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Sample records for improvement geosystems london

  1. School Improvement in London: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavy, Tony; Elwick, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This report considers how successful London's schools have been over the past decade and identifies potentially transferable components of the success story. There is much to be learned from the transformation undergone in London that is relevant to policymakers and educationalists worldwide, working in both high-income and low-income countries.…

  2. Geosystems and Land Use Decision Making and Open Space and Land Use Decision Making. [2 Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.; Schaefer, Larry, Ed.

    Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Geosystems and (2) Open Space. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The unit on Geosystems introduces the student to geosystems and the role of geosystems in the land use decision…

  3. Mobile Phones, in Combination with a Computer Locator System, Improve the Response Times of Emergency Medical Services in Central London

    PubMed Central

    Gossage, JA; Frith, DP; Carrell, TWG; Damiani, M; Terris, J; Burnand, KG

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine whether mobile phones and mobile phone locating devices are associated with improved ambulance response times in central London. PATIENTS AND METHODS All calls from the London Ambulance Service database since 1999 were analysed. In addition, 100 consecutive patients completed a questionnaire on mobile phone use whilst attending the St Thomas's Hospital Emergency Department in central London. RESULTS Mobile phone use for emergencies in central London has increased from 4007 (5% of total) calls in January 1999 to 21,585 (29%) in August 2004. Ambulance response times for mobile phone calls were reduced after the introduction of the mobile phone locating system (mean 469 s versus 444 s; P = 0.0195). The proportion of mobile phone calls made from mobile phones for life-threatening emergencies was higher after injury than for medical emergencies (41% versus 16%, P = 0.0063). Of patients transported to the accident and emergency department by ambulance, 44% contacted the ambulance service by mobile phone. Three-quarters of calls made from outside the home or work-place were by mobile phone and 72% of patients indicated that it would have taken longer to contact the emergency services if they had not used a mobile. CONCLUSIONS Since the introduction of the mobile phone locating system, there has been an improvement in ambulance response times. Mobile locating systems in urban areas across the UK may lead to faster response times and, potentially, improved patient outcomes. PMID:18325208

  4. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  5. Natural and transformed geosystems of the Tunkinskaya depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the spatiotemporal variability in natural and transformed geosystems at different nature management stages. We investigated the spatiotemporal variability in the geosystems by using, as an example, the key area measuring 890 km2, located in the Tunka district (south part of Eastern Siberia) in the eastern part of the Tunkinskaya depression - the most developed area of the territory under consideration. Staring in the latter half of the 19th century till the present, the evolution of the derivative geosystems in the structure of natural piedmont taiga and piedmont and intermontane troughs of the subtaiga complexes in the Tunkinskaya depression was promoted by a whole set of economic activities. By virtue of the physical- geographical characteristics of the territory, the most widespread were agricultural activities leading to the absence (within the study area, on the slopes and bottoms of the depressions) of natural larch (with the inclusion of pine) forb swamped, Siberian bog sedge- fescue and small-grass steppizated-meadow cryogenic groups of facies. Throughout the entire 20th century and till the present, agricultural lands have occupied about one third of the study area while, with due regard for the meadows used as hayfields and pastures, the total percentage of the area occupied by these complexes constitutes about 53%. The forestry-related and recreational, highly fire- hazardous activities resulted in a considerable reduction in natural mountain-taiga Siberian stone pine and larch forests, with coniferous tree species being replaced by deciduous species. Thus, while in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, within the mountain-taiga territories, secondary small-leaved forests occupied slightly more than 4% of the study area, tending to occur in the vicinities to human settlements in places of old felling areas, this figure increased five times to exceed 20% in the mid- and late century. On the whole, taking into

  6. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  7. Fritz London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  8. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  9. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT). The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs); ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation) across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of physical activity were higher

  10. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  11. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  12. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  13. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  14. Subsurface Thermal Erosion Of Ice-Wedge Polygon Terrains: Implications For Arctic Geosystem In Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. For inland ice-wedge polygon terrains, heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping along exposed permafrost and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment and carbon within the permafrost geosystem. Exportation of sediments by fluvial processes within gullies are positive mechanical feed-back effects that keep gully channels active over decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, plant colonization of disturbed gully slopes and wet to mesic plant succession of drained polygons change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were mapped and monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop a numerical, fully-coupled, heat and mass (water) transfer model of ice-wedge thermal erosion. We used data collected over 10 years of geomorphological gully monitoring, regional climate scenarios, our physics-based numerical thermal erosion model and our field

  15. The wrong London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Hugh; Tong, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Your article "Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize" (November 2009 pp6-7) incorrectly states that Charles Kao, who shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics with Willard Boyle and George Smith, received his PhD from Imperial College London.

  16. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed. PMID:8153749

  17. Low on the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2013-09-01

    Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.

  18. Climate change and response of geosystems of the Russian North (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, D. S.; Korostelev, Y. V.; Malkova, G. V.; Melnikov, V. P.; Orekhov, P. T.; Ukraintseva, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    The study of climate change, mainly air temperature and snow cover depth, is a key to understanding of modern trends in evolution of cryolithozone and response of geosystems of the North. Greenhouse and technogenic effects influence the cryolithozone and permafrost as well. Scenarios of substantial warming, temperate warming, and cooling were considered in our research. Weather station records show that the last so called “Earth Global Warming”, which started in 1960-1970s was initially most pronounced in Subarctic and Temperate zones. Maximum warming rate was observed in the 1980s. In Russia, the areas of warming in 20th century were Central Yakutia and Transbaikal, while in the European and Far East Russia the rate of warming was rather small. Later, the warming trend was observed only locally and new areas of maximum rates of warming appear within Russian cryolithozone. In 2000s, warming gradually extends to the Arctic regions while it slows down in Subarctic. Thermal regime of permafrost generally follows the climate change. Geocryological monitoring data evidence the rise of ground temperature at the depth of zero annual amplitude in the north of West Siberia by 0.2 to 1.4°C and in European Russia by 0.1 to 0.7°C. In these regions, slight trend of snow accumulation growth was also observed. At the same time, in Central Yakutia, though climate warms, permafrost temperature does not show increase due to reduction of snow depth in the last decades. In West Siberia, Urengoi gas field, ground temperatures in 1975-1993 increased by 1 to 1.5°C due to natural climate fluctuations (some times up to 2 to 3.5°C). Human impact added 1 to 1.5°C, this last being tightly linked to the effect of engineering structures. Some slowing of thaw and stabilization of ground temperature around 0°C is observed as incoming heat is consumed by phase transition in the near-surface layer. I was instrumentally detected that permafrost table lowered by 5-8 m and more at the

  19. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  20. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  1. Looking into 'London'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock abrasion tool target, 'London.' The image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on its 149th sol on Mars (June 24, 2004). Scientists 'read' the geology of the image from bottom to top, with the youngest material pictured at the bottom of the image and the oldest material in the layers pictured at the top. Millimeter-scale layers run horizontally across the exposed surface, with two sliced sphere-like objects, or 'blueberries' on the upper left and upper right sides of the impression. This material is similar to the evaporative material found in 'Eagle Crater.' However, the intense review of these layers in Endurance Crater is, in essence, deepening the water story authored by ancient Mars.

    In Eagle Crater, the effects of water were traced down a matter of centimeters. Endurance Crater's depth has allowed the tracing of water's telltale marks up to meters. Another process that significantly affects martian terrain is muddying the water story a bit. Although it is clear that the layers in Endurance were affected by water, it is also evident that Aeolian, or wind, processes have contributed to the makeup of the crater.

  2. Thermal erosion of ice-wedge polygon terrains changes fluxes of energy and matter of permafrost geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.; Lamarque, L.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. Heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment, nutrients and carbon within the geosystem. Exportation of sediments out of gullies are positive mechanical feed-back that keep channels active for decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, gully walls colonization by vegetation and wet to mesic plant succession change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop model of permafrost thermal erosion. We used data, collected over 10 years, of geomorphological gully monitoring and regional climate scenarios to evaluate the potential response of ice-wedge polygon terrains to changes in snow, permafrost thermal regime and hydrological conditions over the coming decades and its implication for the short and long term dynamics of arctic permafrost geosystems.

  3. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  4. Impact of London's terrorist attacks on a major trauma center in London.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Aso B; Mann, Haroon A; Nawabi, Danyal H; Goodier, Davis W; Ang, Swee C

    2006-01-01

    During the morning rush hour on Thursday, 07 July 2005, a series of four bombs exploded, affecting London's public transport system. These terrorist attacks killed 52 people and injured > 700. A major incident was declared, and the Royal London Hospital (RLH) was a primary receiving hospital. A total of 194 patients presented to the RLH. Twenty-seven patients required admission. A total of 11 amputations were performed on eight patients. One patient died intra-operatively. Another patient died on Day 6 due to complications related to a head injury. Coordination is vital to the implementation of the hospital's Major Incident Plan in such an emergency. Subsequent internal reviews of the response of the RLH on 07 July 2005 highlighted problems with communication and documentation, as well as the need for extra staffing. These areas should be improved for the management of future major incidents.

  5. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  6. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  7. Well London Phase-1: results among adults of a cluster-randomised trial of a community engagement approach to improving health behaviours and mental well-being in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gemma; Bottomley, Christian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Yu, Ge; Lynch, Rebecca; Lock, Karen; Draper, Alizon; Moore, Derek; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Renton, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Methods Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30 m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. Results There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: −1.52, 95% CI −3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: −0.14, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). Conclusions The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings

  8. Exploring the Impact of Aspects of the London Leadership Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Matthews, Peter; Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the methodology adopted for the formative evaluation of aspects of the London Leadership Strategy (LLS). The LLS is an ambitious example of a program designed and supported by the National College of School Leadership in England (NCSL) to enhance leadership and management so as to improve the quality of education and raise…

  9. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  10. Bronchitis—Sickness Absence in London Transport

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, C. J.; Raffle, P. A. B.

    1961-01-01

    This study is based on the records of sickness absence of four days or longer attributed to bronchitis among nearly 60,000 London Transport employees during the years 1952 to 1956. The figures support previous observations that there is a close association between the incidence of bronchitis and the occurrence of fog in any year. The bronchitis experience of employees living and working in the north-eastern sector of London is shown to be worse than in other areas of London. The experience of employees in the country belt round London, particularly in the southern sector, is better than in London itself. With the possible exception of conductors, the figures do not suggest that there are occupational factors in the transport industry causing bronchitis. PMID:13695613

  11. Teachers of Gifted Students Learn in London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Theresa M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a research/study tour of 25 American teachers of the gifted to London in terms of Benjaman Bloom's taxonomic levels including knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. (DB)

  12. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. PMID:27585901

  13. 12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON LEDGE LIGHT STATION LIGHTING. Drawing no. 03-2730, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - New London Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, East of main harbor channel, New London, New London County, CT

  14. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated. PMID:1955255

  15. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  16. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  17. A london haven for christmas shoppers.

    PubMed

    1987-11-28

    Foot weary' RCN members ploughing their way through the crowds of Christmas shoppers along London's Oxford Street can find a haven of peace, good food and even a reviving drink at the RCN Club, says Club Commit tee Chairman, Hope Trenchard.

  18. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and distances from New London Harbor Light (latitude 41°18′59″ N., longitude 72°05′25″ W.): 002°, 2... New London Harbor Light, a point bearing 270°, 575 yards from New London Ledge Light (latitude 41°18′21″ N., longitude 72°04′41″ W.), and a point bearing 270°, 1,450 yards from New London Ledge...

  19. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and distances from New London Harbor Light (latitude 41°18′59″ N., longitude 72°05′25″ W.): 002°, 2... New London Harbor Light, a point bearing 270°, 575 yards from New London Ledge Light (latitude 41°18′21″ N., longitude 72°04′41″ W.), and a point bearing 270°, 1,450 yards from New London Ledge...

  20. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  1. 114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. 2 JUNE 1930. SUBMARINE TRAINING TANK - STEELWORK 98% COMPLETE; BRICKWORK 95% COMPLETE, PIPING 10% IN PLACE. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. 32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. OCTOBER 3, 1932. COMPLETION OF ERECTION OF STEELWORK FOR ELEVATOR. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  6. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented.

  7. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  8. Mortality and temperature in Sofia and London

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, S; Nikiforov, B; Armstrong, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: Heat and cold have been associated with increased mortality, independently of seasonal trends, but details are little known. This study explores associations between mortality and temperature in two European capitals—Sofia and London—using four years of daily deaths, air pollution, and weather data. Design: Generalised additive models were used to permit non-linear modelling of confounders such as season and humidity, and to show the shape of mortality-temperature relations—using both two day and two week average temperatures separately. Models with linear terms for heat and cold were used to estimate lags of effect, linear effects, and attributable fractions. Participants: 44 701 all age all cause deaths in Sofia (1996–1999) and 256 464 in London (1993–1996). Main results: In London, for each degree of extreme cold (below the 10th centile of the two week mean temperature), mortality increased by 4.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 5.1), and in Sofia by 1.8% (0.6 to 3.9). For each degree rise above the 95th centile of the two day mean, mortality increased by 1.9% (1.4 to 2.4) in London, and 3.5% (2.2 to 4.8) in Sofia. Cold effects appeared after lags of around three days and lasted—particularly in London—at least two weeks. Main heat effects occurred more promptly. There were inverse associations at later lags for heat and cold in Sofia. Conclusions: Average temperatures over short periods do not adequately model cold, and may be inadequate for heat if they ignore harvesting effects. Cold temperatures in London, particularly, seem to harm the general population and the effects are not concentrated among persons close to death. PMID:12883072

  9. Reporting on Children's Well-Being: The State of London's Children Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and reporting on the well-being of children has a central role to play in the development of policies to improve children's lives. This paper uses two reports on child well-being--the State of London's Children Reports--as exemplars to show how regular reporting on children can be linked to planning and policy-making in an urban…

  10. Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s.…

  11. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  12. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory. PMID:27098421

  13. Molecular Self-Assembly Driven by London Dispersion Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guo; Cooper, Valentino R; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    The nature and strength of intermolecular interactions are crucial to a variety of kinetic and dynamic processes at surfaces. Whereas strong chemisorption bonds are known to facilitate molecular binding, the importance of the weaker yet ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions remains elusive in most cases. Here we use first-principles calculations combined with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to unambiguously demonstrate the vital role that vdW interactions play in molecular self-assembly, using styrene nanowire growth on silicon as a prototypical example. We find that, only when the London dispersion forces are included, accounting for the attractive parts of vdW interactions, can the effective intermolecular interaction be reversed from being repulsive to attractive. Such attractive interactions, in turn, ensure the preferred growth of long wires under physically realistic conditions as observed experimentally. We further propose a cooperative scheme, invoking the application of an electric field and the selective creation of Si dangling bonds, to drastically improve the ordered arrangement of the molecular structures. The present study represents a significant step forward in the fundamental understanding and precise control of molecular self-assembly guided by London dispersion forces.

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  15. Experiential Approaches to the Global City: London as Social Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gristwood, Anthony; Woolf, Michael

    2011-01-01

    London is the paramount example of a city that is not bounded by its geography and cannot be grasped in isolation. The U.K.'s national capital and the prime focus for business, finance and creative industries, London also transcends the U.K.'s borders as a hub of the world economy. This paper argues that London, a city riddled by the socioeconomic…

  16. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  17. Opportunities and challenges in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI): evaluating the first operational year of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) demonstration site for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Suzanne; Garety, Philippa; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Onwumere, Juliana; Harris, Victoria; Brabban, Alison; Johns, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Despite its demonstrated clinical and economic effectiveness, access to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) in routine practice remains low. The UK National Health Service (NHS England) Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aims to address this problem. We report 14-month outcomes for our psychosis demonstration site. Primary and secondary care and self-referrals were screened to check the suitability of the service for the person. Psychotic symptoms, distress, service use, functioning and satisfaction were measured before and after therapy, by trained assessors. User-defined wellbeing and goal-attainment were rated sessionally. Access to CBTp increased almost threefold (2011/12 accepted referrals/year n = 106; 2012/13, n = 300). The IAPT-SMI assessment protocol proved feasible and acceptable to service users, with paired primary outcomes for 97% of closed cases. Therapy completion (≥5 sessions) was high (83%) irrespective of ethnicity, age and gender. Preliminary pre-post outcomes showed clinical improvement and reduced service use, with medium/high effect sizes. User-rated satisfaction was high. We conclude that individual psychological interventions for people with psychosis can be successfully delivered in routine services using an IAPT approach. High completion rates for paired outcomes demonstrate good user experience, clinical improvement, and potential future cost savings.

  18. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  19. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  20. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  1. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  2. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  3. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000). This…

  4. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  5. THE LONDON EXTERNAL DEGREE SYSTEM, ORIGINS AND PRESENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARNLEY, A.H.

    FORMAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR BRITISH ADULTS PURSUING DEGREE COURSES BY HOME STUDY RESTS LARGELY WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. ALTHOUGH ABOUT 1,000 STUDENTS ARE BEING TAUGHT AT INSTITUTIONS COOPERATING WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, THE MAJOR GROUPS ARE THE HOME STUDENTS (OVER 20,000) AND THE OVERSEAS STUDENTS (OVER 4,000). BRITISH EXTERNAL STUDENTS…

  6. London in Space and Time: Peter Ackroyd and Will Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the treatment of London by two authors who are profoundly influenced by the concept of the power of place and the nature of urban space. The works of Peter Ackroyd, whose writings embody, according to Onega (1997, p. 208) "[a] yearning for mythical closure" where London is "a mystic centre of…

  7. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews with members of the…

  8. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  9. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  10. Insights into the experiences of patients with cancer in London: framework analysis of free-text data from the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012/2013 from the two London Integrated Cancer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Randolph, Anuska; Stapleton, Sarah; Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Harris, Katherine; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dolan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Objective To shed light on experiences of patients with cancer in London National Health Service (NHS) trusts that may not be fully captured in national survey data, to inform improvement action plans by these trusts. Design Framework analysis of free-text data from 2012/2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from the 2 London Integrated Cancer Systems. Setting and participants Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated by the NHS across 27 trusts in London. Main outcome measures Free-text data received from patients categorised into what patients found good about their cancer care and what could be improved. Methods Using Framework analysis, a thematic framework was created for 15 403 comments from over 6500 patients. Themes were identified across the London data set, by tumour group and by trust. Results Two-thirds of free-text comments from patients in London were positive and one-third of those related to the good quality of care those patients received. However, the majority of comments for improvement related to quality of care, with a focus on poor care, poor communication and waiting times in outpatient departments. Additionally, 577 patients (9% of those who returned free-text data in London) commented on issues pertaining to the questionnaire itself. Some patients who experienced care from multiple trusts were unclear on how to complete the questionnaire for the single trust whose care they were asked to comment on, others said the questions did not fit their experiences. Conclusions NCPES free-text analysis can shed light on the experiences of patients that closed questions might not reveal. It further indicates that there are issues with the survey itself, in terms of ambiguities in the questionnaire and difficulties in identifying patients within specific trusts. Both of these issues have the potential to contribute to knowledge and understanding of the uses and limitations of free-text data in improving cancer services. PMID:26482767

  11. Biomarkers in Clinical Trials--SMi Conference. 23-24 September 2009, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Walker, Glenda

    2009-11-01

    The Biomarkers in Clinical Trials conference, held in London, included topics covering new developments in the field of biomarkers. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the definition of biomarkers, the use of biomarkers to support decisions in drug development and to improve treatment outcomes, and the aims of the Biomarkers Consortium. A case study of the investigational drug selumetinib (AstraZeneca plc) is also discussed.

  12. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  13. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  14. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  15. London 2012: prescribing for athletes in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, R G H; Thomas, G P L; Potter, M J; Norris, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aims Prescribing for athletes requires an up-to-date knowledge of the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. As the London 2012 Olympic Games attract athletes from around the world, we review the current guidelines with respect to all medications licensed for ophthalmic use in the United Kingdom. We describe the process that an ophthalmologist can use to check for permissible medications and also highlight treatments that are contraindicated. Methods We systematically reviewed all 77 drugs listed in Section 11 of the British National Formulary (Issue 63) for use in the treatment of ophthalmic conditions, and referenced these against the 2012 Prohibited List published by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Results The majority of ophthalmic preparations are suitable for use in- and out-of-competition. Some preparations, such as glucocorticoids, are prohibited when administered systemically but permitted for topical administration. Beta-blockers are prohibited in-competition and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are prohibited in- and out-of competition. Conclusion The 2012 Prohibited List has important implications for the pharmacological treatment of ophthalmic conditions in athletes. Clinicians prescribing for athletes have a duty to familiarise themselves with the list in order to avoid causing significant damage to their patient's career and reputation. PMID:22744394

  16. 123. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 132.16. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  8. Bottomley fuels fears London issues are too hot to handle.

    PubMed

    1993-10-13

    Rumours that the government is shying away from tackling , the difficult issue of London's hospitals were fuelled by remarks made by Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley at a Conservative Party fringe meeting last week.

  9. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  10. Listening to those on the frontline: service users’ experiences of London tuberculosis services

    PubMed Central

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Woods, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore tuberculosis (TB) service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision. Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London’s TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously. Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users’ permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services’ aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals’ attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified. Conclusion: This first in-depth study of TB service users’ experiences across London offers valuable insights into service users’ experiences, providing information and recommendations for a strategic

  11. The London and Paris Daily Pressure Series, 1692-2007: the development of two new data series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornes, R.; Jones, P.; Briffa, K.; Osborn, T.

