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Sample records for improved phoneme discrimination

  1. Discrimination of phoneme length differences in word and sentence contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Norimune; Carrell, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The ability of listeners to discriminate phoneme duration differences within word and sentence contexts was measured. This investigation was part of a series of studies examining the audibility and perceptual importance of speech modifications produced by stuttering intervention techniques. Just noticeable differences (jnd's) of phoneme lengths were measured via the parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) task, an adaptive tracking procedure. The target phonemes were digitally manipulated to vary from normal (130 m) to prolonged (210 m) duration in 2-m increments. In the first condition the phonemes were embedded in words. In the second condition the phonemes were embedded within words, which were further embedded in sentences. A four-interval forced-choice (4IAX) task was employed on each trial, and the PEST procedure determined the duration at which each listener correctly detected a difference between the normal duration and the test duration 71% of the time. The results revealed that listeners were able to reliably discriminate approximately 15-m differences in word context and 10-m differences in sentence context. An independent t-test showed a difference in discriminability between word and sentence contexts to be significant. These results indicate that duration differences were better perceived within a sentence context.

  2. Auditory Phoneme Discrimination in Illiterates: Mismatch Negativity--A Question of Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaadt, Gesa; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    These days, illiteracy is still a major problem. There is empirical evidence that auditory phoneme discrimination is one of the factors contributing to written language acquisition. The current study investigated auditory phoneme discrimination in participants who did not acquire written language sufficiently. Auditory phoneme discrimination was…

  3. Phonetic, Phonemic, and Phonological Factors in Cross-Language Discrimination of Phonotactic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that multiple levels of linguistic information play a role in the perception and discrimination of non-native phonemes. This study examines the interaction of phonetic, phonemic and phonological factors in the discrimination of non-native phonotactic contrasts. Listeners of Catalan, English, and Russian are presented…

  4. Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, D.R.; Rosenberg, J.F.; Coleman, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Auditory perceptual learning has been proposed as effective for remediating impaired language and for enhancing normal language development. We examined the effect of phonemic contrast discrimination training on the discrimination of whole words and on phonological awareness in 8- to 10-year-old mainstream school children. Eleven phonemic contrast…

  5. Learning to Hear by Learning to Speak: The Effect of Articulatory Training on Arab Learners' English Phonemic Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebaugh, Gary; Roche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore English pronunciation teaching within an English as an International Language (EIL) framework, arguing that teaching learners how to produce English phonemes can lead to an improvement in their aural ability. English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners often have difficulty discriminating between and producing…

  6. Effects of second language study of phonemic discrimination and auditory event-related potentials in adults.

    PubMed

    Grubb, J D; Bush, A M; Geist, C R

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of acquisition of a second language on auditory even-related brain potentials and discrimination of foreign language phonemes by 36 women (ages 18 to 47 years), and 25 men (ages 18 to 36 years) and of varying linguistic background, in response to synthetic versions of Japanese phonemes. Subjects were subsequently tested on discrimination between spoken Japanese phonemes. Analysis indicated that the men and women differed in phonological processing and in the way acquisition of the second language affected phonological processing.

  7. Discrimination of Phonemic Vowel Length by Japanese Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Sogabe, Yuko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Japanese has a vowel duration contrast as one component of its language-specific phonemic repertory to distinguish word meanings. It is not clear, however, how a sensitivity to vowel duration can develop in a linguistic context. In the present study, using the visual habituation-dishabituation method, the authors evaluated infants' abilities to…

  8. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  9. The relationship between phoneme discrimination, speech production, and language comprehension in cerebral-palsied individuals.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V; Brown, B B; Robson, J

    1990-06-01

    Twenty-four individuals with impaired speech (anarthria or dysarthria) were compared on tests of receptive language to a control group with normal speech. All subjects were cerebral-palsied and groups were matched on age and nonverbal ability. The speech-impaired subjects performed less well than controls on a phoneme discrimination task in which they were required to judge whether pairs of nonwords were the same or different. They were also impaired relative to controls on a receptive vocabulary test, but not in understanding of grammatical structure. One year later, phoneme discrimination skills were reassessed in this sample, using another same-different task, plus a new task in which subjects were required to judge if the name of a picture was spoken correctly or altered by one sound. Speech-impaired subjects performed as well as controls on the word judgment task, indicating that they can discriminate phoneme contrasts adequately. However, the same-different task again resulted in highly significant differences between speech-impaired and control groups. It is concluded that poor performance on the same-different task reflects weak memory for novel phonological strings, rather than impaired phoneme perception. It is proposed that retention of unfamiliar words is facilitated by overt or covert repetition, so individuals who cannot speak fluently have difficulty remembering nonwords. This explanation can account both for the poor performance of speech-impaired subjects on the same-different task, and for their selective deficit in vocabulary acquisition. PMID:2359262

  10. Comparison of Word-, Sentence-, and Phoneme-Based Training Strategies in Improving the Perception of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Paula C.; Summerfield, A. Quentin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of 3 self-administered strategies for auditory training that might improve speech perception by adult users of cochlear implants. The strategies are based, respectively, on discriminating isolated words, words in sentences, and phonemes in nonsense syllables. Method: Participants were 18 normal-hearing adults…

  11. Improving Reading Skills through Phonemic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Pat; Merriman, Barb; Mitts, Jan

    This paper describes a program for improving reading skills at the beginning of first grade so that a rapid acquisition of skills will enhance students' ability to succeed in their respective basal programs. The targeted population used a first grade in a suburban school (Site A) and a first grade in a mid-sized, Midwestern city school (Site B).…

  12. The Use of Handheld Devices for Improved Phonemic Awareness in a Traditional Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna-McBee, Cristy Ann

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching strategies that improve the development of phonemic awareness are important to ensure students are fluent readers by third grade. The use of handheld devices to improve phonemic awareness with kindergarten students may be such a strategy, but no research exists that evaluates the use of these devices. This study explored the…

  13. Precursors and Consequences of Phonemic Length Discrimination Ability Problems in Children with Reading Disabilities and Familial Risk for Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Martin, Maisa; Richardson, Ulla; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the importance of phonemic length discrimination ability on reading and spelling skills among children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and among children with typical reading skills, as well as the role of prereading skills in reading and spelling development in children with reading…

  14. Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD)[R]/Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS)[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) Program[R]" (currently called the "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS) Program[R]") is designed to teach students skills to successfully decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to…

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Z; Pisoni, A; Papagno, C

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions. For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language. Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency. Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. These data confirm the efficacy of tDCS in transiently improving language functions by showing that anodal stimulation of Broca's region can enhance verbal fluency. Implications of these results for the treatment of language functions in aphasia are considered.

  16. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  17. Review of neural rehabilitation programs for dyslexia: how can an allophonic system be changed into a phonemic one?

    PubMed Central

    Serniclaes, Willy; Collet, Gregory; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Neural investigations suggest that there are three possible core deficits in dyslexia: phonemic, grapho-phonemic, and graphemic. These investigations also suggest that the phonemic deficit resides in a different mode of speech perception which is based on allophonic (subphonemic) units rather than phonemic units. Here we review the results of remediation methods that tap into each of these core deficits, and examine how the methods that tap into the phonemic deficit might contribute to the remediation of allophonic perception. Remediation of grapho-phonemic deficiencies with a new computerized phonics training program (GraphoGame) might be able to surpass the limits of classical phonics training programs, particularly with regard to reading fluency. Remediation of visuo-graphemic deficiencies through exposure to enhanced letter spacing is also promising, although children with dyslexia continued to read more slowly than typical readers after this type of training. Remediation of phonemic deficiencies in dyslexia with programs based solely on phonemic awareness has a limited impact on reading. This might be due to the persistence of a covert deficit in phonemic perception. Methods based on slowed speech enhance the perception not only of phonemic features but also of allophonic features, and this is probably why they have not been found to be effective in meta-analyses. Training of phonemic perception with a perceptual fading paradigm, a method that improves precision in identification and discrimination around phonemic boundaries, has yielded promising results. However, studies with children at risk for dyslexia and dyslexic adults have found that even when behavioral data do not reflect allophonic perception, it can nevertheless be present in neural recordings. Further investigations should seek to confirm that the perceptual fading paradigm is beneficial for reading, and that it renders perception truly phonemic. PMID:25759679

  18. Correlations Between Pitch and Phoneme Perception in Cochlear Implant Users and Their Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Raymond L

    2015-12-01

    This study examined correlations between pitch and phoneme perception for nine cochlear implant users and nine normal hearing listeners. Pure tone frequency discrimination thresholds were measured for frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. Complex tone fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds were measured for F0s of 110, 220, and 440 Hz. The effects of amplitude and frequency roving were measured under the rationale that individuals who are robust to such perturbations would perform better on phoneme perception measures. Phoneme identification was measured using consonant and vowel materials in quiet, in stationary speech-shaped noise (SSN), in spectrally notched SSN, and in temporally gated SSN. Cochlear implant pure tone frequency discrimination thresholds ranged between 1.5 and 9.9 %, while cochlear implant complex tone F0 discrimination thresholds ranged between 2.6 and 28.5 %. On average, cochlear implant users had 5.3 dB of masking release for consonants and 8.4 dB of masking release for vowels when measured in temporally gated SSN compared to stationary SSN. Correlations with phoneme identification measures were generally higher for complex tone discrimination measures than for pure tone discrimination measures. Correlations with phoneme identification measures were also generally higher for pitch perception measures that included amplitude and frequency roving. The strongest correlations were observed for measures of complex tone F0 discrimination with phoneme identification in temporally gated SSN. The results of this study suggest that musical training or signal processing strategies that improve F0 discrimination should improve consonant identification in fluctuating noise.

  19. A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Lorna F

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

  20. Adaptation improves discrimination of face identity.

    PubMed

    Oruç, Ipek; Barton, Jason J S

    2011-09-01

    Whether face adaptation confers any advantages to perceptual processing remains an open question. We investigated whether face adaptation can enhance the ability to make fine discriminations in the vicinity of the adapted face. We compared face discrimination thresholds in three adapting conditions: (i) same-face: where adapting and test faces were the same, (ii) different-face: where adapting and test faces differed, and (iii) baseline: where the adapting stimulus was a blank. Discrimination thresholds for morphed identity changes involving the adapted face (same-face) improved compared with those from both the baseline (no-adaptation) and different-face conditions. Since adapting to a face did not alter discrimination performance for other faces, this effect is selective for the facial identity that is adapted. These results indicate a form of gain control to heighten perceptual sensitivity in the vicinity of a currently viewed face, analogous to forms of adaptive gain control at lower levels of the visual system.

  1. Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Begoña; Baus, Cristina; Escera, Carles; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2008-01-01

    Human beings differ in their ability to master the sounds of their second language (L2). Phonetic training studies have proposed that differences in phonetic learning stem from differences in psychoacoustic abilities rather than speech-specific capabilities. We aimed at finding the origin of individual differences in L2 phonetic acquisition in natural learning contexts. We consider two alternative explanations: a general psychoacoustic origin vs. a speech-specific one. For this purpose, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from two groups of early, proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who differed in their mastery of the Catalan (L2) phonetic contrast /e-ε/. Brain activity in response to acoustic change detection was recorded in three different conditions involving tones of different length (duration condition), frequency (frequency condition), and presentation order (pattern condition). In addition, neural correlates of speech change detection were also assessed for both native (/o/-/e/) and nonnative (/o/-/ö/) phonetic contrasts (speech condition). Participants' discrimination accuracy, reflected electrically as a mismatch negativity (MMN), was similar between the two groups of participants in the three acoustic conditions. Conversely, the MMN was reduced in poor perceivers (PP) when they were presented with speech sounds. Therefore, our results support a speech-specific origin of individual variability in L2 phonetic mastery. PMID:18852470

  2. Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Begoña; Baus, Cristina; Escera, Carles; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2008-10-21

    Human beings differ in their ability to master the sounds of their second language (L2). Phonetic training studies have proposed that differences in phonetic learning stem from differences in psychoacoustic abilities rather than speech-specific capabilities. We aimed at finding the origin of individual differences in L2 phonetic acquisition in natural learning contexts. We consider two alternative explanations: a general psychoacoustic origin vs. a speech-specific one. For this purpose, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from two groups of early, proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who differed in their mastery of the Catalan (L2) phonetic contrast /e-epsilon/. Brain activity in response to acoustic change detection was recorded in three different conditions involving tones of different length (duration condition), frequency (frequency condition), and presentation order (pattern condition). In addition, neural correlates of speech change detection were also assessed for both native (/o/-/e/) and nonnative (/o/-/ö/) phonetic contrasts (speech condition). Participants' discrimination accuracy, reflected electrically as a mismatch negativity (MMN), was similar between the two groups of participants in the three acoustic conditions. Conversely, the MMN was reduced in poor perceivers (PP) when they were presented with speech sounds. Therefore, our results support a speech-specific origin of individual variability in L2 phonetic mastery.

  3. The relationship between articulatory control and improved phonemic accuracy in childhood apraxia of speech: A longitudinal case study

    PubMed Central

    Grigos, Maria I.; Kolenda, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Jaw movement patterns were examined longitudinally in a 3-year-old male with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and compared with a typically developing control group. The child with CAS was followed for 8 months, until he began accurately and consistently producing the bilabial phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/. A movement tracking system was used to study jaw duration, displacement, velocity, and stability. A transcription analysis determined the percentage of phoneme errors and consistency. Results showed phoneme-specific changes which included increases in jaw velocity and stability over time, as well as decreases in duration. Kinematic parameters became more similar to patterns seen in the controls during final sessions where tokens were produced most accurately and consistently. Closing velocity and stability, however, were the only measures to fall within a 95% confidence interval established for the controls across all three target phonemes. These findings suggest that motor processes may differ between children with CAS and their typically developing peers. PMID:20030551

  4. Evaluation of phoneme perception based on the digitalized phoneme test in children with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Olgierd; Sekula, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis of congenital defect of hearing poses new challenges for a multidisciplinary team of pedoaudiologists, ENT (ear-nose-throat) specialists and speech therapists. This study assessed the perception of phonemes in children with a cochlear implant and the possibilities of applying acoustical solutions in the audiologic evaluation. The participants were 17 implanted children, aged 5-9 years, who received a cochlear implant when they were from 18 months to 3 years old. Detection thresholds and discrimination score were assessed. This study also aimed at verifying the possibilities of applying the digital audioprocessing algorithm in clinical practice. The test based on the phonemes aa, uu, ii, ss, sh (Ling 5 sound test) was used. The test was modified in the frequency domain - the main aim of this modification was to improve the precision of the reconstruction of the audible threshold. The results indicated significant correlations between pure tone audiometry results and thresholds of phoneme detection [dB SPL]. The identification score in this group was 95-100% for sound pressure level 65 dB SPL.

  5. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  6. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

  7. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants’ VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  8. Word Boxes Improve Phonemic Awareness, Letter-Sound Correspondences, and Spelling Skills of At-Risk Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesey, Susan; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2015-01-01

    Early literacy skills are critical for success in school, yet many children fail to obtain these skills in a timely manner leaving them unable to perform at minimal academic expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of word box instruction, a research-based intervention designed to promote phonemic awareness, on the…

  9. The Relationship between Articulatory Control and Improved Phonemic Accuracy in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Kolenda, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Jaw movement patterns were examined longitudinally in a 3-year-old male with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and compared with a typically developing control group. The child with CAS was followed for 8 months, until he began accurately and consistently producing the bilabial phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/. A movement tracking system was used to…

  10. Assessing the double phonemic representation in bilingual speakers of Spanish and English: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    García-Sierra, Adrián; Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Siard, Jennifer; Champlin, Craig A

    2012-06-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from Spanish-English bilinguals (N=10) to test pre-attentive speech discrimination in two language contexts. ERPs were recorded while participants silently read magazines in English or Spanish. Two speech contrast conditions were recorded in each language context. In the phonemic in English condition, the speech sounds represented two different phonemic categories in English, but represented the same phonemic category in Spanish. In the phonemic in Spanish condition, the speech sounds represented two different phonemic categories in Spanish, but represented the same phonemic categories in English. Results showed pre-attentive discrimination when the acoustics/phonetics of the speech sounds match the language context (e.g., phonemic in English condition during the English language context). The results suggest that language contexts can affect pre-attentive auditory change detection. Specifically, bilinguals' mental processing of stop consonants relies on contextual linguistic information.

  11. Improved discrimination in photographic density contouring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godding, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Density discrimination can be accomplished through use of special photographic contouring material which has two sensitive layers (one negative, one positive) on single support. Process will be of interest to investigators who require finer discrimination of densities of original photograph for purposes such as identification of crops and analysis of energy levels of radiating objects.

  12. Phonemic Awareness in Dutch Kindergartners: Effects of Task, Phoneme Position, and Phoneme Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide more insight in the relative difficulty of four tasks testing phonemic awareness: (a) blending, (b) isolation, (c) segmentation, and (d) deletion. At the same time the roles of phoneme position and phoneme class were taken into account in a fully balanced way. To this purpose, 141 kindergartners were…

  13. Capacity Demands of Phoneme Selection in Word Production: New Evidence from Dual-Task Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy E.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2008-01-01

    Three dual-task experiments investigated the capacity demands of phoneme selection in picture naming. On each trial, participants named a target picture (Task 1) and carried out a tone discrimination task (Task 2). To vary the time required for phoneme selection, the authors combined the targets with phonologically related or unrelated distractor…

  14. Score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) as an improved discrimination method.

    PubMed

    Han, Jintae; Chung, Hoeil; Han, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2007-01-01

    A new discrimination method called the score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) has been developed and its performance has been evaluated using three practical spectroscopic datasets. The key concept of SMC-LDA was to use not only the score from principal component analysis (PCA), but also the moment of the spectrum, as inputs for LDA to improve discrimination. Along with conventional score, moment is used in spectroscopic fields as an effective alternative for spectral feature representation. Three different approaches were considered. Initially, the score generated from PCA was projected onto a two-dimensional feature space by maximizing Fisher's criterion function (conventional PCA-LDA). Next, the same procedure was performed using only moment. Finally, both score and moment were utilized simultaneously for LDA. To evaluate discrimination performances, three different spectroscopic datasets were employed: (1) infrared (IR) spectra of normal and malignant stomach tissue, (2) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of diesel and light gas oil (LGO) and (3) Raman spectra of Chinese and Korean ginseng. For each case, the best discrimination results were achieved when both score and moment were used for LDA (SMC-LDA). Since the spectral representation character of moment was different from that of score, inclusion of both score and moment for LDA provided more diversified and descriptive information.

  15. Judgments of self-identified gay and heterosexual male speakers: Which phonemes are most salient in determining sexual orientation?

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Erik C.; Bainter, Sierra A.; Satariano, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    While numerous studies have demonstrated that a male speaker’s sexual orientation can be identified from relatively long passages of speech, few studies have evaluated whether listeners can determine sexual orientation when presented with word-length stimuli. If listeners are able to distinguish between self-identified gay and heterosexual male speakers of American English, it is unclear whether they form their judgments based on a phoneme, such as a vowel or consonant, or multiple phonemes, such as a vowel and a consonant. In this study, we first found that listeners can distinguish between self-identified gay and heterosexual speakers of American English upon hearing word-length stimuli. We extended these results in a separate experiment to demonstrate that listeners primarily rely on vowels, and to some extent consonants, when forming their judgments. Listeners were able to differentiate between the two groups of speakers for each of the vowels and three of the seven consonants presented. In a follow-up experiment we found evidence that listeners’ judgments improved if they were presented with multiple phonemes, such as a vowel and /s/. These results provide important information about how different phonemes can provide discriminant information about a male speaker’s sexual orientation. PMID:26207075

  16. Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Zanesco, Anthony P; Jacobs, Tonya L; King, Brandon G; Rosenberg, Erika L; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Mangun, George R; Saron, Clifford D

    2010-06-01

    The ability to focus one's attention underlies success in many everyday tasks, but voluntary attention cannot be sustained for extended periods of time. In the laboratory, sustained-attention failure is manifest as a decline in perceptual sensitivity with increasing time on task, known as the vigilance decrement. We investigated improvements in sustained attention with training (approximately 5 hr/day for 3 months), which consisted of meditation practice that involved sustained selective attention on a chosen stimulus (e.g., the participant's breath). Participants were randomly assigned either to receive training first (n = 30) or to serve as waiting-list controls and receive training second (n = 30). Training produced improvements in visual discrimination that were linked to increases in perceptual sensitivity and improved vigilance during sustained visual attention. Consistent with the resource model of vigilance, these results suggest that perceptual improvements can reduce the resource demand imposed by target discrimination and thus make it easier to sustain voluntary attention.

  17. Evidence for a Simplicity Principle: Teaching Common Complex Grapheme-to-Phonemes Improves Reading and Motivation in At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Victoria; Savage, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of teaching common complex grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) on reading and reading motivation for at-risk readers using a randomised control trial design with taught intervention and control conditions. One reading programme taught children complex GPCs ordered by their frequency of occurrence in…

  18. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David A.; Mesgarani, Nima; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) and neighboring brain regions play a key role in human language processing. Previous studies have attempted to reconstruct speech information from brain activity in the STG, but few of them incorporate the probabilistic framework and engineering methodology used in modern speech recognition systems. In this work, we describe the initial efforts toward the design of a neural speech recognition (NSR) system that performs continuous phoneme recognition on English stimuli with arbitrary vocabulary sizes using the high gamma band power of local field potentials in the STG and neighboring cortical areas obtained via electrocorticography. Approach. The system implements a Viterbi decoder that incorporates phoneme likelihood estimates from a linear discriminant analysis model and transition probabilities from an n-gram phonemic language model. Grid searches were used in an attempt to determine optimal parameterizations of the feature vectors and Viterbi decoder. Main results. The performance of the system was significantly improved by using spatiotemporal representations of the neural activity (as opposed to purely spatial representations) and by including language modeling and Viterbi decoding in the NSR system. Significance. These results emphasize the importance of modeling the temporal dynamics of neural responses when analyzing their variations with respect to varying stimuli and demonstrate that speech recognition techniques can be successfully leveraged when decoding speech from neural signals. Guided by the results detailed in this work, further development of the NSR system could have applications in the fields of automatic speech recognition and neural prosthetics.

  19. Sound improves visual discrimination learning in avian predators.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Candy

    2002-07-01

    Aposematic insects use warning colours to deter predators, but many also produce odours or sounds when attacked by a predator. One possible role for these additional components is that they promote the association between the warning colour and the non-profitability it signals, thus reducing the chance of future attacks from visually hunting predators. This experiment explicitly tests this idea by looking at the effects of sound on a visual discrimination task. Young domestic chicks were trained to look for food rewards under coloured paper cones scattered in an experimental arena. In a subsequent visual discrimination task, they learned to discriminate between rewarded and non-rewarded hats on the basis of colour. Half the chicks performed this task in silence, whilst the other half had a tone played when they attacked non-rewarded hats. The presence of the tone improved the speed of colour discrimination learning. This demonstrates that there could be a selective advantage for aposematic coloured insects to emit sounds when attacked, since avian predators will learn to avoid their coloration more quickly. The role of psychological interactions between signal components in receivers is discussed in relation to the evolution of multimodal displays.

  20. Using Mutual Information Criterion to Design an Efficient Phoneme Set for Chinese Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Song; Hu, Xin-Hui; Nakamura, Satoshi

    Chinese is a representative tonal language, and it has been an attractive topic of how to process tone information in the state-of-the-art large vocabulary speech recognition system. This paper presents a novel way to derive an efficient phoneme set of tone-dependent units to build a recognition system, by iteratively merging a pair of tone-dependent units according to the principle of minimal loss of the Mutual Information (MI). The mutual information is measured between the word tokens and their phoneme transcriptions in a training text corpus, based on the system lexical and language model. The approach has a capability to keep discriminative tonal (and phoneme) contrasts that are most helpful for disambiguating homophone words due to lack of tones, and merge those tonal (and phoneme) contrasts that are not important for word disambiguation for the recognition task. This enables a flexible selection of phoneme set according to a balance between the MI information amount and the number of phonemes. We applied the method to traditional phoneme set of Initial/Finals, and derived several phoneme sets with different number of units. Speech recognition experiments using the derived sets showed its effectiveness.

  1. Applying Source and Path Corrections to Improve Discrimination in China,

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H. E.; Taylor, S. R.; Phillips, W. S.; Randall, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) to magnitude levels below 4.0 will require use of regional seismic data recorded at distances of less than 2000 km. To improve regional discriminant performance we tested three different methods of correcting for path effects, and the third method includes a correction for source-scaling. We used regional recordings of broadband from stations in and near China. Our first method removes trends between phase ratios and physical parameters associated with each event-station path. This approach requires knowledge of the physical parameters along an event-station path, such as topography, basin thickness, and crustal thickness. Our second approach is somewhat more empirical. We examine spatial distributions of phase amplitudes after subtracting event magnitude and correcting for path distance. For a given station, phase, and frequency band, we grid and then smooth the magnitude-corrected and distance-corrected amplitudes to create a map representing a correction surface. We reference these maps to correct phase amplitudes prior to forming discrimination ratios. Our third approach is the most complicated, but also the most rigorous. For a given station and phase, we invert the spectra of a number of well-recorded earthquakes for source and path parameters. We then use the values obtained from the inversion to correct phase amplitudes for the effects of source size, distance, and attenuation. Finally,the amplitude residuals are gridded and smoothed to create a correction surface representing secondary path effects. We find that simple ratio- parameter corrections can improve discrimination performance along some paths (such as Kazakh Test Site (KTS) to WMQ), but for other paths (such as Lop Nor to AAK) the corrections are not beneficial. Our second method, the empirical path correction surfaces, improves discrimination performance for Lop Nor to AAK paths. Our third method, combined source and path corrections, has only

  2. Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated November 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing"® program is designed to improve reading and spelling skills by teaching students the skills needed to decode and encode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. The WWC has updated its 2008 review of "Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing"® to include 16 new studies, two of which…

  3. Lexical and Statistical Evidence in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Adults can often improve their perception of novel phoneme contrasts with exposure to a second language, but there is yet little understanding of how they accomplish this. The primary aim of this study was to compare two types of evidence that learners might use to learn the phonemes of second language: minimal pairs, or the lexicon, and…

  4. Phonemic Support in Children's Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; McCutchen, Deborah

    A study investigated the role of phonemic information in young readers' silent reading comprehension. Subjects, 56 children in grades 2 and 4, from Seattle parochial schools, were blocked into groups based on their grade and skill level (skilled and less skilled). Each subject saw 48 sentences presented in a random order on an Apple II…

  5. Utilizing Prior Information for Depth to Improve Seismic Event Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. K.; Kane, K.; Anderson, D. N.; Schult, F. R.; Ballard, S.

    2006-05-01

    We are developing and testing a novel location algorithm for estimating the depth of a seismic event in order to improve the discrimination of events. Information from the algorithm will be incorporated into a statistically based discrimination framework to determine the source of an event. The depth estimation approach differs from currently used algorithms, which use non-linear regression techniques, by using Bayesian techniques to incorporate prior information about the depth of an event. We use first arriving P-waves and their associated modeled travel times to estimate the most likely event depth. The likelihood is constructed with gaussian errors. Depth may be modeled as a skewed distribution if characteristics of the waveforms from an event indicate that bounds on the depth are appropriate. For instance, the Rg phase is present in a wave form only when an event is shallow. Therefore, the presence of Rg in a dataset could lead one to assume a shallow- skewed prior distribution for the depth parameter. For most seismic event data sets, depth and origin time are the hypocentral parameters that are most poorly constrained because of the source-receiver geometry imposed by the Earth. It is not unusual for current location algorithms to return event solutions that fit the data very well and yet have event depths that are above the surface of the earth (so called "air quakes") or well below the known limits of seismicity for a given area. The solutions are statistically valid in that the confidence bounds are large enough to encompass more realistic depths the specified percent of the time, but they are unsatisfying to seismologists. The effect of repeatedly seeing such unreasonable depths is to develop a mistrust of the depth determinations in all cases, even when depth may be well constrained. What is needed is a means to flexibly incorporate apriori information about acceptable depth distributions to better constrain the hypocentral depth estimates when they are

  6. Enhancement of gamma oscillations indicates preferential processing of native over foreign phonemic contrasts in infants.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Musacchia, Gabriella; Benasich, April A

    2013-11-27

    Young infants discriminate phonetically relevant speech contrasts in a universal manner, that is, similarly across languages. This ability fades by 12 months of age as the brain builds language-specific phonemic maps and increasingly responds preferentially to the infant's native language. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of infant preference for native over non-native phonemes remain unclear. Since gamma-band power is known to signal infants' preference for native language rhythm, we hypothesized that it might also indicate preference for native phonemes. Using high-density electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) recordings and source-localization techniques to identify and locate the ERP generators, we examined changes in brain oscillations while 6-month-old human infants from monolingual English settings listened to English and Spanish syllable contrasts. Neural dynamics were investigated via single-trial analysis of the temporal-spectral composition of brain responses at source level. Increases in 4-6 Hz (theta) power and in phase synchronization at 2-4 Hz (delta/theta) were found to characterize infants' evoked responses to discrimination of native/non-native syllable contrasts mostly in the left auditory source. However, selective enhancement of induced gamma oscillations in the area of anterior cingulate cortex was seen only during native contrast discrimination. These results suggest that gamma oscillations support syllable discrimination in the earliest stages of language acquisition, particularly during the period in which infants begin to develop preferential processing for linguistically relevant phonemic features in their environment. Our results also suggest that by 6 months of age, infants already treat native phonemic contrasts differently from non-native, implying that perceptual specialization and establishment of enduring phonemic memory representations have been initiated.

