therefore interact with phonemic length contrasts, presenting a challenge for learners. Boundary effects are most clearly seen in the syllable rhyme, where the nucleus and coda are longer in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position, the magnitude of lengthening diminishing leftward from the end of the word. In the case of focus, where the nucleus and coda are also lengthened, the magnitude of lengthening diminishes rightwards toward the end of the word. The goal of this paper was therefore to compare productions of the phonemic vowel length contrast /ɐː/ vs /ɐ/ in adults and 3-yr-old children learning Australian English in the face of competing demands from boundary and focus lengthening. The results showed that the children maintain the /ɐː/ vs /ɐ/ contrast across prosodic contexts. They are also able to implement an adult-like pattern of boundary-related lengthening, but are still developing focus-related lengthening. The findings suggest that these 3-yr-olds have good command of the phonemic vowel length contrast, but are still fine-tuning language-specific aspects of temporal organization (i.e., the vowel-coda trading relationship) within the rhyme.

  6. Contribution of Phonemic Segmentation Instruction with Letters and Articulation Pictures to Word Reading and Spelling in Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Nancy; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2011-01-01

    English-speaking preschoolers who knew letters but were nonreaders (M = 4 years 9 months; n = 60) were taught to segment consonant-vowel (CV), VC, and CVC words into phonemes either with letters and pictures of articulatory gestures (the LPA condition) or with letters only (the LO condition). A control group received no treatment. Both trained…

  7. Do Adults with Cochlear Implants Rely on Different Acoustic Cues for Phoneme Perception than Adults with Normal Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but…

  8. Guiding Learners to near Native Fluency in English through an Adaptive Programme of Activities Which Includes Phoneme and Prosody Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…

  9. Dogs, Bogs, Labs, and Lads: What Phonemic Generalizations Indicate about the Nature of Children's Early Word-Form Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Yee, Meagan N.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas young children accept words that differ by only a single phoneme as equivalent labels for novel objects, older children do not (J. F. Werker, C. J. Fennell, K. M. Corcoran, & C. L. Stager, 2002). In these experiments, 106 children were exposed to a training regime that has previously been found to facilitate children's use of phonemic…

  10. Hemispheric Specialization for Language According to Grapho-Phonemic Transformation and Gender. A Divided Visual Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousin, Emilie; Perrone, Marcela; Baciu, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This behavioral study aimed at assessing the effect of two variables on the degree of hemispheric specialization for language. One of them was the "grapho-phonemic translation (transformation)" (letter-sound mapping) and the other was the participants' "gender". The experiment was conducted with healthy volunteers. A divided visual field procedure…

  11. Phonemic Awareness Instruction Helps Children Learn To Read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Nunes, Simone R.; Willows, Dale M.; Schuster, Barbara Valeska; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Zohreh; Shanahan, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Examines the scientific evidence supporting claims about phonemic awareness (PA) instruction. Presents a quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of PA instruction on learning to read and spell. Concludes that PA instruction was found to make a statistically significant contribution to reading acquisition. (SG)

  12. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  13. Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

  14. Assessing Phonemic Fluency in Multilingual Contexts: Letter Selection Methodology and Demographically Stratified Norms for Three South African Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Carey, Paul D.; Baufeldt, Angela L.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Conradie, Simone; Dowling, Tessa; Stein, Dan J.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their global clinical utility, phonemic fluency tests are frequently incorporated into neuropsychological assessment batteries. However, in heterogeneous societies their use is complicated by the lack of careful attention to using letters of equivalent difficulty across languages, and the paucity of norms stratified by relevant…

  15. Improved discrimination of autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) from non-AD dementias using CSF P-tau(181P).

    PubMed

    Koopman, Karen; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Nagels, Guy; De Deyn, Peter P; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2009-09-01

    To establish diagnostic accuracy (acc) and optimal cut-off levels of CSF tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181P)) for discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) from non-AD dementias in autopsy-confirmed dementia patients, CSF levels of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta(1-42)), total tau protein (T-tau) and P-tau(181P) from patients with definite AD (n=95) and non-AD dementias (n=50) were determined with single-parameter ELISA kits. Optimal P-tau(181P) cut-off levels for differentiating AD from pooled non-AD dementias, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were 50.4pg/mL (acc=0.73), 52.8pg/mL (acc=0.73) and 35.3pg/mL (acc=0.90), respectively. The optimal CSF P-tau(181P) cut-off level for discriminating AD from non-AD dementias was 50.4pg/mL. Optimal CSF P-tau(181P) cut-off levels differed between non-AD diagnostic dementia categories.

  16. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2004-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  17. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  18. Segmenting two-phoneme syllables: developmental differences in relation with early reading skills.

    PubMed

    Geudens, Astrid; Sandra, Dominiek; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2004-01-01

    This study explored developmental differences in children's segmentation skills of VC and CV syllables (e.g., /af/ and /fa/) in relation to their early reading abilities. To this end, we followed a subgroup of Dutch speaking prereaders who participated in, and replicated the segmentation task in first grade, at the outset of phonics reading instruction. Reading abilities were assessed after 6 and 9 months. First, we confirmed that VCs offer an easier context to isolate phonemes than CVs. Second, matching analyses showed that this development from VC to CV segmentation posed comparatively increasing difficulties for poor segmenters. Third, this qualitatively different development was reflected in early reading performance. Our data emphasize the importance of phonetic factors and instruction-based experiences in phonological development.

  19. Phonemic clicks and the mapping asymmetry: How language emerged and speech developed.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Riny

    2017-02-01

    Language must have existed before human populations became separated (all descendant populations have language) but language did not emerge until long after these population divergences occurred (behavioral modernity only showed then). Distinguishing capacity for language from externalized language resolves the apparent paradox. Speech emerged only after the capacity for language became fixated. This accords well with a fundamental property of human language. Rules mapping to meaning rely on structural properties only, while rules mapping to sound are (also) sensitive to linear order, reflecting properties of sensorimotor modalities. The asymmetry suggests (i) language as a system of thought takes primacy over language as communication, and (ii) evolution of the language capacity preceded emergence of speech. Click phonemes with their unique geneological, genetic and geographical distribution may be relevant here. Separation followed possession of internal language but preceded externalized language. Clicks were recruited for externalization in San populations only after deepest separation.

  20. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested.

  1. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Quentin D

    2011-04-15

    Human genetic and phenotypic diversity declines with distance from Africa, as predicted by a serial founder effect in which successive population bottlenecks during range expansion progressively reduce diversity, underpinning support for an African origin of modern humans. Recent work suggests that a similar founder effect may operate on human culture and language. Here I show that the number of phonemes used in a global sample of 504 languages is also clinal and fits a serial founder-effect model of expansion from an inferred origin in Africa. This result, which is not explained by more recent demographic history, local language diversity, or statistical non-independence within language families, points to parallel mechanisms shaping genetic and linguistic diversity and supports an African origin of modern human languages.