    2009-04-01

    It has been known for some time that the potential exists to create long daily series of pressure for the cities of London and Paris by piecing together the barometer readings from various observers and institutions. However, most of the readings prior to 1920 have not previously been digitized or converted to modern units. To rectify this, work began in 2006 to locate and digitize these observations and then to correct the data to form homogeneous series of pressure. Observations have been located to span the years 1670-2007 for Paris and 1692-2007 for London, although significant gaps exist for the periods 1726-47 (Paris) and 1717-22 (London) where no daily pressure observations appear to have survived. The barometer observations were subjected to a detailed quality control procedure before being corrected to represent daily means of sea-level pressure at standard conditions. Monthly and annual means were calculated from the daily data and the homogeneity of these data series over the period 1780-2007 was assessed by using the Penalized Maximal t test through the use of several reference series. The homogeneity of the pre-1780 period, in the absence of highly correlated reference series, was tested by using the Penalized Maximal F test. Both of these tests were implemented through the RHtest V2 software package and it thus appears to be one of the first applications of this software to the homogenization of long pressure series. During this homogenization procedure, the London and Paris series were kept separate to avoid the introduction of circular relationships in subsequent analyses. In addition to the increased resolution and the extended length of these new series, the data are considered to be an improvement in terms of homogeneity over the monthly resolution London and Paris pressure series previously developed under the ADVICE project. In particular, the overall mean of the new London series is approximately 1hPa lower than that of the ADVICE London

  12. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network.

    PubMed

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary. PMID:26764655

  13. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed. PMID:8153744

  14. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents. PMID:21114089

  15. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A. Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  16. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  17. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  18. Parish apprenticeship and the old poor law in London1

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Alysa

    2010-01-01

    This article offers an examination of the patterns and motivations behind parish apprenticeship in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century London. It stresses continuity in outlook from parish officials binding children, which involved placements in both the traditional and industrializing sectors of the economy. Evidence on the ages, employment types, and locations of 3,285 pauper apprentices bound from different parts of London between 1767 and 1833 indicates a variety of local patterns. The analysis reveals a pattern of youthful age at binding, a range of employment experiences, and parish-specific links to particular trades and manufactures. PMID:20939134

  19. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  20. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems.

  1. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  2. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  3. Microform Applications Within the City of London Polytechnic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan

    A review is made of the possible applications within the libraries of the City of London Polytechnic of the three basic types of microforms--microfilm, microfiche, and microopaques. Major uses outlined involve: 1) the exploitation of existing data bases; 2) the storage of back issues of periodicals; 3) the presentation of programed instruction; 4)…

  4. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the Residents'…

  5. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven and…

  6. Social Deprivation and Educational Underachievement: Lessons from London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mark; Lloyd-Reason, Lester; Wall, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of London borough census data 1997-2001 revealed a close correlation between educational achievement and indicators of social deprivation (eligibility for free school meals, unauthorized absences). There were distinct differences between inner and outer boroughs and links to ethnic, economic, and disability factors. (Contains 19…

  7. Ralf Dahrendorf's Vision for the London School of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David

    1976-01-01

    The goal of Ralf Dahrendorf, new director of the London School of Economics (LSE) is to restore the school's international reputation for the study of modern social science at both undergraduate and graduate levels with emphasis on the political role of social science knowledge. (JT)

  8. Developing an Integrated Institutional Repository at Imperial College London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Fereshteh; Jones, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how a highly integrated approach to repository development and deployment can be beneficial in producing a successful archive. Design/methodology/approach: Imperial College London undertook a significant specifications process to gather and formalise requirements for its repository system. This was done…

  9. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  10. Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654): London's first general practitioner?

    PubMed

    Farthing, Michael J G

    2015-08-01

    Nicholas Culpeper is often regarded as an ill-disciplined, maverick, mid-17th century herbalist and the father of contemporary alternative medicine. There are elements of this statement that have some truth but to dismiss his contribution to the development of health provision in London at the time would be a great injustice. Culpeper did not complete his apprenticeship as an apothecary and was not a formally trained physician, but he developed a clinical practice for the poor of London, indistinguishable from the role of the present day general practitioner. Observers at the time recognised his concern and compassion and his commitment to treat the whole patient and not just the disease. His enduring contribution was his translation from Latin of the physicians' Pharmacopoeia Londinensis which could be regarded as the first major step towards the demystification of medicine. Culpeper's London Dispensatory and the many other medical treatises that followed were affordable and widely available to the common man. Culpeper antagonised both apothecaries and physicians because he breached the regulations of the day by accepting patients directly. So perhaps Culpeper was, de facto, London's first general practitioner, at least 150 years before the role was formally recognised in the Apothecaries Act 1815. PMID:24585603

  11. Antenatal screening and prevalence of infection: surveillance in London, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Giraudon, I; Forde, J; Maguire, H; Arnold, J; Permalloo, N

    2009-03-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), it is recommended to universally offer antenatal infection screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and syphilis infections, and susceptibility to rubella for the benefit of the mother and to reduce vertical transmission of infection. This paper describes the surveillance of antenatal infection including uptake of screening, and the results of testing in pregnant women in London between 2000 and 2007. Antenatal screening coordinators in liaison with midwifery heads and microbiologists at all thirty London National Health Service (NHS) Trust maternity units supplied quarterly data on the number of pregnant women booked for antenatal care, tests done, and tests results. The overall estimated uptake of screening increased since 2000 and reached 95.6% for HIV, 96.5% for syphilis, 96.2% for hepatitis B and 97% for rubella susceptibility by the second half of 2007. There is considerable variation in the performance between NHS Trusts. The overall estimated prevalence of HIV infection was 3.4/1,000 women (ranging from <1/1,000 to 10/1,000 across Trusts), of hepatitis B (HBsAg-positive) was 11.3/1,000 (2.6/1,000- 23.9/1,000), of syphilis was 4.4/1,000 (<1/1,000-16.3/1,000) and of rubella susceptibility was 39.3/1,000 (19-103/1,000). Antenatal infection screening has improved and there has been some success in implementation of national policy. However, screening uptake and prevalence of infection vary considerably across London NHS Trusts and some women are evidently disadvantaged. Improvements in information systems should help local partners to focus their interventions in those Trusts where work is still needed to increase testing as well as the capacity to monitor the uptake of screening. PMID:19317973

  12. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  13. Building a Hypertextual Digital Library in the Humanities: A Case Study on London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Gregory; Smith, David A.; Wulfman, Clifford E.

    This paper describes the creation of a new humanities digital library collection: 11,000,000 words and 10,000 images representing books, images, and maps on pre-twentieth century London and its environs. The London collection contained far more dense and precise information than the materials from the Greco-Roman world. The London collection thus…

  14. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…

  15. Timeliness of electronic reporting and acceptability of public health follow-up of routine nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, London and South East England, 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Severi, E; Dabrera, G; Boxall, N; Harvey-Vince, L; Booth, L; Balasegaram, S

    2014-01-01

    Nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are major causes of food poisoning in England. Diagnostic laboratories and clinicians have a statutory responsibility to report NTS infection cases to the Health Protection Agency via various means, with electronic reporting encouraged as the universal method. The Health Protection Agency (Public Health England since 1 April 2013) refers cases to environmental health departments for follow-up. Timeliness of reporting and adequacy of NTS infection case follow-up are key factors in the implementation of public health actions. Laboratories, health protection units, and environmental health departments in London and South East (SE) regions of England completed three surveys between December 2010 and April 2011, collecting data about the NTS infection case reporting methods and the time elapsed between symptom onset and public health actions. The median period between symptom onset and public health investigation was 25 days in London and 23 days in SE when electronic reporting was used and 12 days in London and 11 days in SE when other means of reporting were used. The most common follow-up method was a telephone questionnaire in London (53%) and a postal questionnaire in SE (52%). The telephone questionnaire had the highest response rate (98% in London; 96% in SE). Timeliness and efficiency of electronic NTS infection case reports can be improved by decreasing the electronic laboratory report period and using telephone-administered questionnaires to maximize the public health benefit when following up single cases of NTS infection.

  16. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952

    PubMed Central

    Black, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Methods: Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. Results: During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. Conclusions: The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles. PMID:14670763

  17. Rock and mineral physics at University College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Paul; Meredith, Philip; Price, David

    The Department of Geological Sciences at University College London (UCL), has undergone a period of major expansion and growth as a result of the restructuring of geology departments within the University of London that was carried out in 1982. This exercise produced the amalgamation of selected parts of the Department of Geological Sciences of Queen Mary College and the Department of Geology, UCL, on the UCL site. The creation of this strengthened grouping has been successful in attracting a significant number of active researchers in the field of rock and mineral physics (RMP) to the new UCL department. As a result, the academic staff has more than douhled since 1982 and now stands at 31.

  18. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Toby P.; Fry, Hannah M.; Wilson, Alan G.; Bishop, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area. PMID:23425781

  19. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  20. New series for agricultural prices in London, 1770–1914.

    PubMed

    Solar, Peter M; Klovland, Jan Tore

    2011-01-01

    New annual series for the prices of major agricultural commodities sold in London markets between 1770 and 1914 are presented. These series are based on bimonthly observations drawn from newspaper market reports. The products covered are wheat, barley (grinding and malting), oats, potatoes, hay, butter, beef, mutton, and pork. Annual prices are calculated for both calendar and production years. The new series are compared to existing series. PMID:21328804

  1. Millennium-long recession of limestone facades in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2008-12-01

    Historical data on the temperature and precipitation data for London has been combined with output from the Hadley Model to estimate the climate of London for the period 1100-2100 CE. This has been converted to other parameters such as freeze-thaw frequency and snowfall relevant to the weathering of stone facades. The pollutant concentrations have been estimated for the same period, with the historical values taken from single box modelling and future values from changes likely given current policy within the metropolis. These values are used in the Lipfert model to show that the recession from karst weathering dominates across the period, while the contributions of sulphur deposition seem notable only across a shorter period 1700-2000 CE. Observations of the late seventeenth century suggest London architects witnessed a notable increase in the recession rate and attributed “fretting quality” to “smoaks of the sea-coal”. The recession rates measured in the late twentieth century lend some support to the estimates from the Lipfert model. The recession looks to increase only slightly, and frost shattering will decrease while salt weathering is likely to increase.

  2. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  3. Forecasting asthma-related hospital admissions in London using negative binomial models.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.

  4. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Lisa K.; Stone, Daniel; Bandy, Brian; Dunmore, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Hopkins, James; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2016-02-01

    Near-continuous measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on air mass origin, with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the east, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ˜ 27 s-1 in the morning, with a minimum of ˜ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement data set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from a gas chromatography flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs α-pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (⩾ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α-pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (⩾ C

  5. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Bandy, B.; Dunmore, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Heard, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Near-continuous measurements of OH reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on airmass origin with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the East, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ~ 27 s-1 in the morning with a minimum of ~ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement dataset of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from GC-FID and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs of α pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) (particularly α pinene and limonene) and model

  6. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  7. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground.

  8. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  9. Prosecuting attempted suicides in London: 1891-1913.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A study of 30 cases of attempted suicide tried at the Old Bailey criminal court in London (England) from 1891 to 1913 indicated that having made prior attempts was the only predictor of the severity of the sentence. 22 individuals were tried for murdering or attempting to murder their child and also attempting suicide. None of the murderers but half of the attempted murderers were found not guilty, or guilty then released. Mothers used drowning more than did fathers and were more likely to be found not guilty.

  10. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyze different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with the divine are created in the personal life of people and at the sites where the casting out of demons takes place. Unlike in other spirit-centered healing traditions, the Christian Holy Spirit is not conceived of as embodied in specific places, but rather is spatially unbound. To manifest, however, the Holy Spirit requires specific spatial qualities and esthetics.

  11. Elastic Moduli of Vortex Lattices within Nonlocal London Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranović, P.; Kogan, V. G.

    2001-09-01

    Vortex lattice (VL) elastic response is analyzed within the nonlocal London model which holds for high- κ clean superconductors. The squash modulus vanishes at the field H□ where VL undergoes a square-to-rhombus transition. For H>H□, where the square VL is stable, the rotation modulus turns zero at H = Hr, indicating VL instability to rotations. The shear modulus depends on the shear direction; the dependence is strong in the vicinity of H□ where the square VL is soft with respect to the shear along [110]. The H dependences of the moduli are evaluated for LuNi2B2C.

  12. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  13. The psychological and psychiatric effects of terrorism: lessons from London.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon

    2013-09-01

    The 7 July 2005 bombings in London caused heightened levels of distress among some in the general community. This distress was most notable in Muslims and members of ethnic minority groups. These effects were transient for most. An estimated 30% of those who were more affected by the attacks, including victims and witnesses, developed psychiatric disorders as a result. An outreach program was set up to screen those who were exposed to potentially traumatic events and to offer them evidence-based treatment. This article discusses what lessons might be learned from studies of the general community and the screen-and-treat approach.

  14. Evidence for a national problem: continued rise in tuberculosis case numbers in urban areas outside London.

    PubMed

    Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dedicoat, Martin; Bothamley, Graham H; Maguire, Helen; Moore, Jonathan; Crofts, Jonathan; Lipman, Marc

    2012-03-01

    WHO standards for tuberculosis (TB) control require monitoring and evaluation of TB control programmes. In London, TB rates have stabilised at 44 per 100,000 since 2005. In 38 urban areas outside London with TB rates above the national average, these continued to rise after 2004, to 28 per 100,000 in 2008 (15% increase). London has the highest proportion of TB cases in certain risk groups, but these are increasing rapidly outside London. Many TB control efforts focus on the capital, but with rates rising elsewhere in the country, this strategy is likely to fail in the long term.

  15. Observation of the London moment and trapped flux in precision gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Y. M.; Felson, W.; Wu, C. H.; Keiser, G. M.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The London-moment readout has been observed in flight quality gyroscopes and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce magnetic field trapped in these gyroscopes to levels as low as 1.5 x 10 exp -11 T. A preliminary analysis shows that the horizontal component of the London-moment signal is 60 percent of the total expected London-moment signal and is proportional to the gyro spin speed. Experiments were carried out in a unique ground test facility which was designed to provide the conditions necessary to observe the London moment of the spinning gyroscope.

  16. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-26

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base.

  17. Increasing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest London: a 25 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Chitre, M; Sharland, M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To identify changes in the presenting number and species of imported malaria in children in southwest London. Methods: A prospective single observer study over 25 years (1975–99) of all cases of paediatric malaria seen at St George's Hospital. Results: A confirmed diagnosis was made in 249 children (56% boys; 44% girls; median age 8.0 years). Of these, 53% were UK residents and 44% were children travelling to the UK. A significant increase was noted in the number of cases over the 25 years (1975–79: mean 4.8 cases/year; 1990–99: mean 13.7 cases/year). Over the 25 years Plasmodium falciparum was seen in 77%, P vivax in 14%, P ovale in 6%, and P malariae in 3% of cases. P falciparum had increased in frequency (1975–79: P falciparum 50%, P vivax 50%; 1990–99: P falciparum 82%, P vivax 6%), associated with an increase in the proportion of children acquiring their infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Median time between arrival in the UK to the onset of fever was: P falciparum, 5 days; P ovale, 25 days; P malariae, 37 days; and P vivax, 62 days. Median time interval between the onset of fever to commencement of treatment was 4 days. This had not improved over the 25 year period. Only 41% of UK resident children presenting to hospital had taken prophylaxis and the overall number of symptomatic children taking no prophylaxis was increasing. Conclusion: Imported childhood P falciparum malaria is increasing in southwest London associated with increasing travel from sub-Saharan Africa. Over the 25 year period there has been no improvement in chemoprophylaxis rates or time to diagnosis. PMID:12023177

  18. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  19. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D.

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British smoke and SO/sub 2/ were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO/sub 2/ and British smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  20. Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2011-12-20

    The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate. PMID:22169537

  1. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Thurston, G D

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British Smoke and SO2 were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO2 and British Smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  2. Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2011-12-20

    The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate.

  3. Getting food policy on the Mayoral table: a comparison of two election cycles in New York and London.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, N; Atkinson, S

    2015-04-01

    Cities and Mayors are increasingly being recognized as important in shaping social policy and improving social well-being. And municipal food policies are increasingly important as a tool to reduce food insecurity and prevent diet-related chronic diseases. Thus city governments have a unique ability to improve local food environments. To realize this potential for improving urban food environments, nutrition advocates will need to find innovative approaches for influencing municipal food policy. This paper examines Mayoral elections as a vehicle to advance food policy. To explore this strategy, Mayoral elections in two cities, New York City (NYC) and London, during two recent cycles were compared. To gather evidence multiple sources were used including campaign documents, media and opinion polls as well as the authors' own observations as food policy observers and participants in the two cities. Mayoral governance differs between NYC and London, with the Mayor in NYC having greater powers of management and administration, whilst the London Mayor has a more strategic role and may need to also use 'influence'. Food policy and related issues did not feature strongly in the first election cycles in either city. However by the 2012 and 2013 elections food issues were definitely 'on the table' and featured in main candidates' campaign literature. These latter elections also saw the importance of food advocates coming together to form common alliances and place food issues higher on the municipal agenda. In this way, food policy has become part of the election dialogue in both cities and candidates are expected to consider food policy issues. This analysis leads to make observations which could guide advocates as to how to use Mayoral elections to raise policy objectives for the benefit of public health. PMID:25834929

  4. The New Education and the Institute of Education, University of London, 1919-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The London Day Training College (LDTC), founded in 1902, soon became the leading institution for the study of education and for the training of teachers in England. In 1932 it was transmuted into the Institute of Education of the University of London. Its title and pre-eminence have continued to this day. In the period 1919-1945 it was closely,…

  5. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  6. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  7. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  8. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  9. Schools Library Services: Their Changing Value to the Education of London's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In the history of education Schools Library Services are relative newcomers. The London County Council and its successor, the Inner London Education Authority, developed Schools Library Services for their own schools from the 1950s onwards. After the Education Reform Act 1988 became law, responsibility for education passed to the inner London…

  10. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  11. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  12. Management of hepatitis B in pregnant women and infants: a multicentre audit from four London hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can transmit the infection to their infants, screening of patients and appropriate interventions reduce vertical transmission. This audit was conducted to assess adherence to the national guidelines for management of HBV infection in pregnancy. Methods A retrospective audit was conducted on pregnant women diagnosed with hepatitis B on screening in antenatal clinics, across four hospitals in London over 2 years (2009–2010). Data was collected from antenatal records and discharge summaries using a standard audit form. The outcomes measured included HBV serological markers, HBV DNA, detection of other blood borne viruses and referral to hepatology services, administration of active and passive prophylaxis to infants at birth. Descriptive statistics are presented. Proportions were compared using the χ2 test and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for prevalence estimates. Analyses were conducted using STATA 12. Results HBsAg was detected in 1.05% (n = 401, 95% CI 0.95-1.16) of women attending an antenatal appointment, 12% (n = 48) of the women were at a high risk of vertical transmission (HBe Ag positive or antiHBe and HBeAg negative or HBV DNA >106 IU/ml). Only 62% (n = 248) women were referred to hepatology or specialist clinics and 29% (n = 13) of women of high infectivity were on antiviral agents. Testing for hepatitis C and delta virus was suboptimal. 75% (n = 36) of the infants at a high risk of acquisition of HBV received both active and passive prophylaxis. Conclusion In certain sectors of London, implementation of the pathway for management of women with hepatitis B and their infants is suboptimal. National guidelines should be followed and improved intersectorial sharing of information is needed to reduce the risk of women of high infectivity being lost to follow up. PMID:24289183

  13. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  14. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society. PMID:26459395

  15. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  16. Should I pay for your risky behaviours? Evidence from London.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa; Galizzi, Matteo M; Merla, Anna; Levaggi, Rosella; Schulz, Peter J; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the extent to which respondents from a general population sample in London (July-August 2011) agree or disagree with the NHS covering the healthcare costs related to five risky health behaviours: overeating, unhealthy diet, sedentary life, excess of alcohol, and smoking. For each behaviour, we also directly explore the main factors associated with the likelihood to agree or disagree. Half of the respondents (N=146) manifest agreement with the idea. Wider agreement exists for covering the costs associated smoking, heavy drinking, and sedentary lives than with overeating, or poor diets. With the exception of alcohol drinking and sedentary life, there is an almost one-to-one relationship between the agreement that the NHS should pay the healthcare costs associated with a specific behaviour, and the respondents' actual engagement in that behaviour. Those at higher risk of depending on publicly funded healthcare, are more likely to agree. PMID:24945692

  17. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  18. Elastic Moduli of Vortex Lattices within Nonlocal London Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miranovic, P.; Kogan, V. G.

    2001-09-24

    Vortex lattice (VL) elastic response is analyzed within the nonlocal London model which holds for high-{kappa} clean superconductors. The squash modulus vanishes at the field H{sub (open square)} where VL undergoes a square-to-rhombus transition. For H>H{sub (open square)}, where the square VL is stable, the rotation modulus turns zero at H=H{sub r} , indicating VL instability to rotations. The shear modulus depends on the shear direction; the dependence is strong in the vicinity of H{sub (open square)} where the square VL is soft with respect to the shear along [110] . The H dependences of the moduli are evaluated for LuNi{sub 2}B {sub 2}C .