  7. Rapid reacquisition of native phoneme contrasts after disuse: you do not always lose what you do not use.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Liederman, Jacqueline; Mierzejewski, Robyn; Barnes, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Infants attune to their birth language during the second half of infancy. However, internationally adopted children are often uniquely required to attune to their birth language, and then reattune to their adoptive language. Children who were adopted from India into America at ages 6-60 months (N = 8) and had minimal further exposure to their birth languages were compared to age-matched American non-adopted controls. Without training, neither group could discriminate a phonemic contrast that occurs in their birth language but not in English. However, after training on the contrast, the adopted group (N = 8) improved significantly and discriminated the contrast more accurately than their non-adopted peers. While English had explicitly replaced the birth language of the adopted sample, traces of early exposure conferred privileges on subsequent learning. These findings are consistent with behavioral and neurophysiological data from animals that have identified some of the mechanisms underlying such a 'retention without further use' phenomenon. PMID:21884311

  8. Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing[R] (LiPS[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing"[R] ("LiPS"[R]) program (formerly called the "Auditory Discrimination in Depth"[R] ["ADD"] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. Thirty-one studies reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) investigated the effects of…

  9. Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS) [R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS)[R] program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth[R] [ADD] program) is designed to teach students skills to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. The program is individualized to meet student needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or…

  10. On the Structure of Phoneme Categories in Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Hanson, Helen M.; Marrone, Nicole; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe cochlear implant users' phoneme labeling, discrimination, and prototypes for a vowel and a sibilant contrast, and to assess the effects of 1 year's experience with prosthetic hearing. Method: Based on naturally produced clear examples of "boot," "beet," "said," and "shed" by 1 male and 1 female speaker, continua with 13…

  11. Assessing the Double Phonemic Representation in Bilingual Speakers of Spanish and English: An Electrophysiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Siard, Jennifer; Champlin, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 10) to test pre-attentive speech discrimination in two language contexts. ERPs were recorded while participants silently read magazines in English or Spanish. Two speech contrast conditions were recorded in each language context. In the "phonemic in English"…

  12. Lexical plasticity in early bilinguals does not alter phoneme categories: I. Neurodynamical modeling.

    PubMed

    Larsson, J P; Constán, Fátima Vera; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Sebastián-Gallés et al. [The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: Comparing early and simultaneous bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 240-255, 2005] contrasted highly proficient early Spanish-Catalan and Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, using Catalan materials in a lexical decision task (LDT). They constructed two types of experimental pseudowords, substituting Catalan phoneme /e/ for Catalan /epsilon/, or vice versa. Catalan-dominant bilinguals showed a performance asymmetry across experimental conditions, making more mistakes for /epsilon/-->/e/ changes, than for /e/-->/epsilon/ ones. This was considered evidence of a developed acceptance of mispronounced Catalan /epsilon/-words, caused by exposure to a bilingual environment where mispronunciations by Spanish-dominant bilinguals using their /e/-category abound. Although this indicated modified or added lexical representations, an open issue is whether such lexical information also modifies phoneme categories. We address this using a biophysically realistic neurodynamic model, describing neural activity at the synaptic and spiking levels. We construct a network of pools of neurons, representing phonemic and lexical processing. Carefully analyzing the dependency of network dynamics on connection strengths, by first exploring parameter space under steady-state assumptions (mean-field scans), then running spiking simulations, we investigate the neural substrate role in a representative LDT. We also simulate a phoneme discrimination task to address whether lexical changes affect the phonemic level. We find that the same network configuration which displays asymmetry in the LDT shows equal performance discriminating the two modeled phonemes. Thus, we predicted that the Catalan-dominant bilinguals do not alter their phoneme categories, although showing signs of having stored a new word variation in the lexicon. To explore this prediction, a syllable discrimination task involving

  13. 20 Ways To Promote Phonemic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Angela; Conderman, Greg

    2002-01-01

    This article presents 20 activities to promote phonemic awareness in students, including teaching nursery rhymes, playing the "I Spy" game using initial sounds of words, creating a sound box, having students sort picture cards based on initial sounds, playing phoneme deletion games, and having students clap and count syllables. (Contains 4…

  14. Phonemic Awareness: A Crucial Bridge to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol S.

    2003-01-01

    Offers strategies for preparing children for literacy in the early Montessori classroom through emphasis on phonemic awareness. Specifically addresses activities to develop phonological and phonemic awareness including song, the alphabet, rhyming activities, "I spy" games, word games, and word segmentation. Presents a case study in support of…

  15. Learning Phonemes with a Proto-Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew; Peperkamp, Sharon; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery.…

  16. Real-Time Wavelength Discrimination for Improved Neutron Discrimination in CLYC

    SciTech Connect

    Hornback, Donald Eric; Hu, Michael Z.; Bell, Zane W.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of optical filters on the pulse shape discrimination properties of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator crystals. By viewing the scintillation light through various optical filters, we attempted to better distinguish between neutron and gamma ray events in the crystal. We applied commercial interference and colored glass filters in addition to fabricating quantum dot (QD) filters by suspending QDs in plastic films and glass. QD filters ultimately failed because of instability of the QDs with respect to oxidation when exposed to ambient air, and the tendency of the QDs to aggregate in the plastic. Of the commercial filters, the best results were obtained with a bandpass interference filter covering the spectral region containing core-valence luminescence (CVL) light. However, the PSD response of filtered CLYC light was always poorer than the response exhibited by unfiltered light because filters always reduced the amount of light available for signal processing.

  17. Phoneme fuzzy characterization in speech recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Borrometi, Luca; Cuce, Antonino

    1997-10-01

    The acoustic approach to speech recognition has an important advantage compared with pattern recognition approach: it presents a lower complexity because it doesn't require explicit structures such as the hidden Markov model. In this work, we show how to characterize some phonetic classes of the Italian language in order to obtain a speaker and vocabulary independent speech recognition system. A phonetic data base is carried out with 200 continuous speech sentences of 12 speakers, 6 females and 6 males. The sentences are sampled at 8000 Hz and manual labelled with Asystem Sound Impression Software to obtain about 1600 units. We analyzed several speech parameters such as formants, LPC and reflection coefficients, energy, normal/differential zero crossing rate, cepstral and autocorrelation coefficients. The aim is the achievement of a phonetic recognizer to facilitate the so- called lexical access problem, that is to decode phonetic units into complete sense word strings. The knowledge is supplied to the recognizer in terms of fuzzy systems. The utilized software is called adaptive fuzzy modeler and it belongs to the rule generator family. A procedure has been implemented to integrate in the fuzzy system an 'expert' knowledge in order to obtain significant improvements in the recognition accuracy. Up to this point the tests show a recognition rate of 92% for the vocal class, 89% for the fricatives class and 94% for the nasal class, utilizing 1000 phonemes in phase of learning and 600 phonemes in phase of testing. Our intention is to complete the fuzzy recognizer extending this work to the other phonetic classes.

  18. Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Treiman, Rebecca; van Ooijen, Brit

    2010-01-01

    The phoneme detection task is widely used in spoken-word recognition research. Alphabetically literate participants, however, are more used to explicit representations of letters than of phonemes. The present study explored whether phoneme detection is sensitive to how target phonemes are, or may be, orthographically realized. Listeners detected…

  19. Non-native phonemes in adult word learning: evidence from the N400m

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Lagemann, Lothar; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2009-01-01

    Newborns are equipped with a large phonemic inventory that becomes tuned to one's native language early in life. We review and add new data about how learning of a non-native phoneme can be accomplished in adults and how the efficiency of word learning can be assessed by neurophysiological measures. For this purpose, we studied the acquisition of the voiceless, bilabial fricative /Φ/ via a statistical-learning paradigm. Phonemes were embedded in minimal pairs of pseudowords, differing only with respect to the fricative (/aΦo/ versus /afo/). During learning, pseudowords were combined with pictures of objects with some combinations of pseudowords and pictures occurring more frequently than others. Behavioural data and the N400m component, as an index of lexical activation/semantic access, showed that participants had learned to associate the pseudowords with the pictures. However, they could not discriminate within the minimal pairs. Importantly, before learning, the novel words with the sound /Φ/ showed smaller N400 amplitudes than those with native phonemes, evidencing their non-word status. Learning abolished this difference indicating that /Φ/ had become integrated into the native category /f/, instead of establishing a novel category. Our data and review demonstrate that native phonemic categories are powerful attractors hampering the mastery of non-native contrasts. PMID:19933141

  20. Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

    This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

  1. Retention weighted recall improves discrimination of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Buschke, Herman; Sliwinski, Martin J; Kuslansky, Gail; Katz, Mindy; Verghese, Joe; Lipton, Richard B

    2006-05-01

    Impaired recall for early items (primacy) and late items (recency) on word list recall tests are seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared conventional scoring on the Telephone Instrument for Cognitive Status (TICS) recall list with scorings based on retention-weighted recall (RWR: each item weighted by its serial position) in older adults participating in a community-based aging study. Subjects with mild AD (N=18) did not differ from those without dementia (N=231) with respect to recency (46% vs. 59%, p = 0.2), but had impaired primacy (2% vs. 39%, p < .001) on word recall on the TICS. RWR scoring improved the effect size (1.52 SD) compared to conventional scoring (1.08 SD). With a fixed sensitivity of 85%, specificity was lower using conventional scoring (56%) than RWR (76%) scoring. Our findings suggest that optimized RWR scoring of word list free recall can improve detection of mild AD compared to conventional scoring.

  2. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  3. Homophone Dominance Modulates the Phonemic-Masking Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2000-01-01

    Finds (1) positive phonemic-masking effects occurred for dominant homophones; (2) null phonemic-masking effects occurred for subordinate homophones; and (3) subordinate homophones were much more likely to be falsely identified as their dominant mate. Suggests the source of these null phonemic-masking is itself a phonology effect. Concludes…

  4. The Effects of Syllable Instruction on Phonemic Awareness in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Nuspl, Janae J.; Wilkerson, Kimberly; Beddes, Sarah Rose

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Preschooler instruction for speech sound awareness typically teaches a progression of speech units from sentences to phonemes, ending at simple first phoneme activities. This study investigates the effects of teaching advanced tasks of phoneme blending and segmenting with and without the larger speech unit of the syllable. Method:…

  5. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients’ perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  6. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients' perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  7. Using phase to recognize English phonemes and their distinctive features in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Perreau-Guimaraes, Marcos; Carvalhaes, Claudio; Suppes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms used by the human brain to identify phonemes remain unclear. We recorded the EEG signals evoked by repeated presentation of 12 American English phonemes. A support vector machine model correctly recognized a high percentage of the EEG brain wave recordings represented by their phases, which were expressed in discrete Fourier transform coefficients. We show that phases of the oscillations restricted to the frequency range of 2–9 Hz can be used to successfully recognize brain processing of these phonemes. The recognition rates can be further improved using the scalp tangential electric field and the surface Laplacian around the auditory cortical area, which were derived from the original potential signal. The best rate for the eight initial consonants was 66.7%. Moreover, we found a distinctive phase pattern in the brain for each of these consonants. We then used these phase patterns to recognize the consonants, with a correct rate of 48.7%. In addition, in the analysis of the confusion matrices, we found significant similarity–differences were invariant between brain and perceptual representations of phonemes. These latter results supported the importance of phonological distinctive features in the neural representation of phonemes. PMID:23185010

  8. Listeners Retune Phoneme Categories across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch…

  9. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  10. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  11. Alternative Uses of Phonemic Information in Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

    This paper distinguishes several ways in which phonemic information might be employed in spelling; examines some empirical data on the consequences of using these information sources; formulates hypotheses about the underlying processes involved; and suggests possible implications for the teaching (and learning) of spelling. Included are tables of…

  12. Music and Phonemic Awareness: The Kindergarten Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Cheyrl M.

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001), schools have become aware of the consequences of successfully teaching children to read. A major building block in early childhood education includes the decoding of phonemes, rhymes, and the rhythm of spoken and written word. As reading is crucial to success in any subject area or career…

  13. Combining spatial and spectral information to improve crop/weed discrimination algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Jones, G.; Villette, S.; Paoli, J. N.; Gée, C.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of herbicide spraying is an important key to environmentally and economically improve weed management. To achieve this, remote sensors such as imaging systems are commonly used to detect weed plants. We developed spatial algorithms that detect the crop rows to discriminate crop from weeds. These algorithms have been thoroughly tested and provide robust and accurate results without learning process but their detection is limited to inter-row areas. Crop/Weed discrimination using spectral information is able to detect intra-row weeds but generally needs a prior learning process. We propose a method based on spatial and spectral information to enhance the discrimination and overcome the limitations of both algorithms. The classification from the spatial algorithm is used to build the training set for the spectral discrimination method. With this approach we are able to improve the range of weed detection in the entire field (inter and intra-row). To test the efficiency of these algorithms, a relevant database of virtual images issued from SimAField model has been used and combined to LOPEX93 spectral database. The developed method based is evaluated and compared with the initial method in this paper and shows an important enhancement from 86% of weed detection to more than 95%.

  14. SOME QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF RUSSIAN CONSONANT PHONEME DISCRIMINATION. PSYCHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    WITH THE INTENTION OF APPLYING A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF LEARNING TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, A TWO-PART EXPERIMENT USING TWO SETS OF 20 STUDENTS WAS CONDUCTED AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY. IN EXPERIMENT I THE SS (SUBJECTS) WERE ASKED TO DISTINGUISH DIFFERENCE OR SAMENESS IN PAIRS OF INITIAL RUSSIAN SYLLABLES. THESE 144 SYLLABLES WERE GROUPED INTO…

  15. Statistical properties of Chinese phonemic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan

    2011-04-01

    The study of properties of speech sound systems is of great significance in understanding the human cognitive mechanism and the working principles of speech sound systems. Some properties of speech sound systems, such as the listener-oriented feature and the talker-oriented feature, have been unveiled with the statistical study of phonemes in human languages and the research of the interrelations between human articulatory gestures and the corresponding acoustic parameters. With all the phonemes of speech sound systems treated as a coherent whole, our research, which focuses on the dynamic properties of speech sound systems in operation, investigates some statistical parameters of Chinese phoneme networks based on real text and dictionaries. The findings are as follows: phonemic networks have high connectivity degrees and short average distances; the degrees obey normal distribution and the weighted degrees obey power law distribution; vowels enjoy higher priority than consonants in the actual operation of speech sound systems; the phonemic networks have high robustness against targeted attacks and random errors. In addition, for investigating the structural properties of a speech sound system, a statistical study of dictionaries is conducted, which shows the higher frequency of shorter words and syllables and the tendency that the longer a word is, the shorter the syllables composing it are. From these structural properties and dynamic properties one can derive the following conclusion: the static structure of a speech sound system tends to promote communication efficiency and save articulation effort while the dynamic operation of this system gives preference to reliable transmission and easy recognition. In short, a speech sound system is an effective, efficient and reliable communication system optimized in many aspects.

  16. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  17. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  18. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  19. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:10880682

  20. Characterization of local complex structures in a recurrence plot to improve nonlinear dynamic discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.

  1. Different brain strategies underlie the categorical perception of foreign and native phonemes.

    PubMed

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Mori, Koichi; Sato, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    The present study using near-infrared spectroscopy examined the neuronal correlates of Japanese long/short vowel contrast discrimination and its relationship with behavioral performance by comparing native Japanese (L1) subjects and Korean subjects learning Japanese as a second language (L2). Phoneme-specific responses were predominantly observed in the left auditory area only in the L1 subjects, although the behavioral scores of the L2 subjects indicated categorical perception (CP) that was indistinguishable from that of the L1 subjects. These inconsistent relationships were more evident in the correlation coefficients between the brain recording and behavior. However, slower reaction times and non-specific brain responses in the L2 listeners suggest differences in their cortical processes from those of the L1 subjects. These findings suggest that the CP of L2 phonemes as determined by behavioral scores alone does not always predict a language-specific neural processing as employed by the L1 listeners.

  2. Lexical plasticity in early bilinguals does not alter phoneme categories: II. Experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Vera-Constán, Fátima; Larsson, Johan P; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    When listening to modified speech, either naturally or artificially altered, the human perceptual system rapidly adapts to it. There is some debate about the nature of the mechanisms underlying this adaptation. Although some authors propose that listeners modify their prelexical representations, others assume changes at the lexical level. Recently, Larsson, Vera, Sebastian-Galles, and Deco [Lexical plasticity in early bilinguals does not alter phoneme categories: I. Neurodynamical modelling. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 76-94, 2008] proposed a biologically plausible computational model to account for some existing data, one which successfully modeled how long-term exposure to a dialect triggers the creation of new lexical entries. One specific prediction of the model was that prelexical (phoneme) representations should not be affected by dialectal exposure (as long as the listener is exposed to both standard and dialectal pronunciations). Here we present a series of experiments testing the predictions of the model. Native listeners of Catalan, with extended exposure to Spanish-accented Catalan, were tested on different auditory lexical decision tasks and phoneme discrimination tasks. Behavioral and electrophysiological recordings were obtained. The results supported the predictions of our model. On the one hand, both error rates and N400 measurements indicated the existence of alternative lexical entries for dialectal varieties. On the other hand, no evidence of alterations at the phoneme level, either in the behavioral discrimination task or in the electrophysiological measurement (MMN), could be detected. The results of the present study are compared with those obtained in short-term laboratory exposures in an attempt to provide an integrative account.

  3. The influence of phoneme position overlap on the phonemic similarity effect in nonword recall.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Lisa M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2006-03-01

    The current research examined the predictions that short-term memory models generate for the phonological similarity effect, when similarity was defined in different ways. Three serial recall experiments with consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords are reported, where the position of the phonemes that list items shared was manipulated (i.e., shared vowel and final consonant [_VC; Experiment 1], initial consonant and vowel [CV_; Experiment 2], or the two consonants [C_C; Experiment 3]. The results show that the position of common phonemes in nonwords has differential effects on order and item information. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research into the effect of phonemic similarity on nonword recall, and modifications to current short-term memory models are proposed.

  4. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed. PMID:24860470

  5. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed.

  6. Improving Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination using Attenuation Models of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M; Rodgers, A J; Ford, S R; Gok, R; Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-06

    In the past year, we have made significant progress on developing and calibrating methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using high-frequency regional P/S amplitude ratios. Closely-spaced earthquakes and explosions generally discriminate easily using this method, as demonstrated by recordings of explosions from test sites around the world. In relatively simple geophysical regions such as the continental parts of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula (YSKP) we have successfully used a 1-D Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction methodology (1-D MDAC) to extend the regional P/S technique over large areas. However in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East, or the mixed oceanic-continental paths for the YSKP the lateral variations in amplitudes are not well predicted by 1-D corrections and 1-D MDAC P/S discrimination over broad areas can perform poorly. We have developed a new technique to map 2-D attenuation structure in the crust and upper mantle. We retain the MDAC source model and geometrical spreading formulation and use the amplitudes of the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg), to develop a simultaneous multi-phase approach to determine the P-wave and S-wave attenuation of the lithosphere. The methodology allows solving for attenuation structure in different depth layers. Here we show results for the P and S-wave attenuation in crust and upper mantle layers. When applied to the Middle East, we find variations in the attenuation quality factor Q that are consistent with the complex tectonics of the region. For example, provinces along the tectonically-active Tethys collision zone (e.g. Turkish Plateau, Zagros) have high attenuation in both the crust and upper mantle, while the stable outlying regions like the Indian Shield generally have low attenuation. In the Arabian Shield, however, we find that the low attenuation in this Precambrian crust is underlain by a high-attenuation upper mantle similar to the nearby Red

  7. Combining visible-based-color parameters and geochemical tracers to improve sediment source discrimination and apportionment.

    PubMed

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Minella, Jean Paolo Gomes; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer

    2015-09-15

    Parameter selection in fingerprinting studies are often time-consuming and costly because successful fingerprint properties are generally highly site-specific. Recently, spectroscopy has been applied to trace sediment origin as a rapid, less expensive, non-destructive and straightforward alternative. We show in this study the first attempt to combine both geochemical tracers and color parameters derived from the visible (VIS) spectrum in a single estimate of sediment source contribution. Moreover, we compared the discrimination power and source apportionment using VIS-based-color parameters and using the whole ultra-violet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrum in partial last square regression (PLSR) models. This study was carried out in a small (1.19 km(2)) rural catchment from southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields, unpaved roads, and stream channels. Color parameters were only able to discriminate unpaved roads from the other sources, disabling its use to fingerprint sediment sources itself. Nonetheless, there was a great improvement in source discrimination combining geochemical tracers and color parameters. Unlike VIS-based-color parameters, the distances between sediment sources were always significantly different using the whole UV-VIS-spectrum. It indicates a loss of information and, consequently, loss of discriminating power when using VIS-based-color parameters instead of the whole UV-VIS spectrum. Overall, there was good agreement in source ascription obtained with geochemical tracers alone, geochemical tracers coupled with color parameters, and UV-VIS-PLSR models, and all of them indicate clearly that the main sediment source was the crop fields, corresponding to 57 ± 14, 48 ± 13, and 62 ± 18%, respectively. Prediction errors for UV-VIS-PLSR models (6.6 ± 1.1%) were very similar to those generated in a mixed linear model using geochemical tracers alone (6.4 ± 3.6%), but the combination of color parameters and geochemical tracers

  8. Phoneme and Word Scoring in Speech-in-Noise Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Tina M.; Ellis, Emily M.; Baltzell, Lucas S.; McMillan, Garnett P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding speech in background noise is difficult for many individuals; however, time constraints have limited its inclusion in the clinical audiology assessment battery. Phoneme scoring of words has been suggested as a method of reducing test time and variability. The purposes of this study were to establish a phoneme scoring rubric and use it in testing phoneme and word perception in noise in older individuals and individuals with hearing impairment. Method Words were presented to 3 participant groups at 80 dB in speech-shaped noise at 7 signal-to-noise ratios (−10 to 35 dB). Responses were scored for words and phonemes correct. Results It was not surprising to find that phoneme scores were up to about 30% better than word scores. Word scoring resulted in larger hearing loss effect sizes than phoneme scoring, whereas scoring method did not significantly modify age effect sizes. There were significant effects of hearing loss and some limited effects of age; age effect sizes of about 3 dB and hearing loss effect sizes of more than 10 dB were found. Conclusion Hearing loss is the major factor affecting word and phoneme recognition with a subtle contribution of age. Phoneme scoring may provide several advantages over word scoring. A set of recommended phoneme scoring guidelines is provided. PMID:26989823

  9. Particle Backtracking Improves Breeding Subpopulation Discrimination and Natal-Source Identification in Mixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; Brodnik, Reed M.; Carreon-Martinez, Lucia; DeVanna, Kristen M.; Fryer, Brian J.; Heath, Daniel D.; Reichert, Julie M.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a novel method to improve the use of natural tagging approaches for subpopulation discrimination and source-origin identification in aquatic and terrestrial animals with a passive dispersive phase. Our method integrates observed site-referenced biological information on individuals in mixed populations with a particle-tracking model to retrace likely dispersal histories prior to capture (i.e., particle backtracking). To illustrate and test our approach, we focus on western Lake Erie’s yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population during 2006–2007, using microsatellite DNA and otolith microchemistry from larvae and juveniles as natural tags. Particle backtracking showed that not all larvae collected near a presumed hatching location may have originated there, owing to passive drift during the larval stage that was influenced by strong river- and wind-driven water circulation. Re-assigning larvae to their most probable hatching site (based on probabilistic dispersal trajectories from the particle backtracking model) improved the use of genetics and otolith microchemistry to discriminate among local breeding subpopulations. This enhancement, in turn, altered (and likely improved) the estimated contributions of each breeding subpopulation to the mixed population of juvenile recruits. Our findings indicate that particle backtracking can complement existing tools used to identify the origin of individuals in mixed populations, especially in flow-dominated systems. PMID:25799555

  10. Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Chen, Tianjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yongzhi; Li, Yong; Xu, Xiahong; Shao, Shengzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang; Rogers, Karyne M

    2016-07-20

    Multielement and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, (207)Pb/(206)Pb, and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of individual isotopes or elemental characterization. LDA shows strong promise as an improved method to discriminate genuine organic Brassica vegetables from produce treated with chemical fertilizers and could be used as a robust test for organic produce authentication. PMID:27355562

  11. Statistical and Machine-Learning Classifier Framework to Improve Pulse Shape Discrimination System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R.; Kaplan, A.

    2015-10-28

    Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is a variety of statistical classifier. Fully-­realized statistical classifiers rely on a comprehensive set of tools for designing, building, and implementing. PSD advances rely on improvements to the implemented algorithm. PSD advances can be improved by using conventional statistical classifier or machine learning methods. This paper provides the reader with a glossary of classifier-­building elements and their functions in a fully-­designed and operational classifier framework that can be used to discover opportunities for improving PSD classifier projects. This paper recommends reporting the PSD classifier’s receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its behavior at a gamma rejection rate (GRR) relevant for realistic applications.

  12. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Y. Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shinohara, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm.

  13. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurementa)

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Y.; Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A.; Isobe, M.; Shinohara, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm. PMID:25430297

  14. Low-Frequency Cortical Entrainment to Speech Reflects Phoneme-Level Processing.

    PubMed

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; O'Sullivan, James A; Lalor, Edmund C

    2015-10-01

    The human ability to understand speech is underpinned by a hierarchical auditory system whose successive stages process increasingly complex attributes of the acoustic input. It has been suggested that to produce categorical speech perception, this system must elicit consistent neural responses to speech tokens (e.g., phonemes) despite variations in their acoustics. Here, using electroencephalography (EEG), we provide evidence for this categorical phoneme-level speech processing by showing that the relationship between continuous speech and neural activity is best described when that speech is represented using both low-level spectrotemporal information and categorical labeling of phonetic features. Furthermore, the mapping between phonemes and EEG becomes more discriminative for phonetic features at longer latencies, in line with what one might expect from a hierarchical system. Importantly, these effects are not seen for time-reversed speech. These findings may form the basis for future research on natural language processing in specific cohorts of interest and for broader insights into how brains transform acoustic input into meaning. PMID:26412129

  15. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. PMID:27495185

  16. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response.

  17. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Trevor J; List, Olivier; Li, Xiaofeng; Dongre, Sidhartha; McCulloch, Marie; Ting, Chun-Yuan; O'Kane, Cahir J; Tang, Shiming; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko

    2012-05-18

    Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called R1 to R6 cells; whereas R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which exist in multiple spectral classes, subserve color vision. Here, we report that R7 and R8 also contribute to the motion pathway. By using electrophysiological, optical, and behavioral assays, we found that R7/R8 information converge with and shape the motion pathway output, explaining flies' broadly tuned optomotor behavior by its composite responses. Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. PMID:22605779

  18. Perception of Phonemic Length and Its Relation to Reading and Spelling Skills in Children with Family Risk for Dyslexia in the First Three Grades of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Richardson, Ulla; Martin, Maisa; Leiwo, Matti; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability to discriminate phonemic length and the association of this ability with reading accuracy, reading speed, and spelling accuracy in Finnish children throughout Grades 1-3. Method: Reading-disabled (RDFR, n = 35) and typically reading children (TRFR, n = 69) with family risk for dyslexia and typically reading control…

  19. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI.

  20. Effect of Phoneme Awareness Instruction on Kindergarten Children's Invented Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangel, Darlene M.; Blachman, Benita A.

    1992-01-01

    Finds that kindergarten children trained in phonemic awareness significantly outperformed control children in phoneme segmentation, letter name and sound knowledge, and reading phonetically regular words and nonwords. Notes that they produced invented spellings rated developmentally superior to those of the control children. (SR)

  1. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  2. The Nature of Phoneme Representation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, M. Gareth; Quinlan, Philip T.; Tamminen, Jakke; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments used the psychological refractory period logic to examine whether integration of multiple sources of phonemic information has a decisional locus. All experiments made use of a dual-task paradigm in which participants made forced-choice color categorization (Task 1) and phoneme categorization (Task 2) decisions at varying stimulus…

  3. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  4. Phonemic Code Dependence Varies with Previous Exposure to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey L.; Zecker, Steven G.

    Reading researchers and theorists are sharply divided as to how meaning is obtained from the printed word. Three current explanations are that (1) meaning is accessed directly, without any intermediate processes; (2) meaning is accessed only through an intermediate phonemic stage; and (3) both direct access and phonemic mediation can occur. To…

  5. Children at Risk: Their Phonemic Awareness Development in Holistic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Pamela J.; Pearson, P. David

    A study examined the development of phonemic awareness and its relationship to beginning reading among 20 first-grade children at risk for failing to learn to read and write. Their instructional programs were observed; their levels of reading, writing, and phonemic awareness development were measured in October and April; and their home literacy…

  6. Improved pulse shape discriminator for fast neutron-gamma ray detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; St. Onge, R.

    1969-01-01

    Discriminator in nuclear particle detection system distinguishes nuclear particle type and energy among many different nuclear particles. Discriminator incorporates passive, linear circuit elements so that it will operate over a wide dynamic range.