  2. Rediscovering signal complexity as a teleseismic discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N; Taylor, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P-wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave ({beta}{sub CF}). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. Inclusion of secondary phases in the coda window can also degrade performance. However, performance improves markedly when two-station complexity discriminants are formed showing false alarm rates similar to those observed for network m{sub b} - M{sub s}. This suggests that multistation complexity discriminants may ameliorate some of the problems associated with m{sub b} - M{sub s} discrimination at lower magnitudes. Additionally, when complexity discriminants are combined with m{sub b} - M{sub s} there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Thus, complexity discriminants may follow a logic that is similar to m{sub b} - M{sub s} in terms of the separation of shallow earthquakes from nuclear explosions, although the underlying physics of the two discriminants is significantly different.

  3. Onomatopoeias: a new perspective around space, image schemas and phoneme clusters.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Onomatopoeias (phonemes and phoneme clusters, while visual patterns correspond to different image schemas. The association between specific categories of pseudo-onomatopoeias and specific spatial/movement patterns is also the object of an experiment focused on onomatopoeia interpretation. Most part of data confirms a correlation between image schemas as CONTAINER/CONTAINMENT (crunch, plop) or SOURCE-PATH-GOAL (tattarrattat 'shots') and an occlusive consonant, while liquid

  4. Rediscovering Signal Complexity as a Teleseismic Discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steve R.; Anderson, Dale N.

    2009-02-20

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave (βCF). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. However, when combined with the mb – Ms discriminant significant improvements are observed. In particular, signal complexity can be used to improve discrimination performance over mb – Ms alone as well improve differentiation between shallow and deep earthquakes. When complexity discriminants are combined with mb – Ms there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Importantly, multistation complexity discriminants have false alarm rates similar to those observed for network mb - Ms in support of predictions based on simulations of Bowers (1996).

  5. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R.; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  6. Discrimination and identification of acoustic transient patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, J. A.; Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The relation between the discrimination and the identification of acoustic patterns can be addressed psychophysically or cognitively. The psychophysical approach predicts a monotonic relationship between performance on the two tasks. Cognitively, the relationship may depend upon the type of structure encoded from the patterns. Structure based upon similarities in runs could enhance discrimination but degrade identification. Hierarchical structural encoding might enhance both tasks. The relationship was investigated in three dual task experiments. In one experiment, trial and error learning was used whereas in the other two, observation of positive examples was used. All three experiments indicated that discrimination was superior to identification, and that the concurrent identification task improved discrimination performance above what has been obtained in single task discrimination studies. The effects of structure in the two tasks were equivocal but implied that the type of structured encoding is important and may be influenced by the procedure used to acquire the patterns.

  7. Word-Level Reading Achievement and Behavioral Inattention: Exploring Their Overlap and Relations with Naming Speed and Phonemic Awareness in a Community Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency. PMID:25178628

  8. Phoneme awareness is a key component of alphabetic literacy skills in consistent and inconsistent orthographies: evidence from Czech and English children.

    PubMed

    Caravolas, Markéta; Volín, Jan; Hulme, Charles

    2005-10-01

    Two studies investigated the importance of phoneme awareness relative to other predictors in the development of reading and spelling among children learning a consistent orthography (Czech) and an inconsistent orthography (English). In Study 1, structural equation models revealed that Czech (n=107) and English (n=71) data were fitted well by the same predictors of reading and spelling. Phoneme awareness was a unique predictor in all models. In Study 2, Czech (n=40) and English (n=27) children with dyslexia showed similar deficits on phoneme awareness relative to their age- and spelling-matched control peers. Phoneme awareness appears to be a core component skill of alphabetic literacy, which is equally important for learners of consistent and inconsistent orthographies.

  9. Word-level reading achievement and behavioral inattention: exploring their overlap and relations with naming speed and phonemic awareness in a community sample of children.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency.

  10. Shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency revealed by lesion-symptom mapping in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Semantic and phonemic fluency tasks are frequently used to test executive functioning, speed and attention, and access to the mental lexicon. In semantic fluency tasks, subjects are required to generate words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) within a limited time window, whereas in phonemic fluency tasks subjects have to generate words starting with a given letter. Anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency are currently assumed to overlap in left frontal structures, reflecting shared executive processes, and to be distinct in left temporal and right frontal structures, reflecting involvement of distinct memory processes and search strategies. Definite evidence for this assumption is lacking. To further establish the anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency, we applied assumption-free voxel-based and region-of-interest-based lesion-symptom mapping in 93 patients with ischemic stroke. Fluency was assessed by asking patients to name animals (semantic), and words starting with the letter N and A (phonemic). Our findings indicate that anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, reflecting shared underlying cognitive processes. Phonemic fluency additionally draws on the left rolandic operculum, which might reflect a search through phonological memory, and the middle frontal gyrus. Semantic fluency additionally draws on left medial temporal regions, probably reflecting a search through semantic memory, and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which might reflect the application of a visuospatial mental imagery strategy in semantic fluency. These findings establish shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency.

  11. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2008-10-01

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  12. From orthography to phonetics: ERP measures of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms in reading.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vecchi, Liza; Zani, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    Neuroimaging has provided evidence that the first stages of visual word recognition activate a visual word-form center localized in the left extrastriate cortex (fusiform gyrus). Accordingly, neurological cases of patients suffering from pure alexia reported the left posterior occipital lobe as the possible locus of orthographic analysis. There is less agreement in the literature about which brain structures are involved in the subsequent stages of word processing and, in particular, their time course of activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic source imaging studies recently reported data that could indicate a dual route model of reading. These findings are particularly relevant to studies on the functional deficits associated with phonological and surface dyslexia. There is evidence for the existence of two different brain mechanisms supporting phonological processing in visual word recognition: one mechanism subserving "assembled phonology" for reading letter strings and another one subserving "addressed phonology" for reading meaningful words. However, available knowledge on the time course and neural locus of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms in reading is still inadequate. In this study, we compared processing of meaningful and meaningless Italian words in a task requiring a phonemic/phonetic decision task. Stimuli were 1152 different orthographic stimuli presented in the central visual field. Half the stimuli were Italian words (with a high or low frequency of occurrence), the other half were meaningless strings of letters (legal pseudowords and letter strings). Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 scalp sites in 10 Italian university students. The task consisted of deciding about the presence/absence of a given "phone" in the hypothetical enunciation of word read: for example, "Is there a /k/ in cheese?". Results showed that lexical frequency and orthographical regularity affected linguistic processing within 150 msec

  13. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  14. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  15. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  16. Discrimination against Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  17. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  18. Does orthographic training on a phonemic contrast absent in the listener's dialect influence word recognition?