  19. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  20. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  1. Impact of HIV on adult (15-54) mortality in London: 1979-96

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, M.; Bardsley, M.; De Angelis, D.; Ward, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of HIV on mortality in men and women aged 15-54 in London. DESIGN: Combination of routine mortality statistics with reports of AIDS deaths adjusted for underreporting and change in address from time of report to time of death. Calculation of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for males including and excluding HIV comparing inner London and outer London with the rest of England and Wales. METHODS: Comparison of trends in all cause mortality and SMRs in males over time. Comparison of trends in HIV related deaths with other main causes of deaths in males and females in London. RESULTS: Age standardised rates for the rest of England and Wales showed a continual decline from 1979 to 1996 but rates in inner London males (ages 15-54) stopped declining around 1984-5 leading to a considerable increase in the SMR for inner London from 127 for 1985-7 to 171 for 1994-6. SMRs excluding HIV related deaths for inner London, however, showed no significant change over this time. There was a fall in HIV related mortality in 1996, though HIV was still the leading cause of death in males and second leading cause of death in females in inner London, and the fourth commonest cause of death in males in outer London. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to indicate the impact of HIV on mortality within a significant population in England and Wales. They show that public health priorities in London are different from the rest of the country. Analyses of trends of all cause mortality in people under 65 may mislead unless they take account of HIV. 


 PMID:10754940

  2. Inequalities in the use of dental services among adults in inner South East London.

    PubMed

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Klass, Charlotte; Jones, Kate; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Improving access to National Health Service (NHS) dentistry is a public health issue that has been a focus for successive governments and policy makers in the UK. To inform this process, commissioners of services need to understand trends in service use and demands of the local population. This study explored inequalities in dental services use among adults in a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London; satisfaction with services; and public views for improvement of services. Data from 695 adults were analysed for this study (56% of the eligible sample). Inequalities in dental services use and satisfaction with care according to sociodemographic factors were assessed in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. The proportion of participants who reported attending the dentist in the last 24 months was 69%, with inequalities according to social grade, ethnicity, sex and age but not according to borough of residence. The most common areas identified by respondents for service improvement were availability of dentists, affordability of care, and accommodation of services. Among those who visited the dentist in the last 24 months, 90% were satisfied with the quality of care provided. However, there were inequalities in satisfaction with care according to borough and reason for the last dental visit.

  3. Influence of HLA matching and blood-transfusion on outcome of 502 London Transplant Group renal-graft recipients.

    PubMed

    Festenstein, H; Sachs, J A; Pegrum, G D; Moorhead, J F; Paris, A M

    1976-01-24

    The outcome of 502 cadaver kidney transplants has been followed for up to six years; these grafts were arranged through the Tissue Immunology Unit of the London Hospital Medical College, the coordinating centre of the London Transplant Group. An analysis of HLA (A and B) recepient-donor matching revealed, as in previous analyses, clear differences (now highly significant) between the best as compared with the lesser matched recipients. A quarter of the patients (group 4 and 3a) had a superior outcome 20-30% greater than poorly matched (2 or less group) which constituted 53% of individuals. The results in the 3b group (28% of patients) were intermediate 10-15% better than the "2 or less antigens in common" group. A small number of recipients mostly 4 or 3 matched who were retrospectively HLA-D matched showed an even better graft survival. The effect of blood-transfusion before transplantation was studied and found to improve the outlook especially in the best-matched groups. No difference was apparent between those receiving less or more than ten units except in a group of patients with cytotoxic antibodies and/or retransplants. This "immunocompetent-presensitised" group had the best outcome provided these recipients had few transfusions and were subsequently well matched. These findings emphasise the continued need for successful collaborative associations, so that improved matching can be achieved which if universally applied would ensure better graft survival for a large number of patients in renal failure.

  4. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  5. Jean Decima Jacomb (1894-1988), matron of The London Clinic, 20 Devonshire Place, London W1 from 1938 to 1949.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Miss Jean Jacomb born into a wealthy family, was at the age of 22 a student nurse at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London in 1917 where she nursed convalescent soldiers from World War I. Her midwifery training was in the slums around Whitechapel where a nurses uniform and medical bag provided a safe passage in the East End of London. For a while she worked in South Africa and India and returning to UK in 1923 she progressed to appointment as matron at the now re-named Royal Marsden Hospital in Chelsea. In 1938 she was appointed matron to The London Clinic during the years of World War II following which in 1949 she retired at the age of 55. She then travelled the world extensively by ship, always first class. She died in 1988. PMID:24944046

  6. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  7. A learning and development strategy for children's hospices across London.

    PubMed

    Billings, Jenny; Jenkins, Linda; Black, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Over recent years there have been several political imperatives in the UK directed toward children's palliative care and ensuring that services are high-quality, coordinated, family-centred, and able to meet the needs of children with complex disabilities. In addition, in 2010 the health and social care regulation authority in England-the Care Quality Commission (CQC)-aligned hospices with regulation and inspection requirements. This context has acted as a driver for the creation of effective education and training to ensure a skilled and expert workforce. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a project to develop a learning and development strategy for Children's Hospices across London (CHaL). CHaL educators worked with a research team to develop a unified strategy that was based on evidence of good practice, embedded in required CQC outcomes, and validated with a wider audience. The resultant strategy contains a set of four key learning and development principles that are applicable and transferable across different hospices.

  8. Stability of topological defects in chiral superconductors: London theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Vakaryuk, V.

    2011-12-22

    This paper examines the thermodynamic stability of chiral domain walls and vortices-topological defects which can exist in chiral superconductors. Using London theory it is demonstrated that at sufficiently small applied and chiral fields the existence of domain walls and vortices in the sample is not favored and the sample's configuration is a single domain. The particular chirality of the single-domain configuration is neither favored nor disfavored by the applied field. Increasing the field leads to an entry of a domain-wall loop or a vortex into the sample. The formation of a straight domain wall is never preferred in equilibrium. Values of the entry (critical) fields for both types of defects, as well as the equilibrium size of the domain-wall loop, are calculated. We also consider a mesoscopic chiral sample and calculate its zero-field magnetization, susceptibility, and a change in the magnetic moment due to a vortex or a domain-wall entry. We show that in the case of a soft domain wall whose energetics is dominated by the chiral current (and not by the surface tension) its behavior in mesoscopic samples is substantially different from that in the bulk case and can be used for a controllable transfer of edge excitations. The applicability of these results to Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} - a tentative chiral superconductor - is discussed.

  9. The nutritional composition of British bread: London area study.

    PubMed

    Sivell, L M; Wenlock, R W

    1983-12-01

    Samples of white and brown bread, both sliced and unsliced, and of wheatgerm breads and wholemeal bread were purchased in London and analysed for a wide range of nutrients. Available carbohydrate, dietary fibre, fatty acids, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and iodine were determined in bulked samples of each type of bread and, in addition, every loaf was analysed for moisture, fat, protein, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, thiamin, nicotinic acid, and free and total folic acid, in order to provide an estimate the variability within each kind of bread. Virtually all the constituents that were measured in the individual loaves showed inter-loaf variation--particularly moisture contents and the levels of calcium, copper and folic acid. Unsliced loaves were more variable than sliced loaves but when expressed on a dry matter basis there were no significant differences in the nutrient levels in sliced and unsliced breads. Wheatgerm breads were relatively more homogenous products but wholemeal loaves were very unhomogenous reflecting the difficulty of accurately identifying unwrapped wholemeal loaves in retail outlets. Some differences from previously published values for all breads were found for dietary fibre, iron, thiamin and vitamin B6. Experience of sampling at retail outlets and analysis provided by this study will be integrated into the design of a planned study of breads throughout Britain.

  10. Traveller Gypsies and childhood immunization: a study in east London.

    PubMed

    Feder, G S; Vaclavik, T; Streetly, A

    1993-07-01

    The immunization status of the children of Traveller Gypsies presenting to two general practices and a paediatric accident and emergency department in east London between July 1988 and February 1990 was compared with that of a control group presenting to the same services. Study of parental reports and other records for 72 Traveller Gypsy children and 106 control children aged 10 months to six years revealed that Traveller Gypsy children had significantly lower completion rates for pertussis, measles, diphtheria/tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccines than the control group. The difference between the uptake of the first and third diphtheria/tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines was significantly greater among the Traveller Gypsy children than among the control group. The low immunization rates are due to poor access to services as well as rejection of certain vaccines by Traveller Gypsies. The 1990 general practitioner contract and reforms to the health service may result in decreased access for Traveller Gypsies unless steps are taken by family health services and district health authorities to meet the health care needs of this group. Possible solutions to this problem include outreach services to caravan sites, opportunistic immunization, better records and targeted health education. PMID:8398244

  11. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerhayes, Colin

    2011-02-01

    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site//GSL//lang/en/climatechange) about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/page8578.html) reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  12. Carbon in black crusts from the Tower of London

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandra Bonazza; Peter Brimblecombe; Carlota M. Grossi; Cristina Sabbioni

    2007-06-15

    This paper investigates the origin, fluxes, and transformation of carbon compounds within black crusts on the stone walls of the Tower of London. The crusts were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon, including the water soluble fraction. The stratigraphy of the old, thicker crusts highlighted the presence of prismatic particles, spherical aluminosilicates and metals, and carbonaceous particles. These are indicative of wood, coal and oil combustion processes. Elemental carbon and low solubility compounds such as oxalates appeared to be conserved because of long residence times. Conversely, more soluble ions, like chloride and formate would be removed from the layers relatively quickly by rainfall. At higher organic carbon concentrations acetic acid may be produced within the crusts from biological transformations. Currently, traffic sources contribute to increasingly organic rich crusts. The deposition of elemental carbon to buildings darkens surfaces and has important aesthetic implications. The increased organic content may have further aesthetic consequence by changing the color of buildings to warmer tones, particularly browns and yellows. Management of historic buildings requires us to recognize the shift away from simple gypsum crusts to those richer in organic materials. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. London 2012: occupational health in the construction programme.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    This article explores the approach to occupational health in the UK construction industry in both broad and narrow contexts. The construction programme for the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games includes the creation of a large urban park in east London containing many sports venues and served by enhanced infrastructure. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), responsible for the construction programme, is developing plans that seek to assure the health of the thousands of workers who will be engaged in this work. Such plans are not being drafted in a vacuum. In addition to considerable consultation with stakeholders the ODA is also drawing on some of the exciting work that has been undertaken in occupational health in recent years. In particular, the move from a focus on technical health services provided by 'experts' to an acceptance that health issues should be managed within employing organizations. Understanding this broad context provides a solid basis for analysing the specific proposals for occupational support during the Olympic Park construction. PMID:17542423

  14. Towards the String representation of the dual Abelian Higgs model beyond the London limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Yoshiaki; Koma (Takayama, Miho; Ebert, Dietmar; Toki, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    We perform a path-integral analysis of the string representation of the dual abelian Higgs (DAH) model beyond the London limit, where the string describing the vortex of a flux tube has a finite thickness. We show that besides an additional vortex core contribution to the string tension, a modified Yukawa interaction appears as a boundary contribution in the type-II dual superconducting vacuum. In the London limit, the modified Yukawa interaction is reduced to the Yukawa one.

  15. Exploring Leaders' Views on the Influence of Applied A Levels and Vocational Education on Preparation for Students' Progression to Higher Education and Employment, in the Context of an Inner City London School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garforth, Graham

    2011-01-01

    In London particularly there is increasing competitiveness for jobs and a need for transferable tertiary industry skills. There has been decades of change in vocational education and training; but there is evidence that little has changed to improve the chances of students progression to higher education and employment. With the age that students…

  16. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country.

  17. Insights into the oral health beliefs and practices of mothers from a north London Orthodox Jewish community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to explore oral health knowledge and beliefs and access to dental care in a culturally distinct Orthodox Jewish community in North London, with a view to informing local health policy. Methods A dual method qualitative approach to data collection was adopted in this study utilising semi-structured face to face interviews and focus groups with women from this North London orthodox Jewish community. In total nine interviews and four focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of thirty three mothers from the community aged 21-58 years. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology Results Cultural influences, competing pressures and perceptions of hereditary influences, together with a lack of contemporary oral health knowledge are the main factors affecting oral health knowledge and beliefs. This supported an overall perspective of disempowerment or a perceived lack of control over oral health behaviours, both for mothers and their children. Community signposting pointed mothers to dental services, whilst family pressures together with inadequate capacity and capability and generic barriers such as fear and cost acted as barriers. Mothers from this community welcomed community development initiatives from the NHS. Conclusions The results of this study provide insight into the challenges of a culturally isolated community who would welcome community support through schools and expanded culturally appropriate opening hours to improve access to dental care. PMID:20529247

  18. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country. PMID:27480475

  19. Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, S.; Slowik, J. G.; Furger, M.; Zotter, P.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Green, D. C.; Tremper, A. H.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Williams, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Nemitz, E.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Fleming, Z. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model, conducted on data sets comprising all three sites but segregated by size. Combining the sites enabled separation of sources with high temporal covariance but significant spatial variability. Separation of sizes improved source resolution by preventing sources occurring in only a single size fraction from having too small a contribution for the model to resolve. Anchor profiles were retrieved internally by analysing data subsets, and these profiles were used in the analyses of the complete data sets of all sites for enhanced source apportionment. A total of nine different factors were resolved (notable elements in brackets): in PM10-2.5, brake wear (Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), other traffic-related (Fe), resuspended dust (Si, Ca), sea/road salt (Cl), aged sea salt (Na, Mg) and industrial (Cr, Ni); in PM2.5-1.0, brake wear, other traffic-related, resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt and S-rich (S); and in PM1.0-0.3, traffic-related (Fe, Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt, reacted Cl (Cl), S-rich and solid fuel (K, Pb). Human activities enhance the kerb-to-rural concentration gradients of coarse aged sea salt, typically considered to have a natural source, by 1.7-2.2. These site-dependent concentration differences reflect the effect of local resuspension processes in London. The anthropogenically influenced factors traffic (brake wear and other traffic-related processes), dust and sea/road salt provide further kerb-to-rural concentration enhancements by direct source emissions by a factor of 3.5-12.7. The traffic and dust factors are mainly emitted in PM10-2.5 and show strong

  20. Millennium-long damage to building materials in London.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2009-02-01

    Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, so non-instrumental weather records and modelled pollution are utilised for historic values, while future climate is adapted from the HadCM3A2 model output and pollution assessed from likely regulatory trends. The results from the different damage functions compare reasonably well showing comparable changes in damage rates with time. A potential square-root dependence of change in deposition velocity of SO2 to limestone suggests a possible overestimate of damage when pollution is high. Deterioration is especially intense from the 1700s. It is difficult to be certain whether the corrosion of copper accelerated as early as this or it developed in the 20th century. Nevertheless all the functions predict a decline in copper corrosion from the end of the 20th century. A blackening function was developed to relate elemental carbon concentration and the colour of deposited particulate matter to blackening rate, which suggests that soiling was particularly rapid in the late 19th century. The increase and subsequent decrease in damage to building materials is interpreted in terms of a Kuznets curve. The centuries where pollution controlled damage to durable building material seems to be over. Weathering, in a changing climate may have the greatest impact in the future.

  1. East London Experience with Enteric Fever 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayshree; Millar, Michael; Maxeiner, Horst; Freedman, Joanne; Meade, Rachel; Rosmarin, Caryn; Jordan, Matthew; Andrews, Nick; Holliman, Richard; Sefton, Armine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007–2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0–57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1–20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required. PMID:25790017

  2. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    PubMed

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  3. Prostitution and risk of HIV: female prostitutes in London.

    PubMed

    Ward, H; Day, S; Mezzone, J; Dunlop, L; Donegan, C; Farrar, S; Whitaker, L; Harris, J R; Miller, D L

    1993-08-01

    In a cross sectional survey, 280 female prostitutes were recruited between April 1989 and August 1991 by referral from health workers in the genitourinary medicine clinic at St. Mary;s Hospital, London, England, and referral from friends and colleagues of prostitutes, fieldwork (visiting streets, magistrates' courts, flats, agencies, and saunas), and telephone contacts. The objective was to measure the prevalence of HIV and to describe established risk factors in female prostitutes. 228 of the women had HIV tests, and 2 (09%) were infected with HIV-1. A high 98% (251/255) of women used condoms with all clients, while 12% (25/207) did with nonpaying partners for vaginal intercourse, 22 of the women had a history of blood transfusion; 22 women were current or past iv drug users; 53 reported use of injected drugs either by themselves or by their sexual partners; and 58 reported having sex with bisexual men and 4 with men known to be infected with HIV. Women recruited through fieldwork were more likely to report use of injected drugs than those interviewed at the clinic (11/87 (13%) vs. 11/193 (6%). 193 women were examined for sexually transmitted infections (STDs) on the day of their interview or within a week later, and 27 had one or more current, acute infections; 9 had gonorrhoea, 12 chlamydia, 7 trichomonas, and 4 primary genital herpes. Infection was related to younger age and increasing numbers of nonpaying sexual partners but not to duration of prostitution, numbers of clients, or reports of condom failures. The age and numbers of nonpaying partners remained significantly associated with STDs when analyzed by logistic regression. There was a significant risk of other sexually transmitted infections associated with the prostitutes frequently unprotected, noncommercial sexual relationships. Interventions should consider both commercial and noncommercial sexual partnerships in order to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections in prostitutes.

  4. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  5. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. PMID:24750387

  6. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework.

  7. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    PubMed

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians. PMID:23130576

  8. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  9. Police deaths in New York and London during the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, D N; Monkkonen, E H; Peek‐Asa, C; Lucke, R E; Labbett, S; Pearlman, K S; Hutson, H R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the incidences and causes of occupational police deaths in New York City in the United States and Greater London in the United Kingdom during the twentieth century. To assess the relation between overall societal violence and violence directed toward police officers in these metropolitan areas. Design and setting Ecological study of New York and London from 1900 through 1999. Main outcome measures Intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates for New York and London were estimated for each decade. The general population homicide rates of both New York and London were assessed for their correlation with their respective intentional occupational police mortality rates. Results During the 20th century, 585 police officers in New York and 160 police officers in London died while participating in law enforcement activities. New York had markedly greater intentional police mortality rates compared to London throughout most of the 20th century, but these differences decreased significantly by the end of the century. Intentional gunshot wounds comprised 290 police deaths in New York, but only 14 police deaths in London. In New York, gun shot wounds (both intentional and unintentional) accounted for more occupational police deaths (51.6%) than did all other injury mechanisms combined. In London, motor vehicle collision was the most common cause (47.5%) of occupational police death. There were no apparent correlations between the general population homicide rates and intentional police mortality rates in either New York (r2 = 0.05, 95% CI −0.77 to 0.81) or London (r2 = 0.34, 95% CI −0.61 to 0.89). Conclusions During the 20th century, both intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates were significantly greater in New York compared to London. These differences are likely from several socioeconomic, cultural, and occupational factors. The declines in police deaths in New York during the latter part of

  10. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  11. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  12. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  13. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  14. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development. PMID:21626140

  15. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." PMID:12282380

  16. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  17. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  18. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality.

  19. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

  20. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-01

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  1. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  2. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  3. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  4. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  5. A review of social housing regeneration in the London Borough of Brent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Rhoden, M

    2003-03-01

    Council high-rise estates sprang up rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, with cross-governmental support to resolve the nation's housing crisis. It soon became apparent that many such new estates, designed by remote architects, and sometimes constructed rapidly and unsatisfactorily, did not provide the ideal living initially perceived. Many estates had early problems with architecture, construction and design. They proved an inhumane environment for many residents and there were frequent problems with communal features. Such estates were soon stigmatised and difficult to let as increasingly residual households were placed there, creating majority welfare-dependent estates. This created a downward spiral that traditional, and remote, housing management found difficult to address, and was too wide-scale to rectify financially within existing regimes. Prior to the 1980s, there were no specific government policies to tackle housing regeneration on high-rise estates. Problems became wider than traditional housing management and poor housing environments, encompassing social and economic exclusion. This paper, based on historical and contemporary literature as well as estate visits, reviews regeneration policy in three council housing estates within the London Borough of Brent. It traces successive government approaches since the 1980s from one that challenged the very status of council housing--notably at Stonebridge Park and Chalkhill, to one of partnership with the local authority--at South Kilburn. Housing policy is now concerned with more than just housing--it is about moving toward social inclusion, which requires initiative, flair, resource and commitment. It is about new accountabilities--not just numbers of bricks and mortar constructions, but about the lives, opportunities and health of those who live in an area. This fundamentally involves a partnership approach with residents at the centre of regeneration. This paper finds that sustainable estate regeneration

  6. 'Islamic fatalism': life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study 2.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent 'fatalism', which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London. PMID:24670160

  7. The London External Degree and the English Part-Time Degree Student. Leeds Studies in Adult Education, No.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Christopher

    The paper attempts to analyze the work of the London external degree and its place in the fluid system of higher and further education. Oxford and other universities have traditional extramural departments strictly concerned with non-vocational, usually non-examined, non-degree courses; London University has been serving the majority of England's…

  8. Pentecostal and Catholic Migrant Churches in London--The Role of Ideologies in the Language Planning of Faith Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Ana; Kwapong, Amoafi; Woodham, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The former British Labour Government acknowledged that religious practices play an important role in the development of children's identities [DCFS. (2009). "Your child, your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools system." London: HMSO; DfES (2007). "Curriculum review: Diversity and citizenship." London: HMSO]. However, little is…

  9. Adaptation and Validation of the Tower of London Test of Planning and Problem Solving in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, J. D.; Dagnan, D.; Evans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for validated, standardised tools for the assessment of executive functions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examines the validity of a test of planning and problem solving (Tower of London) with adults with ID. Method: Participants completed an adapted version of the Tower of London (ToL) while…

  10. Tower of London Performance in Healthy Adolescents: The Development of Planning Skills and Associations With Self-Reported Inattention and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Luciana, Monica; Collins, Paul F.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Schissel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have investigated planning skill development using the Tower of London (TOL). Reports conflict regarding maturational trajectories and associations with IQ, other executive functions, and impulsivity. A convenience sample of 9- to 20-year-olds completed the TOL and other measures. TOL accuracy improved until ages 15–17. Digit span backwards (DSB), response inhibition, and IQ were correlated with TOL performance. DSB contributed to TOL accuracy above and beyond age and IQ. Inhibitory control and DSB both contributed to the modulation of planning times across problems. Self-reported inattention and hyperactivity were associated with low performance. Task approaches reflecting planning and psychometric issues are discussed. PMID:20183711

  11. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.