  7. Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G.; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744

  8. Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744

  9. Phoneme-based self hearing assessment on a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Min; Sohn, Junil; Ku, Yunseo; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Junghak

    2013-05-01

    Phonemes provide an interesting alternative to pure tones in hearing tests.We propose a new smartphone-based method for self-hearing assessment using the four Korean phonemes which are similar to the English phonemes /a/, /i/, /sh/, and /s/. We conducted tests on 15 subjects diagnosed with mild to severe hearing loss and estimated their conventional pure-tone hearing thresholds from their phoneme hearing thresholds using regression analysis. The phoneme-based self-hearing assessment was found to be sufficiently reliable in estimating the hearing thresholds of hearing impaired subjects. The difference between the hearing thresholds obtained through conventional pure-tone audiometry and those obtained using our method was 5.6 dB HL on average. The proposed hearing assessment was able to significantly reduce the mean test time compared to conventional pure-tone audiometry.

  10. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  11. Listeners retune phoneme categories across languages.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-02-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch listeners were exposed to unusual pronunciation variants in which word-final /f/ or /s/ was replaced by an ambiguous sound. At test, listeners categorized Dutch minimal word pairs ending in sounds along an /f/-/s/ continuum. Dutch L1 and German L2 listeners showed boundary shifts of a similar magnitude. Moreover, following exposure to Dutch-accented English, Dutch listeners also showed comparable effects of category retuning when they heard the same speaker speak her native language (Dutch) during the test. The former result suggests that lexical representations in a second language are specific enough to support lexically guided retuning, and the latter implies that production patterns in a second language are deemed a stable speaker characteristic likely to transfer to the native language; thus retuning of phoneme categories applies across languages.

  12. The Effects of Training Parents in Teaching Phonemic Awareness on the Phonemic Awareness and Early Reading of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Patricia Fisher

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to research the difference in parental training in phonemic awareness on the achievements of their children who had been identified as struggling readers. Subjects were children from ten kindergarten and first grade classrooms residing in federally subsidized housing. An experimental group (the phonemic awareness trained…

  13. Improved discrimination among similar agricultural plots using red-and-green-based pseudo-colour imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    The effects of a pseudo-colour imaging method were investigated by discriminating among similar agricultural plots in remote sensing images acquired using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (Indiana, USA) and the Landsat 7 satellite (Fergana, Uzbekistan), and that provided by GoogleEarth (Toyama, Japan). From each dataset, red (R)-green (G)-R-G-blue yellow (RGrgbyB), and RGrgby-1B pseudo-colour images were prepared. From each, cyan, magenta, yellow, key black, L*, a*, and b* derivative grayscale images were generated. In the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer image, pixels were selected for corn no tillage (29 pixels), corn minimum tillage (27), and soybean (34) plots. Likewise, in the Landsat 7 image, pixels representing corn (73 pixels), cotton (110), and wheat (112) plots were selected, and in the GoogleEarth image, those representing soybean (118 pixels) and rice (151) were selected. When the 14 derivative grayscale images were used together with an RGB yellow grayscale image, the overall classification accuracy improved from 74 to 94% (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer), 64 to 83% (Landsat), or 77 to 90% (GoogleEarth). As an indicator of discriminatory power, the kappa significance improved 1018-fold (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) or greater. The derivative grayscale images were found to increase the dimensionality and quantity of data. Herein, the details of the increases in dimensionality and quantity are further analysed and discussed.

  14. Concurrent visuomotor behaviour improves form discrimination in a patient with visual form agnosia.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Thomas; Milner, A David

    2006-09-01

    It is now well established that the visual brain is divided into two visual streams, the ventral and the dorsal stream. Milner and Goodale have suggested that the ventral stream is dedicated for processing vision for perception and the dorsal stream vision for action [A.D. Milner & M.A. Goodale (1995) The Visual Brain in Action, Oxford University Press, Oxford]. However, it is possible that ongoing processes in the visuomotor stream will nevertheless have an effect on perceptual processes. This possibility was examined in the present study. We have examined the visual form-discrimination performance of the form-agnosic patient D.F. with and without a concurrent visuomotor task, and found that her performance was significantly improved in the former condition. This suggests that the visuomotor behaviour provides cues that enhance her ability to recognize the form of the target object. In control experiments we have ruled out proprioceptive and efferent cues, and therefore propose that D.F. can, to a significant degree, access the object's visuomotor representation in the dorsal stream. Moreover, we show that the grasping-induced perceptual improvement disappears if the target objects only differ with respect to their shape but not their width. This suggests that shape information per se is not used for this grasping task.

  15. Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization.

    PubMed Central

    Fichter, M M; Wallace, C J; Liberman, R P; Davis, J R

    1976-01-01

    Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately. PMID:1002628

  16. Estimation of Phoneme-Specific HMM Topologies for the Automatic Recognition of Dysarthric Speech

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dysarthria is a frequently occurring motor speech disorder which can be caused by neurological trauma, cerebral palsy, or degenerative neurological diseases. Because dysarthria affects phonation, articulation, and prosody, spoken communication of dysarthric speakers gets seriously restricted, affecting their quality of life and confidence. Assistive technology has led to the development of speech applications to improve the spoken communication of dysarthric speakers. In this field, this paper presents an approach to improve the accuracy of HMM-based speech recognition systems. Because phonatory dysfunction is a main characteristic of dysarthric speech, the phonemes of a dysarthric speaker are affected at different levels. Thus, the approach consists in finding the most suitable type of HMM topology (Bakis, Ergodic) for each phoneme in the speaker's phonetic repertoire. The topology is further refined with a suitable number of states and Gaussian mixture components for acoustic modelling. This represents a difference when compared with studies where a single topology is assumed for all phonemes. Finding the suitable parameters (topology and mixtures components) is performed with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Experiments with a well-known dysarthric speech database showed statistically significant improvements of the proposed approach when compared with the single topology approach, even for speakers with severe dysarthria. PMID:24222784

  17. Estimation of phoneme-specific HMM topologies for the automatic recognition of dysarthric speech.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Morales, Santiago-Omar

    2013-01-01

    Dysarthria is a frequently occurring motor speech disorder which can be caused by neurological trauma, cerebral palsy, or degenerative neurological diseases. Because dysarthria affects phonation, articulation, and prosody, spoken communication of dysarthric speakers gets seriously restricted, affecting their quality of life and confidence. Assistive technology has led to the development of speech applications to improve the spoken communication of dysarthric speakers. In this field, this paper presents an approach to improve the accuracy of HMM-based speech recognition systems. Because phonatory dysfunction is a main characteristic of dysarthric speech, the phonemes of a dysarthric speaker are affected at different levels. Thus, the approach consists in finding the most suitable type of HMM topology (Bakis, Ergodic) for each phoneme in the speaker's phonetic repertoire. The topology is further refined with a suitable number of states and Gaussian mixture components for acoustic modelling. This represents a difference when compared with studies where a single topology is assumed for all phonemes. Finding the suitable parameters (topology and mixtures components) is performed with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Experiments with a well-known dysarthric speech database showed statistically significant improvements of the proposed approach when compared with the single topology approach, even for speakers with severe dysarthria.

  18. Improved Ligand Discrimination by Force-Induced Unbinding of the T Cell Receptor from Peptide-MHC

    PubMed Central

    Klotzsch, Enrico; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation is mediated via the recognition of peptides by the T cell receptor (TCR). This receptor ligand interaction is highly specific, and the TCR has to discriminate between a huge number of peptides presented by the products of the major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). Recent studies indicate that cells probe the TCR-pMHC interaction by imposing force on the interaction. Here we investigated in a theoretical analysis the consequences of such force-induced unbinding for T cell recognition. Our findings are as follows. First, the bond rupture under force is much faster, improving the time resolution of the discrimination process. Second, cells can access additional parameters characterizing the shape of the binding energy surface. Third, load-induced unbinding yields a reduced coefficient of variation of the bond lifetimes, which improves the discriminative power even between peptide/MHCs (pMHCs) with similar off-rates. PMID:23601314

  19. Brain responses reveal the learning of foreign language phonemes.

    PubMed

    Winkler, I; Kujala, T; Tiitinen, H; Sivonen, P; Alku, P; Lehtokoski, A; Czigler, I; Csépe, V; Ilmoniemi, R J; Näätänen, R

    1999-09-01

    Learning to speak a new language requires the formation of recognition patterns for the speech sounds specific to the newly acquired language. The present study demonstrates the dynamic nature of cortical memory representations for phonemes in adults by using the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential. We studied Hungarian and Finnish subjects, dividing the Hungarians into a naive (no knowledge of Finnish) and a fluent (in Finnish) group. We found that the MMN for a contrast between two Finnish phonemes was elicited in the fluent Hungarians but not in the naive Hungarians. This result indicates that the fluent Hungarians developed cortical memory representations for the Finnish phoneme system that enabled them to preattentively categorize phonemes specific to this language.

  20. System for Processing Individual Equal Employment Opportunity Discrimination Complaints: Improvements Needed. Civil Service Commission. Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report for Congress recommends improvements in the federal government's system for processing the individual discrimination complaints of federal employees and job applicants. The content is presented in seven chapters. The first, an introduction, presents the scope of review. The second chapter on system planning and implementation covers…

  1. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol improves olfactory discrimination learning in male and female Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Mihalick, Sheila M

    2003-07-01

    During late prenatal and early postnatal brain development, estrogen induces structural sex differences that correspond to behavioral differences in certain domains such as learning and memory. The typically superior performance of males is attributed to the action of elevated concentrations of estrogen, derived inside neurons from the aromatization of testosterone. In contrast, female performance appears dependent on minimal estrogenic activity. Rat models of the relationship between hormones and cognitive behavior predominate the field, but the advent of genetically modified mice as research tools necessitates development of analogous mouse models. This study examined how early postnatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) affected the ability of male and female Swiss-Webster mice to learn a two-choice olfactory discrimination and three repeated reversals. Mice treated with subcutaneous injections of DES from postnatal days 1-10 learned reversals more readily than oil-treated controls, a difference that became evident after repeated testing. DES-exposed males and females learned reversals at a comparable rate, suggesting that early postnatal estrogen exposure does not influence this mode of learning through a sexually differentiated mechanism in mice. An analysis of response patterns during qualitatively different phases of reversal learning revealed that DES-induced improvements probably were not due to greater inhibitory control. Instead, DES appeared to enhance associative ability. Early postnatal estrogen exposure may have the potential to preserve certain cognitive skills in adulthood.

  2. Improving the discrimination of hand motor imagery via virtual reality based visual guidance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Choi, Kup-Sze; Qin, Jing; Pang, Wai-Man; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-08-01

    While research on the brain-computer interface (BCI) has been active in recent years, how to get high-quality electrical brain signals to accurately recognize human intentions for reliable communication and interaction is still a challenging task. The evidence has shown that visually guided motor imagery (MI) can modulate sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in humans, but how to design and implement efficient visual guidance during MI in order to produce better event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using object-oriented movements in a virtual environment as visual guidance on the modulation of sensorimotor EEG rhythms generated by hand MI. To improve the classification accuracy on MI, we further propose an algorithm to automatically extract subject-specific optimal frequency and time bands for the discrimination of ERD patterns produced by left and right hand MI. The experimental results show that the average classification accuracy of object-directed scenarios is much better than that of non-object-directed scenarios (76.87% vs. 69.66%). The result of the t-test measuring the difference between them is statistically significant (p = 0.0207). When compared to algorithms based on fixed frequency and time bands, contralateral dominant ERD patterns can be enhanced by using the subject-specific optimal frequency and the time bands obtained by our proposed algorithm. These findings have the potential to improve the efficacy and robustness of MI-based BCI applications. PMID:27282228

  3. Discriminant analysis of farmers adoption of improved maize varieties in Wa Municipality, Upper West Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Abukari; Salifu, Hussein; Adebanji, Atinuke O

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the quadratic classification function analysis to examine the influence of farmer's socio-demographic and varietal characteristics of maize on adoption of improved maize varieties (IMVs) in the Wa Municipality of the Upper West region of Ghana. The results showed that, farm labour, information availability about the variety, weed resistance, low yielding variety, early maturity and water stress resistance are the major discriminating variables in classifying farmers in the Municipality. The study however revealed that maize experience, low yield, information availability and cost of variety were the most influential discriminating variables between adopters and non-adopters of IMVs. The study recommended the need to improve on the level of farmers' education, ensure steady access to extension services and improvement in varietal characteristics identified in the study. PMID:27652087

  4. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. Here we show that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) are dynamically reformatted in the network at the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in ensemble of output neurons (mitral/tufted cells; M/T). Strikingly, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicts behavioral discrimination performance during the learning phase. Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimuli distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition. PMID:26301325

  5. The Ganong paradigm: Converging evidence supporting initial phoneme weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Erik C.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2003-10-01

    In the present experiment we investigate whether the initial phoneme is given more weight in word recognition [W. D. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh, Cognit. Psych. 10, 29-63 (1978)] or if all phonemes in a word are weighted equally [C. M. Connine, D. G. Blasko, and D. Titone, J. Mem. Lang. 32, 193-210 (1993)]. Using the Ganong paradigm [W. F. Ganong, JEP:HPP. 6, 110-125 (1980)], participants were instructed to categorize a final ambiguous fricative in the target items, which included both words and pseudowords. Pseudowords were created by changing either the initial or a medial phoneme within the words. For example, the word diminish was altered to create the pseudowords timinish and dimimish. In addition, initial and medial phonemes were altered by either one or three distinctive features. The differences in the labeling of the final ambiguous fricative in the target items led to the conclusion that the initial phoneme is weighted more heavily. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  6. Word Retrieval Ability on Phonemic Fluency in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are simple behavioral measures useful in assessing word retrieval abilities. Among the verbal fluency tasks, the utility of the Phonemic Fluency Task in children has received less attention. As the task is dependent on phonemic characteristics of each language, there is a great need for understanding its developmental trend. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the performance on phonemic fluency in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Verbal fluency performance on 2 tasks of phonemic fluency was tested using a cross-sectional study design among 1,015 school-going Malayalam-speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years old. Performance with respect to word productivity and clustering-switching measures was analyzed. The effect of age, gender, and tasks on the outcome measures were investigated in the present study. Study findings revealed a positive influence of age with no statistically significant gender effects. Children employed both task-discrepant and task-consistent organizational strategies during tasks of phonemic fluency, dependent purely on the Malayalam language. Future research focusing on developmental trends across different languages is vital for enhancing the task's clinical sensitivity and specificity among childhood disorders. PMID:26980155

  7. Discriminating non-seismic long-period pulses and noise to improve earthquake source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Takahide; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Bonita, Jun; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Broadband seismometers produce artifacts resembling long-period pulses (non-seismic pulses) that degrade centroid moment tensor (CMT) estimations based on waveform inversion of broadband seismic records in long-period bands (50-200 s). We propose a method to discriminate non-seismic pulses and long-period noise from seismic signals, which can be applied to automatic CMT inversion analysis. In this method, we calculate source amplitudes as peak-to-peak displacement amplitudes in individual long-period seismic records after each event has been corrected for medium attenuation and geometric spreading and then estimate the ratios of individual source amplitudes to the minimum source amplitude. Because source amplitude ratios for non-seismic pulses tend to be greater than those of the seismic signals, we use seismic records in CMT estimations only if their source amplitude ratios are lower than a threshold value ( R). We tested this method using broadband seismic data from the Philippines and found that reprocessed inversion solutions using this method showed a clear improvement when using R = 11, although focal mechanism estimations were not entirely stable. To investigate the general applicability of this method, we analyzed broadband seismic data from F-net in Japan. Our analysis indicated that source amplitude ratios in F-net data ranged up to about 20, indicating that the threshold value may be dependent on station density. Given that F-net is one of the highest density networks in the world, we may assume that a threshold value between 10 and 20 is appropriate for application of our method for most regional broadband networks. Our synthetic tests indicated that source amplitude ratios can be as high as 103, although observed ratios are only within the range 10-20. This suggests that we happened to observe only events having focal mechanisms with source amplitude ratios of 10-20. Alternatively, these high source amplitude ratios can be explained by distortion of

  8. Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria?

    PubMed

    Ruhsam, Markus; Rai, Hardeep S; Mathews, Sarah; Ross, T Gregory; Graham, Sean W; Raubeson, Linda A; Mei, Wenbin; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate phylogenies and effective species discrimination using a small standardized set of plastid genes is challenging in evolutionarily young lineages. Complete plastid genome sequencing offers an increasingly easy-to-access source of characters that helps address this. The usefulness of this approach, however, depends on the extent to which plastid haplotypes track morphological species boundaries. We have tested the power of complete plastid genomes to discriminate among multiple accessions of 11 of 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species, an evolutionarily young lineage where the standard DNA barcoding approach has so far failed and phylogenetic relationships have remained elusive. Additionally, 11 nuclear gene regions were Sanger sequenced for all accessions to ascertain the success of species discrimination using a moderate number of nuclear genes. Overall, fewer than half of the New Caledonian Araucaria species with multiple accessions were monophyletic in the plastid or nuclear trees. However, the plastid data retrieved a phylogeny with a higher resolution compared to any previously published tree of this clade and supported the monophyly of about twice as many species and nodes compared to the nuclear data set. Modest gains in discrimination thus are possible, but using complete plastid genomes or a small number of nuclear genes in DNA barcoding may not substantially raise species discriminatory power in many evolutionarily young lineages. The big challenge therefore remains to develop techniques that allow routine access to large numbers of nuclear markers scaleable to thousands of individuals from phylogenetically disparate sample sets. PMID:25611173

  9. An Improved Algorithm for the Calculation of Exact Term Discrimination Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Hamdouchi, Abdelmoula; Willett, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the calculation of term discrimination values that may be used when the interdocument similarity measure used is the cosine coefficient and when the document representations have been weighted using one particular term weighting scheme. (7 references) (Author/CLB)

  10. Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria?

    PubMed

    Ruhsam, Markus; Rai, Hardeep S; Mathews, Sarah; Ross, T Gregory; Graham, Sean W; Raubeson, Linda A; Mei, Wenbin; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate phylogenies and effective species discrimination using a small standardized set of plastid genes is challenging in evolutionarily young lineages. Complete plastid genome sequencing offers an increasingly easy-to-access source of characters that helps address this. The usefulness of this approach, however, depends on the extent to which plastid haplotypes track morphological species boundaries. We have tested the power of complete plastid genomes to discriminate among multiple accessions of 11 of 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species, an evolutionarily young lineage where the standard DNA barcoding approach has so far failed and phylogenetic relationships have remained elusive. Additionally, 11 nuclear gene regions were Sanger sequenced for all accessions to ascertain the success of species discrimination using a moderate number of nuclear genes. Overall, fewer than half of the New Caledonian Araucaria species with multiple accessions were monophyletic in the plastid or nuclear trees. However, the plastid data retrieved a phylogeny with a higher resolution compared to any previously published tree of this clade and supported the monophyly of about twice as many species and nodes compared to the nuclear data set. Modest gains in discrimination thus are possible, but using complete plastid genomes or a small number of nuclear genes in DNA barcoding may not substantially raise species discriminatory power in many evolutionarily young lineages. The big challenge therefore remains to develop techniques that allow routine access to large numbers of nuclear markers scaleable to thousands of individuals from phylogenetically disparate sample sets.

  11. Voluntary Exercise Improves Performance of a Discrimination Task through Effects on the Striatal Dopamine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a…

  12. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  13. Dissociating neural mechanisms of temporal sequencing and processing phonemes.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Jenna R; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2003-06-01

    Using fMRI, we sought to determine whether the posterior, superior portion of Broca's area performs operations on phoneme segments specifically or implements processes general to sequencing discrete units. Twelve healthy volunteers performed two sequence manipulation tasks and one matching task, using strings of syllables and hummed notes. The posterior portion of Broca's area responded specifically to the sequence manipulation tasks, independent of whether the stimuli were composed of phonemes or hummed notes. In contrast, the left supramarginal gyrus was somewhat more specific to sequencing phoneme segments. These results suggest a functional dissociation of the canonical left hemisphere language regions encompassing the "phonological loop," with the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus responding not to the sound structure of language but rather to sequential operations that may underlie the ability to form words out of dissociable elements.

  14. The role of morphology in phoneme prediction: evidence from MEG.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Allyson; Linzen, Tal; Marantz, Alec

    2014-02-01

    There is substantial neural evidence for the role of morphology (word-internal structure) in visual word recognition. We extend this work to auditory word recognition, drawing on recent evidence that phoneme prediction is central to this process. In a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we crossed morphological complexity (bruis-er vs. bourbon) with the predictability of the word ending (bourbon vs. burble). High prediction error (surprisal) led to increased auditory cortex activity. This effect was enhanced for morphologically complex words. Additionally, we calculated for each timepoint the surprisal corresponding to the phoneme perceived at that timepoint, as well as the cohort entropy, which quantifies the competition among words compatible with the string prefix up to that timepoint. Higher surprisal increased neural activity at the end of the word, and higher entropy decreased neural activity shortly after word onset. These results reinforce the role of morphology and phoneme prediction in spoken word recognition. PMID:24486600

  15. Dissociating neural mechanisms of temporal sequencing and processing phonemes.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Jenna R; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2003-06-01

    Using fMRI, we sought to determine whether the posterior, superior portion of Broca's area performs operations on phoneme segments specifically or implements processes general to sequencing discrete units. Twelve healthy volunteers performed two sequence manipulation tasks and one matching task, using strings of syllables and hummed notes. The posterior portion of Broca's area responded specifically to the sequence manipulation tasks, independent of whether the stimuli were composed of phonemes or hummed notes. In contrast, the left supramarginal gyrus was somewhat more specific to sequencing phoneme segments. These results suggest a functional dissociation of the canonical left hemisphere language regions encompassing the "phonological loop," with the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus responding not to the sound structure of language but rather to sequential operations that may underlie the ability to form words out of dissociable elements. PMID:12797966

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  17. When Variability Matters More than Meaning: The Effect of Lexical Forms on Use of Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /"d"/ and /"t"/ in "daddy" and "tiger", respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they…

  18. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Acquire Alphabetic Literacy Skills in the Absence of Phoneme Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating the relationship between phoneme awareness and word reading ability in Down syndrome (DS) subjects. Finds that the results question that phoneme awareness is not related to alphabetic reading acquisition in DS. Concludes that the ability to detect phonemic similarities in words significantly differentiated between…

  19. Receptive Vocabulary and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Gorin, Joanna S.; Burstein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of language proficiency on the cross-language transfer (CLT) of phonemic awareness in Spanish-speaking kindergarten students and assessed Spanish and English receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness abilities. Correlation results indicated positive correlations between phonemic awareness across languages;…

  20. Voluntary exercise improves performance of a discrimination task through effects on the striatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Stansfield, Katherine J; Green, John T

    2014-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a D1R antagonist into the DLS prior to discrimination learning facilitated the performance of nonexercising rats but not exercising rats. Infusing a D2R antagonist impaired the performance of exercising rats but not nonexercising rats. Exercise-associated facilitation of this task may rely on an exercise-induced decrease in D1R and increase in D2R activation in the DLS. PMID:24934332

  1. Combining multispectral images and selected textural features from high-resolution images to improve discrimination of forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Luis A.; Inan, Igor; Baridon, Juan E.; Lanfranco, Jorge W.

    1998-12-01

    Discrimination of vegetation canopies for production of forestry and land use thematic cartography from multispectral satellite images requires high spectral and spatial resolutions, usually not available in this type of images. A methodology is proposed to improve a vegetation oriented classification from a Landsat TM image by adding texture information obtained from panchromatic aerial photographs. Multispectral classification was used to create a mask of the forested areas that was applied over the aerial mosaic composition. Further vegetation classes were defined based on textural differences, and eight texture features derived from the gray level co-occurrence matrix, three textural energy indicators and a factor of edgeness were tested. A selection of optimal features and textural parameters such as number of gray levels, window size and distance between pixels was performed using principal components and stepwise discriminant analysis techniques with a set of representative samples from each class. After a texture segmentation of panchromatic aerial imagery using optimal parameters and features was completed, a post-classification process based on morphological operations was applied to avoid the neighboring effect generated by the texture analysis. Overall accuracy in the identification of texture classes using the four best feathers was 86.6%, while the 88% of accuracy was achieved in the classification of the complete image. This method is useful for discrimination of certain vegetation classes with low spectral separability and arranged in small forest units, increasing the classification detail in those areas of particular interest.

  2. Spatial release from masking improves sound pattern discrimination along a biologically relevant pulse-rate continuum in gray treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jessica L.; Buerkle, Nathan P.; Bee, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frogs form large choruses during the mating season in which males produce loud advertisement calls to attract females and repel rival males. High background noise levels in these social aggregations can impair vocal perception. In humans, spatial release from masking contributes to our ability to understand speech in noisy social groups. Here, we tested the hypothesis that spatial separation between target signals and ‘chorus-shaped noise’ improves the ability of female gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) to perform a behavioral discrimination task based on perceiving differences in the pulsatile structure of advertisement calls. We used two-stimulus choice tests to measure phonotaxis (approach toward sound) in response to calls differing in pulse rate along a biologically relevant continuum between conspecific (50 pulses s−1) and heterospecific (20 pulses s−1) calls. Signals were presented in quiet, in colocated noise, and in spatially separated noise. In quiet conditions, females exhibited robust preferences for calls with relatively faster pulse rates more typical of conspecific calls. Behavioral discrimination between calls differing in pulse rate was impaired in the presence of colocated noise but similar between quiet and spatially separated noise conditions. Our results indicate that spatial release from energetic masking facilitates a biologically important temporal discrimination task in frogs. We discuss these results in light of previous work on spatial release from masking in frogs and other animals. PMID:24055623

  3. Techniques for decoding speech phonemes and sounds: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C.; Holby, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques studied involve conversion of speech sounds into machine-compatible pulse trains. (1) Voltage-level quantizer produces number of output pulses proportional to amplitude characteristics of vowel-type phoneme waveforms. (2) Pulses produced by quantizer of first speech formants are compared with pulses produced by second formants.

  4. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  5. Phonemic Awareness Education with an ESL Class. Action Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Anne Y.

    This study was designed to include a segment of phonemic awareness in a multi-level English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom as learning progress seemed to be inhibited in part by a lack of understanding of the structure of the English language. A survey was developed and administered to measure student progress to establish a baseline.…

  6. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Crane, Jodie M S; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Townsend, Simon W

    2015-06-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B) in different arrangements (AB or BAB) to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language. PMID:26121619

  7. A Brief Critique of Chomsky's Challenge to Classical Phonemic Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ngar-Fun

    1994-01-01

    Phonemic phonology became important because it provided a descriptive account of dialects and languages that had never been transcribed before, and it derives its greatest strength from its practical orientation, which has proved beneficial to language teaching and learning. Noam Chomsky's criticisms of it are largely unjust because he has not…

  8. Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

  9. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

    PubMed Central

    Savage, James L.; Russell, Andrew F.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B) in different arrangements (AB or BAB) to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language. PMID:26121619

  10. Rhythmic versus Phonemic Interference in Delayed Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Kai; Rubeling, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) of a speaker's voice disturbs normal speech production. Various traditional theories assume that the content of the delayed feedback signal interferes with the actual production of a particular speech unit ("phonemic content hypothesis"). The "displaced rhythm hypothesis" as an alternative explanation…

  11. The Status of the Concept of "Phoneme" in Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Tonnessen, Finn Egil

    2010-01-01

    The notion of the phoneme counts as a break-through of modern theoretical linguistics in the early twentieth century. It paved the way for descriptions of distinctive features at different levels in linguistics. Although it has since then had a turbulent existence across altering theoretical positions, it remains a powerful concept of a…

  12. Training Phoneme Blending Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona; Snowling, Maggie; Buckley, Sue; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a 6-week programme of teaching designed to support the development of phoneme blending skills in children with Down syndrome (DS). Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver the intervention to individual children in daily 10-15-minute sessions, within a broader context of reading and language…

  13. Using Scaffolding to Teach Phonemic Awareness in Preschool and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Lea M.; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    While much research and many curricula have surfaced for teaching phonemic awareness to young learners, we worked with preschool and kindergarten teachers who were frustrated with some children they found hard to teach. Many children easily grasped the instruction provided to them, but others were not catching on even when using suggestions…

  14. The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

  15. Using a lag reinforcement schedule to increase phonemic variability in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Koehler-Platten, Kate; Grow, Laura L; Schulze, Kimberly A; Bertone, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Shaping functional vocal language is difficult when an individual has not yet acquired an echoic repertoire and does not emit sufficient phonemes (i.e., speech sounds) for shaping. Few studies have evaluated interventions to increase the frequency and breadth of phonemes. The current study extended Esch, Esch, and Love (2009) by evaluating the effects of a Lag 1 reinforcement schedule on vocal variability and limiting the definition of variability to responses that incorporated a novel phoneme. For 2 of the 3 participants, the cumulative number of novel phonemes, the percentage of trials with variability, and the number of different phonemes emitted per session increased during the Lag 1 intervention phase. PMID:23814368

  16. Improving the Estimation of Psychometric Functions in 2AFC Discrimination Tasks

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Ulrich and Vorberg (2009) presented a method that fits distinct functions for each order of presentation of standard and test stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, which removes the contaminating influence of order effects from estimates of the difference limen. The two functions are fitted simultaneously under the constraint that their average evaluates to 0.5 when test and standard have the same magnitude, which was regarded as a general property of 2AFC tasks. This constraint implies that physical identity produces indistinguishability, which is valid when test and standard are identical except for magnitude along the dimension of comparison. However, indistinguishability does not occur at physical identity when test and standard differ on dimensions other than that along which they are compared (e.g., vertical and horizontal lines of the same length are not perceived to have the same length). In these cases, the method of Ulrich and Vorberg cannot be used. We propose a generalization of their method for use in such cases and illustrate it with data from a 2AFC experiment involving length discrimination of horizontal and vertical lines. The resultant data could be fitted with our generalization but not with the method of Ulrich and Vorberg. Further extensions of this method are discussed. PMID:21687462

  17. Face adaptation does not improve performance on search or discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, Minna; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Fine, Ione

    2008-01-04

    The face adaptation effect, as described by M. A. Webster and O. H. MacLin (1999), is a robust perceptual shift in the appearance of faces after a brief adaptation period. For example, prolonged exposure to Asian faces causes a Eurasian face to appear distinctly Caucasian. This adaptation effect has been documented for general configural effects, as well as for the facial properties of gender, ethnicity, expression, and identity. We began by replicating the finding that adaptation to ethnicity, gender, and a combination of both features induces selective shifts in category appearance. We then investigated whether this adaptation has perceptual consequences beyond a shift in the perceived category boundary by measuring the effects of adaptation on RSVP, spatial search, and discrimination tasks. Adaptation had no discernable effect on performance for any of these tasks.