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noël; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2016-09-01

    This study examined whether the ability of southern French speakers to discriminate between standard French word forms such as /pike/ and /pikε/ can be improved by a training procedure in which participants were exposed to the orthographic representations of words forming /e/-/ε/ minimal pairs. The results of the training procedure showed that southern French speakers were able to perceive the /e/-/ε/ contrast in word final position when they associated words containing these vowels with their correct spelled form. Further, participants in a priming experiment, which was run immediately after training, no longer showed the priming effect on the trained minimal pairs that they had shown in the pre-test. However, a priming effect on the untrained minimal pairs was still observed immediately after training, showing that this training failed to transfer to untrained items. Finally, the benefits of the training procedure were no longer observed the day after training, since southern French speakers once again showed a priming effect on the trained minimal pair of words in a one day post-test. Implications of these findings for the locus of the difficulties of the southern French speakers with the word-final /e/-/ε/ contrast are discussed.

  19. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  20. Phoneme recognition in modulated maskers by normal-hearing and aided hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Sandeep A; Grant, Ken W

    2012-09-01

    This study measured the influence of masker fluctuations on phoneme recognition. The first part of the study compared the benefit of masker modulations for consonant and vowel recognition in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Recognition scores were measured in steady-state and sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noise maskers (100% modulation depth) at several modulation rates and signal-to-noise ratios. Masker modulation rates were 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz for the consonant recognition task and 2, 4, 12, and 32 Hz for the vowel recognition task. Vowel recognition scores showed more modulation benefit and a more pronounced effect of masker modulation rate than consonant scores. The modulation benefit for word recognition from other studies was found to be more similar to the benefit for vowel recognition than that for consonant recognition. The second part of the study measured the effect of modulation rate on the benefit of masker modulations for vowel recognition in aided hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. HI listeners achieved as much modulation benefit as NH listeners for slower masker modulation rates (2, 4, and 12 Hz), but showed a reduced benefit for the fast masker modulation rate of 32 Hz.

  1. Effects of speaking rate on the perception of phonemic length contrast in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2001-05-01

    Segment length is distinctive in Japanese, for example, /kaite/ (buyer) versus /kaite:/ (seabed). Such length contrasts are not necessarily categorical for non-native speakers. To study this property precisely, a series of perception experiments was conducted. A professionally trained native-Japanese speaker produced the nonsense word /erete/ at slow, normal, and fast rates with or without a carrier sentence. Either the second vowel or second consonant of each word was gradually lengthened until reaching its longer counterpart, i.e., /ete:te/ or /eret:e/, in all rate and carrier conditions using STRAIGHT, a high-fidelity speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation system [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], resulting in 12 stimulus continua. Seven native-Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task with the method of constant stimuli. The speaking rate of the presented stimuli within a session was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Results suggest that native listeners' identification boundaries systematically altered due to changes in speaking rate, whereas their boundaries became unstable in the randomized-rate condition, especially for no-carrier stimuli. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of second-language phoneme perception and acquisition through comparisons with results from non-native listeners. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  2. Managing the distinctiveness of phonemic nasal vowels: articulatory evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Shosted, Ryan; Carignan, Christopher; Rong, Panying

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that fine articulatory adjustments are made by speakers to reinforce and sometimes counteract the acoustic consequences of nasality. However, it is difficult to attribute the acoustic changes in nasal vowel spectra to either oral cavity configuration or to velopharyngeal opening (VPO). This paper takes the position that it is possible to disambiguate the effects of VPO and oropharyngeal configuration on the acoustic output of the vocal tract by studying the position and movement of the tongue and lips during the production of oral and nasal vowels. This paper uses simultaneously collected articulatory, acoustic, and nasal airflow data during the production of all oral and phonemically nasal vowels in Hindi (four speakers) to understand the consequences of the movements of oral articulators on the spectra of nasal vowels. For Hindi nasal vowels, the tongue body is generally lowered for back vowels, fronted for low vowels, and raised for front vowels (with respect to their oral congeners). These movements are generally supported by accompanying changes in the vowel spectra. In Hindi, the lowering of back nasal vowels may have originally served to enhance the acoustic salience of nasality, but has since engendered a nasal vowel chain shift.

  3. Effects of age and school type on unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic verbal fluency in children.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Geise Machado; Prando, Mirella Liberatore; Moraes, André Luiz; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Siqueira, Larissa de Souza; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-01-01

    Biological and cultural factors have been found to have a significant influence on cognitive development and performance in neuropsychological instruments such as verbal fluency tasks (VFT). Variations of traditional VFT, involving unconstrained word production and increased retrieval times, may provide further data regarding the executive, attentional, mnemonic, and linguistic abilities involved in VFT. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of age and school type on the performance of 6- to 12-year-old children in unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic VFT. The VFT were administered to 460 participants. The effects of age and school type on verbal fluency (VF) performance were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests (p ≤ .05). A repeated-measures analysis was also used to evaluate VF performance over time (p ≤ .05). Main effects of age and school type were identified on all measures (effect sizes ranged from .05 to .32, p ≤ .05). VF scores increased with age and were higher among private school students. The influence of age on VFT may be associated with the development of executive functions. The impact of type of school on VF performance may be explained by the greater availability of cognitive stimulation (semantic knowledge) provided by private schools and families with better socioeconomic levels.

  4. Teaching reading to youth with fragile X syndrome: Should phonemic awareness and phonics instruction be used?

    PubMed Central

    Randel, Allison; Adlof, Suzanne; Klusek, Jessica; Roberts, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Question Would a child with fragile X syndrome benefit more from phonemic awareness and phonics instruction or whole-word training to increase reading skills? Method Systematic review Study Sources PsycINFO Search Terms Fragile X or Down Syndrome or Cognitive Impairment or Cognitive Deficit or Cognitive Disability or Intellectual Disorder or Intellectual Delay or Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation AND Whole Word or Sight Word or Phonological Awareness or Phonics Number of studies included FXS = 0; DS = 6; ID = 17 Primary Results There are currently no published peer-reviewed treatment studies testing reading interventions for children with fragile X syndrome. Phonological awareness and reading outcomes are correlated in children with fragile X syndrome, similar to the pattern seen in typical development. There is converging empirical evidence that phonologically-based approaches, often included as part of a comprehensive program, can be beneficial with children and adolescents with other developmental disabilities, including Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorder. Conclusions There is a need for more research to determine what types of reading interventions are beneficial when working with children with fragile X syndrome. Given the lack of published empirical research in this area, clinicians should rely on existing evidence-based treatment data and professional judgment when determining which course of treatment to implement. PMID:26500715

  5. Automatic Language Identification with Sequences of Language-Independent Phoneme Clusters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    sound way of expressing multilingual speech while maintaining discriminating information. At one extreme, we distinguish three different ways of...structure) [19]. While broad categories are a linguistically sound representation of multilingual speech (broad categories are valid across languages) they...accuracy by modeling only the discriminating information while creating a speech unit which is able to express multilingual speech. 1.1.3 Structural

  6. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  7. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  8. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  9. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  10. The development of facial identity discrimination through learned attention.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Okada, Kazunori; Frick, Janet E

    2014-07-01

    Learned attention models of perceptual discrimination predict that with age, sensitivity will increase for dimensions of stimuli useful for discrimination. We tested this prediction by examining the face dimensions 4- to 6-month-olds (n = 77), 9- to 12-month-olds (n = 66), and adults (n = 73) use for discriminating human, monkey, and sheep faces systematically varying in outer features (contour), inner features (eyes, mouth), or configuration (feature spacing). We controlled interindividual variability across species by varying faces within natural ranges and measured stimulus variability using computational image similarity. We found the most improvement with age in human face discrimination, and older participants discriminated more species and used more facial properties for discrimination, consistent with learned attention models. Older infants and adults discriminated human, monkey, and sheep faces; however, they used different facial properties for primates and sheep. Learned attention models may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying perceptual narrowing.