    PubMed

    Turner, Claire E; Pyzio, Marta; Song, Bonita; Lamagni, Theresa; Meltzer, Margie; Chow, J Yimmy; Efstratiou, Androulla; Curtis, Sally; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2016-06-01

    Scarlet fever notifications surged across the United Kingdom in spring 2014. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in North-West London highlighted increased emm4 and emm3 infections coincident with the upsurge. Unlike outbreaks in other countries, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, highlighting an urgent need to better understand the drivers of scarlet fever activity.

  12. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claire E.; Pyzio, Marta; Song, Bonita; Lamagni, Theresa; Meltzer, Margie; Chow, J. Yimmy; Efstratiou, Androulla; Curtis, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Scarlet fever notifications surged across the United Kingdom in spring 2014. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in North-West London highlighted increased emm4 and emm3 infections coincident with the upsurge. Unlike outbreaks in other countries, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, highlighting an urgent need to better understand the drivers of scarlet fever activity. PMID:27192393

  13. Cecilia John: An Australian Heads the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 1932-1955

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (LSDE) was established in 1913, and a significant figure in its history was the remarkable Cecilia John, one of seven Australians to complete the three-year course between 1917 and 1927. Apart from two short visits to Australia, John lived and taught in England for the remainder of her life. Following the…

  14. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  15. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  16. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart of drama.…

  17. Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the…

  18. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this research for…

  19. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  20. The London Association for the Teaching of English 1947-67: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This is the fascinating story of the birth, growth, and development of the London Association for the Teaching of English from its earliest years through to the formation of the National Association for the Teaching of English and thereafter. The work of founder members of LATE, such as James Britton, Harold Rosen, and Nancy Martin, was critical…

  1. Developing the next Generation of Black and Global Majority Leaders for London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the views of black and ethnic minority school leaders about the "Investing in Diversity" program, a black-led program developed in 2004 to address the underrepresentation of black leaders in the London schools. Major themes are identified from interviews with black and South Asian women graduates of the…

  2. Making the Geography Curriculum: Reflections on the IGU-CGE London Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2013-01-01

    "Curriculum making", highlighted in the Geographical Association's Manifesto in 2009, was the focus of a research symposium held in London in April 2011. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, I reflect on and explore my experience of participating in that symposium. The analysis explores the "cultures of influence" and the "forms of…

  3. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  4. A Comparison of Performance on the Towers of London and Hanoi in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Senn, Theresa E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Towers of London (TOL) and Hanoi (TOH) have been viewed as equivalent measures of planning and/or problem solving, although recent evidence in adults suggests that the underlying measurement characteristics of these two tasks may differ. As tower tasks are one of the few instruments that can be used to assess executive functioning…

  5. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Methods Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Results Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. Conclusions This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients. PMID:25077991

  6. Complementary Schools in Action: Networking for Language Development in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    In a challenging economic and political context, complementary schools in East London are mentoring each other and forming networks across communities to gain recognition and status for community languages in education and the wider community. As issues of power and status impact in different ways on differently situated communities, complementary…

  7. Reconnecting to Mission: Connecticut College's Outreach to New London during the Claire Gaudiani Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marthers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    During her presidency (1988-2001), Claire Gaudiani reconnected Connecticut College with New London, the college's home city, whose citizens through grassroots fund raising and donations of land established the college in 1911. Through an emphasis on service-learning, community outreach, and an education not for oneself as well as economic…

  8. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  9. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  10. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  11. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  12. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained participants in…

  13. Urban Education: Confronting the Contradictions--An Analysis with Special Reference to London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide some answers to two questions: What are the distinctive challenges of urban education (especially in London) and how can schools help to meet them? Using theoretical frameworks derived from the writings of two leading scholars of the urban, Manuel Castells and David Harvey, this paper argues that the challenges "in"…

  14. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  15. With Permission: Education Policy, Space and Everyday Globalisation in London's East End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to make sense of a public-private partnership in London's East End. I am interested in how policy directions, in terms of cultural practices, may operate as links between transnational corporations and education provision, and, additionally, how concepts of space and place provide possibilities for different understandings of…

  16. Conference Report: Online Information Meeting 2005, Olympia, London (UK), 29 November-1 December 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education for Information, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For many years now the Holiday season has been associated with the gathering of information professionals in west London for the annual Online Information Meeting. The Meeting currently is organized by VNU Exhibitions Europe (formerly Imark Communication), though for old-timers it will forever be associated with Learned Information, the…

  17. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  18. The Management of Technical Innovation in Libraries. Proceedings of a Conference (London, England, April 23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughborough Univ. of Technology (England). Dept. of Library and Information Studies.

    These four papers presented at the Polytechnic of Central London School of Management focus on the management of technical innovation in libraries as it affects decision making, library organization, non-systems staff, and interlibrary cooperation. Procedures for implementing automation in a library are outlined: a system analysis and costing of…

  19. String Representation of the Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory Beyond the London Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, M.; Koma, Y.; Ebert, D.; Toki, H.

    2003-08-01

    The effective string action of the color-electric flux tube in the dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory is studied by performing a path-integral analysis by taking into account the finite thickness of the flux tube. A modified Yukawa interaction appears as a boundary contribution and is reduced into the ordinary Yukawa interaction in the London Limit.

  20. 77 FR 32898 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... CT Connecticut DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register SLIS Sector Long Island Sound... in the Federal Register (77 FR 16198). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public..., Thames River, New London, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  1. Working for the People? Mrs Bridges Adams and the London School Board, 1897-1904.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on Mrs. Bridges Adams who was a supporter of state maintenance committed to educational opportunity for workers' children. Focuses on her political recruitment, her contribution to the work of the London School Board (England), and her role in the struggle to save the school board system. (CMK)

  2. Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…

  3. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  4. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  5. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  6. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  7. Investing in Diversity in London Schools: Leadership Preparation for Black and Global Majority Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical roots, describes the philosophy and curriculum, and analyzes the approach to leadership in Investing in Diversity, a 1-year Black-led leadership development course in the London schools. An exploratory qualitative case study approach was used to collect historical and empirical data about the program over a…

  8. Interruption of the Tower of London Task: Support for a Goal-Activation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2006-01-01

    Unexpected interruptions introduced during the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems incurred a time cost when the interrupted goal was retrieved, and this cost was exacerbated the longer the goal was suspended. Furthermore, time taken to retrieve goals was greater following a more complex interruption, indicating the processing…

  9. Breaking the Barriers. Eight Case Studies of Women Returning to Learning in North London. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Wendy

    A study documented the expectations, experiences, and needs of eight women who entered education via Fresh Start/Return to Study courses and followed them as they moved on to further study/training. (Fresh Start was a project of the Inner London Education Authority.) A series of interviews was conducted between June 1985 and October 1986 in an…

  10. Different Spaces: Learning and Literacy with Children and Their Grandparents in East London Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessel, John; Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates informal learning, literacy and language development occurring in the home through exchanges between children of three to six years of age and their grandparents in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families of mixed ethnicity living in east London. A survey identifying…

  11. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  12. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a

  13. Assessing the sources and bioaccessibility of Lead in Soils from London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Chenery, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The lead content of soil is important since it is toxic to humans and particularly because children tend to more readily absorb lead than do adults: children absorb up to 40% into the bloodstream from ingested or inhaled lead, versus 5-15% in adults. Studies have shown that relatively low concentrations of lead in blood can lead to significant decrease in IQ of children (e.g. Jakubowski, 2011) leading to neuropathy and hypertension in adults. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a systematic high-density geochemical soil survey of the Greater London Area (GLA) in which over 6000 surface soil samples were collected and analysed for 50 elements. The Pb content of the soils range from 11 mg/kg to greater than 10000 mg/kg with mean and median values of 301 and 185 mg/kg, respectively. The ingestion bioaccessible fraction of Pb was measured using an in-vitro bioaccessibility test showing that 68% of the total Pb in London soils is bioaccessible. Measurement of Pb isotopic ratios in selected soils matched with those found in London air particulates and, to a lesser extent, with petrol lead. Self modelling mixture resolution of the 50 element geochemical data set was used to identify geochemically distinct components in the data with Pb being associated with 11 of the components which were of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Relationships between the soil components, the bioaccessible fraction and the Pb isotope ratios provided an indication of the sources of mobile lead in the London soils. References JAKUBOWSKI, M. 2011. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children - the current concepts of risk assessment. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 24, 1-7. APPLETON, J D, CAVE, M R, and WRAGG, J. 2012. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 171, 265-272.

  14. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  15. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  16. The NHS Health Check programme: implementation in east London 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robson, John; Dostal, Isabel; Madurasinghe, Vichithranie; Sheikh, Aziz; Hull, Sally; Boomla, Kambiz; Page, Helen; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe implementation and results from the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme. Design Three-year observational open cohort study: 2009–2011. Participants People of age 40–74 years eligible for an NHS Health Check. Setting 139/143 general practices in three east London primary care trusts (PCTs) serving an ethnically diverse and socially disadvantaged population. Method Implementation was supported with education, IT support and performance reports. Tower Hamlets PCT additionally used managed practice networks and prior-stratification to call people at higher cardiovascular (CVD) risk first. Main outcomes measures Attendance, proportion of high-risk population on statins and comorbidities identified. Results Coverage 2009, 2010, 2011 was 33.9% (31 878/10 805), 60.6% (30 757/18 652) and 73.4% (21 194/28 890), respectively. Older people were more likely to attend than younger people. Attendance was similar across deprivation quintiles and was in accordance with population distributions of black African/Caribbean, South Asian and White ethnic groups. 1 in 10 attendees were at high-CVD risk (20% or more 10-year risk). In the two PCTs stratifying risk, 14.3% and 9.4% of attendees were at high-CVD risk compared to 8.6% in the PCT using an unselected invitation strategy. Statin prescription to people at high-CVD risk was higher in Tower Hamlets 48.9%, than in City and Hackney 23.1% or Newham 20.2%. In the 6 months following an NHS Health Check, 1349 new cases of hypertension, 638 new cases of diabetes and 89 new cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were diagnosed. This represents 1 new case of hypertension per 38 Checks, 1 new case of diabetes per 80 Checks and 1 new case of CKD per 568 Checks. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Health Check programme in these localities demonstrates limited success. Coverage and treatment of those at high-CVD risk could be improved. Targeting invitations to people at high-CVD risk

  17. Investigation of the impact of higher molecular weight organics on OH reactivity in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Hopkins, Jimmy; Lee, James; Lidster, Richard; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the formation of pollution in the air, particularly in the boundary layer of the atmosphere. VOCs in an urban atmosphere react with radical species to form ozone (O3), which at ground levels can pose a significant threat to health.[1] Air quality models have been developed to predict the effect of emissions on air quality. Numerous studies of urban environments show discrepancies between measured and predicted estimates of the lifetime of OH radicals. One possibility is that the magnitude of VOCs as a sink for reactive species is underestimated in models, including unmeasured and larger aromatic species. To study some of these additional compounds we have developed a method using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector (GC×GC-FID). GC×GC is a hyphenated technique where two columns are coupled together via a modulator, providing two discrete separations of each species based on boiling point and polarity.[2] This provides a high resolution method, with increased separation power and improved peak capacity when compared to many single column systems.[3] This technique was used in conjunction with a dual channel GC (DC-GC) during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project to increase the speciation of the complex air matrix. Target compounds were in the range C1 to C13+ VOCs, including oxygenates, aromatics, saturated and unsaturated aliphatics. Calculations of the pseudo first order OH reactivity indicates that higher carbon number VOCs may account for some of the missing OH sinks in comparison to emission inventory estimates. During summer measurements the role of biogenic VOCs increases, with isoprene and monoterpenes acting as important OH sinks. Including these should enhance the prediction capability of air quality models. This can then lead to the introduction of new policies for the reduction of pollution precursors and hopefully result in improved

  18. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578 607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change −72 DALYs (95% credible interval −110 to −43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; −15 (−42 to −6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change −49 DALYs (−88 to −17) among men; −1 DALY (−27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled

  19. Challenges in access to health services and its impact on quality of life: a randomised population-based survey within Turkish speaking immigrants in London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim There are a significant number of Turkish speaking immigrants living in London. Their special health issues including women's health, mental health, and alcohol and smoking habits has been assessed. The aim of this study was to explore the ongoing challenges in access to health care services and its impact on Quality of Life of immigrants. Material and methods This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted between March and August 2010 with Turkish immigrants (n = 416) living in London. Of these, 308 (74%) were Turkish and 108 (26%) were Turkish Cypriots. All healthy or unhealthy adults of 17-65 years of age were enrolled. A structured questionnaire with 44 items in five subcategories and 26-items WHOQOL BREF were used. Results Mean duration of stay for Turkish Cypriots (26.9 ± 13.9 years) was significantly longer than Turkish immigrants (13.3 ± 7.5) (p < 0.001). Turkish immigrants (n = 108, 36.5%) need interpretation more often when using health services than Turkish Cypriots (n = 16, 15%) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses suggested significant effects of older age, non-homeownership, low socioeconomic class, poor access to health services, being ill, poor community integration and being obese on physical well-being and also significant effects of low income and poor community integration on perceived overall Quality of Life (WHOQOL) of the participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate how the health and well-being of members of the Turkish speaking community living in London are affected by social aspects of their lives. Providing culturally competent care and interpretation services and advocacy may improve the accessibility of the health care. PMID:22280521

  20. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  1. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Pill, Roisin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of how first time mothers who belong to a socioeconomic group with particularly low rates of breast feeding decide whether or not to initiate breast feeding. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. Setting Women’s homes in east end of London. Subjects 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their partner or a relative. Two focus groups were conducted. Results Women who had regularly seen a relative or friend successfully breast feed and described this experience positively were more confident about and committed to breast feeding. They were also more likely to succeed. Exposure to breast feeding, however, could be either a positive or a negative influence on the decision to breast feed, depending on the context. Women who had seen breast feeding only by a stranger often described this as a negative influence, particularly if other people were present. All women knew that breast feeding has health benefits. Ownership of this knowledge, however, varied according to the woman’s experience of seeing breast feeding. Conclusions The decision to initiate breast feeding is influenced more by embodied knowledge gained from seeing breast feeding than by theoretical knowledge about its benefits. Breast feeding involves performing a practical skill, often with others present. The knowledge, confidence, and commitment necessary to breast feed may be more effectively gained through antenatal apprenticeship to a breastfeeding mother than from advice given in consultations or from books. Key messagesWomen who have seen successful breast feeding as part of their daily lives and perceive this as a positive experience are more likely to initiate breast feedingEmbodied knowledge gained through seeing breast feeding may be more influential than theoretical knowledge about the health benefits for women of lower social classListening to

  2. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  3. 'By merit raised to that bad eminence': Christopher Merrett, artisanal knowledge, and professional reform in restoration London.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge - particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes.

  4. ‘By Merit Raised to That Bad Eminence’: Christopher Merrett, Artisanal Knowledge, and Professional Reform in Restoration London

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge – particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes. PMID:23752982

  5. Biological foreign body implantation in victims of the London July 7th suicide bombings.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Min-Leong; Marsh, Dan; Abu-Sitta, Ghassan; Lau, Steven; Mann, Haroon A; Nawabi, Danyal H; Patel, Hasu

    2006-02-01

    On the morning of July 7, 2005, a co-ordinated attack by suicide bombers on the London public transport system resulted in four explosions at densely packed civilian targets. Of the victims of these attacks, 194 were treated at the Royal London Hospital, where among the most severely injured an unusual pattern of injury was seen. Bone fragments from other victims (or possible the bomber) were found embedded as biological foreign bodies within the soft tissues of several patients. We present case reports of five of these patients, and discuss problems arising from the management of their injuries. Allogenic bony foreign bodies, rarely reported in the medical literature, present unusual problems in their management, in particular the risk of transmitting blood borne diseases, which should be anticipated and addressed in a hospital's major incident planning.

  6. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised.

  7. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research. PMID:25997708

  8. Bipartisan politics and practical knowledge: advertising of public science in two London newspapers, 1695-1720.

    PubMed

    Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R

    2008-12-01

    This article explores the enticement of consumers for natural philosophy (buyers of books, audiences at public lectures and purchasers of instruments) in London between 1695 and 1720 through advertisements placed in two political newspapers. This twenty-five-year period witnessed both the birth of public science and the rage of party politics. A consideration of public science adverts within the Whig-leaning Post Man and the Tory-leaning Post Boy reveals that members of both the Whig and Tory parties were equally targeted and that natural philosophy was sold to London's reading population in bipartisan fashion. In the process of integrating natural philosophy into the wider culture through commercial sales, political allegiances were not imprinted on the advertising process. This conclusion raises questions regarding the historiographical assertion of Whig-supported public science and Tory opposition to it at the level of consumers. PMID:19391417

  9. London's Water Supply before 1800 and the Roots of the Networked City.

    PubMed

    Tomory, Leslie

    2015-07-01

    The New River Company was founded in London in the early seventeenth century to provide water for its inhabitants through a network of pipes. Although it grew slowly at first, after 1660 the company began to take on tens of thousands of customers. The company's rapid expansion caused it serious problems in distribution, forcing it to re-evaluate its strategy for distributing water. Relying on the recommendations of Christopher Wren and others, the company reorganized its network by adopting a host of technological and business measures. In doing so, it was forced to work increasingly by designing individual components in light of their effects on the whole network. This integrated design stabilized the infrastructure sufficiently to allow its further growth in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, London's water supply infrastructure explicitly became a model for water networks and other kinds of large-scale urban infrastructure elsewhere in the world.

  10. Heterotopic ossification in victims of the London 7/7 bombings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Patel, H D L

    2015-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of bone at extraskeletal sites. Over 60% of amputees injured by improvised explosive devices in the recent conflict in Afghanistan have developed HO, resulting in functional impairment. It is hypothesised that a key aetiological factor is the blast wave; however, other environmental and medical risk factors, which the casualties have been exposed to, have also been postulated. The suicide terrorist bombings in London in 2005 resulted in many blast-related casualties, many of whom were managed by the Royal London Hospital. This cohort of severely injured patients whose injuries also included trauma-related amputations shared some, but not all, of the risk factors identified in the military population. We reviewed these patients, in particular to assess the presence or absence of military-established risk factors for the formation of HO in these casualties. PMID:25645697

  11. The "Dreadful Visitation": public health and public awareness in seventeenth-century London.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S J

    1997-01-01

    The decision was made in Britain three centuries ago that an educated populace was best able to deal with a public health crisis of staggering proportions--outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague. As early as 1603, the printing press was enlisted to educate the public about urgent health issues. This education took several forms. The City of London, with the tacit permission of the Crown, printed bills of mortality that reported who was dying of what in London, detailed by parish, for the years in the seventeenth century when plague deaths were reported. New books about plague prevention and cures were published; older works were reprinted. The resulting wealth of data gave impetus to the evolution of the new field of epidemiological demographics, founded by John Graunt and Sir William Petty. Publishing in the plague years also established a model for informing the general populace that is not without parallel in today's "information society." Images PMID:9431429

  12. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  13. London after Tomlinson. Care in the capital: what needs to be done.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, D.

    1992-01-01

    One of the aims of the Tomlinson report is to shift more care from the secondary to the primary sector in London. But the primary sector is already underresourced and overloaded. The capital has a heterogeneous population which often makes inappropriate demands on general practitioners. Many premises are inadequate and there are insufficient support staff. David Metcalfe emphasises that London is special and that the shift will not become a reality unless these problems are tackled. He suggests the establishment of different models of practice centres which could treat some of the patients who now go to accident and emergency departments. Some would be the night emergency service base, some would have primary care beds, and each would have a different mix of specialist support. Images p1143-a p1144-a PMID:1463953

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  15. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research.

  16. Singularity of the London Penetration Depth at Quantum Critical Points in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-01

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 [K. Hashimoto , Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1219821].

  17. Greek Manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London: A Descriptive Catalogue

    PubMed Central

    Bouras-Vallianatos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new, detailed catalogue of the Greek manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London. It consists of an introduction to the history of the collection and its scholarly importance, followed by separate entries for each manuscript. Each entry identifies the text(s) found in the respective manuscript – including reference to existing printed edition(s) of such texts – and gives a physical description of the codex, details on its provenance and bibliographical references. PMID:25766544

  18. [AIDS--the most important events in 1988. The London Declaration. Resolution on avoiding discrimination].