  18. Learning discriminative distance functions for valve retrieval and improved decision support in valvular heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Vitanovski, Dime; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Tsymal, Alexey; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Huber, Martin; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Disorders of the heart valves constitute a considerable health problem and often require surgical intervention. Recently various approaches were published seeking to overcome the shortcomings of current clinical practice,that still relies on manually performed measurements for performance assessment. Clinical decisions are still based on generic information from clinical guidelines and publications and personal experience of clinicians. We present a framework for retrieval and decision support using learning based discriminative distance functions and visualization of patient similarity with relative neighborhood graphsbased on shape and derived features. We considered two learning based techniques, namely learning from equivalence constraints and the intrinsic Random Forest distance. The generic approach enables for learning arbitrary user-defined concepts of similarity depending on the application. This is demonstrated with the proposed applications, including automated diagnosis and interventional suitability classification, where classification rates of up to 88.9% and 85.9% could be observed on a set of valve models from 288 and 102 patients respectively.

  19. The alpha-2A noradrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine improves visual object discrimination reversal performance in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Steere, J C; Arnsten, A F

    1997-10-01

    Administration of either low or high doses of the alpha-2A adrenergic agonist guanfacine (GFC) to aged monkeys has been shown to improve performance of the delayed-response task, a task linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Monkeys treated with higher guanfacine doses also appeared less disinhibited, suggesting enhanced ventromedial-orbital PFC (vmPFC) function. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the effects of low versus high doses of GFC on reversal of a visual object discrimination task, a task particularly sensitive to vmPFC lesions. The results of this study showed that high (0.1 mg/kg) but not low (0.00001-0.001 mg/kg) doses of GFC significantly improved reversal performance in aged monkeys. These results may be relevant to GFC's calming effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:9383511

  20. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children with Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…

  1. Pseudo-inverse linear discriminants for the improvement of overall classification accuracies.

    PubMed

    Daqi, Gao; Ahmed, Dastagir; Lili, Guo; Zejian, Wang; Zhe, Wang

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the learning and generalization performances of pseudo-inverse linear discriminant (PILDs) based on the processing minimum sum-of-squared error (MS(2)E) and the targeting overall classification accuracy (OCA) criterion functions. There is little practicable significance to prove the equivalency between a PILD with the desired outputs in reverse proportion to the number of class samples and an FLD with the totally projected mean thresholds. When the desired outputs of each class are assigned a fixed value, a PILD is partly equal to an FLD. With the customarily desired outputs {1, -1}, a practicable threshold is acquired, which is only related to sample sizes. If the desired outputs of each sample are changeable, a PILD has nothing in common with an FLD. The optimal threshold may thus be singled out from multiple empirical ones related to sizes and distributed regions. Depending upon the processing MS(2)E criteria and the actually algebraic distances, an iterative learning strategy of PILD is proposed, the outstanding advantages of which are with limited epoch, without learning rate and divergent risk. Enormous experimental results for the benchmark datasets have verified that the iterative PILDs with optimal thresholds have good learning and generalization performances, and even reach the top OCAs for some datasets among the existing classifiers.

  2. The Missing-Phoneme Effect in Aural Prose Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Klein, Raymond M; Babineau, Mireille; Christie, John; Gow, David W

    2016-07-01

    When participants search for a target letter while reading for comprehension, they miss more instances if the target letter is embedded in frequent function words than in less frequent content words. This phenomenon, called the missing-letter effect, has been considered a window on the cognitive mechanisms involved in the visual processing of written language. In the present study, one group of participants read two texts for comprehension while searching for a target letter, and another group listened to a narration of the same two texts while listening for the target letter's corresponding phoneme. The ubiquitous missing-letter effect was replicated and extended to a missing-phoneme effect Item-based correlations between the reading and listening tasks were high, which led us to conclude that both tasks involve cognitive processes that reading and listening have in common and that both processes are rooted in psycholinguistically driven allocation of attention.

  3. The effect of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, T T; Sorri, M J; Löppönen, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception in Finnish-speaking postlingually deafened adults. Phoneme recognition was studied with 100 prerecorded nonsense syllables (open-set) presented at 70 dB SPL, auditorily only, in a free-field situation. Ten subjects were tested before implantation both with and without a hearing aid (HA), and 3, 6 and 12 months after switching on the implant. Before implantation without a HA, the subjects did not recognize vowels, consonants or syllables. Four of the subjects used a HA before implantation, and the mean recognition scores of these subjects were 34% for vowels, 28% for consonants and 13% for syllables. One year after switching on the implant, the mean recognition scores were 77% for vowels, 66% for consonants and 46% for syllables. According to phonological analysis vowels appear to be easier to perceive than consonants during the first stage after multichannel cochlear implantation.

  4. Paper spray mass spectrometry and PLS-DA improved by variable selection for the forensic discrimination of beers.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Amador, Victória Silva; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2016-10-12

    Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class. Parameters affecting the paper spray ionization were examined and optimized. The best MS signal stability and intensity was obtained while using the positive ion mode, with PS(+) mass spectra characterized by intense pairs of signals corresponding to sodium and potassium adducts of malto-oligosaccharides. Discrimination was not apparent neither by using visual inspection nor principal component analysis (PCA). However, supervised classification models provided high rates of sensitivity and specificity. A PLS-DA model using full scan mass spectra were improved by variable selection with ordered predictors selection (OPS), providing 100% of reliability rate and reducing the number of variables from 1701 to 60. This model was interpreted by detecting fifteen variables as the most significant VIP (variable importance in projection) scores, which were therefore considered diagnostic ions for this type of beer counterfeit.

  5. Paper spray mass spectrometry and PLS-DA improved by variable selection for the forensic discrimination of beers.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Amador, Victória Silva; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2016-10-12

    Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class. Parameters affecting the paper spray ionization were examined and optimized. The best MS signal stability and intensity was obtained while using the positive ion mode, with PS(+) mass spectra characterized by intense pairs of signals corresponding to sodium and potassium adducts of malto-oligosaccharides. Discrimination was not apparent neither by using visual inspection nor principal component analysis (PCA). However, supervised classification models provided high rates of sensitivity and specificity. A PLS-DA model using full scan mass spectra were improved by variable selection with ordered predictors selection (OPS), providing 100% of reliability rate and reducing the number of variables from 1701 to 60. This model was interpreted by detecting fifteen variables as the most significant VIP (variable importance in projection) scores, which were therefore considered diagnostic ions for this type of beer counterfeit. PMID:27662764

  6. Simple motor and phonemic processing reaction times of elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rastatter, M P; Hood, S B

    1986-07-01

    Simple motor reaction time (RT) was measured for arm movement in response to a known monosyllable presented by earphone. The required direction of movement (L or R) was known to S. Choice RT was also measured: only one word of a pair of taped monosyllabic words, differing only in the prevocalic consonant (e.g., tea-key) was presented by earphone. Simultaneously, a picture of each word appeared on response plates, one to the L and one to the R of the center rest position. S had to touch the response plate with the picture of the word heard. Subtracting simple from choice RT, in msec, yielded an estimate of auditory-phonemic processing (decoding) time. Data were collected from generally normal, healthy, elderly Ss [Grp I (10 M, 10 F) of 72 yrs mean age, and Grp II (7 M, 9 F) of 84 yrs mean age] and a control group (9 M, 9 F) of 21 yrs mean age. An ANOVA with repeated measures showed that significant differences existed among the 3 groups. A similar ANOVA procedure on phonemic processing time revealed that significant differences existed between the younger and the older Ss, but not between Grps I vs II. Collectively, these findings were taken to suggest that advanced age does not affect all behavioral operations in a generalized fashion. It was suggested that auditory-phonemic processing is more resistant to the aging process than manual responses. PMID:3680144

  7. Speaker-Independent Phoneme Alignment Using Transition-Dependent States.

    PubMed

    Hosom, John-Paul

    2009-04-01

    Determining the location of phonemes is important to a number of speech applications, including training of automatic speech recognition systems, building text-to-speech systems, and research on human speech processing. Agreement of humans on the location of phonemes is, on average, 93.78% within 20 msec on a variety of corpora, and 93.49% within 20 msec on the TIMIT corpus. We describe a baseline forced-alignment system and a proposed system with several modifications to this baseline. Modifications include the addition of energy-based features to the standard cepstral feature set, the use of probabilities of a state transition given an observation, and the computation of probabilities of distinctive phonetic features instead of phoneme-level probabilities. Performance of the baseline system on the test partition of the TIMIT corpus is 91.48% within 20 msec, and performance of the proposed system on this corpus is 93.36% within 20 msec. The results of the proposed system are a 22% relative reduction in error over the baseline system, and a 14% reduction in error over results from a non-HMM alignment system. This result of 93.36% agreement is the best known reported result on the TIMIT corpus. PMID:20161342

  8. Distinct representations of syllables and phonemes in Chinese production: Evidence from fMRI adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengxia; Mo, Ce; Li, You; Mo, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Existing linguistic theories have converged on the fundamental role of syllable and phoneme as the phonological production units that drive articulation in most alphabetic languages, while much remains controversial concerning the logographic Chinese because there is no conclusive evidence of the neural correlates of syllabic and phonemic processing during Chinese speech production. Here, fMRI adaptation paradigm was used to explore the possibility of distinctive neural representations of phonemes and syllables when native Chinese speakers pronounced Chinese pseudowords. We found that bilateral basal ganglia (BG) exhibited evident neural adaptation effect for phonemic repetition, indicating independent neural representation of phonemes in the speech production network in Chinese speakers. Moreover, neural adaptation effect for syllabic repetition was found in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STg). These findings thus suggest that, similar to alphabetic languages, both phonemes and syllables are phonological production units associated with distinctive neural representations in Mandarin Chinese and further implicate the universality of hierarchical phonological coding across different linguistic systems.

  9. Using SNP genotypes to improve the discrimination of a simple breast cancer risk prediction model

    PubMed Central

    Dite, Gillian S; Mahmoodi, Maryam; Bickerstaffe, Adrian; Hammet, Fleur; Macinnis, Robert J; Tsimiklis, Helen; Dowty, James G; Apicella, Carmel; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that, for women aged 50 years or older, the discriminatory accuracy of the Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Tool (BCRAT) can be modestly improved by the inclusion of information on common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risk. We aimed to determine whether a similar improvement is seen for earlier onset disease. We used the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry to study a population-based sample of 962 cases aged 35 to 59 years and 463 controls frequency matched for age and for whom genotyping data was available. Overall, the inclusion of data on seven SNPs improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) from 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55–0.61) for BCRAT alone to 0.61 (95% CI=0.58–0.64) for BCRAT and SNP data combined (p<0.001). For women aged 35 to 39 years at interview, the corresponding improvement in AUC was from 0.61 (95% CI=0.56–0.66) to 0.65 (95% CI=0.60–0.70; p=0.03), while for women aged 40 to 49 years at diagnosis, the AUC improved from 0.61 (95% CI=0.55–0.66) to 0.63 (95% CI=0.57–0.69; p=0.04). Using previously used classifications of low, intermediate and high risk, 2.1% of cases and none of the controls aged 35 to 39 years, and 10.9% of cases and 4.0% of controls aged 40 to 49 years were classified into a higher risk group. Including information on seven SNPs associated with breast cancer risk improves the discriminatory accuracy of BCRAT for women aged 35 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years. Given the low absolute risk for women in these age groups, only a small proportion are reclassified into a higher category for predicted 5-year risk of breast cancer. PMID:23774992

  10. Discriminating between climate observations in terms of their ability to improve an ensemble of climate predictions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Leroy, Stephen; Goody, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    In view of the cost and complexity of climate-observing systems, it is a matter of concern to know which measurements, by satellite or in situ, can best improve the accuracy and precision of long-term ensembles of climate projections. We follow a statistical procedure to evaluate the relative capabilities of a wide variety of observable data types for improving the accuracy and precision of an ensemble of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models. Thirty-two data types are evaluated for their potential for improving a 50-y surface air temperature trend prediction with data from earlier periods, with an emphasis on 20 y. Data types can be ordered in terms of their ability to increase the precision of a forecast. Results show that important conclusions can follow from this ordering. The small size of the IPCC model ensemble (20 members) creates uncertainties in these conclusions, which need to be substantiated with the larger ensembles expected in the future. But the larger issue of whether the methodology can provide useful answers is demonstrated. PMID:21670245

  11. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  12. Improving image contrast and material discrimination with nonlinear response in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Forchheimer, Robert; Haviland, David B.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy has recently been extented to bimodal operation, where increased image contrast is achieved through excitation and measurement of two cantilever eigenmodes. This enhanced material contrast is advantageous in analysis of complex heterogeneous materials with phase separation on the micro or nanometre scale. Here we show that much greater image contrast results from analysis of nonlinear response to the bimodal drive, at harmonics and mixing frequencies. The amplitude and phase of up to 17 frequencies are simultaneously measured in a single scan. Using a machine-learning algorithm we demonstrate almost threefold improvement in the ability to separate material components of a polymer blend when including this nonlinear response. Beyond the statistical analysis performed here, analysis of nonlinear response could be used to obtain quantitative material properties at high speeds and with enhanced resolution.

  13. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Nicole; Ruhlen, Merritt; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide patterns of genetic variation are driven by human demographic history. Here, we test whether this demographic history has left similar signatures on phonemes—sound units that distinguish meaning between words in languages—to those it has left on genes. We analyze, jointly and in parallel, phoneme inventories from 2,082 worldwide languages and microsatellite polymorphisms from 246 worldwide populations. On a global scale, both genetic distance and phonemic distance between populations are significantly correlated with geographic distance. Geographically close language pairs share significantly more phonemes than distant language pairs, whether or not the languages are closely related. The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. However, the geographic distribution of phoneme inventory sizes does not follow the predictions of a serial founder effect during human expansion out of Africa. Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. This finding suggests that relatively isolated languages are more susceptible to phonemic change than languages with many neighbors. Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution. PMID:25605893

  14. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Cai -Lin; Riedel, Richard A.

    2016-01-14

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at SNS. Traditional pulse-height analysis (PHA) for neutron-gamma discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, five digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms from PMTs were proposed using: i). pulse-amplitude histogram; ii). power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse amplitude; iii). two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from Wiener filter; iv). an effective amplitude (m)more » obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter; and v). a cross-correlation (CC) coefficient between an individual waveform and a reference. The NGD ratios can be 1-102 times those from traditional PHA method. A brighter scintillator GS2 has better NGD ratio than GS20, but lower neutron detection efficiency. The ultimate NGD ratio is related to the ambient, high-energy background events. Moreover, our results indicate the NGD capability of neutron Anger cameras can be improved using digital signal analysis methods and brighter neutron scintillators.« less

  15. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a (6)Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Riedel, R A

    2016-01-01

    A (6)Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 10(4). The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods. PMID:26827314

  16. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. L.; Riedel, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods.

  17. Improved signal discrimination in tectonomagnetism: Discovery of a volcanomagnetic effect at Kilauea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.M.; Stacey, F.D.; Zablocki, C.J.; Olson, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Cancellation of extraterrestrial magnetic disturbances by taking simple differences between total field readings at spaced stations is imperfect. It is shown that improvement is possible when three component observatory data are available from a single station in the general, but not necessarily immediate, vicinity of an array of total field stations used in a tectonomagnetic study. The local effects of a magnetic disturbance field depend upon its orientation, so that local field differences are more effectively generated by certain orientations of the disturbance field. The orientation of the disturbance field which correlates best with a local difference field is determined by a least-squares method, so that the correlated vector signal can be routinely subtracted from the difference field record. Application of the technique to daily averages of records from three synchronised proton magnetometers on Kilauea volcano reveals a 1.5-nT change in the local field at the time of a flank eruption in May, 1973. This effect was obscured by noise in the raw difference field data. ?? 1979.

  18. Using buriedness to improve discrimination between actives and inactives in docking.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Noel M; Brewerton, Suzanne C; Taylor, Robin

    2008-06-01

    A continuing problem in protein-ligand docking is the correct relative ranking of active molecules versus inactives. Using the ChemScore scoring function as implemented in the GOLD docking software, we have investigated the effect of scaling hydrogen bond, metal-ligand, and lipophilic interactions based on the buriedness of the interaction. Buriedness was measured using the receptor density, the number of protein heavy atoms within 8.0 A. Terms in the scaling functions were optimized using negative data, represented by docked poses of inactive molecules. The objective function was the mean rank of the scores of the active poses in the Astex Diverse Set (Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem., 2007, 50, 726) with respect to the docked poses of 99 inactives. The final four-parameter model gave a substantial improvement in the average rank from 18.6 to 12.5. Similar results were obtained for an independent test set. Receptor density scaling is available as an option in the recent GOLD release. PMID:18533645

  19. Phonemic restoration effect reversed in a reverberant room

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Nirmal Kumar; Zahorik, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Classic demonstrations of the phonemic restoration effect show increased intelligibility of interrupted speech when the interruptions are caused by a plausible masking sound rather than by silent periods. Previous studies of this effect have been conducted exclusively under anechoic or nearly anechoic listening conditions. This study demonstrates that the effect is reversed when sounds are presented in a realistically simulated reverberant room (broadband T60 = 1.1 s): intelligibility is greater for silent interruptions than for interruptions by unmodulated noise. Additional results suggest that the reversal is primarily due to filling silent intervals with reverberant energy from the speech signal. PMID:22280726

  20. Paced Reading in Semantic Dementia: Word Knowledge Contributes to Phoneme Binding in Rapid Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Grogan, John; Mapelli, Cristina; Isella, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) show deficits in phoneme binding in immediate serial recall: when attempting to reproduce a sequence of words that they no longer fully understand, they show frequent migrations of phonemes between items (e.g., cap, frog recalled as "frap, cog"). This suggests that verbal short-term memory emerges directly from…

  1. Phonemic Awareness Skill of Speech-Language Pathologists and Other Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Schuele, C. Melanie; Guillot, Kathryn M.; Lee, Marvin W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Educators rely on sufficient knowledge and skill to provide effective phonemic awareness instruction, an important component of early literacy instruction, particularly for children who experience difficulty learning to read. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the phonemic awareness skill of several groups of educators,…

  2. Phonemic Awareness: A Step by Step Approach for Success in Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Idalia Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This guide will help teach phonemic awareness to Pre K-3 students. It presents phonemic awareness as a sophisticated branch of phonological awareness through interactive activities that allows the student to succeed in learning the sounds represented by the letters of the alphabet. The book is designed to provide easy-to-follow suggestions for:…

  3. Missing phonemes are perceptually restored but differently by native and non-native listeners.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mako; Arai, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how similarly present and absent English phonemes behind noise are perceived by native and non-native speakers. Participants were English native speakers and Japanese native speakers who spoke English as a second language. They listened to English words and non-words in which a phoneme was covered by noise (added; phoneme + noise) or replaced by noise (replaced; noise only). The target phoneme was either a nasal (/m/ and /n/) or a liquid (/l/ and /r/). In experiment, participants listened to a pair of a word (or non-word) with noise (added or replaced) and a word (or non-word) without noise (original) in a row, and evaluated the similarity of the two on an eight-point scale (8: very similar, 1: not similar). The results suggested that both native and non-native speakers perceived the 'added' phoneme more similar to the original sound than the 'replaced' phoneme to the original sound. In addition, both native and non-native speakers restored missing nasals more than missing liquids. In general, a replaced phoneme was better restored in words than non-words by native speakers, but equally restored by non-native speakers. It seems that bottom-up acoustic cues and top-down lexical cues are adopted differently in the phonemic restoration of native and non-native speakers. PMID:27375982

  4. Effects of Specific Strategy Training on Phonemic Awareness and Reading Aloud with Preschoolers: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Caroline G.; Lee, Steven W.; Schowengerdt, Richard V.

    Reading aloud and training in phonemic awareness have been promoted as two ways to increase children's reading ability. Reading aloud encourages children to find pleasure in reading and use literature to aid in learning. Children with early awareness of individual sounds in words, called phonemes, and the ability to manipulate them are more likely…

  5. Phoneme, Grapheme, Onset-Rime and Word Analysis in Braille with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.; Hoekman, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of sighted pre-school children were taught to name six braille letters: one group received phoneme instruction and the other grapheme instruction. Ten boys and ten girls (average age 4:5 years) participated. There was a statistically significant advantage for the phoneme group (Experiment 1). In a repeated measures design, 16 sighted…

  6. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  7. Using a Lag Reinforcement Schedule to Increase Phonemic Variability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler-Platten, Kate; Grow, Laura L.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Bertone, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Shaping functional vocal language is difficult when an individual has not yet acquired an echoic repertoire and does not emit sufficient phonemes (i.e., speech sounds) for shaping. Few studies have evaluated interventions to increase the frequency and breadth of phonemes. The current study extended Esch, Esch, and Love (2009) by evaluating the…

  8. The Role of Phoneme in Mandarin Chinese Production: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Established linguistic theoretical frameworks propose that alphabetic language speakers use phonemes as phonological encoding units during speech production whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables. This framework was challenged by recent neural evidence of facilitation induced by overlapping initial phonemes, raising the possibility that phonemes also contribute to the phonological encoding process in Chinese. However, there is no evidence of non-initial phoneme involvement in Chinese phonological encoding among representative Chinese speakers, rendering the functional role of phonemes in spoken Chinese controversial. Here, we addressed this issue by systematically investigating the word-initial and non-initial phoneme repetition effect on the electrophysiological signal using a picture-naming priming task in which native Chinese speakers produced disyllabic word pairs. We found that overlapping phonemes in both the initial and non-initial position evoked more positive ERPs in the 180- to 300-ms interval, indicating position-invariant repetition facilitation effect during phonological encoding. Our findings thus revealed the fundamental role of phonemes as independent phonological encoding units in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:25191857

  9. Phoneme Restoration Methods Reveal Prosodic Influences on Syntactic Parsing: Data from Bulgarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyneshka-Raleva, Iglika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces and evaluates a new methodology for studying aspects of human language processing and the factors to which it is sensitive. It makes use of the phoneme restoration illusion (Warren, 1970). A small portion of a spoken sentence is replaced by a burst of noise. Listeners typically mentally restore the missing phoneme(s),…

  10. Tucker Signing as a Phonics Instruction Tool to Develop Phonemic Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Amanda Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To develop reading acquisition in an effective way, it is necessary to take into account three goals during the process: automatic word recognition, or development of phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, and a desire for reading. This article focuses on promoting phonemic awareness in English as a second language through a program called…

  11. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  12. Phonemic Awareness and Letter Knowledge in the Child's Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    A study of acquisition of the alphabetic principle in 64 preliterate children, aged 3 to 5 years, is reported. It appears that phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme knowledge are needed in combination for acquisition of the alphabetic principle. Once gained, alphabetic insight proved relatively robust. (TJH)

  13. Recognition of Phoneme Invariance by Beginning Readers: Confounding Effects of Global Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the development of a test of phonemic awareness suitable for administration to young children. Compares kindergarteners' performance on a measure controlling for global similarity and another measure not controlled. Finds support for the importance of controlling for global similarity when attempting to measure phoneme invariance. (RS)

  14. Effects of Preschool Phoneme Identity Training after Six Years: Outcome Level Distinguished from Rate of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Ashley, Luise

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study of Grade 5 children who had been trained in phoneme identity six years earlier. Results reveal that these children were superior to untrained controls on irregular word reading and on a composite list of nonwords, regular words, and irregular words. Preschool instruction in phonemic structure had modest but detectable effects on…

  15. The Role of Phoneme and Onset-Rime Awareness in Second Language Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Corinne A.; Savage, Robert; Erdos, Caroline; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the link between phoneme and onset-rime awareness and reading outcomes in children learning to read in a second language (L2). Closely matched phoneme and onset-rime awareness tasks were administered in English and French in the spring of kindergarten to English-dominant children in French immersion programmes (n=98).…

  16. Phoneme Awareness Training with At-Risk Kindergarten Children: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Vicky L.; Feng, Jianhua

    Phoneme awareness, or the ability to recognize a spoken word as a sequence of individual sounds, is thought to be an essential prerequisite to successful literacy. A child-based phoneme awareness training program integrating children's experience and activities with sound awareness and print immersion was developed at a small urban elementary…

  17. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  18. The Influence of Specific Phonemic Awareness Processes on the Reading Comprehension of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Taub, Gordon E.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates the primary difference between strong and weak readers is their phonemic awareness skills. However, there is no consensus regarding which specific components of phonemic awareness contribute most robustly to reading comprehension. In this study, the relationship among sound blending, sound segmentation, and reading comprehension…

  19. Adaptive Recognition of Phonemes from Speaker - Connected-Speech Using Alisa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osella, Stephen Albert

    The purpose of this dissertation research is to investigate a novel approach to automatic speech recognition (ASR). The successes that have been achieved in ASR have relied heavily on the use of a language grammar, which significantly constrains the ASR process. By using grammar to provide most of the recognition ability, the ASR system does not have to be as accurate at the low-level recognition stage. The ALISA Phonetic Transcriber (APT) algorithm is proposed as a way to improve ASR by enhancing the lowest -level recognition stage. The objective of the APT algorithm is to classify speech frames (a short sequence of speech signal samples) into a small set of phoneme classes. The APT algorithm constructs the mapping from speech frames to phoneme labels through a multi-layer feedforward process. A design principle of APT is that final decisions are delayed as long as possible. Instead of attempting to optimize the decision making at each processing level individually, each level generates a list of candidate solutions that are passed on to the next level of processing. The later processing levels use these candidate solutions to resolve ambiguities. The scope of this dissertation is the design of the APT algorithm up to the speech-frame classification stage. In future research, the APT algorithm will be extended to the word recognition stage. In particular, the APT algorithm could serve as the front-end stage to a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based word recognition system. In such a configuration, the APT algorithm would provide the HMM with the requisite phoneme state-probability estimates. To date, the APT algorithm has been tested with the TIMIT and NTIMIT speech databases. The APT algorithm has been trained and tested on the SX and SI sentence texts using both male and female speakers. Results indicate better performance than those results obtained using a neural network based speech-frame classifier. The performance of the APT algorithm has been evaluated for

  20. When variability matters more than meaning: the effect of lexical forms on use of phonemic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-09-01

    During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /d/ and /t/ in daddy and tiger, respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they struggle to generalize the use of phonemic contrasts to novel syllabic contexts (Thiessen, 2007; Thiessen & Yee, 2010). Further, in prior research, infants have been provided only with experience in lexical forms that refer to novel objects, while many lexical forms in the natural environment do not have easily identified visual referents. The experiments in this article show that even lexical forms without referents can facilitate use of phonemic contrasts. Additionally, the results indicate that when lexical forms provide infants with enough variability (for example, a consonant followed by multiple different vowels), infants are able to generalize to novel contexts. PMID:21744949

  1. Cross-modal effects on learning: a seismic stimulus improves color discrimination learning in a jumping spider.

    PubMed

    VanderSal, Nicole D; Hebets, Eileen A

    2007-10-01

    The production of multimodal signals during animal displays is extremely common, and the function of such complex signaling has received much attention. Currently, the most frequently explored hypotheses regarding the evolution and function of complex signaling focus on the signal and/or signaler, or the signaling environment, while much less attention has been placed on the receivers. However, recent studies using vertebrates suggest that receiver psychology (e.g. learning and memory) may play a large role in the evolution of complex signaling. To date, the influence of multimodal cues on receiver learning and/or memory has not been studied in invertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that the presence of a seismic (vibratory) stimulus improves color discrimination learning in the jumping spider Habronattus dossenus. Using a heat-aversion learning experiment, we found evidence for a cross-modal effect on color learning. Over a series of training trials, individuals exposed to a seismic stimulus jumped onto the heated color less frequently and remained there for less time than did individuals not exposed to a seismic stimulus. In addition, in a final no-heat test trial, individuals from the seismic-present treatment were more likely to avoid the previously heated color than were individuals from the seismic-absent treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate a cross-modal influence on learning in an invertebrate. PMID:17921169

  2. Cross-Sectional Study of Phoneme and Rhyme Monitoring Abilities in Children between 7 and 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We investigated phonemic competence in production in three age groups of children (7 and 8, 10 and 11, 12 and 13 years) using rhyme and phoneme monitoring. Participants were required to name target pictures silently while monitoring covert speech for the presence or absence of a rhyme or phoneme match. Performance in the verbal tasks was compared…

  3. Nonword Recall and Phonemic Discrimination in Four- to Six-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Laxon, Veronica; Carnegie, Emma; Wright, Sheila; Horslen, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has established that the degree of "wordlikeness" of nonwords affects young children's nonword repetition performance. Experiment 1 examined the possibility that output processes are responsible for the wordlikeness effect by using a probed recall procedure. Wordlikeness was defined in terms of phonological neighbourhood density,…

  4. Direct classification of all American English phonemes using signals from functional speech motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugler, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Schuele, Stephan U.; Rosenow, Joshua; Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Although brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be used in several different ways to restore communication, communicative BCI has not approached the rate or efficiency of natural human speech. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has precise spatiotemporal resolution that enables recording of brain activity distributed over a wide area of cortex, such as during speech production. In this study, we sought to decode elements of speech production using ECoG. Approach. We investigated words that contain the entire set of phonemes in the general American accent using ECoG with four subjects. Using a linear classifier, we evaluated the degree to which individual phonemes within each word could be correctly identified from cortical signal. Main results. We classified phonemes with up to 36% accuracy when classifying all phonemes and up to 63% accuracy for a single phoneme. Further, misclassified phonemes follow articulation organization described in phonology literature, aiding classification of whole words. Precise temporal alignment to phoneme onset was crucial for classification success. Significance. We identified specific spatiotemporal features that aid classification, which could guide future applications. Word identification was equivalent to information transfer rates as high as 3.0 bits s-1 (33.6 words min-1), supporting pursuit of speech articulation for BCI control.