  11. Processing of Phonemic Consonant Length: Semantic and Fragment Priming Evidence from Bengali.

    PubMed

    Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Roberts, Adam C; Lahiri, Aditi

    2016-03-01

    Six cross-modal lexical decision tasks with priming probed listeners' processing of the geminate-singleton contrast in Bengali, where duration alone leads to phonemic contrast ([pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'), in order to investigate the phonological representation of consonantal duration in the lexicon. Four form-priming experiments (auditory fragment primes and visual targets) were designed to investigate listeners' sensitivity to segments of conflicting duration. Each prime derived from a real word ([k(h)[symbol: see text]m]/[g(h)en:]) was matched with a mispronunciation of the opposite duration (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:]/*[g(h)en]) and both were used to prime the full words [k(h)[symbol: see text]ma] ('forgiveness') and [g(h)en:a] ('disgust') respectively. Although all fragments led to priming, the results showed an asymmetric pattern. The fragments of words with singletons mispronounced as geminates led to equal priming, while those with geminates mispronounced as singletons showed a difference. The priming effect of the real-word geminate fragment was significantly greater than that of its corresponding nonword singleton fragment. In two subsequent semantic priming tasks with full-word primes a stronger asymmetry was found: nonword geminates (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:a]) primed semantically related words ([marjona] 'forgiveness') but singleton nonword primes (*[ghena]) did not show priming. This overall asymmetry in the tolerance of geminate nonwords in place of singleton words is attributed to a representational mismatch and points towards a moraic representation of duration. While geminates require a mora which cannot be derived from singleton input, the additional information in geminate nonwords does not create a similar mismatch.

  12. Advanced plastic scintillators for fast neutron discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Patrick L; Anstey, Mitchell; Doty, F. Patrick; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2014-09-01

    The present work addresses the need for solid-state, fast neutron discriminating scintillators that possess higher light yields and faster decay kinetics than existing organic scintillators. These respective attributes are of critical importance for improving the gamma-rejection capabilities and increasing the neutron discrimination performance under high-rate conditions. Two key applications that will benefit from these improvements include large-volume passive detection scenarios as well as active interrogation search for special nuclear materials. Molecular design principles were employed throughout this work, resulting in synthetically tailored materials that possess the targeted scintillation properties.

  13. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  14. Improved Oxygenation 24 Hours After Transition to Airway Pressure Release Ventilation or High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Accurately Discriminates Survival in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Yehya, Nadir; Topjian, Alexis A.; Thomas, Neal J.; Friess, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children with an immunocompromised condition and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation have high risk of death. Such patients are commonly transitioned to rescue modes of non-conventional ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation and to identify factors associated with survival. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care, university-affiliated PICU. Patients Sixty pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases, oxygenation index, and Pao2/Fio2 were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation and at predetermined intervals after transition for up to 5 days. Mortality in the entire cohort was 63% and did not differ between patients transitioned to airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. For both airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improvements in oxygenation index and Pao2/Fio2 at 24 hours expressed as a fraction of pretransition values (oxygenation index24/oxygenation indexpre and Pao2/Fio224/Pao2/FIO2pre) reliably discriminated nonsurvivors from survivors, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves between 0.89 and 0.95 (p for all curves < 0.001). Sensitivity-specificity analysis suggested that less than 15% reduction in

  15. Discriminant learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Riedel, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a dimension reduction method is widely used in classification such as face recognition. However, it suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem when data dimensionality is greater than the sample size, as in images where features are high dimensional and correlated. In this paper, we propose to address the SSS problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute linear discriminants by regularized least squares regression, where the singularity problem is resolved. The resulting discriminants are complete in that they include both regular and irregular information. We show that our proposal and its nonlinear extension belong to the same framework where powerful classifiers such as support vector machines are formulated. In addition, our approach allows us to establish an error bound for LDA. Finally, our experiments validate our theoretical analysis results.

  16. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  17. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in Pubmed and Ebsco databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively-assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, twelve cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively-measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote wellbeing and reduce health inequities across the life course. PMID:25770043

  18. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course.

  19. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  20. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  1. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  2. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  3. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  4. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  5. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  6. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  7. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  8. Native and non-native perception of phonemic length contrasts in Japanese: Effects of speaking rate and presentation context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Amanda; Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2005-04-01

    Japanese words can be distinguished by the length of phonemes, e.g., ``chizu'' (map) versus ``chiizu'' (cheese). Perceiving these length contrasts is therefore important for learning Japanese as a second language. The present study examined native English listeners' perception of length contrasts at different speaking rates and in different contexts. Stimuli consisted of 20 Japanese word pairs that minimally contrasted in vowel length, and 10 synthesized nonwords. The nonwords were created by modifying the duration of the second vowel of the nonword ``erete'' along a continuum (from ``erete'' to ``ereete''). Stimuli were presented with or without a carrier sentence at three rates (fast, normal, slow). Rate was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Sixteen native English and 16 native Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task. Results suggest that native Japanese listeners' identification boundaries systematically shifted due to changes in speaking rate when the stimuli were in the context of a sentence with mixed rates of presentation. In contrast, native English listeners show a shift in the opposite direction, suggesting that they did not follow the variation in speaking rate. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of training second-language phoneme perception. [Work supported by JSPS.

  9. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  10. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or... the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section). (vii) Deny a person the opportunity to... services, financial aid, or other benefit provided in or through a facility provided or improved in...

  11. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training, or (3) to provide work experience which contributes to education or training. Where a primary... Extension Service of any facility, including offices, training facilities, lecture halls, or other structures or improvements; or (iii) Discrimination in training activities, admission to or participation...

  12. Probabilistic models for semisupervised discriminative motif discovery in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Kyoung; Choi, Seungjin

    2011-01-01

    Methods for discriminative motif discovery in DNA sequences identify transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), searching only for patterns that differentiate two sets (positive and negative sets) of sequences. On one hand, discriminative methods increase the sensitivity and specificity of motif discovery, compared to generative models. On the other hand, generative models can easily exploit unlabeled sequences to better detect functional motifs when labeled training samples are limited. In this paper, we develop a hybrid generative/discriminative model which enables us to make use of unlabeled sequences in the framework of discriminative motif discovery, leading to semisupervised discriminative motif discovery. Numerical experiments on yeast ChIP-chip data for discovering DNA motifs demonstrate that the best performance is obtained between the purely-generative and the purely-discriminative and the semisupervised learning improves the performance when labeled sequences are limited.