    PubMed

    Stapiński, A

    1989-01-01

    Two documents are discussed whose acceptance the author considers as the most important events in 1988 in the control of AIDS, that is the London Declaration and the Resolution of the 41st World Health Assembly concerning avoiding of discrimination of subjects infected with HIV and AIDS patients. Both these documents are of essential epoch-making importance for facilitation of the trend of the further prophylactic actions conducted for halting the AIDS epidemic in the whole world.

  19. A study of the atmosphere in London underground trains before and after the ban on smoking.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the ambient atmosphere in London Underground train compartments were made before and after a ban on smoking. Levels of nicotine and carbon monoxide and estimates of airborne particulates are given. This paper describes the analytical techniques used in measuring constituents of tobacco smoke in the ambient air of public environments. Levels observed were all found to be far lower than recommended OSHA limits for safe exposure. PMID:3810674

  20. Wastewater filtration and re-use: an alternative water source for London.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan D; Blunt, Martin J

    2012-10-15

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. Here, we propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in pure water. The problem is approached from four different scales. First, we define two localities in London where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions which combine a thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity, both essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. We show that rivers impose a regular groundwater flow regime, whereas pre-existing abstraction wells will lead to less predictable results. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the Kent coast similar to that beneath London, we quantify transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around disconnected fracture tips. Finally we demonstrate the efficacy of chalk in contaminant removal by injecting an analogue 'effluent' through a chalk core. ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution shows the contaminants (viz. a suite of heavy metals) are arrested or removed over relatively small time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of

  1. Professional Support, London: the professional development unit supporting practitioner well-being, refreshment, remediation and revalidation.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Julia; Morris, Penny; Halpern, Helen

    2013-01-01

    London' s Professional Support Unit (PSU) was launched in April 2012 at a time when changes and financial pressures across the health service were placing considerable demand on the medical and dental workforce. At the same time the infrastructure to support medical revalidation was established. The PSU provides developmental support to clinicians across London in all career grades and specialities, to sustain and restore them to contribute effectively to health service delivery across the capital. The costs of medical training are high. Maintaining doctors at work has to be cost effective. Clinicians in multicultural London require diverse resources, as increasing numbers have trained abroad. The PSU offers a holistic, tailor-made approach to professional and personal development with a range of resources and approaches. It provides proven high quality educational interventions, creating a linked and integrated service, providing clinicians with new opportunities. Access is by self-referral with resources targeted at those going through transitions in their professional lives, as well as those who have specific developmental needs. A collaborative approach across the PSU and its education and governance communities ensured the provision of personal support to over 1300 clinicians in its first year, together with interdisciplinary group learning opportunities. Online materials were created to assist individuals, workplace groups and a broad network of support and expertise. To maximise the effectiveness of the service, learning events were also held for those working within the PSU. In commending the PSU and its positive impact, the General Medical Council has recommended the model be shared nationally. At the same time the London's three Local Education Training Boards have recommended that the PSU expand to encompass a more diverse range of professional groups. Our challenge is how to extend such flexible, responsive and values-based support across the workforce

  2. The Judo World Ranking List and the Performances in the 2012 London Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the International Judo Federation (IJF) created a World Ranking List (WRL) to classify athletes according to their performance in international-level competitions and to qualify athletes for the Olympic Games. Objectives: Considering that this ranking system provides useful information concerning athletes’ performance in competitions during a 2-year period and during Olympic Games, the objective of this paper was to verify how long- and short-term performances in WRL competitions predict the performance in the 2012 London Olympic Games. Patients and Methods: Data from 233 male and 154 female athletes who took part in the London Olympic Games were analyzed considering: measures of long- and short-term performance, as well as measures of athlete approach to the Olympic Games and the points obtained in the 2012 London Olympic Games. Athletes were divided into male and female groups. Stepwise linear regression was conducted to predict points acquired in the Olympic Games. Significance level was set at 5% for all analyses. Results: The equation found for females was: 46.055 + 0.142 (points valid in the two years period) - 14.422 (number of competitions in 2012) (adjusted R2 = 0.240, standard error = 130 points, P < 0.05). For males, the equation found was: -38.079 + 0.102 (points valid in the two years period) + 1.088 (percentage of matches won in 2012) (adjusted R2 = 0.257, standard error = 109 points, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Thus, only 24% to 26% of female and male judo performance in the 2012 London Olympics could be predicted, respectively, by variables derived from the IJF WRL. PMID:26448851

  3. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Ava; Ananthavarathan, Piriyankan; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  4. Multidisciplinary group performance—measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Matthew; Greaves, Felix; Gunn, Laura; Patterson, Susan; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Pappas, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multidisciplinary Group meetings (MDGs) are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision-making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups. We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods We defined ‘integrating’ as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken. Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures—the Valence, the Focus, and the Level. Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score. Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating. The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values. PMID:23687473

  5. Honor, brotherhood, and the corporate ethos of London's Barber-Surgeons' Company, 1570-1640.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2009-07-01

    As the largest and most civically active body of medical practitioners in the late Tudor and early Stuart period, surgeons played a vital role in London's urban landscape, but remained precariously vulnerable to abasement due to the regular contact with death and disease necessitated by their work. Based on an analysis of guild records, printed surgical manuals, and conduct literature, this study explores the emergent corporate ethos of London's Barber-Surgeons' Company and addresses the identity formation of surgeons in the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries. By implementing codes of conduct and uniform standards of practice, punishing transgressions of propriety, and developing legislation to limit the activities of unlicensed and foreign practitioners, Company officers ardently sought social and occupational legitimacy within a milieu characterized by a tremendous emphasis on status and hierarchy. Rooted in methodology drawn from the social history of medicine and cultural anthropology, this study argues that in response to the persistent stigma associated with their work and London's increasingly prevalent culture of credit, surgeons, like other artisanal groups, sought to enhance their social legitimacy and occupational respectability by manipulating contemporary social rituals, reinforcing the honorable associations of their work, and preserving the veneer of brotherhood and camaraderie.

  6. "Everyone was looking at you smiling": East London residents' experiences of the 2012 Olympics and its legacy on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Lewis, D J; Greenhalgh, T; Smith, N R; Fahy, A E; Cummins, S

    2015-11-01

    Mega-sporting event regeneration, as a specific approach to urban renewal, uses impending host-city status as a catalyst for revitalisation and has the potential to improve health both through addressing deprivation and by promoting increased sport and physical activity among the host-city's population. This qualitative study explored how hosting of the London 2012 Games impacted upon the way East London residents perceived and experienced the social determinants of health in their local neighbourhood. We conducted narrative family interviews, go-along interviews and video focus group workshops with 66 Newham residents, aged 12-55 years, immediately after the Games. A narrative analytic approach examined accounts of health and wellbeing experiences in terms of neighbourhood change and the spectacle of the Games. Participants of this qualitative study generally welcomed the respite and the unexpected chance to live in a cleaner, safer and more unified environment. However, this positivity was underscored by an acute awareness that this was a very temporary situation and one that was intended to support the event rather than residents. PMID:26340644

  7. "Everyone was looking at you smiling": East London residents' experiences of the 2012 Olympics and its legacy on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Lewis, D J; Greenhalgh, T; Smith, N R; Fahy, A E; Cummins, S

    2015-11-01

    Mega-sporting event regeneration, as a specific approach to urban renewal, uses impending host-city status as a catalyst for revitalisation and has the potential to improve health both through addressing deprivation and by promoting increased sport and physical activity among the host-city's population. This qualitative study explored how hosting of the London 2012 Games impacted upon the way East London residents perceived and experienced the social determinants of health in their local neighbourhood. We conducted narrative family interviews, go-along interviews and video focus group workshops with 66 Newham residents, aged 12-55 years, immediately after the Games. A narrative analytic approach examined accounts of health and wellbeing experiences in terms of neighbourhood change and the spectacle of the Games. Participants of this qualitative study generally welcomed the respite and the unexpected chance to live in a cleaner, safer and more unified environment. However, this positivity was underscored by an acute awareness that this was a very temporary situation and one that was intended to support the event rather than residents.

  8. Methane Emissions in the London Region: Deciphering Regional Sources with Mobile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzeri, G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoisellé, M.; Bjorkegren, A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    Methane stable isotope analysis, coupled with mole fraction measurement, has been used to link isotopic signature to methane emissions from the leading methane sources in the London region, such as landfills and gas leaks. A mobile Picarro G2301 CRDS analyser was installed in a vehicle, together with an anemometer and a Hemisphere GPS receiver, to measure atmospheric methane mole fractions and their relative location. When methane plumes were located and intercepted, air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, for δ13C-CH4 isotopic analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continous Flow-Gas Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectroscopy). This method provides high precision isotopic values, determining δ13C-CH4 to ±0.05 per mil. The bulk signature of the methane plume into the atmosphere from the whole source area was obtained by Keeling plot analysis, and a δ13C-CH4 signature, with the relative uncertainty, allocated to each methane source investigated. The averaged δ13C-CH4 signature for landfill sites around the London region is - 58 ± 3 ‰, whereas the δ13C-CH4 signature for gas leaks is fairly constant at -36 ± 2 ‰, a value characteristic of North Sea supply. The Picarro G2301 analyser was installed also on the roof of King's College London, located in the centre of the city, and connected to an air inlet located 7 meters above roof height. An auto-sampler was connected to the same air inlet and launched remotely when a high nocturnal build up was expected, allowing up to twenty air bags to be collected for methane isotopic analysis over a 24 hour period. The main source contributing to overnight methane build up in central London is fugitive gas, in agreement with inventories. From the isotopic characterisation of urban methane sources and the source mix in London, the contribution to the urban methane budget and the local distribution of the methane sources given in inventories can be validated.

  9. The Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of urban regeneration on young people and their families

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil R; Clark, Charlotte; Fahy, Amanda E; Tharmaratnam, Vanathi; Lewis, Daniel J; Thompson, Claire; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek G; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Eldridge, Sandra; Petticrew, Mark; Greenhalgh, Tricia; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews suggest that there is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale urban regeneration programmes in improving health and well-being and alleviating health inequalities. The development of the Olympic Park in Stratford for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games provides the opportunity to take advantage of a natural experiment to examine the impact of large-scale urban regeneration on the health and well-being of young people and their families. Design and methods A prospective school-based survey of adolescents (11–12 years) with parent data collected through face-to-face interviews at home. Adolescents will be recruited from six randomly selected schools in an area receiving large-scale urban regeneration (London Borough of Newham) and compared with adolescents in 18 schools in three comparison areas with no equivalent regeneration (London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham). Baseline data will be completed prior to the start of the London Olympics (July 2012) with follow-up at 6 and 18 months postintervention. Primary outcomes are: pre–post change in adolescent and parent mental health and well-being, physical activity and parental employment status. Secondary outcomes include: pre–post change in social cohesion, smoking, alcohol use, diet and body mass index. The study will account for individual and environmental contextual effects in evaluating changes to identified outcomes. A nested longitudinal qualitative study will explore families’ experiences of regeneration in order to unpack the process by which regeneration impacts on health and well-being. Ethics and dissemination The study has approval from Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee (QMREC2011/40), the Association of Directors of Children's Services (RGE110927) and the London Boroughs Research Governance Framework (CERGF113). Fieldworkers have had advanced Criminal Records Bureau clearance. Findings

  10. The power of two: reflections on the MBRRACE-UK maternal and perinatal deaths reports and the London maternity strategic clinical network.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Victoria

    2015-09-01

    The UK maternal mortality rate is 10 per 100,000-maternities and is falling. The decrease is due to fewer deaths from direct causes; there has been no significant change in the indirect rate over the last 10 years. The UK mortality rate for babies is six stillbirths and neonatal deaths per 100,000 births. Local rates vary from 5.4-7.1. The variation is not due to normal variation or demographic factors. The London Maternity Strategic Clinical Network uses a multi-disciplinary team approach to improve maternity user experience. The Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group (NNE CVDSG) meet to share data, observe clinical practice and make changes. Maternity units may wish to consider adapting the NNE CVDSG approach to improve their quality of maternity care.

  11. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Dale, Caroline; Shah, Sonia; White, Jon; Giambartolomei, Claudia; McLachlan, Stela; Zabaneh, Delilah; Cavadino, Alana; Finan, Chris; Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom; Holmes, Michael V; Warren, Helen; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Sofat, Reecha; Caulfield, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Langenberg, Claudia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W J; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Dudbridge, Frank; Whittaker, John C; Casas, Juan P; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2013-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.

  12. A qualitative study into the development of a physical activity legacy from the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Carter, Russell Vincent; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-09-01

    Olympic Games have sometimes been considered as public health interventions capable of improving population health by encouraging increased physical activity levels. However, the evidence base does not appear to support this and is of poor quality, focussing on population level outcomes, usually related only to participation in organised sports. A new approach to research into the effects of such events is required focussing on the processes and mechanisms by which population physical activity levels might be increased enabling more effective use of such events in the future. Two separate processes, the 'demonstration effect' and 'festival effect,' have been proposed in Government guidance and are explored using qualitative methods in eight inactive people and four physical activity promotion specialists in Brighton & Hove. The findings appear to support the idea that watching elite athletes compete is unlikely to inspire participation among inactive people and may even discourage it by reducing self-efficacy as a result of the perceived competence gap. Despite this, positive attitudes towards the London Olympics were observed among inactive members of the public and a desire to become actively involved in the event. Examples of intention to continue participating in community events and physical activities as a result of positive experiences of Olympic related events were also observed. PMID:24052334

  13. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  14. Seasonal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a roof-top site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1 and mixing ratios were 7.27 ppb for methanol (m / z 33) and <1 ppb for the remaining compounds. Strong relationships were observed between most VOC fluxes and concentrations with traffic density, but also with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature for the oxygenated compounds and isoprene. An estimated 50-90 % of aromatic fluxes were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. PAR and temperature-dependent processes accounted for the majority of isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September, when fluxes and concentrations were largest. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes using the G95 algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September, due to urban vegetation. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from the London and National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localized and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  15. Seasonal and diurnal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds in central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a rooftop site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1. Median mixing ratios were 7.3 ppb for methanol and < 1 ppb for the other compounds. Strong relationships were observed between the fluxes and concentrations of some VOCs with traffic density and between the fluxes and concentrations of isoprene and oxygenated compounds with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature. An estimated 50-90 % of the fluxes of aromatic VOCs were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting that boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. Isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September showed high correlations with PAR and temperature, when fluxes and concentrations were largest suggesting that biogenic sources contributed to their fluxes. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes from urban vegetation using the Guenther et al. (1995) algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from both the London and the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventories agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localised and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  16. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P. S.; Herndon, S. C.; Brooks, B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of PM1 in the greater London area during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012 by applying two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). While the concentration of organic aerosol (OA) is comparable between the rural and urban sites, the OA sources are distinctly different. Due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area, the concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site. In contrast, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. This is likely caused by a steep concentration gradient of OOA when air masses are advected from polluted mainland Europe. Taking advantage of low biogenic emissions in winter, the sources of OOA, which are highly uncertain, are investigated. Combing Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis and radiocarbon analysis, the majority of OOA is estimated to arise from aged biomass burning. We deploy a suite of instruments to investigate the organic volatility at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250°C in a thermal-denuder (TD), the mass fraction remaining of organics is 16%, which indicates the presence of non-volatile organics. By comparing the OA associated with refractory black carbon (measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) and total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS), we proposed that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon in the atmosphere. Finally, we will discuss the relationship between the volatility and the degree of oxidation of organics.

  17. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  18. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  19. Chirality-dependent balance between hydrogen bonding and London dispersion in isolated (±)-1-indanol clusters.

    PubMed

    Altnöder, Jonas; Bouchet, Aude; Lee, Juhyon J; Otto, Katharina E; Suhm, Martin A; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2013-07-01

    The aggregation behavior of racemic and enantiopure 1-indanol has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy, resonant ion dip IR spectroscopy, and spontaneous Raman scattering in supersonic jets. This triple experimental approach, augmented by homology to related molecular fragments and dispersion-corrected DFT predictions, allows disentangling the complex spectroscopic signature in the OH stretch range. Evidence for chirality-sensitive aggregation via isolated OH···π bonds in competition with cooperative ···OH···OH···π patterns is collected. An accurate description of London dispersion forces provides the key to its explanation.

  20. Environmental factors affecting antipyrine metabolism in London factory and office workers.

    PubMed

    Fraser, H S; Mucklow, J C; Bulpitt, C J; Kahn, C; Mould, G; Dollery, C T

    1979-03-01

    1 Measurements of antipyrine clearance in saliva have been made in 128 London factory and office workers. 2 Mean antipyrine clearance in 56 Asian immigrants was 40% slower than in 72 White subjects. 3 Although dietary differences existed between the two groups, analysis of their effect independently of race was impossible since all but one of the vegetarians were Asian and the non-vegetarians were nearly all White. 4 In the White subjects, use of the oral contraceptive reduced clearance by 38% in women, while cigarette smoking increase clearance by 38% in men.

  1. Engaging with the Public on Volcanic Risk through Hands-on Interaction with the London Volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Barclay, J.; Mather, T. A.; Hicks, A.; Ratner, J.; Leonard, H.; Woods, C.

    2015-12-01

    London Volcano is a major public engagement and outreach effort that emerged from a large-scale interdisciplinary research project on Strengthening Resilience in Volcanic Areas (STREVA). The activity was created for a 5-day public exhibition in London, in 2014, and brought together 3 elements to illustrate the timeline of a volcanic crisis: a 5m x 3m scale model of Soufrière St Vincent, an interactive 'monitoring station' to explore technology used in monitoring and an engaging 'bin bang' sequence to simulate a volcanic explosion. Having a large hands-on volcano as a centrepiece to the exhibit enabled interaction with primary-age school children through the use of creativity and imagination. They looked at seismic traces of 'bin bang' explosions; measured dispersal of projectile ducks; and decided where to place a model house on the island, on which the model volcano sat. Over the 5-days we evolved the activity of the volcano to re-create the 1902 eruption. During the first 3 days, 94 houses were placed around the volcano, but after the cataclysmic eruption mid-week, 12 of these houses were destroyed by simulated pyroclastic flows and lahars down the flanks of the volcano model. Light and sound were key parts of the London Volcano simulation. A sound track was created to mimic the sounds reported by eyewitnesses. Between eruptions, the volcano would intermittently rumble, adding excitement and unpredictability to the eruptions. Explosions were simulated with compressed-CO2 jets, and a G-flame; but these events were rare. Creative arts are an effective mechanism for transfer of knowledge from communities living with volcanic activity, so artwork from school children living near Tungurahua, Ecuador and poems from school children on Montserrat were on display. The London Volcano was a unique opportunity to engage with over 2,000 people on volcanic risk and what it means to live near a volcano. Encouraging school children to be creative and to use their imagination

  2. Study of 100 patients injured by London underground trains 1981-6.

    PubMed

    Cocks, R A

    1987-12-12

    One hundred patients who were injured by London underground trains during 1981-6 were studied; 43 of them died. Deliberate self harm was probable in roughly three quarters. Alcohol intoxication was thought to play an important part in a further tenth of cases. Thirteen were psychiatric inpatients at the time of the incident, and a further two had recently been discharged. Early warning of a potential suicide attempt was given during the 24 hours preceding the incident in 15 of the cases. Some of the deaths in the psychiatric patients may have been preventable. PMID:3122889

  3. Correlations and clustering in the trading of members of the London Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zovko, Ilija I.; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes correlations in patterns of trading of different members of the London Stock Exchange. The collection of strategies associated with a member institution is defined by the sequence of signs of net volume traded by that institution in hour intervals. Using several methods we show that there are significant and persistent correlations between institutions. In addition, the correlations are structured into correlated and anti-correlated groups. Clustering techniques using the correlations as a distance metric reveal a meaningful clustering structure with two groups of institutions trading in opposite directions.

  4. Against over-interpretation: the understanding of pain amongst Turkish and Kurdish speakers in London.

    PubMed

    Yazar, J; Littlewood, R

    2001-01-01

    The understanding of experienced pain has recently moved from the biological to the metaphorical. Detailed interviews with twelve Turkish and Kurdish patients in London who had been unsuccessfully investigated medically for chronic pain showed that their understanding reflected local, typically humoural, conceptions of self and body. However there was little to suggest interpretation of the illness as a more specific and grounded idiom for social or political experience. It is suggested that the current vogue for 'interpretation' in medical anthropology and social psychiatry may occasionally be, as Umberto Eco puts it, 'over-interpretation'.

  5. Coronary risk factors in people from the Indian subcontinent living in west London and their siblings in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, D; Anand, I S; Durrington, P N; Patel, D J; Wander, G S; Mackness, M I; Creed, F; Tomenson, B; Chandrashekhar, Y; Winterbotham, M

    1995-02-18

    Several reports have shown that migrants from southeast Asia tend to have an increased risk of coronary heart disease when settled in their new country. We compared coronary risk factors in a randomly selected group of 247 migrants from the Indian subcontinent of Punjabi origin living in West London and 117 of their siblings living in the Punjab in India. The West London cohort had a greater body mass index (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0087), serum cholesterol (p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (p < 0.001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05) and higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05) than their siblings in the Punjab. Insulin sensitivity, derived from the homoeostatic assessment mathematical model, was lower in men in West London than in their counterparts in India (p < 0.05). Indians in West London had lower beta cell function than those in the Punjab (p < 0.001). Serum lipoprotein (a) concentrations were similar in both the West London and Punjab population, but were significantly higher (p = 0.01) than those of white European populations in the UK. Increases in serum cholesterol after migration from India lead to increased coronary risk conferred by high serum lipoprotein (a) concentrations and greater insulin resistance. Such between-country comparisons are an important means of establishing the importance of coronary risk factors.