  5. A fast algorithm for the phonemic segmentation of continuous speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, D.

    1986-04-01

    The method of differential learning (DL method) was applied to the fast phonemic classification of acoustic speech spectra. The method was also tested with a simple algorithm for continuous speech recognition. In every learning step of the DL method only that single pattern component which deviates most from the reference value is used for a new rule. Several rules of this type were connected in a conjunctive or disjunctive way. Tests with a single speaker demonstrate good classification capability and a very high speed. The inclusion of automatically additional features selected according to their relevance is discussed. It is shown that there exists a correspondence between processes related to the DL method and pattern recognition in living beings with their ability for generalization and differentiation.

  6. Improvement of the Mutation-Discrimination Threshold for Rare Point Mutations by a Separation-Free Ligase Detection Reaction Assay Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Kenta; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Chinami; Esaki, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a separation-free ligase detection reaction assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a donor quantum dot to an acceptor fluorescent dye. This assay could successfully detect one cancer mutation among 10 wild-type templates. In the current study, the mutation-discrimination threshold was improved by one order of magnitude by replacing the original acceptor dye (Alexa Fluor 647) with another fluorescent dye (Cyanine 5) that was spectrally similar but more fluorescent. PMID:26960620

  7. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  8. Functions of graphemic and phonemic codes in visual word-recognition.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D E; Schvaneveldt, R W; Ruddy, M G

    1974-03-01

    Previous investigators have argued that printed words are recognized directly from visual representations and/or phonological representations obtained through phonemic recoding. The present research tested these hypotheses by manipulating graphemic and phonemic relations within various pairs of letter strings. Ss in two experiments classified the pairs as words or nonwords. Reaction times and error rates were relatively small for word pairs (e.g., BRIBE-TRIBE) that were both graphemically, and phonemically similar. Graphemic similarity alone inhibited performance on other word pairs (e.g., COUCH-TOUCH). These and other results suggest that phonological representations play a significant role in visual word recognition and that there is a dependence between successive phonemic-encoding operations. An encoding-bias model is proposed to explain the data. PMID:24214761

  9. Validity of a Non-Speech Dynamic Assessment of Phonemic Awareness via the Alphabetic Principle

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R. Michael; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Most assessments of phonemic awareness require speech responses and cannot be used with individuals with severe speech impairments who may use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This study investigated the reliability and construct validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Phonemic Awareness via the Alphabetic Principle (DAPA-AP), which does not require speech. In all, 17 adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities completed the DAPA-AP, a letter-sound knowledge task, four measures of phonological awareness, and two reading assessments. Results indicated the DAPA-AP was both a reliable and valid assessment of phonemic awareness for this sample. Consequently, the DAPA-AP represents an important step in developing phonemic awareness assessments that have the potential to be suitable for use with a wide range of individuals, including those with SSI. PMID:24564701

  10. Development of Single/Geminate Obstruent Discrimination by Japanese Infants: Early Integration of Durational and Nondurational Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation…

  11. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  12. Processing of syllable stress is functionally different from phoneme processing and does not profit from literacy acquisition.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B C; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2014-01-01

    Speech is characterized by phonemes and prosody. Neurocognitive evidence supports the separate processing of each type of information. Therefore, one might suggest individual development of both pathways. In this study, we examine literacy acquisition in middle childhood. Children become aware of the phonemes in speech at that time and refine phoneme processing when they acquire an alphabetic writing system. We test whether an enhanced sensitivity to phonemes in middle childhood extends to other aspects of the speech signal, such as prosody. To investigate prosodic processing, we used stress priming. Spoken stressed and unstressed syllables (primes) preceded spoken German words with stress on the first syllable (targets). We orthogonally varied stress overlap and phoneme overlap between the primes and onsets of the targets. Lexical decisions and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) for the targets were obtained for pre-reading preschoolers, reading pupils and adults. The behavioral and ERP results were largely comparable across all groups. The fastest responses were observed when the first syllable of the target word shared stress and phonemes with the preceding prime. ERP stress priming and ERP phoneme priming started 200 ms after the target word onset. Bilateral ERP stress priming was characterized by enhanced ERP amplitudes for stress overlap. Left-lateralized ERP phoneme priming replicates previously observed reduced ERP amplitudes for phoneme overlap. Groups differed in the strength of the behavioral phoneme priming and in the late ERP phoneme priming effect. The present results show that enhanced phonological processing in middle childhood is restricted to phonemes and does not extend to prosody. These results are indicative of two parallel processing systems for phonemes and prosody that might follow different developmental trajectories in middle childhood as a function of alphabetic literacy. PMID:24917838

  13. Phonetic basis of phonemic paraphasias in aphasia: Evidence for cascading activation.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Kathleen; Blumstein, Sheila E

    2016-02-01

    Phonemic paraphasias are a common presenting symptom in aphasia and are thought to reflect a deficit in which selecting an incorrect phonemic segment results in the clear-cut substitution of one phonemic segment for another. The current study re-examines the basis of these paraphasias. Seven left hemisphere-damaged aphasics with a range of left hemisphere lesions and clinical diagnoses including Broca's, Conduction, and Wernicke's aphasia, were asked to produce syllable-initial voiced and voiceless fricative consonants, [z] and [s], in CV syllables followed by one of five vowels [i e a o u] in isolation and in a carrier phrase. Acoustic analyses were conducted focusing on two acoustic parameters signaling voicing in fricative consonants: duration and amplitude properties of the fricative noise. Results show that for all participants, regardless of clinical diagnosis or lesion site, phonemic paraphasias leave an acoustic trace of the original target in the error production. These findings challenge the view that phonemic paraphasias arise from a mis-selection of phonemic units followed by its correct implementation, as traditionally proposed. Rather, they appear to derive from a common mechanism with speech errors reflecting the co-activation of a target and competitor resulting in speech output that has some phonetic properties of both segments. PMID:26808838

  14. Phoneme restoration and empirical coverage of interactive activation and adaptive resonance models of human speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Grossberg and Kazerounian [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 440–460] present a model of sequence representation for spoken word recognition, the cARTWORD model, which simulates essential aspects of phoneme restoration. Grossberg and Kazerounian also include simulations with the TRACE model presented by McClelland and Elman [(1986). Cognit. Psychol. 18, 1–86] that seem to indicate that TRACE cannot simulate phoneme restoration. Grossberg and Kazerounian also claim cARTWORD should be preferred to TRACE because of TRACE's implausible approach to sequence representation (reduplication of time-specific units) and use of non-modulatory feedback (i.e., without position-specific bottom-up support). This paper responds to Grossberg and Kazerounian first with TRACE simulations that account for phoneme restoration when appropriately constructed noise is used (and with minor changes to TRACE phoneme definitions), then reviews the case for reduplicated units and feedback as implemented in TRACE, as well as TRACE's broad and deep coverage of empirical data. Finally, it is argued that cARTWORD is not comparable to TRACE because cARTWORD cannot represent sequences with repeated elements, has only been implemented with small phoneme and lexical inventories, and has been applied to only one phenomenon (phoneme restoration). Without evidence that cARTWORD captures a similar range and detail of human spoken language processing as alternative models, it is premature to prefer cARTWORD to TRACE. PMID:25786959

  15. Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Kroog, Kenneth; Zuk, Jennifer; Winner, Ellen; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one's own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of seven and nine were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis. PMID:21687467

  16. Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: in general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but spectral structure less so. This study asked how well speech recognition is supported if CI users shift attention to salient cues not weighted strongly by native speakers. Method 20 adults with CIs participated. The /bɑ/-/wɑ/ contrast was used because spectral and amplitude structure varies in correlated fashion for this contrast. Normal-hearing adults weight the spectral cue strongly, but the amplitude cue negligibly. Three measurements were made: labeling decisions, spectral and amplitude discrimination, and word recognition. Results Outcomes varied across listeners: some weighted the spectral cue strongly, some weighted the amplitude cue, and some weighted neither. Spectral discrimination predicted spectral weighting. Spectral weighting explained the most variance in word recognition. Age of onset of hearing loss predicted spectral weighting, but not unique variance in word recognition. Conclusions The weighting strategies of listeners with normal hearing likely support speech recognition best, so efforts in implant design, fitting, and training should focus on developing those strategies. PMID:24686722

  17. Relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Thompson, Catherine S.; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2005-01-01

    Cochlear implants provide users with limited spectral and temporal information. In this study, the amount of spectral and temporal information was systematically varied through simulations of cochlear implant processors using a noise-excited vocoder. Spectral information was controlled by varying the number of channels between 1 and 16, and temporal information was controlled by varying the lowpass cutoff frequencies of the envelope extractors from 1 to 512 Hz. Consonants and vowels processed using those conditions were presented to seven normal-hearing native-English-speaking listeners for identification. The results demonstrated that both spectral and temporal cues were important for consonant and vowel recognition with the spectral cues having a greater effect than the temporal cues for the ranges of numbers of channels and lowpass cutoff frequencies tested. The lowpass cutoff for asymptotic performance in consonant and vowel recognition was 16 and 4 Hz, respectively. The number of channels at which performance plateaued for consonants and vowels was 8 and 12, respectively. Within the above-mentioned ranges of lowpass cutoff frequency and number of channels, the temporal and spectral cues showed a tradeoff for phoneme recognition. Information transfer analyses showed different relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues in the perception of various phonetic/acoustic features. PMID:15957791

  18. Relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Thompson, Catherine S.; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2005-05-01

    Cochlear implants provide users with limited spectral and temporal information. In this study, the amount of spectral and temporal information was systematically varied through simulations of cochlear implant processors using a noise-excited vocoder. Spectral information was controlled by varying the number of channels between 1 and 16, and temporal information was controlled by varying the lowpass cutoff frequencies of the envelope extractors from 1 to 512 Hz. Consonants and vowels processed using those conditions were presented to seven normal-hearing native-English-speaking listeners for identification. The results demonstrated that both spectral and temporal cues were important for consonant and vowel recognition with the spectral cues having a greater effect than the temporal cues for the ranges of numbers of channels and lowpass cutoff frequencies tested. The lowpass cutoff for asymptotic performance in consonant and vowel recognition was 16 and 4 Hz, respectively. The number of channels at which performance plateaued for consonants and vowels was 8 and 12, respectively. Within the above-mentioned ranges of lowpass cutoff frequency and number of channels, the temporal and spectral cues showed a tradeoff for phoneme recognition. Information transfer analyses showed different relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues in the perception of various phonetic/acoustic features. .

  19. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: vowels.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize vowels after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Vowel recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. The responses were coded for phoneme errors, and 95% confidence intervals for recognition and confusions were calculated. The average vowel recognition was 68% (95% confidence interval = 66-70%) 6 months after switch-on and 80% (95% confidence interval = 78-82%) 24 months after switch-on. The vowels [ae], [u], [i], [o], and [a] were the easiest to recognize, and the vowels [y], [e], and [ø] were the most difficult. In conclusion, adaptation to electrical hearing using a multichannel cochlear implant was achieved well; but for at least 2 years, given two vowels with either F1 or F2 at roughly the some frequencies, confusions were drawn more towards the closest vowel with the next highest F1 or F2.

  20. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: consonants.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize consonants after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Consonant recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. Responses were coded for phoneme errors, and proportions of correct responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for recognition and confusions. Two years after the switch-on, the mean recognition of consonants was 71% (95% confidence interval = 68-73%). The manner of articulation was easier to classify than the place of articulation, and the consonants [s], [r], [k], [t], [p], [n], and [j] were easier to recognize than [h], [m], [l], and [v]. Adaptation to electrical hearing with a multichannel cochlear implant was successful, but consonants with alveolar, palatal, or velar transitions (high F2) were better recognized than consonants with labial transitions (low F2). The locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with better recognition was at the frequencies 1.5-2 kHz, whereas the locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with poorer recognition was at 1.2-1.4 kHz. A tendency to confuse consonants with the closest consonant with higher F2 transition was also noted.

  1. Context-sensitive underspecification and the acquisition of phonemic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, D A

    1996-02-01

    Several competing proposals for the (under)specification of phonological representations are evaluated against the facts of phonemic acquisition. Longitudinal evidence relating to the emergence of a voice contrast in the well-documented study of Amahl (from age 2;2 to 3;11) is reconsidered. Neither contrastive specification nor context-free radical underspecification is capable of accounting for the facts. The problem is in the characterization of the change in the status of a feature from being noncontrastive and conditioned by context at one stage to being contrastive with phonetic effects that diffuse gradually through the lexicon. Both frameworks must treat as accidental the persistence of the early substitution pattern and require the postulation of wholesale changes in underlying representations, where these changes do not accord well with the observed phonetic changes or with the facts available to the learner. Context-sensitive radical underspecification provides a plausible account of each stage and the transition between stages with minimal grammar change. PMID:8733561

  2. Learning to cope with degraded sounds: female zebra finches can improve their expertise in discriminating between male voices at long distances

    PubMed Central

    Mouterde, Solveig C.; Elie, Julie E.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Reliable transmission of acoustic information about individual identity is of critical importance for pair bond maintenance in numerous monogamous songbirds. However, information transfer can be impaired by environmental constraints such as external noise or propagation-induced degradation. Birds have been shown to use several adaptive strategies to deal with difficult signal transmission contexts. Specifically, a number of studies have suggested that vocal plasticity at the emitter's level allows birds to counteract the deleterious effects of sound degradation. Although the communication process involves both the emitter and the receiver, perceptual plasticity at the receiver's level has received little attention. Here, we explored the reliability of individual recognition by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), testing whether perceptual training can improve discrimination of degraded individual vocal signatures. We found that female zebra finches are proficient in discriminating between calls of individual males at long distances, and even more so when they can train themselves with increasingly degraded signals over time. In this latter context, females succeed in discriminating between males as far as 250 m. This result emphasizes that adaptation to adverse communication conditions may involve not only the emitter's vocal plasticity but also the receptor's decoding process through on-going learning. PMID:24948627

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortices Transiently Improves Tactile Spatial Discrimination in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Otaka, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Ragert, Patrick; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT) to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the affected and non-affected index fingers before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds for the affected index finger during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction. PMID:27064531

  4. Phonemic Fluency and Brain Connectivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Potter, Guy G.; Diaz, Michele T.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Lad, Eleonora M.; Johnson, Micah A.; Cousins, Scott W.; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  5. Genetic Discrimination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care ... genetic discrimination. April 25, 2007, Statement of Administration Policy, Office of Management and Budget Official Statement from the Office of ...

  6. Relative Contributions of Spectral and Temporal Cues to Korean Phoneme Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jik; Chang, Son-A; Yang, Jing; Oh, Seung-Ha; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of spectral and temporal information to Korean phoneme recognition and to compare them with those to English phoneme recognition. Eleven normal-hearing Korean-speaking listeners participated in the study. Korean phonemes, including 18 consonants in a /Ca/ format and 17 vowels in a /hVd/ format, were processed through a noise vocoder. The spectral information was controlled by varying the number of channels (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16) whereas the temporal information was controlled by varying the lowpass cutoff frequency of the envelope extractor (1 to 512 Hz in octave steps). A total of 80 vocoder conditions (8 numbers of channels × 10 lowpass cutoff frequencies) were presented to listeners for phoneme recognition. While vowel recognition depended on the spectral cues predominantly, a tradeoff between the spectral and temporal information was evident for consonant recognition. The overall consonant recognition was dramatically lower than that of English consonant recognition under similar vocoder conditions. The complexity of the Korean consonant repertoire, the three-way distinction of stops in particular, hinders recognition of vocoder-processed phonemes. PMID:26162017

  7. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before the out-of-Africa dispersal; (iii) an increase in the phonemic accumulation rate with the number of speakers per unit area. Numerical simulations show that the predictions of the model agree with the observed decrease of linguistic diversity with increasing distance from the most likely origin of the out-of-Africa dispersal. Thus, the proposal that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity is viable, if three strong assumptions are satisfied. PMID:27122180

  8. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    PubMed

    Fort, Joaquim; Pérez-Losada, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before the out-of-Africa dispersal; (iii) an increase in the phonemic accumulation rate with the number of speakers per unit area. Numerical simulations show that the predictions of the model agree with the observed decrease of linguistic diversity with increasing distance from the most likely origin of the out-of-Africa dispersal. Thus, the proposal that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity is viable, if three strong assumptions are satisfied. PMID:27122180

  9. Structural Correlates of Semantic and Phonemic Fluency Ability in First and Second Languages

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Ali, Nilufa; Crinion, Jenny T.

    2009-01-01

    Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the semantic and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained nature of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on semantic (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter density. The participants were 59 highly proficient speakers of 2 languages. Our findings corroborate the importance of the left inferior temporal cortex in semantic relative to phonemic fluency and show this effect to be the same in a first language (L1) and second language (L2). Additionally, we show that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and head of caudate bilaterally are associated with phonemic more than semantic fluency, and this effect is stronger for L2 than L1 in the caudate nuclei. To further validate these structural results, we reanalyzed previously reported functional data and found that pre-SMA and left caudate activation was higher for phonemic than semantic fluency. On the basis of our findings, we also predict that lesions to the pre-SMA and caudate nuclei may have a greater impact on phonemic than semantic fluency, particularly in L2 speakers. PMID:19293396

  10. Structural correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency ability in first and second languages.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Alice; Green, David W; Ali, Nilufa; Crinion, Jenny T; Price, Cathy J

    2009-11-01

    Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the semantic and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained nature of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on semantic (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter density. The participants were 59 highly proficient speakers of 2 languages. Our findings corroborate the importance of the left inferior temporal cortex in semantic relative to phonemic fluency and show this effect to be the same in a first language (L1) and second language (L2). Additionally, we show that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and head of caudate bilaterally are associated with phonemic more than semantic fluency, and this effect is stronger for L2 than L1 in the caudate nuclei. To further validate these structural results, we reanalyzed previously reported functional data and found that pre-SMA and left caudate activation was higher for phonemic than semantic fluency. On the basis of our findings, we also predict that lesions to the pre-SMA and caudate nuclei may have a greater impact on phonemic than semantic fluency, particularly in L2 speakers.

  11. Stochastic Model for Phonemes Uncovers an Author-Dependency of Their Usage

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.

    2016-01-01

    We study rank-frequency relations for phonemes, the minimal units that still relate to linguistic meaning. We show that these relations can be described by the Dirichlet distribution, a direct analogue of the ideal-gas model in statistical mechanics. This description allows us to demonstrate that the rank-frequency relations for phonemes of a text do depend on its author. The author-dependency effect is not caused by the author’s vocabulary (common words used in different texts), and is confirmed by several alternative means. This suggests that it can be directly related to phonemes. These features contrast to rank-frequency relations for words, which are both author and text independent and are governed by the Zipf’s law. PMID:27058596

  12. Stochastic Model for Phonemes Uncovers an Author-Dependency of Their Usage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E

    2016-01-01

    We study rank-frequency relations for phonemes, the minimal units that still relate to linguistic meaning. We show that these relations can be described by the Dirichlet distribution, a direct analogue of the ideal-gas model in statistical mechanics. This description allows us to demonstrate that the rank-frequency relations for phonemes of a text do depend on its author. The author-dependency effect is not caused by the author's vocabulary (common words used in different texts), and is confirmed by several alternative means. This suggests that it can be directly related to phonemes. These features contrast to rank-frequency relations for words, which are both author and text independent and are governed by the Zipf's law. PMID:27058596

  13. Stochastic Model for Phonemes Uncovers an Author-Dependency of Their Usage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E

    2016-01-01

    We study rank-frequency relations for phonemes, the minimal units that still relate to linguistic meaning. We show that these relations can be described by the Dirichlet distribution, a direct analogue of the ideal-gas model in statistical mechanics. This description allows us to demonstrate that the rank-frequency relations for phonemes of a text do depend on its author. The author-dependency effect is not caused by the author's vocabulary (common words used in different texts), and is confirmed by several alternative means. This suggests that it can be directly related to phonemes. These features contrast to rank-frequency relations for words, which are both author and text independent and are governed by the Zipf's law.

  14. Enhanced Syllable Discrimination Thresholds in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo; Lakshminarayanan, Kala; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT) and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities. PMID:24339875

  15. An Investigation of Treatment Scheduling for Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners Who Are at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Ross, Catherine L.; Harm, Heide M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined 2 schedules of treatment for phonemic awareness. Method: Forty-one 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners, including 22 English learners, with low letter-name and first-sound knowledge received 11 hr of phonemic awareness treatment: concentrated (CP, 3x/wk to December), dispersed (DP, 1x/wk to March), and dispersed vocabulary…

  16. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  17. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  18. Neural Network Classifier Architectures for Phoneme Recognition. CRC Technical Note No. CRC-TN-92-001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treurniet, William

    A study applied artificial neural networks, trained with the back-propagation learning algorithm, to modelling phonemes extracted from the DARPA TIMIT multi-speaker, continuous speech data base. A number of proposed network architectures were applied to the phoneme classification task, ranging from the simple feedforward multilayer network to more…

  19. Evaluation of a Program to Teach Phonemic Awareness to Young Children: A 1-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1993-01-01

    Follow-up evaluation data were collected after one year on a program to teach young children about phonemic structures. Results with 63 experimental subjects in first grade and 56 controls indicate that children who enter school with advanced phonemic awareness score high on measures of word identification, decoding, and spelling. (SLD)

  20. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  1. Learning Arabic Sounds: A Guide to the Pronunciation of the Phonemes of Arabic for Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberto, Shelley M.

    The purpose of this guide is to teach English speakers accurate pronunciation of the Modern Standard Arabic phonemes. Included are discussions concerning attitudes toward language learning in general, basic linguistic concepts, a descriptive survey of the phonemes with detailed instructions for their production, and lists of minimal pairs…

  2. The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program for Reading, Spelling, and Speech: The LiPS Program. Third Edition. [Multimedia Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindamood, Patricia; Lindamood, Phyllis

    This kit presents the "Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS) Program for Reading, Spelling, and Speech," a program designed to promote the development of an oral-motor, visual, and auditory feedback system that enables all students, including students with learning disabilities, to prove the identity, number, and order of phonemes in syllables and…

  3. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction.

  4. A signal filtering method for improved quantification and noise discrimination in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data.

    PubMed

    Payne, Tristan G; Southam, Andrew D; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Viant, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Direct-infusion electrospray-ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (DI ESI FT-ICR MS) is increasingly being utilized in metabolomics, including the high sensitivity selected ion monitoring (SIM)-stitching approach. Accurate signal quantification and the discrimination of real signals from noise remain major challenges for this approach, with both adversely affected by factors including ion suppression during electrospray, ion-ion interactions in the detector cell, and thermally-induced white noise. This is particularly problematic for complex mixture analysis where hundreds of metabolites are present near the noise level. Here we address relative signal quantification and noise discrimination issues in SIM-stitched DI ESI FT-ICR MS-based metabolomics. Using liver tissue, we first optimized the number of scans (n) acquired per SIM window to address the balance between quantification accuracy versus acquisition time (and thus sample throughput); a minimum of n = 5 is recommended. Secondly, we characterized and computationally-corrected an effect whereby an ion's intensity is dependent upon its location within a SIM window, exhibiting a 3-fold higher intensity at the high m/z end. This resulted in significantly improved quantification accuracy. Finally, we thoroughly characterized a three-stage filter to discriminate noise from real signals, which comprised a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) hard threshold, then a "replicate" filter (retaining only peaks in r-out-of-3 replicate analyses), and then a "sample" filter (retaining only peaks in >s% of biological samples). We document the benefits of three-stage filtering versus one- and two-stage filters, and show the importance of selecting filter parameters that balance the confidence that a signal is real versus the total number of peaks detected.

  5. Improving conditional discrimination learning and memory in five-year-old children: differential outcomes effect using different types of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Lourdes; Estévez, Angeles F; Fuentes, Luis J; Overmier, J Bruce

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that discriminative learning is facilitated when a particular outcome is associated with each relation to be learned. When this training procedure is applied (the differential outcomes procedure; DOP), learning is faster and better than when the typical common outcomes procedure or nondifferential outcomes (NDO) is used. Our primary purpose in the two experiments reported here was to assess the potential advantage of DOP in 5-year-old children using three different strategies of reinforcement in which (a) children received a reinforcer following a correct choice (" + "), (b) children lost a reinforcer following an incorrect choice (" - "), or (c) children received a reinforcer following a correct choice and lost one following an incorrect choice (" + / - "). In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of the presence of DOP and different types of reinforcement on learning and memory of a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task using secondary and primary reinforcers. Experiment 2 was similar to the previous one except that only primary reinforcers were used. The results from these experiments indicated that, in general, children learned the task faster and showed higher performance and persistence of learning whenever differential outcomes were arranged independent of whether it was differential gain, loss, or combinations. A novel finding was that they performed the task better when they lost a reinforcer following an incorrect choice (type of training " - ") in both experiments. A further novel finding was that the advantage of the DOP over the nondifferential outcomes training increased in a retention test.

  6. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention, and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Henshaw, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, which include, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n = 44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n = 30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n = 57). AT resulted in generalized improvements in measures of self-reported hearing, competing speech, and complex cognitive tasks that all index executive functions. This suggests that for AT related benefits, the development of complex cognitive skills may be more important than the refinement of sensory processing. Furthermore, outcome measures should be sensitive to the functional benefits of AT. For WM training, lack of far-transfer to untrained outcomes suggests no generalized benefits to real-world listening abilities. We propose that combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where cognitive enhancement is embedded within auditory tasks, are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of adults with hearing loss. PMID:26074826

  7. Multisensory Integration of Visual and Vestibular Signals Improves Heading Discrimination in the Presence of a Moving Object

    PubMed Central

    Dokka, Kalpana; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and animals are fairly accurate in judging their direction of self-motion (i.e., heading) from optic flow when moving through a stationary environment. However, an object moving independently in the world alters the optic flow field and may bias heading perception if the visual system cannot dissociate object motion from self-motion. We investigated whether adding vestibular self-motion signals to optic flow enhances the accuracy of heading judgments in the presence of a moving object. Macaque monkeys were trained to report their heading (leftward or rightward relative to straight-forward) when self-motion was specified by vestibular, visual, or combined visual-vestibular signals, while viewing a display in which an object moved independently in the (virtual) world. The moving object induced significant biases in perceived heading when self-motion was signaled by either visual or vestibular cues alone. However, this bias was greatly reduced when visual and vestibular cues together signaled self-motion. In addition, multisensory heading discrimination thresholds measured in the presence of a moving object were largely consistent with the predictions of an optimal cue integration strategy. These findings demonstrate that multisensory cues facilitate the perceptual dissociation of self-motion and object motion, consistent with computational work that suggests that an appropriate decoding of multisensory visual-vestibular neurons can estimate heading while discounting the effects of object motion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Objects that move independently in the world alter the optic flow field and can induce errors in perceiving the direction of self-motion (heading). We show that adding vestibular (inertial) self-motion signals to optic flow almost completely eliminates the errors in perceived heading induced by an independently moving object. Furthermore, this increased accuracy occurs without a substantial loss in the precision. Our results thus demonstrate that

  8. The Acquisition of Dialectal Phonemes in a Study Abroad Context: The Case of the Castilian Theta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knouse, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the incorporation of dialectal variants in second language (L2) pronunciation and how the learning context intersects with this acquisition. Specifically, this research examines to what extent L2 learners of Spanish acquire the regional phoneme /[theta]/ from north-central Spain in both study abroad (SA) and…

  9. Investigating the Phonological Similarity Effect: Syllable Structure and the Position of Common Phonemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether the effect that phonological similarity has on immediate serial recall is influenced by the consistency and position of phonemes within words. In comparison to phonologically dissimilar lists, when the stimulus lists rhyme there is a facilitative effect on the recall of item information and…

  10. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  11. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  12. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  13. Phonemic Awareness and Middle-Ear Disease among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of middle-ear infections on phonemic awareness on first-grade Bedouin Arab elementary school children in northern Israel. Divides 49 children who were screened according to their infant medical records into two groups: one with repeated middle-ear infection and one without. Indicates a nonsignificant effect of middle-ear…

  14. Development of the Ability to Lexically Encode Novel Second Language Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners must often learn to perceive and produce novel L2 phoneme contrasts. Although both research and intuition suggest that these difficulties can be overcome to some extent with exposure to the L2, it is not known what consequences this kind of learning has for the phonological structure of the L2 lexicon. We present an…

  15. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

  16. Phoneme Manipulation Not Onset-Rime Manipulation Ability Is a Unique Predictor of Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Background: Phonological awareness is known to be an excellent predictor of later reading acquisition. It remains unclear, however, whether phoneme manipulation alone best explains this association or whether an additional direct contribution of onset-rime awareness is predictive. This issue is explored here. Method: A longitudinal study is…

  17. Accelerating the Development of Reading, Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Skills in Initial Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; Watson, Joyce E.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-old new school entrants taught by a synthetic phonics method had better reading, spelling and phonemic awareness than two groups taught analytic phonics. The synthetic phonics children were the only ones that could read by analogy, and they also showed better reading of irregular words and nonwords. For…

  18. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  19. Prosodic and Phonemic Awareness in Children's Reading of Long and Short Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2016-01-01

    Phonemic and prosodic awareness are both phonological processes that operate at different levels: the former at the level of the individual sound segment and the latter at the suprasegmental level across syllables. Both have been shown to be related to word reading in young readers. In this study we examine how these processes are differentially…

  20. Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses.