  13. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  14. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  15. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  16. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  17. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  18. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  19. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  20. FET Frequency Discriminator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    conversion . characteristic of the frequency discriminator is significant and :ending upon the specific system - may be the limiting factor in the accu of...the results obtained did not .-" allow for the accurate determinat ion of the change in impedance, addit ional 14 -~ 12V - - Figure 7. Impedance plot...44*. -. 7 ’I -- -..- ,. -, 4., /-.,’ .3 8 V ............... ... .. .$, L- 12v - Figure 9. Impedance plot tor five diodes inl parallel. A circuit was

  1. The Role of Invented Spelling on Learning to Read in Low-Phoneme Awareness Kindergartners: A Randomized-Control-Trial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Ouellette, Gene; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present intervention research was to test whether guided invented spelling would facilitate entry into reading for at-risk kindergarten children. The 56 participating children had poor phoneme awareness, and as such, were at risk of having difficulty acquiring reading skills. Children were randomly assigned to one of three training…

  2. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

  3. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness: Relationship to Perceived Knowledge, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Exposure to a Multimedia-Enhanced Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief…

  5. The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nullman, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

  6. Phoneme Awareness Is a Key Component of Alphabetic Literacy Skills in Consistent and Inconsistent Orthographies: Evidence from Czech and English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravolas, Marketa; Volin, Jan; Hulme, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated the importance of phoneme awareness relative to other predictors in the development of reading and spelling among children learning a consistent orthography (Czech) and an inconsistent orthography (English). In Study 1, structural equation models revealed that Czech (n=107) and English (n=71) data were fitted well by the…

  7. Category and Perceptual Interference in Second-Language Phoneme Learning: An Examination of English /w/-/v/ Learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural…

  8. Category and perceptual interference in second-language phoneme learning: an examination of English /w/-/v/ learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch speakers.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural recordings, their degree of spoken accent, their relative use of place and manner cues, the assimilation of these phonemes into native-language categories, and their perceptual maps (i.e., multidimensional scaling solutions) for these phonemes. Most Sinhala speakers had near-chance identification accuracy, Germans ranged from chance to 100% correct, and Dutch speakers had uniformly high accuracy. The results suggest that these learning differences were caused more by perceptual interference than by category assimilation; Sinhala and German speakers both have a single native-language phoneme that is similar to English /w/ and /v/, but the auditory sensitivities of Sinhala speakers make it harder for them to discern the acoustic cues that are critical to /w/-/v/ categorization.

  9. The Effect of a Suggested Multisensory Phonics Program on Developing Kindergarten Pre-Service Teachers' EFL Reading Accuracy and Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of a suggested multisensory phonics program on developing kindergarten pre-service teachers' EFL reading accuracy and phonemic awareness. A total of 40 fourth year kindergarten pre-service teachers, Faculty of Education, participated in the study that involved one group experimental design. Pre-post tests…

  10. Could Phonemic Awareness Instruction Be (Part of) the Answer for Young EFL Learners? A Report on the Early Literacy Project in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert C.; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Curriculum Specifications for English, set out in the Ministry of Education Malaysia syllabus for Year 1, calls for instruction in phonemic awareness (PA) as part of the acquisition of word recognition skills. Students are expected to be able to learn individual letters of the alphabet and their sounds; read aloud consonants in initial…

  11. Functional load and the lexicon: Evidence that syntactic category and frequency relationships in minimal lemma pairs predict the loss of phoneme contrasts in language change.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Andrew; Jackson, Scott; Kaplan, Abby

    2013-09-01

    All languages use individually meaningless, contrastive categories in combination to create distinct words. Despite their central role in communication, these "phoneme" contrasts can be lost over the course of language change. The century-old functional load hypothesis proposes that loss of a phoneme contrast will be inhibited in relation to the work that it does in distinguishing words. In a previous work we showed for the first time that a simple measure of functional load does significantly predict patterns of contrast loss within a diverse set of languages: the more minimal word pairs that a phoneme contrast distinguishes, the less likely those phonemes are to have merged over the course of language change. Here, we examine several lexical properties that are predicted to influence the uncertainty between word pairs in usage. We present evidence that (a) the lemma rather than surface-form count of minimal pairs is more predictive of merger; (b) the count of minimal lemma pairs that share a syntactic category is a stronger predictor of merger than the count of those with divergent syntactic categories, and (c) that the count of minimal lemma pairs with members of similar frequency is a stronger predictor of merger than that of those with more divergent frequencies. These findings support the broad hypothesis that properties of individual utterances influence long-term language change, and are consistent with findings suggesting that phonetic cues are modulated in response to lexical uncertainty within utterances.

  12. Phonological Skills and Ability to Perceive Auditorily the Structure of a Word at the Level of a Single Phoneme at Ages 2-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…

  13. Iterated rippled noise discrimination at long durations.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A

    2009-09-01

    Iterated rippled noise (IRN) was used to study discrimination of IRN stimuli with a lower number of iterations from IRN stimuli with a higher number of iterations as a function of stimulus duration (100-2000 ms). Such IRN stimuli differ in the strength of the repetition pitch. In some cases, the gain used to generate IRN stimuli was adjusted so that both IRN stimuli in the discrimination task had the same height of the first peak in the autocorrelation function or autocorrelogram. In previous work involving short-duration IRN stimuli (<500 ms), listeners were not able to discriminate between IRN stimuli that had different numbers of iterations but the same height of the first peak in the autocorrelation function. In the current study, IRN discrimination performance improved with increases in duration, even in cases when the height of the first peak in the autocorrelation was the same for the two IRN stimuli. Thus, future studies involving discrimination of IRN stimuli may need to use longer durations (1 s or greater) than those that have been used in the past.

  14. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  15. Discrimination in lexical decision

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  16. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  17. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  18. Discriminative analysis of lip motion features for speaker identification and speech-reading.

    PubMed

    Cetingül, H Ertan; Yemez, Yücel; Erzin, Engin; Tekalp, A Murat

    2006-10-01

    There have been several studies that jointly use audio, lip intensity, and lip geometry information for speaker identification and speech-reading applications. This paper proposes using explicit lip motion information, instead of or in addition to lip intensity and/or geometry information, for speaker identification and speech-reading within a unified feature selection and discrimination analysis framework, and addresses two important issues: 1) Is using explicit lip motion information useful, and, 2) if so, what are the best lip motion features for these two applications? The best lip motion features for speaker identification are considered to be those that result in the highest discrimination of individual speakers in a population, whereas for speech-reading, the best features are those providing the highest phoneme/word/phrase recognition rate. Several lip motion feature candidates have been considered including dense motion features within a bounding box about the lip, lip contour motion features, and combination of these with lip shape features. Furthermore, a novel two-stage, spatial, and temporal discrimination analysis is introduced to select the best lip motion features for speaker identification and speech-reading applications. Experimental results using an hidden-Markov-model-based recognition system indicate that using explicit lip motion information provides additional performance gains in both applications, and lip motion features prove more valuable in the case of speech-reading application.