  6. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event. PMID:24903640

  7. The development of a GIS methodology to assess the potential for water resource contamination due to new development in the 2012 Olympic Park site, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, A. P.; Banks, V. J.; Royse, K. R.; Quigley, S. P.

    2013-02-01

    The Initial Screening Tool (IST) has been developed to enable Planners to assess the potential risk to ground and surface water due to remobilisation of contaminants by new developments. The IST is a custom built GIS application that improves upon previous screening tools developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) through the inclusion of 3-D geological data and an enhanced scoring methodology. The key new feature of the IST is the ability to track individual pollutant linkages, from a source of contamination, along multiple possible Pathways to potentially susceptible Receptors. A rule based approach allows the methodology to be easily updated, and as a result the IST has a role in scenario planning. The application provides output in the form of an automatically generated report, in which details of the potential pollutant linkages identified are presented. The initial research area selected was the Olympic Park site, London.

  8. The role of London forces in defining noncentrosymmetric order of high dipole moment-high hyperpolarizability chromophores in electrically poled polymeric thin films.

    PubMed

    Dalton, L R; Harper, A W; Robinson, B H

    1997-05-13

    Graphs of second harmonic generation coefficients and electro-optic coefficients (measured by ellipsometry, attenuated total reflection, and two-slit interference modulation) as a function of chromophore number density (chromophore loading) are experimentally observed to exhibit maxima for polymers containing chromophores characterized by large dipole moments and polarizabilities. Modified London theory is used to demonstrated that this behavior can be attributed to the competition of chromophore-applied electric field and chromophore-chromophore electrostatic interactions. The comparison of theoretical and experimental data explains why the promise of exceptional macroscopic second-order optical nonlinearity predicted for organic materials has not been realized and suggests routes for circumventing current limitations to large optical nonlinearity. The results also suggest extensions of measurement and theoretical methods to achieve an improved understanding of intermolecular interactions in condensed phase materials including materials prepared by sequential synthesis and block copolymer methods. PMID:11038541

  9. The Experience of Antiretroviral Treatment for Black West African Women who are HIV Positive and Living in London: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A; Poliquin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Jane; Horne, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers a powerful intervention in HIV but effectiveness can be compromised by inadequate adherence. This paper is a detailed examination of the experience of medication in a purposively selected group of people living with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV positive, West African women of black heritage living in London, UK. This group was of interest since it is the second largest group affected by HIV in the UK. Interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis, an idiographic, experiential, qualitative approach. The paper details the women's negative experience of treatment. ART can be considered difficult and unrelenting and may be disconnected from the women's sense of health or illness. Participants' social context often exacerbated the difficulties. Some reported an improvement in their feelings about the medication over time. These findings point to some intrinsic and social motivators which could act as spurs to adherence.

  10. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael; Paice, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    In North West London, health and social care leaders decided to design a system of integrated care with the aim of improving the quality of care and supporting people to maintain independence and participation in their community. Patients and carers, known as 'lay partners,' were to be equal partners in co-production of the system. Lay partners were recruited by sending a role profile to health, social care and voluntary organisations and requesting nominations. They formed a Lay Partners Advisory Group from which pairs were allocated to system design workstreams, such as which population to focus on, financial flow, information technology and governance. A larger and more diverse Lay Partners Forum provided feedback on the emerging plans. A key outcome of this approach was the development of an integration toolkit co-designed with lay partners. Lay partners provided challenge, encouraged innovation, improved communication, and held the actions of other partners to account to ensure the vision and aims of the emerging integrated care system were met. Key lessons from the North West London experience for effective co-production include: recruiting patients and carers with experience of strategic work; commitment to the vision; willingness to challenge and to listen; strong connections within the community being served; and enough time to do the work. Including lay partners in co-design from the start, and at every level, was important. Agreeing the principles of working together, providing support and continuously recruiting lay representatives to represent their communities are keys to effective co-production. PMID:27616958

  11. The Dependence on Smokeless Tobacco in the South Asian Communities in East London

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Amjad Hussain; Zwiad, Abdulsalam Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Gazal, Giath; Albaba, Feras; KalajI, Nader; Petro, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The purpose of the study was to understand the dependency on smokeless tobacco. Methods: The major aspect of the interview was to study the type of chewing tobacco used, frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco, change in attitude and behavior after the use of chewing tobacco. This study was done in 2005 in London. Of the 110 respondents interviewed 88 were used for the data analysis. Study Design: An exploratory study was conducted in East London, United Kingdom. The selected sample was interviewed through a questionnaire, based on the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Dependence Scale. Results: Cross tabulations report that in a sample of 88 South Asian UK resident men 46.6% used leaf (paan), 43.2% used processed form of chewing tobacco and 10.2% used gutka. Older age (67%) respondents were more likely than the younger age (30%) respondents to chew tobacco. The frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco is reported high (67.2%) in the older age group than the younger age group (50%). Conclusion: This current study used an amended form of the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Scale questionnaire to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. The study could be developed in the selection of the sample, which would include both males and females to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. PMID:26234985

  12. Comment on "A petrologic assessment of internal zonation in granitic pegmatites" by David London (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    London (2014) provides an interesting article which presents a study of pegmatite zonation which is of considerable interest to students of pegmatites. However, although there is much to recommend it we take exception to his attempts to dismiss an extensive body of work on the use of melt inclusions to address the critical question of actual melt compositions during the evolution of pegmatites. Volatiles are by definition fugitive, since they are readily lost by degassing, and yet they are clearly critical to the growth of the large crystals which are a defining characteristic of pegmatites (e.g. Bartoli et al., 2014; Bowen, 1956; London, 2008; Lowenstern, 2003). Any research technique which can address the pre-degassing melt compositions should therefore be considered on its merits. Although melt inclusion studies are of relatively recent vintage the problems and possible questions of interpretation have been addressed in considerable detail for at least the last two decades (e.g. Lowenstern, 2003, and references therein) and recently in Audétat and Lowenstern (2014). Likewise, any discussion needs to cover "simple" quartz-feldspar-muscovite pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009b), as well as the much less common if more interesting rare-element rich pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009a).

  13. Numerical Simulations of Daytime Temperature and Humidity Crossover Effects in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, N.; Toumi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the London urban area on vertical profiles of temperature and humidity was analyzed using a mesoscale model. It was found that the near-surface warming and drying effects usually associated with the urban heat island in London in the summer daytime are reversed at heights near the top of the boundary layer. This effect has previously been observed for nighttime temperatures above cities and termed a `crossover'. The mechanism proposed here to explain this new phenomenon, the daytime crossover, is similar to the previously suggested cause of the nighttime effect, that is, increased entrainment of warm dry air into the top of a cooler, more humid, boundary layer. The median summer daytime temperature crossover was found to be 1.1 K. The cooling was shown to be of a similar magnitude to the warming near the surface and extends up to 100 km downwind with a maximum magnitude at about 1500 UTC in summer. The moistening occurred over a similar spatial scale and peak values were typically two times greater than the near-surface drying effect.

  14. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  15. The decline of adult smallpox in eighteenth-century London1

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Romola; Schwarz, Leonard; Boulton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Smallpox was probably the single most lethal disease in eighteenth-century Britain, but was a minor cause of death by the mid-nineteenth century. Although vaccination was crucial to the decline of smallpox, especially in urban areas, from the beginning of the nineteenth century, it remains disputed the extent to which smallpox mortality declined before vaccination. Analysis of age-specific changes in smallpox burials within the large west London parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a precipitous reduction in adult smallpox risk from the 1770s, and this pattern was duplicated in the east London parish of St Dunstan's. Most adult smallpox victims were rural migrants, and such a drop in their susceptibility is consistent with a sudden increase in exposure to smallpox in rural areas. We investigated whether this was due to the spread of inoculation, or an increase in smallpox transmission, using changes in the age patterns of child smallpox burials. Smallpox mortality rose among infants, and smallpox burials became concentrated at the youngest ages, suggesting a sudden increase in infectiousness of the smallpox virus. Such a change intensified the process of smallpox endemicization in the English population, but also made cities substantially safer for young adult migrants. PMID:22171404

  16. Eight International London Cough Symposium 2014: Cough hypersensitivity syndrome as the basis for chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kian Fan; Canning, Brendan; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-12-01

    At the Eighth International London Cough Conference held in London in July 2014, the focus was on the relatively novel concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) as forming the basis of chronic cough. This concept has been formulated following understanding of the neuronal pathways for cough and a realisation that not all chronic cough is usually associated with a cause. The CHS is defined by troublesome coughing triggered by low level of thermal, mechanical or chemical exposure. It also encompasses other symptoms or sensations such as laryngeal hypersensitivity, nasal hypersensitivity and possibly also symptoms related to gastrooesopahgeal reflux. The pathophysiologic basis of the CHS is now being increasingly linked to an enhancement of the afferent pathways of the cough reflex both at the peripheral and central levels. Mechanisms involved include the interactions of inflammatory mechanisms with cough sensors in the upper airways and with neuronal pathways of cough, associated with a central component. Tools for assessing CHS in the clinic need to be developed. New drugs may be developed to control CHS. A roadmap is suggested from the inception of the CHS concept towards the development of newer antitussives at the Symposium.

  17. Elizabethan Instrument Makers - The Origins of the London Trade in Precision Instrument Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'E Turner, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    Europe in the sixteenth century experienced a period of unprecedented vitality and innovation in the spheres of science and commerce. The Americas had been discovered and the colonizing nations had an urgent need for mathematical instruments for navigation and surveying. In 1540 the Elizabethan age saw the establishment of the precision instrument-making trade in London, a trade that would become world-famous in the succeeding two centuries. The mathematical instruments needed by astronomers, navigators, and surveyors owe much of their development to the work of the Flemish mathematician and astronomer, Gemma Frisius, and to the map and globe maker, Gerard Mercator, both of whom studied at Louvain. However it was Thomas Gemini who is credited with starting the London trade in 1540: his reputation came from making the plates for his own printing of the Anatomy of Vesalius, and the astrolabs he made and presented to Edward VI and Elizabeth I, which survive today. He was followed by Humphrey Cole, and other makers whose instruments have survived, including Ryther, Knyvyn, and Whitwell. This book first describes the context in which the Elizabethan trade began, and the influence of the instruments taken to Florence by Sir Robert Dudley in 1606. The second part catalogues in detail every surviving instrument from this period, signed and unsigned, that has been traced. The catalogue is accompanied by fine photographs which illustrate both the instruments and the techniques used to identify unsigned instruments.

  18. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community. PMID:26856068

  19. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. PMID:26674127

  20. Modernization Of Saint Pancras And King's Cross Railway Stations In London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwik, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The article concerns the renovation and modernization of two London railway stations - St. Pancras and King`s Cross. Both stations were built in the middle of the nineteenth century and are an example of industrial heritage. A characteristic feature that distinguishes the two buildings is the metal (iron) structure with a glass canopy. The St. Pancras railway station was characterized by a hall with the largest span in the world, and today is one of the leading examples of using iron in the development of architecture and building structures. Both stations have experienced periods of flourishing and stagnation throughout their history. There were even plans to demolish the old stations and build new facilities and in their place. Now, after the successful modernization of St. Pancras and King's Cross railway stations, they serve as good examples of the adaptation of transport utilities to modern needs, while respecting their historic structure. The problems that the designers and contractors were faced with during the renovation and modernization of the two London stations also deserve attention.

  1. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-08-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as rBC in the atmosphere

  2. Volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in London (ClearfLo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Amy; Langford, Ben; Nemitz, Eiko; MacKenzie, Rob; Hewitt, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion or evaporative emissions can directly and indirectly affect human health. Some VOCs, such as benzene and 1,3- butadiene are carcinogens. These and other VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone (O3) and aerosol particles, which have effects on human health and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Although in the UK VOC emissions are subject to control under European Commission Directive 2008/50/EC and emission reducing technologies have been implemented, urban air pollution remains a concern. Urban air quality is likely to remain a priority since currently >50% of the global population live in urban areas with trends in urbanization and population migration predicted to increase. The ClearfLo project is a large multi-institutional consortium funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and provides integrated measurements of meteorology, gas phase and particulate composition of the atmosphere over London. Both long term and IOP measurements were made at street and elevated locations at a range of sites across London and its surroundings during 2011 and 2012. Mixing ratios of a selection of nine VOCs were measured using a high sensitivity proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) at a ground level urban background (North Kensington) and kerbside (Marylebone Road) site during the winter IOP. VOC fluxes were measured by virtually disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) at an elevated urban site (King's College Strand) in Aug-Dec 2012. Our results for the first IOP showed that most of the selected compound concentrations depended on traffic emissions, although there was a marked difference between the urban background and kerbside sites. We identified some temperature effects on VOC concentrations. We also present the first analyses of VOC flux measurements over London. Preliminary analyses indicate most compounds associated with vehicle emissions closely

  3. "That Great Educational Experiment": The City of London Vacation Course in Education 1922-1938--A Forgotten Story in the History of Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Each summer between 1922 and 1938, up to 500 elementary school teachers from across Britain, and some from overseas, joined together in London for a two-week residential vacation course. Organised by Evans' Brothers Publishers and patronised by leading educationists, politicians and policy-makers, the City of London Vacation Course came to be…

  4. ‘Islamic fatalism’: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London – an interview study 2

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent ‘fatalism’, which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London. PMID:24670160

  5. Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

  6. ReaxFF-lg: correction of the ReaxFF reactive force field for London dispersion, with applications to the equations of state for energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianchi; Liu, Yi; Zybin, Sergey V; Sun, Huai; Goddard, William A

    2011-10-13

    The practical levels of density functional theory (DFT) for solids (LDA, PBE, PW91, B3LYP) are well-known not to account adequately for the London dispersion (van der Waals attraction) so important in molecular solids, leading to equilibrium volumes for molecular crystals ~10-15% too high. The ReaxFF reactive force field is based on fitting such DFT calculations and suffers from the same problem. In the paper we extend ReaxFF by adding a London dispersion term with a form such that it has low gradients (lg) at valence distances leaving the already optimized valence interactions intact but behaves as 1/R(6) for large distances. We derive here these lg corrections to ReaxFF based on the experimental crystal structure data for graphite, polyethylene (PE), carbon dioxide, and nitrogen and for energetic materials: hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), and nitromethane (NM). After this dispersion correction the average error of predicted equilibrium volumes decreases from 18.5 to 4.2% for the above systems. We find that the calculated crystal structures and equation of state with ReaxFF-lg are in good agreement with experimental results. In particular, we examined the phase transition between α-RDX and γ-RDX, finding that ReaxFF-lg leads to excellent agreement for both the pressure and volume of this transition occurring at ~4.8 GPa and ~2.18 g/cm(3) density from ReaxFF-lg vs 3.9 GPa and ~2.21 g/cm(3) from experiment. We expect ReaxFF-lg to improve the descriptions of the phase diagrams for other energetic materials.

  7. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    PubMed Central

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  8. Spotlight on Athletes With a Disability: Malaysian Newspaper Coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Khoo, Selina; Razman, Rizal

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed newspaper coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games by 8 Malaysian newspapers. Articles and photographs from 4 English-language and 4 Malay-language newspapers were examined from August 28 (1 day before the Games) to September 10, 2012 (1 day after the Games closing). Tables, graphs, letters, fact boxes, and lists of events were excluded from analysis. A total of 132 articles and 131 photographs were analyzed. Content analysis of the newspaper articles revealed that most (62.8%) of the articles contained positive reference to the athletes with a disability. There were equal numbers (39.1%) of action and static shots of athletes. More articles and photographs of Malaysian (58%) than non-Malaysian (42%) athletes with a disability were identified. Only 14.9% of the articles and photographs were related to female athletes with a disability.

  9. Patients with protracted pain: A survey conducted at The London Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jennifer M; Stollar, Thelma D; Littlejohns, David W; Twycross, Robert G; Vere, Duncan W

    1977-01-01

    Physical pain has always been part of human experience, and throughout history it is recorded that doctors and wise men and women have sought to ease pain. The attitudes of those suffering pain, however, have varied from stoical acceptance to sullen endurance. Today, most people consciously seek to avoid pain or to have their pain eased, although they do not always expect what in fact appears to be possible. This study of 13 patients with protracted pain was carried out at The London Hospital by a professional group to see how patients regarded their own pain and the efforts of doctors and nurses to relieve it. The attitudes of the doctors and nurses were also studied, and the results, despite the limitations of the survey, suggest that: [List: see text] PMID:874980

  10. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use. PMID:27643788

  11. Nature Utilizes Unusual High London Dispersion Interactions for Compact Membranes Composed of Molecular Ladders.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-03-11

    London dispersion interactions play a key role in nature, in particular, in membranes that constitute natural barriers. Here we demonstrate that the spatial alignment of "molecular ladders" ([n]ladderanes), i.e., highly unusual and strained all-trans-fused cyclobutane moieties, leads to much larger attractive dispersion interactions as compared to alkyl chains of the same length. This provides a rationale for the occurrence of peculiar ladderane fatty acids in the dense cell walls of anammox bacteria. Despite the energetic penalty paid for the assembly of such strained polycycles, the advantage lies in significantly higher, dispersion-dominated interaction energies as compared to straight-chain hydrocarbon moieties commonly found in fatty acids. We discern the dispersion contributions to the total interaction energies using a variety of computational methods including modern dispersion-corrected density functional theory and high level ab initio approaches. Utilizing larger assemblies, we also show that the intermolecular interactions behave additively.

  12. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization-induced change in land use has considerable implications for climate, air quality, resources and ecosystems. Urban-induced warming is one of the most well-known impacts. This directly and indirectly can extend beyond the city. One way to reduce the size of this is to modify the surface atmosphere exchanges through changing the urban albedo. As increased rugosity caused by the morphology of a city results in lower albedo with constant material characteristics, the impacts of changing the albedo has impacts across a range of scales. Here a multi-scale assessment of the potential effects of the increase in albedo in London is presented. This includes modeling at the global and meso-scale informed by local and micro-scale measurements. In this study the first order calculations are conducted for the impact of changing the albedo (e.g. a 0.01 increase) on the radiative exchange. For example, when incoming solar radiation and cloud cover are considered, based on data retrieved from NASA (http://power.larc.nasa.gov/) for ~1600 km2 area of London, would produce a mean decrease in the instantaneous solar radiative forcing on the same surface of 0.40 W m-2. The nature of the surface is critical in terms of considering the impact of changes in albedo. For example, in the Central Activity Zone in London pavement and building can vary from 10 to 100% of the plan area. From observations the albedo is seen to change dramatically with changes in building materials. For example, glass surfaces which are being used increasingly in the central business district results in dramatic changes in albedo. Using the documented albedo variations determined across different scales the impacts are considered. For example, the effect of the increase in urban albedo is translated into the corresponding amount of avoided emission of carbon dioxide that produces the same effect on climate. At local scale, the effect that the increase in urban albedo can potentially have on local

  13. Observations on the vitamin D state of pregnant Asian women in London.

    PubMed

    Brooke, O G; Brown, I R; Cleeve, H J; Sood, A

    1981-01-01

    Vitamin D nutrition in pregnancy was investigated in 115 Asian women living in London, and in 50 of their newborn infants. Mean serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferal (25-OHD) concentration at the beginning of the last trimester was 20.2 nmol/l, and fell to 16.0 nmol/1 post partum. Thirty-six per cent of the women post partum and 32 per cent of the infants had undetectable 25-OHD concentrations (less than 3 nmol/l). Such low values are commonly associated with osteomalacia and rickets. The bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 20 per cent of the women post partum, and in 50 per cent of the infants, indicating the presence of sub-clinical bone disease. Five infants had symptomatic hypocalcaemia. Vitamin D deficiency was most likely to occur in Pakistanis, Hindu Indians and East African Asians, and in vegetarians. All British Asians should receive supplementary Vitamin D during pregnancy.

  14. From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, ranging from subway traffic to Internet communication. Because global path optimization that takes account of all path choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing suboptimal solutions. We use the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic, and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering all individual path choices simultaneously. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks, (ii) travel on the London Underground network based on Oyster card data, and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, that facilitate better understanding of the appropriate operational regimes and their limitations, which are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:23898198

  15. From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David; Wong, K Y Michael

    2013-08-20

    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, ranging from subway traffic to Internet communication. Because global path optimization that takes account of all path choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing suboptimal solutions. We use the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic, and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering all individual path choices simultaneously. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks, (ii) travel on the London Underground network based on Oyster card data, and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, that facilitate better understanding of the appropriate operational regimes and their limitations, which are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:23898198

  16. From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David; Wong, K Y Michael

    2013-08-20

    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, ranging from subway traffic to Internet communication. Because global path optimization that takes account of all path choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing suboptimal solutions. We use the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic, and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering all individual path choices simultaneously. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks, (ii) travel on the London Underground network based on Oyster card data, and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, that facilitate better understanding of the appropriate operational regimes and their limitations, which are difficult to obtain otherwise.