    PubMed

    Näätänen, R; Lehtokoski, A; Lennes, M; Cheour, M; Huotilainen, M; Iivonen, A; Vainio, M; Alku, P; Ilmoniemi, R J; Luuk, A; Allik, J; Sinkkonen, J; Alho, K

    1997-01-30

    There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents of such speech specificity postulate the existence of language-dependent memory traces, which are activated in the processing of speech but not when equally complex, acoustic non-speech stimuli are processed. Here we report the existence of these traces in the human brain. We presented to Finnish subjects the Finnish phoneme prototype /e/ as the frequent stimulus, and other Finnish phoneme prototypes or a non-prototype (the Estonian prototype /õ/) as the infrequent stimulus. We found that the brain's automatic change-detection response, reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN), was enhanced when the infrequent, deviant stimulus was a prototype (the Finnish /ö/) relative to when it was a non-prototype (the Estonian /õ/). These phonemic traces, revealed by MMN, are language-specific, as /õ/ caused enhancement of MMN in Estonians. Whole-head magnetic recordings located the source of this native-language, phoneme-related response enhancement, and thus the language-specific memory traces, in the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere. PMID:9009189

  1. The Stop and Go Phonemic Awareness Game: Providing Modeling, Practice, and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill Howard; Gansle, Kristin A.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of curriculum-based measurement, specifically Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), to identify and evaluate the progress of 6 kindergarten students who are experiencing difficulty with phonemic awareness. The Stop and Go Game, a blending and segmenting intervention, is individually implemented…

  2. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  3. Semantic and Phonemic Listener Confusions in a Case of Isolated Congenital Aglossia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty; Vento-Wilson, Margaret; Von Berg, Shelley; Iskarous, Khalil; Kim, Namhee; Rogers, Kelly; Young, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article is the second in a series that examines the intelligibility of a person with congenital aglossia (PWCA). Specific factors examined in this study included (a) intelligibility for meaningful words versus nonsense words, (b) intelligibility for consonant-vowel-consonant words (CVCs) as a function of phonemic segment types, and (c)…

  4. Helping Disadvantaged Children Learn to Read by Teaching Them Phoneme Identification Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michael A.; Wallach, Lise

    The rationale, development, and implementation of a reading program designed to teach disadvantaged children the skills prerequisite to learning to read are discussed in this paper. Of particular importance are skills in the recognition and manipulation of basic speech sounds, phonemes. The first of the program's three parts takes two and one-half…

  5. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  6. Training Reading and Phoneme Awareness Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles; Brigstocke, Sophie; Carroll, Julia M.; Nasir, Louise; Snowling, M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a short-term reading intervention study involving 15 children with Down syndrome (DS) who attended mainstream schools. The intervention programme taught children phoneme segmentation and blending skills in the context of learning letter-sounds and working with words in books. The children were taught by their learning support…

  7. Interaction between Phonemic Abilities and Syllable Congruency Effect in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether and to what extent phonemic abilities of young readers (Grade 5) influence syllabic effects in reading. More precisely, the syllable congruency effect was tested in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming in eleven-year-old children. Target words were preceded by a pseudo-word prime sharing the first…

  8. Automaticity and Phonemic Representations: Perceptual and Cognitive Building Blocks for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naslund, Jan Carol; Smolkin, Laura B.

    1997-01-01

    Notes that reading research has advanced from notions that reading is a visual-perception task of word recognition and decoding to more precise psycho- and neurolinguistic models of language and literacy. Concludes that reading is a skill that develops to an automatic level depending on the degree to which the individual can access phonemic and…

  9. Neural Correlates in the Processing of Phoneme-Level Complexity in Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeil; Iverson, Gregory K.; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how articulatory complexity at the phoneme level is manifested neurobiologically in an overt production task. fMRI images were acquired from young Korean-speaking adults as they pronounced bisyllabic pseudowords in which we manipulated phonological complexity defined in terms of vowel duration and instability (viz., COMPLEX:…

  10. Educational Diagnosticians' Understanding of Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness, and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Julia C.; Stephens, Tammy L.; Kinnison, Lloyd; Pettigrew, Johnnie D.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study involving 42 educational diagnosticians from North Texas. The study was conducted to determine diagnosticians' perceived understanding of early literacy development and their ability to effectively choose and interpret assessments of phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and reading fluency. The…

  11. DERIVATION OF PHONEME INVENTORIES BY NATIVE SPEAKER RESPONSES TO SYNTHETIC STIMULI. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOLES, ROBERT J.

    BECAUSE THE INTERFERENCE FROM HIS NATIVE LANGUAGE CAUSES A LINGUIST TO HEAR AND IDENTIFY THE SOUNDS OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF HIS OWN, THE AUTHOR HAS PROPOSED A PROCEDURE DESIGNED TO (1) MAKE THE TASK OF PHONEMICIZING A LANGUAGE SHORT AND OBJECTIVE, (2) EQUATE THE PHONEMES OF A LANGUAGE WITH THE PERCEPTION OF THE USERS OF THAT LANGUAGE,…

  12. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  13. Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence in Beginning Reading of Disadvantaged Five Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    In order to determine the effect of grapheme-phoneme correspondence on beginning reading, word acquisition as related to the degree of regularity of the word was used as a measurement. Twenty children enrolled in a preschool project for culturally disadvantaged children at Peabody College were randomly assigned to two groups. One group used the…

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…

  15. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  16. The Crosslanguage Intelligibility of Phonemes, Sources of Interference in International Voice Communication. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Patricia Maurine; And Others

    The intelligibility of crosslanguage voice communication in American English was studied in situations where the phonemes of that language are uttered by American speakers and identified by speakers of German, French, and Mexican Spanish and in situations where they are uttered by speakers of German, French, and Mexican Spanish and identified by…

  17. Operation of the Phoneme-to-Grapheme Conversion Mechanism in a Brain Injured Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Richard J.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    1990-01-01

    Finds that a dysgraphic patient used nonlexical processes to spell many words. Notes significant correlations between the relative frequency of phoneme-grapheme mapping options and the relative frequency of the patient's use of the same written language options. Concludes that syllable structure is involved in the process of converting phonology…

  18. Fluency Training in Phoneme Blending: A Preliminary Study of Generalized Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Werder, Candace S.; Hier, Bridget O.; Koenig, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the generalized effects of training children to fluently blend phonemes of words containing target vowel teams on their reading of trained and untrained words in lists and passages. Three second-grade students participated. A subset of words containing each of 3 target vowel teams ("aw," "oi," and "au") was trained in lists, and…

  19. Explicit Instruction in Decoding Benefits Children High in Phonemic Awareness and Alphabet Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Notes that 32 preschool children were trained to a high level in phonemic awareness over a 12-week period, and then in kindergarten, the children were taught 10 real words using either decoding and encoding techniques or a whole word method. Finds that children taught decoding and encoding techniques were superior in reading and writing compared…

  20. Acquiring the Alphabetic Principle: A Case for Teaching Recognition of Phoneme Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Results of 6 experiments with 109 Australian preschool children favor training in phoneme identity over segmentation as a component of initial reading instruction because it is easier to implement and its relation to alphabetic insight is stronger. Implications for the initial reading curriculum are discussed. (SLD)

  1. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  2. The Contribution of Phoneme-Grapheme Consistency and Cue Emphasis to Decoding in First-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandever, Thomas R.

    The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of phoneme-grapheme consistency (PGC) and cue emphasis (CE) on the development of decoding skills in first graders and to determine the relationship of consistency of original lists to the recognition of new words. Subjects were 162 first graders, mean age 6.11 years and scoring above 30 on the…

  3. Learning of a Formation Principle for the Secondary Phonemic Function of a Syllabic Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.; Thompson, G. Brian; Yamada, Megumi; Meissel, Kane

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed in Japanese children learning to read that there is an early and rapid shift from exclusive reading of hiragana as syllabograms to the dual-use convention in which some hiragana also represent phonemic elements. Such rapid initial learning appears contrary to the standard theories of reading acquisition that require…

  4. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  5. Phonological Competition within the Word: Evidence from the Phoneme Similarity Effect in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of spoken production have not specifically addressed whether the phonemes of a word compete with each other for selection during phonological encoding (e.g., whether /t/ competes with /k/ in cat). Spoken production theories were evaluated and found to fall into three classes, theories positing (1) no competition, (2) competition among…

  6. Contemporary Issues in Phoneme Production by Hearing-Impaired Persons: Physiological and Acoustic Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Nancy S.; Whitehead, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This paper on physiologic correlates of speech production in children and youth with hearing impairments focuses specifically on the production of phonemes and includes data on respiration for speech production, phonation, speech aerodynamics, articulation, and acoustic analyses of speech by hearing-impaired persons. (Author/DB)

  7. Teaching Phoneme Awareness to Pre-Literate Children with Speech Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Anne; Dima, Evgenia; Nelson, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Background: Awareness of individual phonemes in words is a late-acquired level of phonological awareness that usually develops in the early school years. It is generally agreed to have a close relationship with early literacy development, but its role in speech change is less well understood. Speech and language therapy for children with speech…

  8. Using a Multimodal Approach to Facilitate Articulation, Phonemic Awareness, and Literacy in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieretti, Robert A.; Kaul, Sandra D.; Zarchy, Razi M.; O'Hanlon, Laureen M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this research study was to examine the benefit of a using a multimodal approach to speech sound correction with preschool children. The approach uses the auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic modalities and includes a unique, interactive visual focus that attempts to provide a visual representation of a phonemic category. The…

  9. African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

  10. Cross-sectional study of phoneme and rhyme monitoring abilities in children between 7 and 13 years

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2011-01-01

    We investigated phonemic competence in production in three age groups of children – 7 and 8 years, 10 and 11 years, 12 and 13 years—using rhyme and phoneme monitoring. Participants were required to name target pictures silently while monitoring covert speech for the presence or absence of a rhyme or phoneme match. Performance in the verbal tasks was compared to a nonverbal control task in which participants monitored tone sequence pairs for a pattern match. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between the three age groups in phoneme monitoring while similar differences were limited to the younger age groups in rhyme monitoring. This finding supported early and on-going acquisition of rhyme- and later acquisition of segment-level units. In addition, the 7 and 8-year-olds were significantly slower in monitoring phonemes within consonant clusters compared to the 10 and 11-year-olds and in monitoring both singleton phonemes and phonemes within clusters compared to the 12 and 13-year-olds. Regression analysis revealed that age accounted for approximately 30% variance in the nonverbal and 60% variance in the verbal monitoring tasks. We attribute the observed differences to the emergence of cognitive processes such as segmentation skills that are critical to performing the verbal monitoring tasks. PMID:23204597

  11. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  12. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  13. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation. PMID:25679503

  14. Using Reading and Writing to Improve Oral Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doris J.

    1985-01-01

    Use of reading and writing to enhance oral communication skills requires analysis of the individual's performance; understanding of the interaction among auditory, oral, and written language disorders; integration of speech-language and educational services; and attention to skills of phonemic discrimination, auditory verbal comprehension, word…

  15. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status.

  16. Soil type recognition as improved by genetic algorithm-based variable selection using near infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongtu; Zhao, Jinsong; Wang, Qiubing; Sui, Yueyu; Wang, Jingkuan; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xudong; Liang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Soil types have traditionally been determined by soil physical and chemical properties, diagnostic horizons and pedogenic processes based on a given classification system. This is a laborious and time consuming process. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can comprehensively characterize soil properties, and may provide a viable alternative method for soil type recognition. Here, we presented a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) method based on the NIR spectra for the accurate recognition of the types of 230 soil samples collected from farmland topsoils (0-10 cm), representing 5 different soil classes (Albic Luvisols, Haplic Luvisols, Chernozems, Eutric Cambisols and Phaeozems) in northeast China. We found that the PLSDA had an internal validation accuracy of 89% and external validation accuracy of 83% on average, while variable selection with the genetic algorithm (GA and GA-PLSDA) improved this to 92% and 93%. Our results indicate that the GA variable selection technique can significantly improve the accuracy rate of soil type recognition using NIR spectroscopy, suggesting that the proposed methodology is a promising alternative for recognizing soil types using NIR spectroscopy.

  17. Improving Treatment of Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea with Laser and/or Topical Therapy Through Enhanced Discrimination of its Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Schäfer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that can present with a variety of cutaneous symptoms. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is a subtype characterized by flushing (transient erythema), persistent central facial erythema (background erythema), and telangiectasias. The severity of individual symptoms differs in each patient, which can complicate the selection of an appropriate treatment strategy. Evaluation of these specific symptoms has been greatly improved by the routine use of diagnostic tools such as (video) dermatoscopy. Following a thorough clinical assessment, treatment decisions should be made based on the proportion of these individual symptoms in individual patients. Brimonidine 0.33% gel is recommended in the symptomatic treatment of facial erythema, and there is evidence for the efficacy of laser/light-based therapies in the treatment of erythema and telangiectasias. In patients presenting with both marked background erythema and telangiectasias, initial treatment with brimonidine 0.33% gel to target the erythema followed by laser/light-based therapy for the telangiectasias has been shown to be an effective combination in clinical practice. This article aims to facilitate treatment decision-making in clinical practice through: 1) better differentiation of the main symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and 2) practical advice for the selection of appropriate treatments, based on clinical case examples. PMID:27672409

  18. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  19. Improving Treatment of Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea with Laser and/or Topical Therapy Through Enhanced Discrimination of its Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Schäfer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that can present with a variety of cutaneous symptoms. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is a subtype characterized by flushing (transient erythema), persistent central facial erythema (background erythema), and telangiectasias. The severity of individual symptoms differs in each patient, which can complicate the selection of an appropriate treatment strategy. Evaluation of these specific symptoms has been greatly improved by the routine use of diagnostic tools such as (video) dermatoscopy. Following a thorough clinical assessment, treatment decisions should be made based on the proportion of these individual symptoms in individual patients. Brimonidine 0.33% gel is recommended in the symptomatic treatment of facial erythema, and there is evidence for the efficacy of laser/light-based therapies in the treatment of erythema and telangiectasias. In patients presenting with both marked background erythema and telangiectasias, initial treatment with brimonidine 0.33% gel to target the erythema followed by laser/light-based therapy for the telangiectasias has been shown to be an effective combination in clinical practice. This article aims to facilitate treatment decision-making in clinical practice through: 1) better differentiation of the main symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and 2) practical advice for the selection of appropriate treatments, based on clinical case examples.

  20. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  1. Auditory word discriminations in the pigeon.

    PubMed Central

    Pisacreta, R; Gough, D; Redwood, E; Goodfellow, L

    1986-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-s extinction schedule with various pairs of spoken English words presented as the discriminative stimuli. The birds typically produced discrimination indices of 70% to 90% accuracy. Discrimination accuracy was improved by shortening the interval between auditory stimulus presentations, and by increasing the number of syllables in the words. PMID:3711775

  2. Wide-range pulse-height discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancro, C. A.; Garrahan, N. M.

    1970-01-01

    Improved pulse amplitude discriminator has discriminator level in millivolt range, permits simple adjustment over wide range, and is stable within one percent at temperatures between minus 20 degrees and plus 60 degrees C. The discriminator responds to narrow pulses /500 nsec/, draws little power /milliwatts/, and requires simple circuitry.

  3. Processing Nasals with and without Consecutive Context Phonemes: Evidence from Explicit Categorization and the N100

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Heidrun; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2013-01-01

    With neurophysiological (N100) and explicit behavioral measures (two-alternative forced-choice categorization), we investigated how the processing of nasal segments of German is affected by following context phonemes and their place of articulation. We investigated pre-lexical processing, with speech stimuli excised from naturally spoken utterances. Participants heard nasals (/n/, /m/, and place-assimilated /n′/), both with and without a subsequent context phoneme. Context phonemes were voiced or voiceless, and either shared or did not share their place of articulation with the nasals. The explicit forced-choice categorization of the isolated nasals showed /n′/ to be in-between the clear categorizations for /n/ and /m/. In early, implicit processing, /m/ had a significantly higher N100 amplitude than both /n/ and /n′/, with, most importantly, no difference between the latter two. When presented in context (e.g., /nb/, /mt/), explicit categorizations were affected by both the nasal and the context phoneme: a consecutive labial led to more M-categorizations, a following alveolar to more N-categorizations. The early processing of the nasal/+context stimuli in the N100 showed strong effects of context, modulated by the type of preceding nasal. Crucially, the context effects on assimilated nasals /n′/ were clearly different to effects on /m/, and indistinguishable from effects on /n/. The grouping of the isolated nasals in the N100 replicates previous findings, using magnetoencephalography and a different set of stimuli. Importantly, the same grouping was observed in the nasal/+context stimuli. Most models that deal with assimilation are either challenged by the mere existence of phonemic context effects, and/or use mechanisms that rely on lexical information. Our results support the existence, and early activation, of pre-lexical categories for phonemic segments. We suggest that due to experience with assimilation, specific speech-sound categories are flexible

  4. Visemic Processing in Audiovisual Discrimination of Natural Speech: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Cyril; Otzenberger, Helene; Gounot, Daniel; Sock, Rudolph; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle

    2012-01-01

    In a noisy environment, visual perception of articulatory movements improves natural speech intelligibility. Parallel to phonemic processing based on auditory signal, visemic processing constitutes a counterpart based on "visemes", the distinctive visual units of speech. Aiming at investigating the neural substrates of visemic processing in a…

  5. Pure anarthria with predominantly sequencing errors in phoneme articulation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanji, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Tabuchi, M; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Itoyama, Y

    2001-12-01

    A 77-year-old left-handed man presented with pure anarthria following cerebral infarction. The lesion was restricted to the right precentral gyrus extending to the immediately underlying subcortical white matter and the frontal part of the insular cortex. Qualitative analysis of anarthria revealed that half of the phonemic-articulatory errors in spontaneous speech were sequencing ones. Sequential errors were detected at the phoneme level in both consonants and vowels, and at the syllable level. Most of the sequential errors were pre-positioning. Sequential errors were observed both within and across words. In clear contrast with anarthria, writing and comprehension was preserved, which suggested the problem was limited to oral expression. Our findings provide further support that the precentral gyrus and/or the insular cortex of the language dominant hemisphere is responsible for the temporal sequencing of the articulatory programming.

  6. Orthographic transparency and grapheme-phoneme conversion: An ERP study in Arabic and French readers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Grégory; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2006-08-01

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that orthographic transparency of a language is liable to influence the use of grapheme-phoneme conversion during reading. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of orthographic transparency on event-related potentials was assessed by comparing French to Arab readers. Indeed, French language, contrary to Arabic one, was expected to favor the use of grapheme-phoneme rules during reading. Our results demonstrated that the N320, a component implicated in phonologic transcription, was modulated by orthographic transparency. Indeed, during reading in their mother tongue, only French subjects clearly elicited a N320. Moreover, the comparisons between activations elicited by Arabic words in Arab subjects and French monolingual people also confirm that the N170 component represents an important orthographic stage. The implications of these results on bilinguism and visual word recognition models are discussed.

  7. Phonological awareness and phonemic perception in 4-year-old children with delayed expressive phonology skills.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Ohberg, Alyssa; Grawburg, Meghann; Heyding, Joan

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the phonological awareness abilities of 2 groups of 4-year-old children: one with normally developing speech and language skills and the other with moderately or severely delayed expressive phonological skills but age-appropriate receptive vocabulary skills. Each group received tests of articulation, receptive vocabulary, phonemic perception, early literacy, and phonological awareness skills. The groups were matched for receptive language skills, age, socioeconomic status, and emergent literacy knowledge. The children with expressive phonological delays demonstrated significantly poorer phonemic perception and phonological awareness skills than their normally developing peers. The results suggest that preschool children with delayed expressive phonological abilities should be screened for their phonological awareness skills even when their language skills are otherwise normally developing. PMID:14658998

  8. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  9. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  10. Neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration for speech comprehension revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sunami, Kishiko; Ishii, Akira; Takano, Sakurako; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Sakashita, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    In daily communication, we can usually still hear the spoken words as if they had not been masked and can comprehend the speech when spoken words are masked by background noise. This phenomenon is known as phonemic restoration. Since little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying phonemic restoration for speech comprehension, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve healthy male volunteers with normal hearing participated in the study. Participants were requested to carefully listen to and understand recorded spoken Japanese stories, which were either played forward (forward condition) or in reverse (reverse condition), with their eyes closed. Several syllables of spoken words were replaced by 300-ms white-noise stimuli with an inter-stimulus interval of 1.6-20.3s. We compared MEG responses to white-noise stimuli during the forward condition with those during the reverse condition using time-frequency analyses. Increased 3-5 Hz band power in the forward condition compared with the reverse condition was continuously observed in the left inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann's areas (BAs) 45, 46, and 47] and decreased 18-22 Hz band powers caused by white-noise stimuli were seen in the left transverse temporal gyrus (BA 42) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). These results suggest that the left inferior frontal gyrus and left transverse and superior temporal gyri are involved in phonemic restoration for speech comprehension. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration as well as develop innovative treatment methods for individuals suffering from impaired speech comprehension, particularly in noisy environments.

  11. Phoneme Monitoring in Silent Naming and Perception in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; De Nil, Luc F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in persons who stutter (PWS). Participants were 10 PWS (M=31.8 years, S.D.=5.9) matched for age, gender, and handedness with 12 persons who do not stutter (PNS) (M=24.3 years, S.D.=4.3). The groups were compared in a phoneme monitoring task performed during silent picture naming. The…

  12. Neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration for speech comprehension revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sunami, Kishiko; Ishii, Akira; Takano, Sakurako; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Sakashita, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    In daily communication, we can usually still hear the spoken words as if they had not been masked and can comprehend the speech when spoken words are masked by background noise. This phenomenon is known as phonemic restoration. Since little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying phonemic restoration for speech comprehension, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve healthy male volunteers with normal hearing participated in the study. Participants were requested to carefully listen to and understand recorded spoken Japanese stories, which were either played forward (forward condition) or in reverse (reverse condition), with their eyes closed. Several syllables of spoken words were replaced by 300-ms white-noise stimuli with an inter-stimulus interval of 1.6-20.3s. We compared MEG responses to white-noise stimuli during the forward condition with those during the reverse condition using time-frequency analyses. Increased 3-5 Hz band power in the forward condition compared with the reverse condition was continuously observed in the left inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann's areas (BAs) 45, 46, and 47] and decreased 18-22 Hz band powers caused by white-noise stimuli were seen in the left transverse temporal gyrus (BA 42) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). These results suggest that the left inferior frontal gyrus and left transverse and superior temporal gyri are involved in phonemic restoration for speech comprehension. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration as well as develop innovative treatment methods for individuals suffering from impaired speech comprehension, particularly in noisy environments. PMID:24055105

  13. Design of Phoneme MIDI Codes Using the MIDI Encoding Tool “Auto-F” and Realizing Voice Synthesizing Functions Based on Musical Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modegi, Toshio

    Using our previously developed audio to MIDI code converter tool “Auto-F”, from given vocal acoustic signals we can create MIDI data, which enable to playback the voice-like signals with a standard MIDI synthesizer. Applying this tool, we are constructing a MIDI database, which consists of previously converted simple harmonic structured MIDI codes from a set of 71 Japanese male and female syllable recorded signals. And we are developing a novel voice synthesizing system based on harmonically synthesizing musical sounds, which can generate MIDI data and playback voice signals with a MIDI synthesizer by giving Japanese plain (kana) texts, referring to the syllable MIDI code database. In this paper, we propose an improved MIDI converter tool, which can produce temporally higher-resolution MIDI codes. Then we propose an algorithm separating a set of 20 consonant and vowel phoneme MIDI codes from 71 syllable MIDI converted codes in order to construct a voice synthesizing system. And, we present the evaluation results of voice synthesizing quality between these separated phoneme MIDI codes and their original syllable MIDI codes by our developed 4-syllable word listening tests.

  14. Phoneme restoration and empirical coverage of Interactive Activation and Adaptive Resonance models of human speech processing.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kazerounian, Sohrob

    2016-08-01

    Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language. The TRACE model embodies core assumptions with no analog in known brain processes. The cARTWORD model defines a hierarchy of cortical processing regions whose networks embody cells in laminar cortical circuits as part of the paradigm of laminar computing. cARTWORD further develops ART speech and language models that were introduced in the 1970s. It builds upon Item-Order-Rank working memories, which activate learned list chunks that unitize sequences to represent phonemes, syllables, and words. Psychophysical and neurophysiological data support Item-Order-Rank mechanisms and contradict TRACE representations of time, temporal order, silence, and top-down processing that exhibit many anomalous properties, including hallucinations of non-occurring future phonemes. Computer simulations of the TRACE model are presented that demonstrate these failures.

  15. Phonemic restoration by hearing-impaired listeners with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Eiler, Cheryl L; Edwards, Brent

    2010-02-01

    The auditory system is capable of perceptually restoring inaudible portions of speech. This restoration may be compromised as a result of hearing impairment, particularly if it is combined with advanced age, because of degradations in the bottom-up and top-down processes. To test this hypothesis, phonemic restoration was quantitatively measured with hearing-impaired listeners of varying ages and degrees of hearing impairment, as well as with a normal hearing control group. The results showed that the restoration benefit was negatively correlated with both hearing impairment and age, supporting the original hypothesis. Group data showed that listeners with mild hearing loss were able to perceptually restore the missing speech segments as well as listeners with normal hearing. By contrast, the moderately-impaired listeners showed no evidence of perceptual restoration. Further analysis using the articulation index showed that listeners with mild hearing loss were able to increase phonemic restoration with audibility. Moderately-impaired listeners, on the other hand, were unable to do so, even when the articulation index was high. The overall findings suggest that, in addition to insufficient audibility, degradations in the bottom-up and/or top-down mechanisms as a result of hearing loss may limit or entirely prevent phonemic restoration. PMID:19922784

  16. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    PubMed

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home.

  17. A phonemic implicational feature hierarchy of phonological contrasts for English-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Klee, Thomas; Carson, Cecyle Perry; Carson, David

    2005-08-01

    Contrastive feature hierarchies have been developed and used for some time in depicting typical phonological development and in guiding therapy decisions. Previous descriptions of feature use have been based on independent analyses and usually phonetic inventories. However, recent trends in phonology include a relational analysis of phonemic inventories (D. Ingram & K. D. Ingram, 2001). The current investigation was a relational analysis of the phonemic inventories of 40 typically developing 2-year-old American-English-speaking children. Consonant inventories were derived from spontaneous speech samples using the Logical International Phonetics Programs computer software (D. K. Oller & R. E. Delgado, 1999). Cluster analysis was used to determine the grouping of contrastive features. Four levels emerged. Level I included [consonant], [sonorant], and [coronal], Level II included [voice], Level III included [anterior], [continuant], and [nasal], and Level IV included [lateral] and [strident]. Results suggested that the resulting 4-level phonemic feature hierarchy might be used to classify the phonological systems of children with phonological disorders. PMID:16378476

  18. Phoneme restoration and empirical coverage of Interactive Activation and Adaptive Resonance models of human speech processing.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kazerounian, Sohrob

    2016-08-01

    Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language. The TRACE model embodies core assumptions with no analog in known brain processes. The cARTWORD model defines a hierarchy of cortical processing regions whose networks embody cells in laminar cortical circuits as part of the paradigm of laminar computing. cARTWORD further develops ART speech and language models that were introduced in the 1970s. It builds upon Item-Order-Rank working memories, which activate learned list chunks that unitize sequences to represent phonemes, syllables, and words. Psychophysical and neurophysiological data support Item-Order-Rank mechanisms and contradict TRACE representations of time, temporal order, silence, and top-down processing that exhibit many anomalous properties, including hallucinations of non-occurring future phonemes. Computer simulations of the TRACE model are presented that demonstrate these failures. PMID:27586743

  19. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    PubMed

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home. PMID:26739104

  20. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. PMID:22784927

  1. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  2. Can Southeast Asian Students Learn to Discriminate between English Phonemes More Quickly with the Aid of Music and Rhythm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimer, Lisa

    A study of the effectiveness of music and rhythm used in classroom activities as a technique for developing short-term memory for phonological learning had as subjects 25 adult Cambodian, Lao, Hmong, and Vietnamese immigrants, students in a course in English as a second language. The subjects were given a pretest of their ability to distinguish…

  3. Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, A.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of an erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: The processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of 'all or nothing': The maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also thoroughly analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.