  19. Bias-Corrected Diagonal Discriminant Rules for High-Dimensional Classification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Tong, Tiejun; Zhao, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    Summary Diagonal discriminant rules have been successfully used for high-dimensional classification problems, but suffer from the serious drawback of biased discriminant scores. In this paper, we propose improved diagonal discriminant rules with bias-corrected discriminant scores for high-dimensional classification. We show that the proposed discriminant scores dominate the standard ones under the quadratic loss function. Analytical results on why the bias-corrected rules can potentially improve the predication accuracy are also provided. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the proposed rules over the original ones through extensive simulation studies and real case studies. PMID:20222939

  20. Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.

    PubMed

    Trobalon, J B; Sansa, J; Chamizo, V D; Mackintosh, N J

    1991-11-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination between rubber- and sandpaper-covered arms of a maze after one group had been pre-exposed to these intra-maze cues. Pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made easier by adding further discriminative stimuli, when it now significantly retarded learning. In Experiment 2, rats were trained on an extra-maze spatial discrimination, again after one group, but not another, had been pre-exposed to the extra-maze landmarks. Here too, pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made substantially easier by arranging that the two arms between which rats had to choose were always separated by 135 degrees. The results of both experiments can be explained by supposing that perceptual learning depends on the presence of features common to S+ and S-.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions.

    PubMed

    Suggate, Sebastian P

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about short-term--but very little about the long-term--effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to. Several methodological features also related to effect sizes at follow-up, namely experimental design and dosage, and sample attrition, risk status, and gender balance.

  2. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation.

  3. Task-irrelevant emotion facilitates face discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caudek, Corrado

    2015-03-01

    We understand poorly how the ability to discriminate faces from one another is shaped by visual experience. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether face discrimination learning can be facilitated by facial emotions. To answer this question, we used a task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm because it closely mimics the learning processes that, in daily life, occur without a conscious intention to learn and without an attentional focus on specific facial features. We measured face discrimination thresholds before and after training. During the training phase (4 days), participants performed a contrast discrimination task on face images. They were not informed that we introduced (task-irrelevant) subtle variations in the face images from trial to trial. For the Identity group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along a morphing continuum of facial identity. For the Emotion group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along an emotional expression morphing continuum. The Control group did not undergo contrast discrimination learning and only performed the pre-training and post-training tests, with the same temporal gap between them as the other two groups. Results indicate that face discrimination improved, but only for the Emotion group. Participants in the Emotion group, moreover, showed face discrimination improvements also for stimulus variations along the facial identity dimension, even if these (task-irrelevant) stimulus features had not been presented during training. The present results highlight the importance of emotions for face discrimination learning.

  4. A Therapeutic Technique for the Improvement of Lingua-Alveolar Valving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, James Paul

    1978-01-01

    The study was designed to determine if a remedial program using a bite-block device could inhibit hypermandibular activity and thereby improve the lingua-alveolar valving abilities of four boys (mean age 7.2 years-old) who demonstrated multiple lingua-alveolar phonemic errors. (Author/PHR)

  5. Development of single/geminate obstruent discrimination by Japanese infants: early integration of durational and nondurational cues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation method. The results revealed that 9.5-month-old Japanese infants were able to make this discrimination, t(21) = 2.119, p = .046, paired t test, whereas 4-month-olds were not, t(25) = 0.395, p = .696, paired t test. To examine how acoustic correlates (covarying cues) are associated with the contrast discrimination, we tested Japanese infants at 9.5 and 11.5 months of age with 3 combinations of natural and manipulated stimuli. The 11.5-month-olds were able to discriminate the naturally uttered pair (/pata/ vs. /patta/), t(20) = 4.680, p < .000, paired t test. Neither group discriminated the natural /patta/ from the manipulated /pata/ created from natural /patta/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(23) = 0.754, p = .458; for 11.5-month-olds, t(27) = 0.789, p = .437, paired t tests. Only the 11.5-month-olds discriminated the natural /pata/ and the manipulated /patta/ created from /pata/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(24) = 0.114, p = .910; for 11.5-month-olds, t(23) = 2.244, p = .035, paired t tests. These results suggest that Japanese infants acquire a sensitivity to contrasts of single/geminate obstruents by 9.5 months of age and that certain cues that covary with closure length either facilitate or interfere with contrast discrimination under particular conditions.

  6. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  7. Interpreting past religious discrimination today.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-10-01

    Much of modern western law now presupposes opposition to discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other factors. However, ancient religious Scriptures may have sanctioned certain types of discrimination. Whether those who are inclined to accept literal interpretations of their Scriptures will condone certain forms of discrimination could be evaluated to contrast the effects of modernization versus religious indoctrination on various kinds of prejudice.

  8. Adaptation to direction statistics modulates perceptual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Price, Nicholas S C; Prescott, Danielle L

    2012-06-22

    Perception depends on the relative activity of populations of sensory neurons with a range of tunings and response gains. Each neuron's tuning and gain are malleable and can be modified by sustained exposure to an adapting stimulus. Here, we used a combination of human psychophysical testing and models of neuronal population decoding to assess how rapid adaptation to moving stimuli might change neuronal tuning and thereby modulate direction perception. Using a novel motion stimulus in which the direction changed every 10 ms, we demonstrated that 1,500 ms of adaptation to a distribution of directions was capable of modifying human psychophysical direction discrimination performance. Consistent with previous reports, we found perceptual repulsion following adaptation to a single direction. Notably, compared with a uniform adaptation condition in which all motion directions were equiprobable, discrimination was impaired after adaptation to a stimulus comprising only directions ± 30-60° from the discrimination boundary and enhanced after adaptation to the complementary range of directions. Thus, stimulus distributions can be selectively chosen to either impair or improve discrimination performance through adaptation. A neuronal population decoding model incorporating adaptation-induced repulsive shifts in direction tuning curves can account for most aspects of our psychophysical data; however, changes in neuronal gain are sufficient to account for all aspects of our psychophysical data.