  17. Using complexity theory to analyse the organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan

    2013-09-01

    We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research.

  18. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use. PMID:27643788

  19. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  20. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. PMID:26476693

  1. London penetration depth of λ-(BETS)2 GaCl 4 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jason; Kim, H.; Cho, K.; Tantar, M. A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-03-01

    After many years of study, it is still unclear whether the superconductivity of organic charge transfer salts is conventional or not. In particular, symmetry of the superconducting gap is an important unresolved question. The gap anisotropy and nodal structure can be probed via precision measurements of London penetration depth, λ (T) , for which tunnel-diode resonator has been developed over past 20 years. Here we report λ (T) in λ -(BETS)2 GaCl 4 crystals (Tc ~ 5 ~K) measured down to 400 mK. We find that different samples exhibit different widths of superconducting transition, ΔTc . It is known for organic superconductors that cooling rate from room temperature is important for the properties probed at the low temperatures. We discuss observed variation of ΔTc with the cooling rate as well as sample size and aspect ratio. Results are compared with thermal conductivity measurements.

  2. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  3. London Dispersion Decisively Contributes to the Thermodynamic Stability of Bulky NHC-Coordinated Main Group Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-01-12

    We evaluated the dispersion stabilization of a series of seemingly reactive main group compounds coordinated to bulky N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. We computed the thermochemistry of hypothetical isodesmic exchange reactions of these ligands with their unsubstituted parent systems employing the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory with and without dispersion corrections. The energy difference between these two approaches gave dispersion corrections of 30 kcal mol(-1) and more. We therefore conclude that London dispersion contributes critically to the thermodynamic stabilities of these compounds. As such, these core-shell structures undergo reactions of the reactive core as long as the dispersion stabilization is conserved. PMID:26606127

  4. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  5. Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Multilevel, Multigroup, Multiscale Approach Exemplified by London in 2011.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group.

  6. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions. PMID:20363954

  7. Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Multilevel, Multigroup, Multiscale Approach Exemplified by London in 2011.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group. PMID:26487190

  8. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto

    2016-06-28

    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.

  9. Cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging at St. Joseph's Health Centre of London.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, L

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986 St. Joseph's Health Centre of London, Ont., completed 3 years of operating a magnetic resonance imaging unit. The first 2 years were devoted to research and development. From Apr. 1, 1985, to Mar. 31, 1986, the unit operated as the first clinical service unit in Canada. Over the 12 months 1671 patients (an average of 9 patients per 12-hour day) were examined. Studies of the brain (62%) and the spine (21%) accounted for most of the procedures. The operating costs for the year were $892,000; revenues totalled $449,000, for a deficit of $443,000. The average technical cost per patient was $534. Increasing the number of patients examined per year would lower the cost to $431. PMID:3815214

  10. Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J. M.; Herbert, J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial risk taking. Here, we report the findings of a study in which we sampled, under real working conditions, endogenous steroids from a group of male traders in the City of London. We found that a trader's morning testosterone level predicts his day's profitability. We also found that a trader's cortisol rises with both the variance of his trading results and the volatility of the market. Our results suggest that higher testosterone may contribute to economic return, whereas cortisol is increased by risk. Our results point to a further possibility: testosterone and cortisol are known to have cognitive and behavioral effects, so if the acutely elevated steroids we observed were to persist or increase as volatility rises, they may shift risk preferences and even affect a trader's ability to engage in rational choice. PMID:18413617

  11. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  12. Medicine, metals and empire: the survival of a chymical projector in early eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koji

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that Newtonian philosophers such as Johan T. Desaguliers defined their authority in contradistinction to the 'projector', a promoter of allegedly impractical and fraudulent schemes. Partly due to the lack of evidence, however, we know relatively little about these eighteenth-century projectors, especially those operating outside learned networks without claims to gentility, disinterest or theoretical sophistication. This paper begins to remedy this lacuna through the case of a 'chymical' projector, Moses Stringer (fl. 1693-1714). Instead of aspiring to respectability, this London chymist survived by vigorously promoting new projects, thereby accelerating, rather than attenuating, the course of action that rendered him dubious in the first place. The article follows his (often abortive) exploitation of medicine, metals and empire, and thereby illuminates the shady end of the enlightened world of public science.

  13. London University Search Instrument: a combinatorial robot for high-throughput methods in ceramic science.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Evans, Julian R G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the London University Search Instrument (LUSI) which was recently commissioned to create and test combinatorial libraries of ceramic compositions. The instrument uses commercially available powders, milled as necessary to create thick-film libraries by ink-jet printing. Multicomponent mixtures are prepared by well plate reformatting of ceramic inks. The library tiles are robotically loaded into a flatbed furnace and, when fired, transferred to a 2-axis high-resolution measurement table fitted with a hot plate where measurements of, for example, optical or electrical properties can be made. Data are transferred to a dedicated high-performance computer. The possibilities for remote interrogation and search steering are discussed.

  14. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  15. Understanding London's Water Supply Tradeoffs When Scheduling Interventions Under Deep Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply planning in many major world cities faces several challenges associated with but not limited to climate change, population growth and insufficient land availability for infrastructure development. Long-term plans to maintain supply-demand balance and ecosystem services require careful consideration of uncertainties associated with future conditions. The current approach for London's water supply planning utilizes least cost optimization of future intervention schedules with limited uncertainty consideration. Recently, the focus of the long-term plans has shifted from solely least cost performance to robustness and resilience of the system. Identifying robust scheduling of interventions requires optimizing over a statistically representative sample of stochastic inputs which may be computationally difficult to achieve. In this study we optimize schedules using an ensemble of plausible scenarios and assess how manipulating that ensemble influences the different Pareto-approximate intervention schedules. We investigate how a major stress event's location in time as well as the optimization problem formulation influence the Pareto-approximate schedules. A bootstrapping method that respects the non-stationary trend of climate change scenarios and ensures the even distribution of the major stress event in the scenario ensemble is proposed. Different bootstrapped hydrological scenario ensembles are assessed using many-objective scenario optimization of London's future water supply and demand intervention scheduling. However, such a "fixed" scheduling of interventions approach does not aim to embed flexibility or adapt effectively as the future unfolds. Alternatively, making decisions based on the observations of occurred conditions could help planners who prefer adaptive planning. We will show how rules to guide the implementation of interventions based on observations may result in more flexible strategies.

  16. Methodology for Airborne Quantification of NOx fluxes over Central London and Comparison to Emission Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. R.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Purvis, R.; Carslaw, D.; Misztal, P. K.; Metzger, S.; Beevers, S.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hewitt, C. N.; Shaw, M.; Karl, T.; Davison, B.

    2015-12-01

    The emission of pollutants is a major problem in today's cities. Emission inventories are a key tool for air quality management, with the United Kingdom's National and London Atmospheric Emission Inventories (NAEI & LAEI) being good examples. Assessing the validity of such inventoried is important. Here we report on the technical methodology of matching flux measurements of NOx over a city to inventory estimates. We used an eddy covariance technique to directly measure NOx fluxes from central London on an aircraft flown at low altitude. NOx mixing ratios were measured at 10 Hz time resolution using chemiluminescence (to measure NO) and highly specific photolytic conversion of NO2 to NO (to measure NO2). Wavelet transformation was used to calculate instantaneous fluxes along the flight track for each flight leg. The transformation allows for both frequency and time information to be extracted from a signal, where we quantify the covariance between the de-trended vertical wind and concentration to derive a flux. Comparison between the calculated fluxes and emission inventory data was achieved using a footprint model, which accounts for contributing source. Using both a backwards lagrangian model and cross-wind dispersion function, we find the footprint extent ranges from 5 to 11 Km in distance from the sample point. We then calculate a relative weighting matrix for each emission inventory within the calculated footprint. The inventories are split into their contributing source sectors with each scaled using up to date emission factors, giving a month; day and hourly scaled estimate which is then compared to the measurement.

  17. Sexual violence against adult women primary care attenders in east London.

    PubMed Central

    Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Cotter, Sarah; Feder, Gene S

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against women is common. The prevalence appears to be higher in north America than Europe. However, not all surveys have differentiated the experience of forced sex by a current or former partner. Few women are thought to report these experiences to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To measure the prevalence of rape, sexual assault, and forced sexual intercourse by a partner among women attending general practices, to test the association between these experiences of sexual violence and demographic factors, and to assess the acceptability to women of screening for sexual violence by GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1207 women aged over 15 years was carried out in 13 general practices in Hackney, east London. RESULTS: Eight per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2 to 9.6) of women have experienced rape, 9% (95% CI = 7.0 to 10.6) another type of sexual assault, and 16% (95% CI = 13.6 to 18.1) forced sex by a partner in adulthood: 24% (95% CI = 21.2 to 26.5) have experienced one or more of these types of sexual violence. Experiences of sexual violence demonstrated high levels of lifetime co-occurrence. Women forced to have sex by partners experienced the most severe forms of domestic violence. One in five women would object to routine questioning about being raped and/or sexually assaulted, and one in nine about being forced to have sex by a partner. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sexual violence are common in the lives of adult women in east London, and they represent a significant public health problem. Those women who have one experience appear to be at risk of being victims again. A substantial minority object to routine questions about sexual violence. PMID:14702905

  18. Types of Neotropical Mycetophilidae (Diptera) at the Natural History Museum collection, London.

    PubMed

    De Souza Amorim, Dalton; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    The primary types, secondary types, and some other identified specimens of 407 Neotropical species of Mycetophilidae at the Natural History Museum, London were examined. Notes were made on the condition of the primary types, their labels, and presence of other specimens in the type series. Additional comments are made about types, secondary types and some few other cases worth of note mistakenly determined to be at the NHM. Lectotypes are designated for syntypes of 17 species: Epicypta insipiens (Williston), Epicypta dolosa (Williston), Leia amabilis Williston, Leia concinna(Williston), Leia nitens (Williston), Megalopelma cellularis Edwards, Megalopelma fraudulenta (Williston), Megalopelma platyura Edwards, Mycetophila borgmeieri Edwards, Mycomya meridionalis Johannsen, Monoclona digitata Edwards, Mycomya peruviana Edwards, Neoempheria maculipennis Williston, Procycloneura paranensisEdwards, Stenophragma nigricauda Edwards, Tetragoneura simplex Edwards, Trizygia nitens Edwards. Three species–Leia biamputata Edwards, Leia fuscicornis Edwards, and Neallodia flavida Edwards–previously considered subjective junior synonyms in the literature were revalidated. Mycetophila rufoides nom. nov. is proposed for Mycetophila rufaLane (preocc. Macquart 1826). Mycetophila dolosa Williston is transferred to Epicypta, without being assigned to a particular subgenus. The type of Sceptonia paiaguensis Freeman is formally considered lost. Photographs taken of holotypes and lectotypes are included, helping taxonomic documentation and in some extent, species identification. After the nomenclatural acts in this paper, the Natural History Museum, London, now holds holotypes of 292 Neotropical species of the Mycetophilidae, 23 lectotypes, syntypes of 3 species that have syntypes in other collections, paratypes of 81 species that have holotypes in other collections, identified specimens of 5 species with types lost and specimens of three species which fit in other cases.

  19. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  20. Killer smog of London, 50 years on: particle properties and oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andy; BéruBé, Kelly; Jones, Tim; Maynard, Robert; Richards, Roy

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 microm in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  1. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  2. The CDCC's Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Intercultural Education" (London, March 20-25, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrman, Carl-Axel, Ed.; Williams, Michael, Ed.

    This report describes a 1-week residential in-service course dealing with intercultural education and attended by European teachers from ten countries. The following presentations are reviewed: (1) "Welcoming Address" (D. Lawton); (2) "Interculturalism and the New Swedish Teacher-Training Programme" (C. Sparrman); (3) "Multicultural London" (J.…

  3. Working Memory, Inhibition, and Fluid Intelligence as Predictors of Performance on Tower of Hanoi and London Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, N.A.; Davalos, D.B.; DeLosh, E.L.; Davis, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The contributions of working memory, inhibition, and fluid intelligence to performance on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and Tower of London (TOL) were examined in 85 undergraduate participants. All three factors accounted for significant variance on the TOH, but only fluid intelligence accounted for significant variance on the TOL. When the…

  4. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  5. Two Years on: Koha 3.0 in Use at the CAMLIS Library, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard; Chandler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the further development of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) and the involvement of external software consultants at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the…

  6. Implementation of an Open Source Library Management System: Experiences with Koha 3.0 at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the selection process and criteria that led to the implementation of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a report based on…

  7. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  8. Teachers' Experiences of Autonomy in Continuing Professional Development: Teacher Learning Communities in London and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Berry, Rita; Lai, Y. C.; Leung, Pamela; Scott, David; Stobart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' experiences of autonomy as they undertook Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the form of Teacher Learning Communities (TLCs) to develop Assessment for Learning (AfL). Participant teacher interview data were used from two parallel TLC projects, one in Hong Kong and one in London, UK. Autonomy was defined…

  9. Choosing the Local School: Middle Class Parents' Values and Social and Ethnic Mix in London and Paris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveaud, Maroussia; Zanten, Agnes Van

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses a specific kind of choice, choice of the local school, by a specific middle class group, characterized by its high cultural capital, its "caring" perspective and liberal political orientation, in two cosmopolitan, "mixed" settings, London and Paris, with a focus on values and how ethical dilemmas raised by confrontation with…

  10. Dumb O Jemmy and Others: Deaf people, Interpreters and the London Courts in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Christopher; Woll, Bencie

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews eighteenth- and nineteenth-century proceedings of the London Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) that involved deaf people. The use, role, and status of sign language and interpreters in these settings are described. These proceedings provide important information about deaf people's experiences within the court system of the…

  11. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  12. Back on "Whose" Track? Reframing Ideologies of Inclusion and Misrecognition in a Participatory Theatre Project with Young People in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the limitations of applied drama interventions promising integration and inclusion against the material realities of urban disenfranchisement and misrecognition. Through reflection on a participatory theatre project facilitated with young women in an urban secondary school in London, social and moral agendas emerge which…

  13. Adolescent Psychological Health Problems and Delinquency among Volatile Substance Users in a School Sample in South London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, David; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Floyd, Karen; Rawaf, Salman; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    The study assessed prevalence of volatile substance abuse (VSA), and its link to other forms of psychoactive substance use and to other problem behaviours among 14-15 year olds recruited from sixteen secondary schools in south-west London. Lifetime use of volatile substances was reported by 126 young people (6% of the sample) whose mean age of…

  14. Grafting, Going to College and Working on Road: Youth Transitions and Cultures in an East London Neighbourhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Anthony; Watt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The local neighbourhood has an enduring significance for British urban, working-class youth in relation to their transitions, cultures and leisure practices. This paper examines these interrelated issues by drawing upon ethnographic research undertaken in "Manor", a deprived, multi-ethnic East London neighbourhood. It explores the transitions…

  15. The Construct Validity of the Tower of London (DX) as a Measure of the Executive Functioning of ADHD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William C.; Zillmer, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    The construct-related validity of the Tower of London-Drexel (TOL-DX), a measure of executive functioning (W. Culbertson and A. Zillmer, 1995) was studied with 129 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results show that the TOL-DX loads prominently on an Executive Planning/Inhibition factor while separating for factors…

  16. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  17. Young People and E-Safety: The Results of the 2015 London Grid for Learning E-Safety Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wespieser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This report looks at the online activities of London's young people. The report highlights that children and young people use technology to have fun, study and communicate with others. Most children and young people have positive experiences online. On the whole they are sensible online and do not put themselves "at risk". However, the…

  18. National Attachment among Berlin and London Head Teachers: The Explanatory Impact of National Identity, National Pride and Supranational Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The link between formal education and the formation of national attachment is widely acknowledged. Yet, research on teachers' national attachment is still relatively rare. Based on a comparative analysis of survey data obtained from 281 Berlin and London state secondary school head teachers, this paper proposes a multivariate model in which…

  19. "The Rag-Bag of All the Subjects": English in a London Grammar School, 1945-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, John

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from a recent study of English teaching in three London schools in the post-war era suggests that changes to curriculum and pedagogy, commonly attributed by historians to the 1960s, were well underway in the 1950s. Major changes associated with "New English" occurred when teachers began taking the lives and experiences of their…

  20. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…

  1. School Improvement in Practice: Schools Make a Difference Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kate, Ed.

    When the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was disbanded in 1990, 13 separate education authorities were created in its place. Two years after its creation, in partnership with all of its secondary schools, one of the new LEAs initiated a school-improvement project to raise standards called Schools Make A Difference (SMAD). This book…

  2. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  3. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  4. Regional methods for mapping major faults in areas of uniform low relief, as used in the London Basin, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Richard; Aldiss, Donald

    2013-04-01

    Most of the London Basin, south-eastern UK, is underlain by the Palaeogene London Clay Formation, comprising a succession of rather uniform marine clay deposits up to 150 m thick, with widespread cover of Quaternary deposits and urban development. Therefore, in this area faults are difficult to delineate (or to detect) by conventional geological surveying methods in the field, and few are shown on the geological maps of the area. However, boreholes and excavations, especially those for civil engineering works, indicate that faults are probably widespread and numerous in the London area. A representative map of fault distribution and patterns of displacement is a pre-requisite for understanding the tectonic development of a region. Moreover, faulting is an important influence on the design and execution of civil engineering works, and on the hydrogeological characteristics of the ground. This paper reviews methods currently being used to map faults in the London Basin area. These are: the interpretation of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data from time-series satellite-borne radar measurements; the interpretation of regional geophysical fields (Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic), especially in combination with a digital elevation model; and the construction and interpretation of 3D geological models. Although these methods are generally not as accurate as large-scale geological field surveys, due to the availability of appropriate data in the London Basin they provide the means to recognise and delineate more faults, and with more confidence, than was possible using traditional geological mapping techniques. Together they reveal regional structures arising during Palaeogene crustal extension and subsidence in the North Sea, followed by inversion of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin in the south of the region, probably modified by strike-slip fault motion associated with the relative northward movement of the African Plate and the Alpine orogeny. This

  5. Investigating the two-component model of solid fuel organic aerosol in London: processes, PM1 contributions, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Green, D. C.; Harrison, R. M.; Yin, J.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2014-08-01

    Solid fuel emissions, including those from biomass burning, are increasing in urban areas across the European Union due to rising energy costs and government incentives to use renewable energy sources for heating. In order to help protect human health as well as to improve air quality and pollution abatement strategies, the sources of combustion aerosols, their contributions, and the processes they undergo need to be better understood. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was therefore deployed at an urban background site between January and February 2012 to investigate solid fuel organic aerosols (SFOA) in London. The variability of SFOA was examined and the factors governing the split between the two SFOA factors derived from positive matrix factorisation (PMF) were assessed. The concentrations of both factors were found to increase during the night and during cold periods, consistent with domestic space heating activities. The split between the two factors is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions where SFOA1 best represents more efficient burns in the south and SFOA2 best represents less efficient burns in the east and west. The differences in efficiency may be due to burner types or burn phase, for example. Different fuel types and levels of atmospheric processing also likely contribute to the two factors. As the mass spectral profile of SFOA is highly variable, the findings from this study have implications for improving future source apportionment and factorisation analyses. During the winter, SFOA was found to contribute 38% to the total submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass, with SFOA2 contributing slightly more than SFOA1 (20% compared to 18%). A similar contribution of SFOA was derived for the same period from compact time-of-flight AMS (cToF-AMS), which measured for a full calendar year at the same site. The seasonality of SFOA was investigated using the year-long data set where concentrations

  6. Investigating a two-component model of solid fuel organic aerosol in London: processes, PM1 contributions, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Green, D. C.; Harrison, R. M.; Yin, J.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2015-03-01

    Solid fuel emissions, including those from biomass burning, are increasing in urban areas across the European Union due to rising energy costs and government incentives to use renewable energy sources for heating. In order to help protect human health as well as to improve air quality and pollution abatement strategies, the sources of combustion aerosols, their contributions, and the processes they undergo need to be better understood. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was therefore deployed at an urban background site between January and February 2012 to investigate solid fuel organic aerosols (SFOA) in London. The variability of SFOA was examined and the factors governing the split between the two SFOA factors derived from Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) were assessed. The concentrations of both factors were found to increase during the night and during cold periods, consistent with domestic space heating activities. The split between the two factors is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions where SFOA1 best represents more efficient burns and SFOA2 best represents less efficient burns. The differences in efficiency may be due to burner types or burn phase, for example. Different fuel types and levels of atmospheric processing also likely contribute to the two factors. As the mass spectral profile of SFOA is highly variable, the findings from this study may have implications for improving future source apportionment and factorisation analyses. During the winter, SFOA was found to contribute 38% to the total non-refractory submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass, with similar contributions from both SFOA factors (20% from SFOA1 and 18% from SFOA2). A similar contribution of SFOA was derived for the same period from a compact time-of-flight AMS (cToF-AMS), which measured for a full calendar year at the same site. The seasonality of SFOA was investigated using the year-long data set where concentrations