  4. Reading: Phonemic Awareness, Vocabulary Acquisition, Teaching and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakof, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    To spread the word that reading instruction must be based on research and to improve the preparation of teachers to teach reading, this edition of "Basic Education" emphasizes some of the most significant findings of recent reading research and suggests how these findings should translate into immediate action and policy. The first article, "A…

  5. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia…

  6. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.

  7. Visual speech discrimination and identification of natural and synthetic consonant stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Files, Benjamin T.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Jiang, Jintao; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    From phonetic features to connected discourse, every level of psycholinguistic structure including prosody can be perceived through viewing the talking face. Yet a longstanding notion in the literature is that visual speech perceptual categories comprise groups of phonemes (referred to as visemes), such as /p, b, m/ and /f, v/, whose internal structure is not informative to the visual speech perceiver. This conclusion has not to our knowledge been evaluated using a psychophysical discrimination paradigm. We hypothesized that perceivers can discriminate the phonemes within typical viseme groups, and that discrimination measured with d-prime (d’) and response latency is related to visual stimulus dissimilarities between consonant segments. In Experiment 1, participants performed speeded discrimination for pairs of consonant-vowel spoken nonsense syllables that were predicted to be same, near, or far in their perceptual distances, and that were presented as natural or synthesized video. Near pairs were within-viseme consonants. Natural within-viseme stimulus pairs were discriminated significantly above chance (except for /k/-/h/). Sensitivity (d’) increased and response times decreased with distance. Discrimination and identification were superior with natural stimuli, which comprised more phonetic information. We suggest that the notion of the viseme as a unitary perceptual category is incorrect. Experiment 2 probed the perceptual basis for visual speech discrimination by inverting the stimuli. Overall reductions in d’ with inverted stimuli but a persistent pattern of larger d’ for far than for near stimulus pairs are interpreted as evidence that visual speech is represented by both its motion and configural attributes. The methods and results of this investigation open up avenues for understanding the neural and perceptual bases for visual and audiovisual speech perception and for development of practical applications such as visual lipreading

  8. A Neurophysiological Investigation of Non-native Phoneme Perception by Dutch and German Listeners.

    PubMed

    Bien, Heidrun; Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1) experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2) phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative // and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of // for German speakers) and /t/ (typical pronunciation of // for Dutch speakers). Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN) by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent vs. the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns. PMID:26858685

  9. A Neurophysiological Investigation of Non-native Phoneme Perception by Dutch and German Listeners.

    PubMed

    Bien, Heidrun; Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1) experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2) phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative // and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of // for German speakers) and /t/ (typical pronunciation of // for Dutch speakers). Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN) by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent vs. the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns.

  10. A Neurophysiological Investigation of Non-native Phoneme Perception by Dutch and German Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Heidrun; Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1) experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2) phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative /𝜃/ and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of /𝜃/ for German speakers) and /t/ (typical pronunciation of /𝜃/ for Dutch speakers). Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN) by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent vs. the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns. PMID:26858685

  11. Issues in Predictive Discriminant Analysis: Using and Interpreting the Leave-One-Out Jackknife Method and the Improvement-Over-Change "I" Index Effect Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Dae-Yeop

    Prediction of group membership is the goal of predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and the accuracy of group classification is the focus of PDA. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how PDA works and how it can be used to answer a variety of research questions. The paper explains what PDA is and why it is important, and it…

  12. Framewise phoneme classification with bidirectional LSTM and other neural network architectures.

    PubMed

    Graves, Alex; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks, and a modified, full gradient version of the LSTM learning algorithm. We evaluate Bidirectional LSTM (BLSTM) and several other network architectures on the benchmark task of framewise phoneme classification, using the TIMIT database. Our main findings are that bidirectional networks outperform unidirectional ones, and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) is much faster and also more accurate than both standard Recurrent Neural Nets (RNNs) and time-windowed Multilayer Perceptrons (MLPs). Our results support the view that contextual information is crucial to speech processing, and suggest that BLSTM is an effective architecture with which to exploit it.

  13. The architecture of speech production and the role of the phoneme in speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Speech production has been studied within a number of traditions including linguistics, psycholinguistics, motor control, neuropsychology, and neuroscience. These traditions have had limited interaction, ostensibly because they target different levels of speech production or different dimensions such as representation, processing, or implementation. However, closer examination of reveals a substantial convergence of ideas across the traditions and recent proposals have suggested that an integrated approach may help move the field forward. The present article reviews one such attempt at integration, the state feedback control model and its descendent, the hierarchical state feedback control model. Also considered is how phoneme-level representations might fit in the context of the model. PMID:24489420

  14. Does training on a phonemic contrast absent in the listener's dialect influence word recognition?

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noël; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2010-07-01

    Southern French listeners were trained on the word final Standard French /e/-/epsilon/ contrast that does not exist in their dialect. They learned to associate minimal pairs of new words with visual shapes. Although final training session performance was relatively high, the learning did not transfer to a lexical decision task with phonological priming. Thus successful training on a phonemic contrast did not guarantee the efficient use of this contrast in spoken word recognition tasks. These findings are discussed in light of abstractionist and exemplarist models.

  15. Reducing Stigma and Discrimination to Improve Child Health and Survival in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Promising Approaches and Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Usha S.; Stangl, Anne L.; De Zalduondo, Barbara; Brady, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The social processes of stigmatization and discrimination can have complex and devastating effects on the health and welfare of families and communities, and thus on the environments in which children live and grow. The authors conducted a literature review to identify interventions for reducing the stigma and discrimination that impede child health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on nutrition, HIV/AIDS, neonatal survival and infant health, and early child development. Despite broad consensus on the importance of stigma and discrimination as barriers to access and uptake of health information and services, the authors found a dearth of research and program evaluations directly assessing effective interventions in the area of child health except in the area of reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination. While the literature demonstrates that poverty and social exclusion are often stigma-laden and impede adult access to health information and services, and to education relevant to family planning, child rearing, nutrition, health promotion, and disease prevention, the child health literature does not document direct connections between these known mediators of child health and the stigmatization of either children or their caregivers. The child health field would greatly benefit from more research to understand and address stigma as it relates to child health and well-being. The authors suggest applying a framework, adapted from the HIV stigma field, to direct future research and the adaptation of existing strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination to address social and health-related stigmas affecting children and their families. PMID:25207451

  16. Reducing stigma and discrimination to improve child health and survival in low- and middle-income countries: promising approaches and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Usha S; Stangl, Anne L; De Zalduondo, Barbara; Brady, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The social processes of stigmatization and discrimination can have complex and devastating effects on the health and welfare of families and communities, and thus on the environments in which children live and grow. The authors conducted a literature review to identify interventions for reducing the stigma and discrimination that impede child health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on nutrition, HIV/AIDS, neonatal survival and infant health, and early child development. Despite broad consensus on the importance of stigma and discrimination as barriers to access and uptake of health information and services, the authors found a dearth of research and program evaluations directly assessing effective interventions in the area of child health except in the area of reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination. While the literature demonstrates that poverty and social exclusion are often stigma-laden and impede adult access to health information and services, and to education relevant to family planning, child rearing, nutrition, health promotion, and disease prevention, the child health literature does not document direct connections between these known mediators of child health and the stigmatization of either children or their caregivers. The child health field would greatly benefit from more research to understand and address stigma as it relates to child health and well-being. The authors suggest applying a framework, adapted from the HIV stigma field, to direct future research and the adaptation of existing strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination to address social and health-related stigmas affecting children and their families. PMID:25207451

  17. Effect of Phoneme Awareness Instruction on the Invented Spelling of First-Grade Children: A One-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangel, Darlene M.; Blachman, Benita A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that low-income, inner-city children who had a phoneme awareness intervention program in kindergarten, followed by a first-grade reading program emphasizing phoneme awareness and the alphabetic code, remained significantly ahead of control children at the end of first grade in terms of both invented spelling and standard spelling. (SR)

  18. Electroacoustic Comparison of Hearing Aid Output of Phonemes in Running Speech versus Isolation: Implications for Aided Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Testing

    PubMed Central

    Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Functioning of nonlinear hearing aids varies with characteristics of input stimuli. In the past decade, aided speech evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) have been proposed for validation of hearing aid fittings. However, unlike in running speech, phonemes presented as stimuli during CAEP testing are preceded by silent intervals of over one second. Hence, the present study aimed to compare if hearing aids process phonemes similarly in running speech and in CAEP testing contexts. Method. A sample of ten hearing aids was used. Overall phoneme level and phoneme onset level of eight phonemes in both contexts were compared at three input levels representing conversational speech levels. Results. Differences of over 3 dB between the two contexts were noted in one-fourth of the observations measuring overall phoneme levels and in one-third of the observations measuring phoneme onset level. In a majority of these differences, output levels of phonemes were higher in the running speech context. These differences varied across hearing aids. Conclusion. Lower output levels in the isolation context may have implications for calibration and estimation of audibility based on CAEPs. The variability across hearing aids observed could make it challenging to predict differences on an individual basis. PMID:23316236

  19. Re-Evaluating the Significance of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics in Literacy Teaching: The Shared Role of School Counsellors and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Julie; Colmar, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article examines recent research and developments relating to the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in early literacy education and the relevance of these findings for school counsellors and teachers. It defines and reviews the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in theoretical models of reading processes, including whole-language,…

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of Two Theoretically Motivated Computer-Assisted Reading Interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona; Kujala, Janne; Richardson, Ulla; Lyytinen, Heikki; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We report an empirical comparison of the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions (CARI) based on the Finnish GraphoGame CARI: English GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime) and English GraphoGame Phoneme (GG Phoneme). Participants were 6-7-year-old students who had been identified by their teachers as being…

  1. Kindergarten Literacy Assessment of English Only and English Language Learner Students: An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Three Phonemic Awareness Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…

  2. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  3. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  4. A Multimedia English Learning System Using HMMs to Improve Phonemic Awareness for English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yen-Shou; Tsai, Hung-Hsu; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimedia English learning (MEL) system, based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and mastery theory strategy, for teaching students with the aim of enhancing their English phonetic awareness and pronunciation. It can analyze phonetic structures, identify and capture pronunciation errors to provide students with targeted advice…

  5. Distinct representations of phonemes, syllables, and supra-syllabic sequences in the speech production network

    PubMed Central

    Peeva, Maya G.; Guenther, Frank H.; Tourville, Jason A.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have converged on a core network of brain regions that supports speech production, but the sublexical processing stages performed by the different parts of this network remain unclear. Using an fMRI adaptation paradigm and quantitative analysis of patterns of activation rather than contrast subtractions alone, we were able to identify a set of neural substrates predominantly engaged in phonemic, syllabic, and supra-syllabic levels of processing during speech. Phoneme-level processes were found in the left SMA, pallidum, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and superior lateral cerebellum. Syllable-level processes were found in left ventral premotor cortex, and supra-syllabic processes related to phonological chunking were found in the right superior lateral cerebellum. Active regions that were not sensitive to sublexical manipulations included primary motor and auditory cortical areas, and medial cerebellum. These results offer a quantitative technique for localizing sublexical neural processes that are difficult to dissociate using non-invasive imaging techniques and provide the beginnings of a “brain map” for language output. PMID:20035884

  6. Effects of orthographic transparency on reading and phoneme awareness in children learning to read in Wales.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Llinos H; Hanley, J Richard

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between the development of reading skills and the consistency of the orthography (writing system) is investigated in a study that examines reading acquisition in children living in Wales. Performance of children learning to read Welsh (a transparent alphabetic orthography) on tests of reading and phoneme detection was compared with the performance of children learning to read English (an opaque alphabetic orthography). The children were tested during their second year of formal reading instruction at school when they were aged between 5 and 6 years, and again one year later. The children learning to read in Welsh performed significantly better at reading both real words and nonwords than children learning to read in English. The English readers made fewer phonologically based reading errors. The Welsh readers also performed better on a phoneme awareness task. These findings support the claim that children learn to read more quickly in a transparent orthography, and provide further evidence that the consistency of the orthography influences the initial adoption of different strategies for word recognition.

  7. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  8. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  9. Improving phonological awareness and word reading in a later learned alphabetic script.

    PubMed

    Cheung, H

    1999-02-01

    This study examines the effects of phonological skill training on consonantal phoneme deletion and word reading performance in two groups of adolescent Chinese readers who were also literate in English. The research questions were: (1) whether training would promote segmentation skills over and above years of contact with the alphabetic (English) writing system, given an initial logographic (Chinese) reading background; (2) whether improvements in segmentation skills due to training would enhance word reading in the alphabetic script. The participants were trained on phoneme counting, phoneme blending and rime judgement with English materials over a period of two months. Resultant changes in consonantal phoneme deletion and English word reading performance were examined. Significant improvements in both activities due to training were observed for the younger (mean age 12.7 years) but not the older (mean age 15.8 years) participants. Follow-up analyses showed that language proficiency might be the factor underlying this age effect. Individual differences in phoneme deletion uniquely predicted word reading for both age groups, although the relationship tended to be stronger for the less proficient than the more proficient members. These findings suggest that beyond years of normal reading instruction in the alphabetic system, specialized segmentation training could still contribute to promoting consonantal phonemic analysis that is not supported by the logographic first-learned script. Moreover, improved phonological skills do lead to better word reading in the later-learned writing system. Implications of the present findings for second script reading instruction are considered.

  10. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed.

  11. Microcounseling Skill Discrimination Scale: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Romer, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    Absolute ratings on the Microcounseling Skill Discrimination Scale (MSDS) confound the individual's use of the rating scale and actual ability to discriminate effective and ineffective counselor behaviors. This note suggests methods of scoring the MSDS that will eliminate variability attributable to response language and improve the validity of…

  12. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  13. Hemispheric Specialization for Language According to Grapho-Phonemic Transformation and Gender. A Divided Visual Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousin, Emilie; Perrone, Marcela; Baciu, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This behavioral study aimed at assessing the effect of two variables on the degree of hemispheric specialization for language. One of them was the "grapho-phonemic translation (transformation)" (letter-sound mapping) and the other was the participants' "gender". The experiment was conducted with healthy volunteers. A divided visual field procedure…

  14. Contribution of Phonemic Segmentation Instruction with Letters and Articulation Pictures to Word Reading and Spelling in Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Nancy; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2011-01-01

    English-speaking preschoolers who knew letters but were nonreaders (M = 4 years 9 months; n = 60) were taught to segment consonant-vowel (CV), VC, and CVC words into phonemes either with letters and pictures of articulatory gestures (the LPA condition) or with letters only (the LO condition). A control group received no treatment. Both trained…

  15. Dogs, Bogs, Labs, and Lads: What Phonemic Generalizations Indicate about the Nature of Children's Early Word-Form Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Yee, Meagan N.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas young children accept words that differ by only a single phoneme as equivalent labels for novel objects, older children do not (J. F. Werker, C. J. Fennell, K. M. Corcoran, & C. L. Stager, 2002). In these experiments, 106 children were exposed to a training regime that has previously been found to facilitate children's use of phonemic…

  16. Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

  17. Assessing Phonemic Fluency in Multilingual Contexts: Letter Selection Methodology and Demographically Stratified Norms for Three South African Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Carey, Paul D.; Baufeldt, Angela L.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Conradie, Simone; Dowling, Tessa; Stein, Dan J.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their global clinical utility, phonemic fluency tests are frequently incorporated into neuropsychological assessment batteries. However, in heterogeneous societies their use is complicated by the lack of careful attention to using letters of equivalent difficulty across languages, and the paucity of norms stratified by relevant…

  18. Schreibungszusammenfall und Phonemwandel in den althochdeutschen Dialekten (Grapheme Concentration and Phonemic Change in Old High German Dialects)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzl, Herbert

    1973-01-01

    Paper delivered in a slightly different English version, Graphic and Phonemic Coalescence in Old High German'' at the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America, Chicago, Illinois, December 1967; present article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  19. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  20. The Effects of Intervention in Phonemic Awareness on the Reading Achievement of English Language Learners in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Students entering school with little knowledge of English do not have the foundation in place to develop reading skills. This lack of foundation puts English Learners at a disadvantage that they struggle to overcome. The purpose of the quantitative study was twofold: (a) to determine whether measures of phonemic awareness are predictive of end of…

  1. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Instruction in First Grade on the Reading Scores of Rural Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Linda H.; Vinzant, Rebecca S.

    A study investigated the effect of phonemic awareness instruction on the reading ability of first and second grade students. Participants were 100 second graders who had been in 5 first grades at Westside Elementary in Searcy, Arkansas. Using a posttest only control group design and a t test for independent samples, it was found that second grade…

  2. The Effects of Daily Opportunities To Draw and Write on Kindergarten Children's Ability To Represent Phonemes in their Spelling Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, M. Elizabeth; And Others

    This quasi-experimental study measured the effects of daily opportunities to draw and write on kindergarten children's ability to represent phonemes in their spelling inventions. All students involved in the study had previously been tested using the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test and placed in developmentally appropriate kindergarten…

  3. Do Adults with Cochlear Implants Rely on Different Acoustic Cues for Phoneme Perception than Adults with Normal Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but…

  4. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  5. Phonosymbolism and the emotional nature of sounds: evidence of the preferential use of particular phonemes in texts of differing emotional tone.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C

    1999-08-01

    This article addresses the emotional meaning (phonosymbolism) of the most basic unit of language--the phoneme. Language excerpts from many sources were transcribed phonetically with the help of a computer program. The distributions of phonemes in different sources (song lyrics, poetry, word lists, advertisements) were correlated with the emotionality of the language along two dimensions (activation, evaluation) which had been rated by the Dictionary of Affect using another computer program. Significant results characterized all phases of the analysis. Phonemes were distributed differently in different language samples. Frequency of phonemes in a language sample as well as frequency of phonemes in individual words were correlated with emotion. For example, the phoneme /l/ (the one appearing twice in the word lullaby) was used more often in pleasant language samples, in soft or tender language samples, and in passive words. The phoneme /r/ (appearing twice in the word roar) was found more often in unpleasant words and in active words. Possible sources of the relationship between sound production and emotion are discussed. PMID:10544399

  6. Early learners' discrimination of second-language vowels.

    PubMed

    Højen, Anders; Flege, James E

    2006-05-01

    It is uncertain from previous research to what extent the perceptual system retains plasticity after attunement to the native language (L1) sound system. This study evaluated second-language (L2) vowel discrimination by individuals who began learning the L2 as children ("early learners"). Experiment 1 identified procedures that lowered discrimination scores for foreign vowel contrasts in an AXB test (with three physically different stimuli per trial, where "X" was drawn from the same vowel category as "A" or "B"). Experiment 2 examined the AXB discrimination of English vowels by native Spanish early learners and monolingual speakers of Spanish and English (20 per group) at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 1000 and 0 ms. The Spanish monolinguals obtained near-chance scores for three difficult vowel contrasts, presumably because they did not perceive the vowels as distinct phonemes and because the experimental design hindered low-level encoding strategies. Like the English monolinguals, the early learners obtained high scores, indicating they had shown considerable perceptual learning. However, statistically significant differences between early learners and English monolinguals for two of three difficult contrasts at the 0-ms ISI suggested that their underlying perceptual systems were not identical. Implications for claims regarding perceptual plasticity following L1 attunement are discussed. PMID:16708962

  7. Effect of Compression Ratio on Perception of Time Compressed Phonemically Balanced Words in Kannada and Monosyllables

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Sujan, Mirale Jagadish; Rakshith, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to study perception of time-compressed speech and the effect of compression ratio for phonemically balanced (PB) word lists in Kannada and monosyllables. The test was administered on 30 normal hearing individuals at compression ratios of 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% for PB words in Kannada and monosyllables. The results of the study showed that the speech identification scores for time-compressed speech reduced with increase in compression ratio. The scores were better for monosyllables compared to PB words especially at higher compression ratios. The study provides speech identification scores at different compression ratio for PB words and monosyllables in individuals with normal hearing. The results of the study also showed that the scores did not vary across gender for all the compression ratios for both the stimuli. The same test material needs to be compared the clinical population with central auditory processing disorder for clinical validation of the present results. PMID:26557363

  8. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26353206

  9. Onomatopoeias: a new perspective around space, image schemas and phoneme clusters.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Onomatopoeias (phonemes and phoneme clusters, while visual patterns correspond to different image schemas. The association between specific categories of pseudo-onomatopoeias and specific spatial/movement patterns is also the object of an experiment focused on onomatopoeia interpretation. Most part of data confirms a correlation between image schemas as CONTAINER/CONTAINMENT (crunch, plop) or SOURCE-PATH-GOAL (tattarrattat 'shots') and an occlusive consonant, while liquid

  10. Onomatopoeias: a new perspective around space, image schemas and phoneme clusters.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Onomatopoeias (phonemes and phoneme clusters, while visual patterns correspond to different image schemas. The association between specific categories of pseudo-onomatopoeias and specific spatial/movement patterns is also the object of an experiment focused on onomatopoeia interpretation. Most part of data confirms a correlation between image schemas as CONTAINER/CONTAINMENT (crunch, plop) or SOURCE-PATH-GOAL (tattarrattat 'shots') and an occlusive consonant, while liquid

  11. Rediscovering signal complexity as a teleseismic discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N; Taylor, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P-wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave ({beta}{sub CF}). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. Inclusion of secondary phases in the coda window can also degrade performance. However, performance improves markedly when two-station complexity discriminants are formed showing false alarm rates similar to those observed for network m{sub b} - M{sub s}. This suggests that multistation complexity discriminants may ameliorate some of the problems associated with m{sub b} - M{sub s} discrimination at lower magnitudes. Additionally, when complexity discriminants are combined with m{sub b} - M{sub s} there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Thus, complexity discriminants may follow a logic that is similar to m{sub b} - M{sub s} in terms of the separation of shallow earthquakes from nuclear explosions, although the underlying physics of the two discriminants is significantly different.

  12. Word-level reading achievement and behavioral inattention: exploring their overlap and relations with naming speed and phonemic awareness in a community sample of children.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency.

  13. Phoneme awareness is a key component of alphabetic literacy skills in consistent and inconsistent orthographies: evidence from Czech and English children.

    PubMed

    Caravolas, Markéta; Volín, Jan; Hulme, Charles

    2005-10-01

    Two studies investigated the importance of phoneme awareness relative to other predictors in the development of reading and spelling among children learning a consistent orthography (Czech) and an inconsistent orthography (English). In Study 1, structural equation models revealed that Czech (n=107) and English (n=71) data were fitted well by the same predictors of reading and spelling. Phoneme awareness was a unique predictor in all models. In Study 2, Czech (n=40) and English (n=27) children with dyslexia showed similar deficits on phoneme awareness relative to their age- and spelling-matched control peers. Phoneme awareness appears to be a core component skill of alphabetic literacy, which is equally important for learners of consistent and inconsistent orthographies.

  14. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  15. Rediscovering Signal Complexity as a Teleseismic Discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steve R.; Anderson, Dale N.

    2009-02-20

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave (βCF). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. However, when combined with the mb – Ms discriminant significant improvements are observed. In particular, signal complexity can be used to improve discrimination performance over mb – Ms alone as well improve differentiation between shallow and deep earthquakes. When complexity discriminants are combined with mb – Ms there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Importantly, multistation complexity discriminants have false alarm rates similar to those observed for network mb - Ms in support of predictions based on simulations of Bowers (1996).

  16. Shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency revealed by lesion-symptom mapping in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Semantic and phonemic fluency tasks are frequently used to test executive functioning, speed and attention, and access to the mental lexicon. In semantic fluency tasks, subjects are required to generate words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) within a limited time window, whereas in phonemic fluency tasks subjects have to generate words starting with a given letter. Anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency are currently assumed to overlap in left frontal structures, reflecting shared executive processes, and to be distinct in left temporal and right frontal structures, reflecting involvement of distinct memory processes and search strategies. Definite evidence for this assumption is lacking. To further establish the anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency, we applied assumption-free voxel-based and region-of-interest-based lesion-symptom mapping in 93 patients with ischemic stroke. Fluency was assessed by asking patients to name animals (semantic), and words starting with the letter N and A (phonemic). Our findings indicate that anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, reflecting shared underlying cognitive processes. Phonemic fluency additionally draws on the left rolandic operculum, which might reflect a search through phonological memory, and the middle frontal gyrus. Semantic fluency additionally draws on left medial temporal regions, probably reflecting a search through semantic memory, and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which might reflect the application of a visuospatial mental imagery strategy in semantic fluency. These findings establish shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Combined Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectrometry (FT-NIR) and Raman Datasets for Improved Discrimination of Drying Oils.

    PubMed

    Carlesi, Serena; Ricci, Marilena; Cucci, Costanza; La Nasa, Jacopo; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Picollo, Marcello; Becucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    This work explores the application of chemometric techniques to the analysis of lipidic paint binders (i.e., drying oils) by means of Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy. These binders have been widely used by artists throughout history, both individually and in mixtures. We prepared various model samples of the pure binders (linseed, poppy seed, and walnut oils) obtained from different manufacturers. These model samples were left to dry and then characterized by Raman and reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy. Multivariate analysis was performed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) on the first derivative of the corresponding Raman spectra (1800-750 cm(-1)), near-infrared spectra (6000-3900 cm(-1)), and their combination to test whether spectral differences could enable samples to be distinguished on the basis of their composition. The vibrational bands we found most useful to discriminate between the different products we studied are the fundamental ν(C=C) stretching and methylenic stretching and bending combination bands. The results of the multivariate analysis demonstrated the potential of chemometric approaches for characterizing and identifying drying oils, and also for gaining a deeper insight into the aging process. Comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography data was conducted to check the PCA results. PMID:26036244

  18. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2008-10-01

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  19. Laminar cortical dynamics of conscious speech perception: neural model of phonemic restoration using subsequent context in noise.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kazerounian, Sohrob

    2011-07-01

    How are laminar circuits of neocortex organized to generate conscious speech and language percepts? How does the brain restore information that is occluded by noise, or absent from an acoustic signal, by integrating contextual information over many milliseconds to disambiguate noise-occluded acoustical signals? How are speech and language heard in the correct temporal order, despite the influence of contexts that may occur many milliseconds before or after each perceived word? A neural model describes key mechanisms in forming conscious speech percepts, and quantitatively simulates a critical example of contextual disambiguation of speech and language; namely, phonemic restoration. Here, a phoneme deleted from a speech stream is perceptually restored when it is replaced by broadband noise, even when the disambiguating context occurs after the phoneme was presented. The model describes how the laminar circuits within a hierarchy of cortical processing stages may interact to generate a conscious speech percept that is embodied by a resonant wave of activation that occurs between acoustic features, acoustic item chunks, and list chunks. Chunk-mediated gating allows speech to be heard in the correct temporal order, even when what is heard depends upon future context.

  20. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  1. Employment Discrimination: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Gerald A.

    Chapter 4 in a book on school law provides a general overview of the various federal statutes directed toward discrimination in employment and considers some of the recent developments under these statutes. The first section is a survey of the employment discrimination laws and their interrelationships. The second section analyzes more closely…

  2. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  3. Discrimination and health inequities.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, only 20 studies in the public health literature employed instruments to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination. Fifteen years later, the number of empirical investigations on discrimination and health easily exceeds 500, with these studies increasingly global in scope and focused on major types of discrimination variously involving race/ethnicity, indigenous status, immigrant status, gender, sexuality, disability, and age, separately and in combination. And yet, as I also document, even as the number of investigations has dramatically expanded, the scope remains narrow: studies remain focused primarily on interpersonal discrimination, and scant research investigates the health impacts of structural discrimination, a gap consonant with the limited epidemiologic research on political systems and population health. Accordingly, to help advance the state of the field, this updated review article: (a) briefly reviews definitions of discrimination, illustrated with examples from the United States; (b) discusses theoretical insights useful for conceptualizing how discrimination can become embodied and produce health inequities, including via distortion of scientific knowledge; (c) concisely summarizes extant evidence--both robust and inconsistent--linking discrimination and health; and (d) addresses several key methodological controversies and challenges, including the need for careful attention to domains, pathways, level, and spatiotemporal scale, in historical context. PMID:25626224

  4. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  5. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  6. Dynamics of temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Church, Russell M

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and explain the acquisition of temporal discriminations, transitions from one temporal interval to another, and asymptotic performance of stimulus and temporal discriminations. Rats were trained on a multiple cued interval (MCI) procedure with a head entry response on three signaled fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement (30, 60, and 120 sec). They readily learned the three temporal discriminations, whether they were presented simultaneously or successively, and they rapidly adjusted their performance to new intervals when the intermediate interval was varied daily. Although exponential functions provided good descriptions of many measures of temporal discrimination, different parameter values were required for each measure. The addition of a linear operator to a packet theory of timing with a single set of parameters provided a quantitative process model that fit many measures of the dynamics of temporal discrimination.