  9. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  12. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  13. Spatial Frequency Discrimination: Effects of Age, Reward, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Judith Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction starts with perception of the world around you. This study investigated two fundamental issues regarding the development of discrimination of higher spatial frequencies, which are important building blocks of perception. Firstly, it mapped the typical developmental trajectory of higher spatial frequency discrimination. Secondly, it developed and validated a novel design that could be applied to improve atypically developed vision. Specifically, this study examined the effect of age and reward on task performance, practice effects, and motivation (i.e., number of trials completed) in a higher spatial frequency (reference frequency: 6 cycles per degree) discrimination task. We measured discrimination thresholds in children aged between 7 to 12 years and adults (N = 135). Reward was manipulated by presenting either positive reinforcement or punishment. Results showed a decrease in discrimination thresholds with age, thus revealing that higher spatial frequency discrimination continues to develop after 12 years of age. This development continues longer than previously shown for discrimination of lower spatial frequencies. Moreover, thresholds decreased during the run, indicating that discrimination abilities improved. Reward did not affect performance or improvement. However, in an additional group of 5–6 year-olds (N = 28) punishments resulted in the completion of fewer trials compared to reinforcements. In both reward conditions children aged 5–6 years completed only a fourth or half of the run (64 to 128 out of 254 trials) and were not motivated to continue. The design thus needs further adaptation before it can be applied to this age group. Children aged 7–12 years and adults completed the run, suggesting that the design is successful and motivating for children aged 7–12 years. This study thus presents developmental differences in higher spatial frequency discrimination thresholds. Furthermore, it presents a design that can be used in

  14. Spatial Frequency Discrimination: Effects of Age, Reward, and Practice.

    PubMed

    van den Boomen, Carlijn; Peters, Judith Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction starts with perception of the world around you. This study investigated two fundamental issues regarding the development of discrimination of higher spatial frequencies, which are important building blocks of perception. Firstly, it mapped the typical developmental trajectory of higher spatial frequency discrimination. Secondly, it developed and validated a novel design that could be applied to improve atypically developed vision. Specifically, this study examined the effect of age and reward on task performance, practice effects, and motivation (i.e., number of trials completed) in a higher spatial frequency (reference frequency: 6 cycles per degree) discrimination task. We measured discrimination thresholds in children aged between 7 to 12 years and adults (N = 135). Reward was manipulated by presenting either positive reinforcement or punishment. Results showed a decrease in discrimination thresholds with age, thus revealing that higher spatial frequency discrimination continues to develop after 12 years of age. This development continues longer than previously shown for discrimination of lower spatial frequencies. Moreover, thresholds decreased during the run, indicating that discrimination abilities improved. Reward did not affect performance or improvement. However, in an additional group of 5-6 year-olds (N = 28) punishments resulted in the completion of fewer trials compared to reinforcements. In both reward conditions children aged 5-6 years completed only a fourth or half of the run (64 to 128 out of 254 trials) and were not motivated to continue. The design thus needs further adaptation before it can be applied to this age group. Children aged 7-12 years and adults completed the run, suggesting that the design is successful and motivating for children aged 7-12 years. This study thus presents developmental differences in higher spatial frequency discrimination thresholds. Furthermore, it presents a design that can be used in future

  15. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  16. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  17. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  18. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  19. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  20. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  1. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  2. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  3. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  4. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  5. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  6. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  7. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  8. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands.

  9. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  10. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  11. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  12. Quantum process discrimination with information from environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).

  13. Orientation specificity of learning vernier discriminations.

    PubMed

    Spang, K; Grimsen, C; Herzog, M H; Fahle, M

    2010-02-22

    Orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex typically respond to a range of orientations that covers 20 degrees or more, while in psychophysical experiments, orientation bandwidth is often clearly narrower. Here, we measure the orientation specificity of perceptual learning for vernier discriminations. More than 70 observers, in separate groups, practiced a vernier discrimination task with a constant stimulus orientation. After a 1h session of training, the vernier was rotated by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 45 degrees or 90 degrees. Improvement through training in the first session transferred to the second session (tested on the next day) up to 10 degrees of stimulus rotation. We found no transfer for rotations of 20 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees. Hence, the orientation half-bandwidth of perceptual learning is around 15 degrees, leading to a bandwidth of 30 degrees and corresponding to that of single neurons in early visual cortices, while being narrower than that in higher cortical areas.

  14. Spectral resolution and English experience: effects on English phoneme and word recognition by non-native English speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Monica; Shannon, Robert V.

    2002-05-01

    Normal hearing listeners whose first language was Spanish were tested with English phonemes, words and sentences. Listeners were divided into four categories according to experience with the second language. Speech was presented in a sound treated booth at a level of 70 dBA. Listening conditions included noise (SNR of 15 dB, 10 dB, 5 dB, 0 dB, and 5 dB) and reduced spectral information (2, 4, 6, 8 and 16 frequency bands). Plomp's Model [J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 146-154 (1986)] was applied to the data. The distortion factor ``D'' defined by Plomp was found to increase with an increased loss of spectral resolution. It was also found to increase with age of learning of the second language. An additional ``distortion'' seems to be introduced when a second language is learned at a later age. Non-native listeners had more difficulty understanding vowels, words and sentences. Surprisingly, English experience had less effect on word and sentence recognition than on vowel recognition. Significantly lower performance on vowel recognition was seen even for fully bilingual listeners with reduced spectral resolution which could probably be related to the conflicting vowel spaces of the two languages. [Work funded by NIDCD.

  15. Patterns of acoustic variance in native and non-native phonemes: The case of Japanese production of /r/ and /l/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Momoko; Lotto, Andrew J.; Diehl, Randy L.

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic measures were obtained from productions of word-initial and word-final /r/ and /l/ in different vowel contexts (/i/, /a/, and /u/) by six native English Speakers (ES) and six native Japanese Speakers (JS). JS productions of the Japanese rhotic flap were also obtained in the same vowel contexts. F1, F2, and F3 were measured at vowel midpoint, at utterance onset for word-initial stimuli, and at utterance offset for word-final stimuli. For word-initial /r/-/l/, ES productions were distinguished solely by F3, whereas JS productions varied on both F2 and F3. For the word-final contrast, ES and some JS productions showed structured variation in both F2 and F3, whereas many JS productions showed no consonant-dependent variation in these measures. F2 and F3 measures of the Japanese flap (word-initial only) substantially overlapped the /r/-/l/ distributions for ES and JS. In addition, JS productions of /r/ and /l/ and the flap showed significant effects of context vowel with coarticulatory variations in F2 and F3. In contrast, ES productions showed little context-dependent F3 variance. The results suggest that JS difficulties in producing intelligible English liquids may be due to a mismatch between the acoustic variance that is informative for similar phonemes in the two languages.

  16. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as "ka" or "ki"). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  17. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese–English Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as “ka” or “ki”). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese–English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production. PMID:26941669

  18. Stimulus generation, ratings, phoneme counts, and group classifications for 696 famous people by British adults over 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim; Sherman, Susan M

    2006-11-01

    Matching stimuli across a range of influencing variables is no less important for studies of face recognition than it is for those of word processing. Whereas a number of corpora exist to allow experimenters to select a carefully controlled set of word stimuli, similar databases for famous faces do not exist. This article, therefore, provides researchers in the area of face recognition with a useful resource on which to base their stimulus selection. In the first phase of the investigation, British adults over 40 years of age were requested to generate the names of famous people (or celebrities) that they thought they would recognize and to write these down. The most frequently named celebrities were then rated by adults from the same age population for familiarity, distinctiveness, and age of acquisition. The result is a database of 696 famous people, with an indication of their relative eminence in the public consciousness and rated for these important variables. Phoneme counts are also provided for each famous person, together with family name frequency counts in the general population, where available. Materials and links may be accessed at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  19. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  20. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  1. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  2. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  3. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  4. Does Competitive Pay Discriminate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Elaine

    1980-01-01

    Looks at four kinds of job evaluation and examines them in light of the concept of comparable worth that may be adopted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Provides some guidelines for improving evaluation systems. (IRT)

  5. Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J; Pokorny, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Signals from rods can alter chromatic discrimination. Here, chromatic discrimination ellipses were determined in the presence of rod incremental and decremental pedestals at mesopic light levels. The data were represented in a relative cone Troland space, normalized by discrimination thresholds measured along the cardinal axes without a rod pedestal. In the quadrant of cone space where L-cone relative to M-cone excitation increased, and S-cone excitation decreased, rod incremental pedestals degraded chromatic discrimination, and rod decremental pedestals improved chromatic discrimination. Discrimination in the other three quadrants of cone space was unaffected by the incremental or decremental rod pedestals. A second experiment measured chromatic discrimination under conditions where cone pedestals were matched to the appearances of the incremental and decremental rod pedestals. Based on the matching pedestal data, discrimination then could be measured independently along the cardinal axes using either chromatic [L/(L + M); S/(L + M)] or luminance (L + M) pedestal components. The discrimination data altered by the rod pedestals were similar to chromatic cone pedestals for L/M increment discrimination, but similar to luminance cone pedestals for S decrement discrimination. The results indicated that the rod and cone signals combined differently in determining chromatic discrimination for different post-receptoral pathways.

  6. The effects of aging on orientation discrimination.

    PubMed

    Betts, Lisa R; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J

    2007-06-01

    The current experiments measured orientation discrimination thresholds in younger (mean age approximately 23 years) and older (mean age approximately 66 years) subjects. In Experiment 1, the contrast needed to discriminate Gabor patterns (0.75, 1.5, and 3c/deg) that differed in orientation by 12deg was measured for different levels of external noise. At all three spatial frequencies, discrimination thresholds were significantly higher in older than younger subjects when external noise was low, but not when external noise was high. In Experiment 2, discrimination thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus contrast by varying orientation while contrast was fixed. The resulting threshold-vs-contrast curves had very similar shapes in the two age groups, although the curve obtained from older subjects was shifted to slightly higher contrasts. At contrasts greater than 0.05, thresholds in both older and younger subjects were approximately constant at 0.5deg. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that age differences in orientation discrimination are due solely to differences in equivalent input noise. Using the same methods as Experiment 1, Experiment 3 measured thresholds in 6 younger observers as a function of external noise and retinal illuminance. Although reducing retinal illumination increased equivalent input noise, the effect was much smaller than the age difference found in Experiment 1. Therefore, it is unlikely that differences in orientation discrimination were due solely to differences in retinal illumination. Our findings are consistent with recent physiological experiments that have found elevated spontaneous activity and reduced orientation tuning on visual cortical neurons in senescent cats (Hua, T., Li, X., He, L., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., Leventhal, A. G. (206). Functional degradation of visual cortical cells in old cats. Neurobiology Aging, 27(1), 155-162) and monkeys (Yu, S., Wang, Y., Li, X., Zhou, Y. & Leventhal, A. G. (2006). Functional

  7. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  8. The nature of the response in Simon discriminations by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Urcuioli, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Spence (1952) postulated that under some conditions, responding in simple discriminations is controlled by compounds or patterns consisting of the nominal discriminative cue, plus its spatial position. Stimulus control by such compounds was said to develop when no single cue or element was systematically reinforced more than any other. This analysis has been applied to good effect in understanding some peculiar accuracy results obtained from pigeons performing Simon discrimination tasks. This article describes how Spence's cue-position analysis provides a better account of pigeons' performance in this task than do nominal cue-only and configurational views of the functional discriminative stimuli. Adding a value transfer assumption improves the ability of the cue-position hypothesis to account for the accuracy data.

  9. Development of discrimination SNP markers for Hanwoo (Korean native cattle).

    PubMed

    Cheong, H S; Kim, L H; Namgoong, S; Shin, H D

    2013-07-01

    In the Korean meat market, the native cattle, Hanwoo beef, are preferred over imported beef and domestic Holstein beef despite its relatively high price. In order to hold the beef industry accountable and support consumers' right to know, correct beef-origin labeling is required. For this purpose, we developed 90 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to discriminate between Hanwoo and other breeds including Holstein using 1602 cattle DNAs. The probability of discrimination was found to be 100% in a subsequent validation set consisting of 632 DNAs. Our study suggests that improved beef-origin discrimination can be achieved by using a combined genetic model that takes into account small genetic differences among a large number of markers. These markers could be useful for discriminating between Hanwoo and imported breeds including domestic Holsteins, and would contribute to the prevention of falsified beef origin.

  10. Discrimination of speaker size from syllable phrasesa)

    PubMed Central

    Ives, D. Timothy; Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2008-01-01

    The length of the vocal tract is correlated with speaker size and, so, speech sounds have information about the size of the speaker in a form that is interpretable by the listener. A wide range of different vocal tract lengths exist in the population and humans are able to distinguish speaker size from the speech. Smith et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 305–318 (2005)] presented vowel sounds to listeners and showed that the ability to discriminate speaker size extends beyond the normal range of speaker sizes which suggests that information about the size and shape of the vocal tract is segregated automatically at an early stage in the processing. This paper reports an extension of the size discrimination research using a much larger set of speech sounds, namely, 180 consonant-vowel and vowel-consonant syllables. Despite the pronounced increase in stimulus variability, there was actually an improvement in discrimination performance over that supported by vowel sounds alone. Performance with vowel-consonant syllables was slightly better than with consonant-vowel syllables. These results support the hypothesis that information about the length of the vocal tract is segregated at an early stage in auditory processing. PMID:16419826

  11. Discrimination of speaker size from syllable phrases.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Smith, David R R; Patterson, Roy D

    2005-12-01

    The length of the vocal tract is correlated with speaker size and, so, speech sounds have information about the size of the speaker in a form that is interpretable by the listener. A wide range of different vocal tract lengths exist in the population and humans are able to distinguish speaker size from the speech. Smith et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 305-318 (2005)] presented vowel sounds to listeners and showed that the ability to discriminate speaker size extends beyond the normal range of speaker sizes which suggests that information about the size and shape of the vocal tract is segregated automatically at an early stage in the processing. This paper reports an extension of the size discrimination research using a much larger set of speech sounds, namely, 180 consonant-vowel and vowel-consonant syllables. Despite the pronounced increase in stimulus variability, there was actually an improvement in discrimination performance over that supported by vowel sounds alone. Performance with vowel-consonant syllables was slightly better than with consonant-vowel syllables. These results support the hypothesis that information about the length of the vocal tract is segregated at an early stage in auditory processing.

  12. Evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.

  13. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  15. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  16. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  17. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  18. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  19. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  20. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...