  7. Updating the OMERACT filter: discrimination and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John R; Bingham, Clifton O; Boonen, Annelies; Brooks, Peter; Conaghan, Philip G; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Dougados, Maxime; Furst, Daniel E; Gossec, Laure; Guillemin, Francis; Helliwell, Philip; Hewlett, Sarah; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert B; March, Lyn; Mease, Philip J; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M

    2014-05-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition and provide specific guidance and advice to participants. PMID:24692522

  8. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested. PMID:20626312

  9. Effects of speaking rate on the perception of phonemic length contrast in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2001-05-01

    Segment length is distinctive in Japanese, for example, /kaite/ (buyer) versus /kaite:/ (seabed). Such length contrasts are not necessarily categorical for non-native speakers. To study this property precisely, a series of perception experiments was conducted. A professionally trained native-Japanese speaker produced the nonsense word /erete/ at slow, normal, and fast rates with or without a carrier sentence. Either the second vowel or second consonant of each word was gradually lengthened until reaching its longer counterpart, i.e., /ete:te/ or /eret:e/, in all rate and carrier conditions using STRAIGHT, a high-fidelity speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation system [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], resulting in 12 stimulus continua. Seven native-Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task with the method of constant stimuli. The speaking rate of the presented stimuli within a session was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Results suggest that native listeners' identification boundaries systematically altered due to changes in speaking rate, whereas their boundaries became unstable in the randomized-rate condition, especially for no-carrier stimuli. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of second-language phoneme perception and acquisition through comparisons with results from non-native listeners. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  10. Fiber-Optic Discriminator Stabilizes Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    New fiber-optic delay line discriminator enables stabilization of oscillators directly at microwave output frequency, eliminating need for frequency multiplication. Discriminator is wide-band device, capable of stabilizing outputs of frequency-agile microwave sources over multigigahertz tuning ranges. Use of advanced fiber-optic delay line with wider bandwidth and low noise predicted to yield corresponding improvements in phase-noise performance.

  11. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. PMID:26479824

  12. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  13. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided.

  14. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  15. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  16. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  17. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  18. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  19. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  20. Processing of Phonemic Consonant Length: Semantic and Fragment Priming Evidence from Bengali.

    PubMed

    Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Roberts, Adam C; Lahiri, Aditi

    2016-03-01

    Six cross-modal lexical decision tasks with priming probed listeners' processing of the geminate-singleton contrast in Bengali, where duration alone leads to phonemic contrast ([pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'), in order to investigate the phonological representation of consonantal duration in the lexicon. Four form-priming experiments (auditory fragment primes and visual targets) were designed to investigate listeners' sensitivity to segments of conflicting duration. Each prime derived from a real word ([k(h)[symbol: see text]m]/[g(h)en:]) was matched with a mispronunciation of the opposite duration (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:]/*[g(h)en]) and both were used to prime the full words [k(h)[symbol: see text]ma] ('forgiveness') and [g(h)en:a] ('disgust') respectively. Although all fragments led to priming, the results showed an asymmetric pattern. The fragments of words with singletons mispronounced as geminates led to equal priming, while those with geminates mispronounced as singletons showed a difference. The priming effect of the real-word geminate fragment was significantly greater than that of its corresponding nonword singleton fragment. In two subsequent semantic priming tasks with full-word primes a stronger asymmetry was found: nonword geminates (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:a]) primed semantically related words ([marjona] 'forgiveness') but singleton nonword primes (*[ghena]) did not show priming. This overall asymmetry in the tolerance of geminate nonwords in place of singleton words is attributed to a representational mismatch and points towards a moraic representation of duration. While geminates require a mora which cannot be derived from singleton input, the additional information in geminate nonwords does not create a similar mismatch. PMID:27089807

  1. The development of facial identity discrimination through learned attention.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Okada, Kazunori; Frick, Janet E

    2014-07-01

    Learned attention models of perceptual discrimination predict that with age, sensitivity will increase for dimensions of stimuli useful for discrimination. We tested this prediction by examining the face dimensions 4- to 6-month-olds (n = 77), 9- to 12-month-olds (n = 66), and adults (n = 73) use for discriminating human, monkey, and sheep faces systematically varying in outer features (contour), inner features (eyes, mouth), or configuration (feature spacing). We controlled interindividual variability across species by varying faces within natural ranges and measured stimulus variability using computational image similarity. We found the most improvement with age in human face discrimination, and older participants discriminated more species and used more facial properties for discrimination, consistent with learned attention models. Older infants and adults discriminated human, monkey, and sheep faces; however, they used different facial properties for primates and sheep. Learned attention models may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying perceptual narrowing.

  2. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  3. Efficacy of Explicit English Instruction in Phonemic Awareness and the Alphabetic Principle for English Learners and English Proficient Kindergarten Children in Relationship to Oral Language Proficiency, Primary Language and Verbal Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Theresa; Corbett, Caro

    A study examined the degree to which children with limited English proficiency can benefit from English instruction in phonemic awareness and phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Subjects were 27 kindergarten children in a suburban northern California school--16 spoke Hmong as their primary language and the rest were monolingual English speakers. The…

  4. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  5. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  6. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course.

  7. Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks in healthy volunteers: differential networks involved in familiar versus unfamiliar shape and length discrimination.

    PubMed

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole; Peeters, Ron; Van Hecke, Paul; Feys, Hilde; Horemans, Els; Marchal, Guy; Swinnen, Stephan P; Perfetti, Carlo; De Weerdt, Willy

    2005-06-01

    Somatosensory discrimination of unseen objects relies on processing of proprioceptive and tactile information to detect spatial features, such as shape or length, as acquired by exploratory finger movements. This ability can be impaired after stroke, because of somatosensory-motor deficits. Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks are therefore used in therapy to improve motor function. Whereas the neural correlates of active discrimination have been addressed repeatedly, little is known about the neural networks activated during passive discrimination of somatosensory information. In the present study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while the right index finger of ten healthy subjects was passively moved along various shapes and lengths by an fMRI compatible robot. Comparing discriminating versus non-discriminating passive movements, we identified a bilateral parieto-frontal network, including the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus, rostral intraparietal sulcus, and supramarginal gyrus as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor (PMd), and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. Additionally, we compared the discrimination of different spatial features, i.e., discrimination of length versus familiar (rectangles or triangles) and unfamiliar geometric shapes (arbitrary quadrilaterals). Length discrimination activated mainly medially located superior parietal and PMd circuits whereas discrimination of familiar geometric shapes activated more laterally located inferior parietal and PMv regions. These differential parieto-frontal circuits provide new insights into the neural basis of extracting spatial features from somatosensory input and suggest that different passive discrimination tasks could be used for lesion-specific training following stroke.

  8. Occurrence of consonant production errors in liquid phonemes in children with operated cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    PRANDINI, Estefânia Leite; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; MARINO, Viviane Cristina de Castro

    2011-01-01

    (p=0.040). Conclusion We found a low occurrence of use of cleft related CA during attempts of production of liquid phonemes, and the variable age at primary palatoplasty significantly interfered with the acquisition of consonant cluster /r/. PMID:22230991

  9. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  10. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  11. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  12. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  13. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  14. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  15. Ideal Point Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A new method of multiple discriminant analysis allows a mixture of continuous and discrete predictors. It handles conditional, joint, or separate sampling. Subjects and criterion groups are represented as points in a multidimensional Euclidean space. Advantages of the method, deriving from Akaike Information Criterion model evaluation, are…

  16. Discrimination and its Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  17. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  18. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  19. Digital frequency discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Frequency discriminator has five integrated circuit chips interconnected to provide a divide function, exclusive OR function, phase shifting, and holding so that a single binary output signal results. The state of the binary signal indicates which one of the two input signals has a lower frequency than the other.

  20. Justice and Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1976-01-01

    Although this article does not necessarily recommend policies of reverse discrimination, arguments indicating that such policies are not contradictory to accepted concepts of justice are presented. The necessity of dispersing any consequent injury to society as a whole rather than to individuals is stressed. (RW)

  1. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  2. Dietary cholesterol degrades rabbit long term memory for discrimination learning but facilitates acquisition of discrimination reversal.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B

    2013-11-01

    We have shown previously that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long term memory. To examine these different findings within a single paradigm, we fed groups of rabbits 2% cholesterol or normal chow with or without 0.12 ppm copper added to the drinking water following two-tone discrimination learning of the nictitating membrane response in which a 8-kHz tone (conditioned stimulus, CS+) was followed by air puff and a 1-kHz tone (CS-) was not. After eight weeks on the diet, we assessed the rabbits' conditioned responding during testing and retraining. We then reversed the two-tone discrimination and assessed responding to the 1-kHz tone CS+ and the 8-kHz CS-. During testing, rabbits given cholesterol without copper had lower levels of responding to CS+ than rabbits in the other groups suggesting they did not retain the discrimination as well. However, during a brief discrimination retraining session, their response levels to the CS+ returned to the level of the other groups, demonstrating a return of the memory of the original discrimination. At the end of discrimination reversal, these same rabbits exhibited superior discrimination indexed by lower response levels to CS- but similar levels to CS+, suggesting they were better able to acquire the new relationship between the two tones by inhibiting CS- responses. These results add to our previous data by showing cholesterol diet-induced degradation of an old memory and facilitation of a new memory can both be demonstrated within a discrimination reversal paradigm. Given discrimination reversal is a hippocampally-dependent form of learning, the data support the role of cholesterol in modifying hippocampal function as we have shown previously with in vitro brain slice recordings.

  3. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  4. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  5. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  6. Could Phonemic Awareness Instruction Be (Part of) the Answer for Young EFL Learners? A Report on the Early Literacy Project in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert C.; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Curriculum Specifications for English, set out in the Ministry of Education Malaysia syllabus for Year 1, calls for instruction in phonemic awareness (PA) as part of the acquisition of word recognition skills. Students are expected to be able to learn individual letters of the alphabet and their sounds; read aloud consonants in initial…

  7. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  8. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

  9. The Effect of a Suggested Multisensory Phonics Program on Developing Kindergarten Pre-Service Teachers' EFL Reading Accuracy and Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of a suggested multisensory phonics program on developing kindergarten pre-service teachers' EFL reading accuracy and phonemic awareness. A total of 40 fourth year kindergarten pre-service teachers, Faculty of Education, participated in the study that involved one group experimental design. Pre-post tests…

  10. The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nullman, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

  11. Category and perceptual interference in second-language phoneme learning: an examination of English /w/-/v/ learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch speakers.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural recordings, their degree of spoken accent, their relative use of place and manner cues, the assimilation of these phonemes into native-language categories, and their perceptual maps (i.e., multidimensional scaling solutions) for these phonemes. Most Sinhala speakers had near-chance identification accuracy, Germans ranged from chance to 100% correct, and Dutch speakers had uniformly high accuracy. The results suggest that these learning differences were caused more by perceptual interference than by category assimilation; Sinhala and German speakers both have a single native-language phoneme that is similar to English /w/ and /v/, but the auditory sensitivities of Sinhala speakers make it harder for them to discern the acoustic cues that are critical to /w/-/v/ categorization.

  12. Category and perceptual interference in second-language phoneme learning: an examination of English /w/-/v/ learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch speakers.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural recordings, their degree of spoken accent, their relative use of place and manner cues, the assimilation of these phonemes into native-language categories, and their perceptual maps (i.e., multidimensional scaling solutions) for these phonemes. Most Sinhala speakers had near-chance identification accuracy, Germans ranged from chance to 100% correct, and Dutch speakers had uniformly high accuracy. The results suggest that these learning differences were caused more by perceptual interference than by category assimilation; Sinhala and German speakers both have a single native-language phoneme that is similar to English /w/ and /v/, but the auditory sensitivities of Sinhala speakers make it harder for them to discern the acoustic cues that are critical to /w/-/v/ categorization. PMID:18823213

  13. Category and Perceptual Interference in Second-Language Phoneme Learning: An Examination of English /w/-/v/ Learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness: Relationship to Perceived Knowledge, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Exposure to a Multimedia-Enhanced Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief…

  15. Evaluation of a Program to Teach Phonemic Awareness to Young Children: A 2- and 3-Year Follow-Up and a New Preschool Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    A follow-up study of 62 children in grades 1 and 2 instructed in phonemic awareness in preschool showed that, compared with 53 controls, trained children were superior in nonword reading 2 and 3 years later and in reading comprehension at 3 years. A supplemental study supported these results. (SLD)

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Stimulating Phoneme Awareness vs. Other Linguistic Skills in Preschoolers with Co-Occurring Speech and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Gillon, Gail; Macrae, Toby; Johnson, Roberta L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated phoneme awareness/speech intervention in comparison to an alternating speech/morphosyntax intervention for specific areas targeted by the different interventions, as well as the extent of indirect gains in nontargeted areas. Method: A total of 30 children with co-occurring…

  17. Multi-View Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Meina; Shan, Shiguang; Zhang, Haihong; Lao, Shihong; Chen, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    In many computer vision systems, the same object can be observed at varying viewpoints or even by different sensors, which brings in the challenging demand for recognizing objects from distinct even heterogeneous views. In this work we propose a Multi-view Discriminant Analysis (MvDA) approach, which seeks for a single discriminant common space for multiple views in a non-pairwise manner by jointly learning multiple view-specific linear transforms. Specifically, our MvDA is formulated to jointly solve the multiple linear transforms by optimizing a generalized Rayleigh quotient, i.e., maximizing the between-class variations and minimizing the within-class variations from both intra-view and inter-view in the common space. By reformulating this problem as a ratio trace problem, the multiple linear transforms are achieved analytically and simultaneously through generalized eigenvalue decomposition. Furthermore, inspired by the observation that different views share similar data structures, a constraint is introduced to enforce the view-consistency of the multiple linear transforms. The proposed method is evaluated on three tasks: face recognition across pose, photo versus. sketch face recognition, and visual light image versus near infrared image face recognition on Multi-PIE, CUFSF and HFB databases respectively. Extensive experiments show that our MvDA achieves significant improvements compared with the best known results.

  18. Methodology for target discrimination.

    PubMed

    McNolty, F; Clow, R

    1980-03-15

    The objective is to distinguish the true target from point-target imitators and from extended-target clutter in the exoatmospheric regime. Matched filters are carefully studied from the viewpoint of SNR enhancement and pulse recognition. The matched filter structure takes into account photon noise, modulation noise, generation-recombination (GR) noise, contact noise, and various thermal noise sources. A multicolor radiant-intensity structure for target discrimination is developed by analyzing the uncertainties in such target irradiance parameters as range, temperature, projected area, and emissivity. Bias terms, variances, and other statistical descriptors are derived. Certain statistical discrimination techniques are discussed that exploit the radiant-intensity format. Helstrom's method for processing radar signals is adapted to a fourchannel pulse-recognition system for which degradation due to arrival time delays and mismatched filters is discussed.

  19. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  20. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  1. Nativity, Gender, and Earnings Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Andres

    1992-01-01

    Studied the estimated cost of labor market discrimination faced by Puerto Ricans in the United States. Results indicated that (1) Puerto Rican females are equally affected by discrimination, regardless of nativity; and (2) the cost of discrimination is less for males, and men born in Puerto Rico are more affected than U.S.-born Puerto Rican males.…

  2. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  3. Quotas Are Not Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gabrielle K.

    1975-01-01

    The findings of the Morrow v. Crisler and NAACP v. Allen civil rights cases are discussed. It is concluded from these employment discrimination cases that quotas are not reverse discrimination because no one has the right to continue to receive the benefits of racial discrimination at the expense of others. (LBH)

  4. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  5. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions.

    PubMed

    Suggate, Sebastian P

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about short-term--but very little about the long-term--effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to. Several methodological features also related to effect sizes at follow-up, namely experimental design and dosage, and sample attrition, risk status, and gender balance.

  7. Bias-corrected diagonal discriminant rules for high-dimensional classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Tong, Tiejun; Zhao, Hongyu

    2010-12-01

    Diagonal discriminant rules have been successfully used for high-dimensional classification problems, but suffer from the serious drawback of biased discriminant scores. In this article, we propose improved diagonal discriminant rules with bias-corrected discriminant scores for high-dimensional classification. We show that the proposed discriminant scores dominate the standard ones under the quadratic loss function. Analytical results on why the bias-corrected rules can potentially improve the predication accuracy are also provided. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the proposed rules over the original ones through extensive simulation studies and real case studies.

  8. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation.

  9. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation. PMID:26277018

  10. Frequency discriminating laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.D.

    1987-10-20

    A laser is described for discriminating between a higher gain transition and a lower gain transition to permit the laser to lase at the lower gain transition. It consists of: a laser cavity, including more than two mirrors each of which is highly transmissive at the frequency of the higher gain transition, one of which is partially reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition, and all but the one of which are highly reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition; an active laser medium disposed within the cavity; and means for pumping the active laser medium.

  11. Task-irrelevant emotion facilitates face discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caudek, Corrado

    2015-03-01

    We understand poorly how the ability to discriminate faces from one another is shaped by visual experience. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether face discrimination learning can be facilitated by facial emotions. To answer this question, we used a task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm because it closely mimics the learning processes that, in daily life, occur without a conscious intention to learn and without an attentional focus on specific facial features. We measured face discrimination thresholds before and after training. During the training phase (4 days), participants performed a contrast discrimination task on face images. They were not informed that we introduced (task-irrelevant) subtle variations in the face images from trial to trial. For the Identity group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along a morphing continuum of facial identity. For the Emotion group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along an emotional expression morphing continuum. The Control group did not undergo contrast discrimination learning and only performed the pre-training and post-training tests, with the same temporal gap between them as the other two groups. Results indicate that face discrimination improved, but only for the Emotion group. Participants in the Emotion group, moreover, showed face discrimination improvements also for stimulus variations along the facial identity dimension, even if these (task-irrelevant) stimulus features had not been presented during training. The present results highlight the importance of emotions for face discrimination learning.

  12. Discriminative sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  13. Odor quality: discrimination versus free and cued identification.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Cain, W S

    1994-07-01

    Eighty-two adults, ranging in age from young to elderly, performed odor-quality discrimination and both free and cued identification on six odorants presented at two intensity levels. The odorants simulated the real-world substances banana, licorice, cherry/almond, wintergreen, clove, and lemon. Performance on all three tasks declined with age, but improved with stimulus intensity. Performance at discrimination benefited from the mere availability of the six names during testing. Performance in cued identification far exceeded that in free identification and, for young and middle-aged adults, fell close to that for discrimination. For elderly adults, however, performance in cued identification fell substantially below that in discrimination. Although not entirely free of cognitive influences, discrimination seems to offer particularly clear resolution of alterations in olfactory functioning.

  14. Projected gradients for subclass discriminant nonnegative subspace learning.

    PubMed

    Nikitidis, Symeon; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    Current discriminant nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) methods either do not guarantee convergence to a stationary limit point or assume a compact data distribution inside classes, thus ignoring intra class variance in extracting discriminant data samples representations. To address both limitations, we regard that data inside each class has a multimodal distribution, forming various subclasses and perform optimization using a projected gradients framework to ensure limit point stationarity. The proposed method combines appropriate clustering-based discriminant criteria in the NMF decomposition cost function, in order to find discriminant projections that enhance class separability in the reduced dimensional projection space, thus improving classification performance. The developed algorithms have been applied to facial expression, face and object recognition, and experimental results verified that they successfully identified discriminant parts, thus enhancing recognition performance.

  15. Discriminative motif optimization based on perceptron training

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Generating accurate transcription factor (TF) binding site motifs from data generated using the next-generation sequencing, especially ChIP-seq, is challenging. The challenge arises because a typical experiment reports a large number of sequences bound by a TF, and the length of each sequence is relatively long. Most traditional motif finders are slow in handling such enormous amount of data. To overcome this limitation, tools have been developed that compromise accuracy with speed by using heuristic discrete search strategies or limited optimization of identified seed motifs. However, such strategies may not fully use the information in input sequences to generate motifs. Such motifs often form good seeds and can be further improved with appropriate scoring functions and rapid optimization. Results: We report a tool named discriminative motif optimizer (DiMO). DiMO takes a seed motif along with a positive and a negative database and improves the motif based on a discriminative strategy. We use area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a measure of discriminating power of motifs and a strategy based on perceptron training that maximizes AUC rapidly in a discriminative manner. Using DiMO, on a large test set of 87 TFs from human, drosophila and yeast, we show that it is possible to significantly improve motifs identified by nine motif finders. The motifs are generated/optimized using training sets and evaluated on test sets. The AUC is improved for almost 90% of the TFs on test sets and the magnitude of increase is up to 39%. Availability and implementation: DiMO is available at http://stormo.wustl.edu/DiMO Contact: rpatel@genetics.wustl.edu, ronakypatel@gmail.com PMID:24369152

  16. Gaussian discriminating strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  17. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  18. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses. PMID:22607273

  19. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  20. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  1. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  2. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  3. White Attitudes Toward Black Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, B. William

    1976-01-01

    Reviews several national surveys of white racial attitudes done between 1963 and 1974 by Harris and Associates, the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, and Potomac Associates, focusing on perceptions of discrimination and attitudes towards housing, jobs, education, the police, legislation, and reverse discrimination. (JM)

  4. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed 1998 and early 1999 court decisions related to disability discrimination in higher education. This period witnessed major developments in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education. A major focus was on whether persons whose impairments are ameliorated by treatment are individuals with disabilities covered by…

  5. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  7. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  8. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  9. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  10. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  11. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  12. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  13. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed academic employment discrimination cases decided in 1998. Concludes that such cases added little to civil rights jurisprudence, but demonstrated the frustration felt by many over the fact that federal employment discrimination statures were not designed with universities in mind. The complexity of academic employment decisions ensures…

  14. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  15. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  16. Feature selection for physics model based object discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunmei; Collins, Leslie

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the application of two state-of-the-art feature selection algorithms for subsurface target discrimination. One is called joint classification and feature optimization (JCFO), which imposes a sparse prior on the features, and optimizes the classifier and its predictors simultaneously via an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The other selects features by directly maximizing the hypothesis margin between targets and clutter. The results of feature selection and target discrimination are demonstrated using wideband electromagnetic induction data measured at data collected at the Aberdeen Proving Ground Standardized Test Site for UXO discrimination. It is shown that the classification performance is significantly improved by only including a compact set of relevant features.

  17. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  18. Regional Body-Wave Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Rodgers, A; Mayeda, K; Taylor, S

    2000-07-28

    perfectly. Two-dimensional path effects are currently corrected by kriging the MDAC residuals but they could also be addressed through location-dependent attenuation models if available. Using earthquake and explosion data from the Nevada Test Site and India we show that the revised MDAC correction and kriging of the residuals can significantly improve phase and spectral ratio discrimination performance. In addition by correcting the regional amplitudes we allow maximum flexibility in exploring and creating new combinations of regional phases which may have even better discrimination potential. Finally the corrected regional amplitudes provide critical information on the detection of regional phases, which is another important factor in the overall estimation of discrimination capability.

  19. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  20. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  1. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  2. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  3. An evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.; Lee, K.

    1974-01-01

    The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks is investigated. Measurements showed that there is a large natural variation in the band reflectance of rock formations and that the differences in the contrast ratios for different Wratten filters is small, making it statistically impossible to select a set of best bands from in situ reflectance measurements. It is concluded that the designed multiband photography concept is not a practical method for improving sedimentary-rock discrimination capabilities.

  4. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as "ka" or "ki"). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  5. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese–English Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as “ka” or “ki”). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese–English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production. PMID:26941669

  6. Imbalanced Learning Based on Logistic Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huaping; Zhi, Weimei; Liu, Hongbing; Xu, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, imbalanced learning problem has attracted more and more attentions from both academia and industry, and the problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of data with severe class distribution skews. In this paper, we apply the well-known statistical model logistic discrimination to this problem and propose a novel method to improve its performance. To fully consider the class imbalance, we design a new cost function which takes into account the accuracies of both positive class and negative class as well as the precision of positive class. Unlike traditional logistic discrimination, the proposed method learns its parameters by maximizing the proposed cost function. Experimental results show that, compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed one shows significantly better performance on measures of recall, g-mean, f-measure, AUC, and accuracy. PMID:26880877

  7. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  8. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  9. Parafoveal color discrimination: A chromaticity locus of enhanced discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Marina V.; Mollon, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Are boundaries between color categories associated with enhanced discrimination? In the present experiments, chromatic thresholds were obtained for discriminations along lines orthogonal to the yellow-blue axis of color space. The targets were parafoveal and thresholds were measured with a spatial two-alternative forced choice. In interleaved experimental runs, we also obtained empirical estimates of the subjective yellow-blue line by asking observers to categorize colors as reddish or greenish. Both types of measurement were made in the presence of a steady background that was metameric to equal-energy white. In a limited region from desaturated yellow to desaturated blue, an enhanced discrimination is found near the subjective transition between reddish and greenish hues. This line of optimal discrimination is not aligned with either of the cardinal axes of color space: In a MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram, it runs obliquely with negative slope. PMID:20143897

  10. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  11. Visual discrimination learning with an iPad-equipped apparatus.

    PubMed

    Leising, Kenneth J; Wolf, Joshua E; Ruprecht, Chad M

    2013-02-01

    Visual discrimination tasks are commonly used to assess visual learning and memory in non-human animals. The current experiments explored the suitability of an iPad (Apple, Cupertino, California), as a low-cost alternative touchscreen for visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with patterned black-and-white stimuli in a successive non-match to sample procedure. Rats successfully interacted with the iPad but failed to learn to withhold responding on trials in which the sample matched the comparison. Experiment 2 used the same patterned stimuli, but the procedure was simplified to a successive discrimination procedure and we explored the use of procedures known to facilitate discrimination learning. Rats that received training with differential outcomes and a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule successfully acquired the task. In Experiment 3, the same rats were tested in a simultaneous discrimination task and we explored the use of a correction and non-correction method during acquisition. Rats that failed to learn the discrimination in the previous experiment, improved while trained with the correction method. These experiments support the use of the iPad in visual discrimination tasks and inform future studies investigating learning and memory within a touchscreen-equipped (iPad or other) apparatus.

  12. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  13. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  14. Discrimination, crypticity, and incipient taxa in entamoeba.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Persistent difficulties in resolving clear lineages in diverging populations of prokaryotes or unicellular eukaryotes (protistan polyphyletic groups) are challenging the classical species concept. Although multiple integrated approaches would render holistic taxonomies, most phylogenetic studies are still based on single-gene or morphological traits. Such methodologies conceal natural lineages, which are considered "cryptic." The concept of species is considered artificial and inadequate to define natural populations. Social organisms display differential behaviors toward kin than to nonrelated individuals. In "social" microbes, kin discrimination has been used to help resolve crypticity. Aggregative behavior could be explored in a nonsocial protist to define phylogenetic varieties that are considered "cryptic." Two Entamoeba invadens strains, IP-1 and VK-1:NS are considered close populations of the same "species." This study demonstrates that IP-1 and VK-1:NS trophozoites aggregate only with alike members and discriminate members of different strains based on behavioral and chemical signals. Combined morphological, behavioral/chemical, and ecological studies could improve Archamoebae phylogenies and define cryptic varieties. Evolutionary processes in which selection acted continuously and cumulatively on ancestors of Entamoeba populations gave rise to chemical and behavioral signals that allowed individuals to discriminate nonpopulation members and, gradually, to the emergence of new lineages; alternative views that claim a "Designer" or "Creator" as responsible for protistan diversity are unfounded.

  15. Learning discriminative dictionary for group sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubao; Liu, Qingshan; Tang, Jinhui; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, sparse representation has been widely used in object recognition applications. How to learn the dictionary is a key issue to sparse representation. A popular method is to use l1 norm as the sparsity measurement of representation coefficients for dictionary learning. However, the l1 norm treats each atom in the dictionary independently, so the learned dictionary cannot well capture the multisubspaces structural information of the data. In addition, the learned subdictionary for each class usually shares some common atoms, which weakens the discriminative ability of the reconstruction error of each subdictionary. This paper presents a new dictionary learning model to improve sparse representation for image classification, which targets at learning a class-specific subdictionary for each class and a common subdictionary shared by all classes. The model is composed of a discriminative fidelity, a weighted group sparse constraint, and a subdictionary incoherence term. The discriminative fidelity encourages each class-specific subdictionary to sparsely represent the samples in the corresponding class. The weighted group sparse constraint term aims at capturing the structural information of the data. The subdictionary incoherence term is to make all subdictionaries independent as much as possible. Because the common subdictionary represents features shared by all classes, we only use the reconstruction error of each class-specific subdictionary for classification. Extensive experiments are conducted on several public image databases, and the experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method, compared with the state-of-the-arts.

  16. Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects. PMID:21359137

  17. Frequency of occurrence for units of phonemes, morae, and syllables appearing in a lexical corpus of a Japanese newspaper.

    PubMed

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Makioka, Shogo

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of the lexical corpus created by Amano and Kondo (2000), using the Asahi newspaper, the present study provides frequencies of occurrence for units of Japanese phonemes, morae, and syllables. Among the five vowels, /a/ (23.42%), /i/ (21.54%), /u/ (23.47%), and /o/ (20.63%) showed similar frequency rates, whereas /e/ (10.94%) was less frequent. Among the 12 consonants, /k/ (17.24%), /t/ (15.53%), and /r/ (13.11%) were used often, whereas /p/ (0.60%) and /b/ (2.43%) appeared far less frequently. Among the contracted sounds, /sj/ (36.44%) showed the highest frequency, whereas /mj/ (0.27%) rarely appeared. Among the five long vowels, /aR/ (34.4%) was used most frequently, whereas /uR/ (12.11%) was not used so often. The special sound /N/ appeared very frequently in Japanese. The syllable combination /k/+V+/N/ (19.91%) appeared most frequently among syllabic combinations with the nasal /N/. The geminate (or voiceless obstruent) /Q/, when placed before the four consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, and /s/, appeared 98.87% of the time, but the remaining 1.13% did not follow the definition. The special sounds /R/, /N/, and /Q/ seem to appear very frequently in Japanese, suggesting that they are not special in terms of frequency counts. The present study further calculated frequencies for the 33 newly and officially listed morae/syllables, which are used particularly for describing alphabetic loanwords. In addition, the top 20 bi-mora frequency combinations are reported. Files of frequency indexes may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive at http://www.psychonomic.org/archive/. PMID:15641442

  18. Evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.

  19. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  20. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...