  7. Understanding pregnancy planning in a low-income country setting: validation of the London measure of unplanned pregnancy in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) is a new and psychometrically valid measure of pregnancy intention that was developed in the United Kingdom. An improved understanding of pregnancy intention in low-income countries, where unintended pregnancies are common and maternal and neonatal deaths are high, is necessary to inform policies to address the unmet need for family planning. To this end this research aimed to validate the LMUP for use in the Chichewa language in Malawi. Methods Three Chichewa speakers translated the LMUP and one translation was agreed which was back-translated and pre-tested on five pregnant women using cognitive interviews. The measure was field tested with pregnant women who were recruited at antenatal clinics and data were analysed using classical test theory and hypothesis testing. Results 125 women aged 15–43 (median 23), with parities of 1–8 (median 2) completed the Chichewa LMUP. There were no missing data. The full range of LMUP scores was captured. In terms of reliability, the scale was internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78) and test-retest data from 70 women showed good stability (weighted Kappa 0.80). In terms of validity, hypothesis testing confirmed that unmarried women (p = 0.003), women who had four or more children alive (p = 0.0051) and women who were below 20 or over 29 (p = 0.0115) were all more likely to have unintended pregnancies. Principal component analysis showed that five of the six items loaded onto one factor, with a further item borderline. A sensitivity analysis to assess the effect of the removal of the weakest item of the scale showed slightly improved performance but as the LMUP was not significantly adversely affected by its inclusion we recommend retaining the six-item score. Conclusion The Chichewa LMUP is a valid and reliable measure of pregnancy intention in Malawi and can now be used in research and/or surveillance. This is the first validation of this

  8. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 1. Emissions modeling and analysis of air pollution measurements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Anderson, H Ross; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Derwent, Dick; Green, David; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-04-01

    On February 17, 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS*) was introduced in central London along with a program of traffic management measures. The scheme operated Monday through Friday, 7 AM to 6 PM. This program resulted in an 18% reduction in traffic volume and a 30% reduction in traffic congestion in the first year (2003). We developed methods to evaluate the possible effects of the scheme on air quality: We used a temporal-spatial design in which modeled and measured air quality data from roadside and background monitoring stations were used to compare time periods before (2001-2002) and after (2003-2004) the CCS was introduced and to compare the spatial area of the congestion charging zone (CCZ) with the rest of London. In the first part of this project, we modeled changes in concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM10 (particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm) across the CCZ and in Greater London under different traffic and emission scenarios for the periods before and after CCS introduction. Comparing model results within and outside the zone suggested that introducing the CCS would be associated with a net 0.8-microg/m3 decrease in the mean concentration of PM10 and a net 1.7-ppb decrease in the mean concentration of NOx within the CCZ. In contrast, a net 0.3-ppb increase in the mean concentration of NO2 was predicted within the zone; this was partly explained by an expected increase in primary NO2 emissions due to the introduction of particle traps on diesel buses (one part of the improvements in public transport associated with the CCS). In the second part of the project, we established a CCS Study Database from measurements obtained from the London Air Quality Network (LAQN) for air pollution monitors sited to measure roadside and urban background concentrations. Fully ratified (validated) 15-minute mean carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), NO2, NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 data from each chosen

  9. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

    2016-02-02

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites.more » The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  10. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2016-02-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical

  11. London atmospheric Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide: 12 year record, fluxes, and diurnal studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanoisellé, M.; Fisher, R. E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Fowler, C. M. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured at the Royal Holloway site, 30km WSW of London, for 12 years. This site receives air that has passed over London when there are easterly winds and cleaner, background air when the wind comes from the SW. H2 and CO mixing ratios are measured continuously at 30 minute intervals on a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector coupled to a HP5890 GC since September 1996, and on a Peak Performer I (or PP1) since July 2007 at 5 minute intervals. Both instruments use 2 1/8" packed columns in series: a Unibeads 1S and a Molecular Sieve 5A. The PP1 detector (Reduced Compound Photometer) is an updated version of the old RGD2, and both use zero air as the carrier gas. CO is calibrated twice a month against NOAA-CMDL standards (mixing ratios range: 186 to 300 ppb). H2 was uncalibrated until 2006, but is now calibrated monthly against internal standards (range 530 to 750 ppb) measured at MPI-Jena as part of the Eurohydros project. A linearity correction is applied to each instrument, based on the standard measurements. A secondary standard is measured before each sample on the GC-RGD and another one is measured 4 to 6 times in a row twice a day on the PP1. A target gas is measured daily on both instruments since September 2008. The secondary standards and the target gas are dry ambient air in 70L stainless steel tanks filled to a pressure of 8 bars. Comparison of results from the two instruments suggests that for the most part the data are in good agreement, but an interlaboratory round robin comparison exercise for the Eurohydros project showed that the RGD is not linear at low values of CO. This is particularly noticeable for CO levels below 150 ppb. The long-term record of CO at Royal Holloway shows a significant decline since the start of the record: the annual mean CO mixing ratio in 2008 was three times lower than in 1997. Flux calculations, by ratio against 222Rn, CH4 and CO2, suggest CO emissions

  12. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  13. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations.

    PubMed

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2016-07-18

    There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The

  14. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations.

    PubMed

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2016-07-18

    There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The

  15. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within urban areas has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) can have a significant effect on human health. As such it is important to determine the potential exposure of individuals to these atmospheric constituents and investigate the processes that lead to the degradation of air quality within the urban environment. Whilst modelled pollutant levels on the local scale often suggest high degrees of spatial and temporal variability, the relatively sparse fixed site automated urban networks only provide low spatial resolution data that do not appear adequate in detecting such small scale variability. In this paper we demonstrate that measurements can now be made using networks of low-cost sensors that utilise a variety of techniques, including electrochemical and optical, to measure concentrations of atmospheric species. Once equipped with GPS and GPRS to determine position and transmit data respectively, these networks have the potential to provide valuable insights into pollutant variability inherent on the local or micro-scale. The methodology has been demonstrated successfully in field campaigns carried out in cities including London and Valencia, and is now being deployed as part of the Sensor Networks for Air Quality currently deployed at London Heathrow airport (SNAQ-Heathrow) which is outlined in the partner paper presented by Mead et al. (this conference). The SNAQ-Heathrow network of 50 sensor nodes will provide an unprecedented data set that includes measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, total VOCs, size-speciated PM as well as meteorological variables that include temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. This network will provide high temporal (20 second intervals) and spatial (50 sites within the airport area

  16. Reduction in self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: an observational controlled study in east London

    PubMed Central

    Robson, John; Smithers, Hannah; Chowdhury, Tahseen; Bennett-Richards, Philip; Keene, David; Dostal, Isabel; Mathur, Rohini; Dunne, Jack; Hull, Sally; Boomla, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) confers no benefit for many people with type 2 diabetes not being treated with insulin. It accounts for 21% of diabetes prescribing costs. Aim To improve care quality at reduced cost for type 2 diabetes by reducing unnecessary SMBG. Design and setting Non-randomised, observational controlled study in two intervention clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) and one control CCG in east London. Method In total, 19 602 people with type 2 diabetes not being treated with insulin were recruited from two intervention CCGs; 16 033 were recruited from a control CCG. The intervention (from 2010 to 2013) comprised implementation of a locally developed guideline, including IT support and peer feedback of performance. Data on practice prescribing SMBG testing strips were gathered using GP electronic health records. Information on costs were obtained via the ePACT electronic database. Results Over 4 years, in all non-insulin type 2 diabetes treatment groups, use of SMBG was reduced in the two intervention CCGs from 42.8% to 16.5%, and in the control CCG from 56.4% to 47.2%. In people on metformin alone or no treatment, intervention CCGs reduced SMBG use from 29.6% to 6.0%, and in the control CCG use dropped from 47.1% to 38.7% (P<0.001). From 2009 to 2012 the total cost of all SMBG prescribing (type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including users of insulin) was reduced by 4.9% (£62 476) in the two intervention CCGs and increased in the control CCG by 5.0% (£42 607); in England, the total cost increased by 13.5% (£19.4 million). In total, 20% (3865 of 19 602) fewer patients used SMBG in the intervention CCGs. Conclusion This low-cost programme demonstrated a major reduction in unnecessary prescribing of SMBG, along with cost savings. If replicated nationally, this would avoid unnecessary testing in 340 000 people and prescribing costs that total £21.8 million. PMID:25824186

  17. Timing of the initiation of antenatal care: An exploratory qualitative study of women and service providers in East London

    PubMed Central

    Hatherall, Bethan; Morris, Joanne; Jamal, Farah; Sweeney, Lorna; Wiggins, Meg; Kaur, Inderjeet; Renton, Adrian; Harden, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the factors which influence the timing of the initiation of a package of publically-funded antenatal care for pregnant women living in a diverse urban setting Design a qualitative study involving thematic analysis of 21 individual interviews and six focus group discussions. Setting Newham, a culturally diverse borough in East London, UK Participants individual interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant and postnatal women and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 26 health service staff members(midwives and bilingual health advocates) and 32 women from four community groups (Bangladeshi, Somali, Lithuanian and Polish). Findings initial care-seeking by pregnant women is influenced by the perception that the package of antenatal care offered by the National Health Service is for viable and continuing pregnancies, as well as little perceived urgency in initiating antenatal care. This is particularly true when set against competing responsibilities and commitments in women’s lives and for pregnancies with no apparent complications or disconcerting symptoms. Barriers to access to this package of antenatal care include difficulties in navigating the health service and referral system, which are compounded for women unable to speak English, and service provider delays in the processing of referrals. Accessing antenatal care was sometimes equated with relinquishing control, particularly for young women and women for whom language barriers prohibit active engagement with care. Conclusions and implications for practice if women are to be encouraged to seek antenatal care from maternity services early in pregnancy, the purpose and value to all women of doing so need to be made clear across the communities in which they live. As a woman may need time to accept her pregnancy and address other priorities in her life before seeking antenatal care, it is crucial that once she does decide to seek such care, access is quick and easy

  18. Escaping from the Bottom Set: Finding a Voice for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The author is the headteacher of a one form entry primary school near London. She describes the improvement journey that brought her school out of the Ofsted category of "special measures" to become "outstanding". Her view is that schools improve most radically when children and staff are encouraged to find a voice to express their learning needs.…

  19. Analysis of the potential of near ground measurements of CO2 and CH4 in London, UK for the monitoring of city-scale emissions using an atmospheric transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, A.; Broquet, G.; Clifford, D. J.; Chevallier, F.; Butterfield, D. M.; Pison, I.; Ramonet, M.; Paris, J. D.; Ciais, P.

    2015-11-01

    outside the London area and in the model domain boundary conditions, and to better focus attention on the signature of London urban CO2 and CH4 emissions. This considerably improves the statistical agreement between the model and observations for CO2 (model-data RMS misfit of between 3 and 7 ppm) and to a lesser degree for CH4 (model-data RMS misfit of between 29 and 38 ppb). Between one of the urban sites and either reference site, selecting the gradients during periods wherein the reference site is upwind of the urban site further decreases the statistics of the misfits in general even though not systematically. In a final attempt to focus on the signature of the city anthropogenic emission in the mole fraction measurements, we use a theoretical ratio of gradients of CO to gradients of CO2 from fossil fuel emissions in the London area to diagnose observation based fossil fuel CO2 gradients, and compare them with the modelled ones. This estimate increases the consistency between the model and the measurements when considering one of the urban sites, but not when considering the other. While this study evaluates different approaches for increasing the consistency between the mesoscale model and the near ground data, and manages to decrease the random component of the analysed model data misfits to an extent that should not be prohibitive to extracting the signal from the London urban emissions, large biases remain in the final misfits. These biases are likely to be due to local emissions, to which the urban near ground sites are highly sensitive. This questions our current ability to exploit urban near ground data for the atmospheric inversion of city emissions based on models at spatial resolution coarser than 2 km.

  20. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968.

  1. Lessons for control of heroin-associated anthrax in Europe from 2009-2010 outbreak case studies, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel; Holmes, Alison

    2014-07-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009-2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012-13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community.

  2. Enhancement of the London Penetration Depth in Pnictides at the Onset of Spin-Density-Wave Order under Superconducting Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, A.; Vavilov, M. G.; Khodas, M.; Chubukov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    Recent measurements of the doping dependence of the London penetration depth λ(x) at low T in clean samples of isovalent BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 at T≪Tc [Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-8075] revealed a peak in λ(x) near optimal doping x=0.3. The observation of the peak at T≪Tc, points to the existence of a quantum critical point beneath the superconducting dome. We associate such a quantum critical point with the onset of a spin-density-wave order and show that the renormalization of λ(x) by critical magnetic fluctuations gives rise to the observed feature. We argue that the case of pnictides is conceptually different from a one-component Galilean invariant Fermi liquid, for which correlation effects do not cause the renormalization of the London penetration depth at T=0.

  3. Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828) MD FRS, botanist, co-founder of the Linnean Society of London.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    James Edward Smith's interest in botany led him to enter medicine at Edinburgh in 1781. Smith was continuing his medical studies in London when Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) suggested to him that he should purchase the collection of the famous Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus that had just been offered to Banks. Smith bought the Linnean Collection and Library in 1784. In 1786 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Leiden. In 1788 Smith, with two associates, founded the Linnean Society of London and became President for life. Smith turned from medicine to natural history as a lecturer and writer. During his lifetime he produced numerous botanical works of high value, including The English Flora (1824-28), and he did much to popularize botany.

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. PMID:27428585

  5. Suspected radioactive contamination: evaluation of 45 Israeli citizens potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Havkin, Ofra; Davidovitch, Nadav; Poles, Lion; Shapira, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The lethal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenco with the radioactive element polonium-210, and the risk that many civilians (including Israeli citizens) who were in the same location in London at the same time were exposed to radiation, was an unprecedented event in the western world. This was only the second known death due to 210Po, a natural alpha radiation-emitting element. A task team was created to handle the event. The team comprised representatives from the Ministry of Health's advisory committee for radiological events (which includes the Israel Defense Force, the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Environmental Protection), the Public Health Services Central District, and a public relations expert. Forty-seven people were located and underwent an epidemiological inquiry, and urine samples for detection of 210Po were sent abroad to a specialized laboratory. The radiotoxicological results were analyzed and evaluated by the expert team and follow-up recommendations were made. This unfamiliar and potentially stressful scenario was handled successfully by a multi-organizational multidisciplinary task team. The joint work of the task team was a real-life "exercise" simulating a radiological event in Israel. This team has recommended further evaluation of various vital missions in the event of any possible future radiological event, with special emphasis on a proactive communication approach to the media and the public.

  6. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study.

  7. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers.

  8. Is preparedness for CBRN incidents important to general practitioners in East London?

    PubMed

    Dabrera, Gavin; Anyaegbu, Emmanuel; Addiman, Sarah; Keeling, David; Ashton, Charlotte; Whala, Shakeel; Dunne, Adrienne; Figueroa, Jose; Lovitt, Chris; Basnett, Ian; Balasegaram, Sooria

    2012-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in public health response to CBRN incidents, including disseminating information to worried patients and undertaking risk assessments of patients. The authors undertook the first known UK survey of GPs' CBRN preparedness to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CBRN preparedness among GPs in East London, in the area of the Olympic Park. A questionnaire was developed, focusing on GPs' self-preparedness for, and perceived roles in CBRN incidents, and GPs' access to resources and policies for dealing with such incidents. Of 157 GPs, 56 responded, although some responded collectively for their practice. The majority of respondents recognised roles for themselves in CBRN incidents, including recognition of illness, supporting decontamination, and appropriate reporting. However, 79 per cent of GPs also felt unprepared for such incidents. The most popular topic for training to address this was clinical presentation of CBRN exposures. Most practices had no policy for dealing with suspect packages and white powder incidents. Since this survey, guidance and training has been made available to local GPs. As the UK will host more events like the 2012 Olympics, preparedness for GPs will continue to be an important consideration in the UK.

  9. Monitoring CO2 and CH4 concentrations along an urban-rural transect in London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Broquet, Gregoire; Clifford, Debbie; Chevallier, Frederic; Butterfield, David

    2013-04-01

    Cities are important sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Anthropogenic CO2 is released in the combustion of fossil fuels for heating, electricity and transport. The major sources of CH4 in city environments are natural gas leakage, landfill sites and transport emissions. Monitoring of urban greenhouse gas concentrations is crucial for cities aiming to reduce emissions through measures such as changes to the transport infrastructure and green planning. We present measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) at four sites located in and around London, UK. Two sites were located in the inner city, one in the suburban fringe and the fourth in a rural location close to the city. This study was funded by Astrium Services Ltd as part of a pilot scheme to monitor city-scale GHG emissions and presented a unique opportunity to study changes in greenhouse gas concentrations across an urban to rural 'transect'. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to estimate CO2 and CH4 concentrations throughout the four month measurement period during the summer of 2012. Comparisons are made between the measured and modelled CO2 and CH4 concentrations and the representativity of the study sites for future urban greenhouse gas monitoring is considered. This study also examines the ability of a variety of measurement and modelling techniques to partition anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources.

  10. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  11. Evaluating clustering methods within the Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm and their application to bike redistribution in London.

    PubMed

    Adham, Manal T; Bentley, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a solution to the truck redistribution problem prominent in London's Santander Cycle scheme. Due to the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problem, no efficient optimisation techniques are known to solve the problem exactly. This motivates our use of the heuristic Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm (AEA) to find good solutions in a reasonable amount of time. The AEA is designed to take advantage of highly distributed computer architectures and adapt to changing problems. In the AEA a problem is first decomposed into its relative sub-components; they then evolve solution building blocks that fit together to form a single optimal solution. Three variants of the AEA centred on evaluating clustering methods are presented: the baseline AEA, the community-based AEA which groups stations according to journey flows, and the Adaptive AEA which actively modifies clusters to cater for changes in demand. We applied these AEA variants to the redistribution problem prominent in bike share schemes (BSS). The AEA variants are empirically evaluated using historical data from Santander Cycles to validate the proposed approach and prove its potential effectiveness.

  12. Wilate use in 47 children with von Willebrand disease: the North London paediatric haemophilia network experience.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Batty, P; Riat, R; Bowles, L; Burgess, C; Chen, Y-H; Hart, D; Platton, S; Pasi, J; Liesner, R

    2015-01-01

    Children with von Willebrand disease (VWD) in whom DDAVP is ineffective or contraindicated require treatment with a coagulation factor concentrate containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). The aim of this study was to monitor the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Wilate(®) (a VWF:FVIII concentrate with a 1:1 ratio) used across the North London Paediatric Haemophilia Network since May 2010. In total, 47 children (aged 0.0-17.0 years) with type 1 (n = 28), type 2 (n = 7), type 3 (n = 10) and acquired VWS (n = 2) have been treated for bleeds, surgery and/or prophylaxis using 260 000 IU Wilate(®). Analysis of dose and frequency of treatment show expected responses to treatment with mean doses of 55, 50 and 50 IU kg(-1) for bleeds, surgery and prophylaxis respectively. Most bleeds responded to a single treatment. Surgical procedures were covered with clinician approved dosing schedules with 95% (39/41) reported as having excellent or good efficacy. There was no accumulation of FVIII or VWF and no thromboembolic events. This case series confirms the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Wilate(®) in neonates, children and adolescents when used on-demand, prophylactically and in the surgical setting. PMID:25112927

  13. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

  14. Key Barriers to Community Cohesion: Views from Residents of 20 London Deprived Neighbourhoods

    PubMed Central

    Bertotti, Marcello; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Sheridan, Kevin; Renton, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The notion of community has been central to the political project of renewal of New Labour in the UK. The paper explores how the discourses of community are framed within New Labour and discusses these in the light of the results from research which focuses on how people within urban deprived areas construct their community. It draws upon the results of one part of a larger research project (the ‘Well London’ programme) which aimed to capture the views of residents from 20 disadvantaged neighbourhoods throughout London using an innovative qualitative method known as the ‘World Café’. Our results show the centrality of young people to the development of cohesive communities, the importance of building informal relationships between residents alongside encouraging greater participation to policy making, and the need to see these places as fragile and temporary locations but with considerable social strengths. Government policies are only partially addressing these issues. They pay greater attention to formally encouraging citizens to become more involved in policy making, largely ignore the contribution young people could make to the community cohesion agenda, and weakly define the shared norms and values that are crucial in building cohesive communities. Thus, the conclusion is that whilst an emphasis of the government on ‘community’ is to be welcome, more needs to be done in terms of considering the ‘voices’ of the community as well as enabling communities to determine and act upon their priorities. PMID:27761059

  15. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality–neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people’s life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live. PMID:25583480

  16. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group.

  17. Integrated Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Data Offshore of New London and Niantic, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Parker, Castle E.; Lewit, P.G.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore areas within Long Island Sound are of great interest to the Connecticut and New York research and resource management communities because of their ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Although advances in multibeam echosounder technology permit the construction of high-resolution representations of sea-floor topography in deeper waters, limitations inherent in collecting fixed-angle multibeam data make using this technology in shallower waters (less than 10 meters deep) difficult and expensive. These limitations have often resulted in data gaps between areas for which multibeam bathymetric datasets are available and the adjacent shoreline. To address this problem, the geospatial data sets released in this report seamlessly integrate complete-coverage multibeam bathymetric data acquired off New London and Niantic Bay, Connecticut, with hydrographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data acquired along the nearshore. The result is a more continuous sea floor representation and a much smaller gap between the digital bathymetric data and the shoreline than previously available. These data sets are provided online and on CD-ROM in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) raster-grid and GeoTIFF formats in order to facilitate access, compatibility, and utility.

  18. Planning Following Stroke: A Relational Complexity Approach Using the Tower of London

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Chappell, Mark; Maujean, Annick; Shum, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Planning on the 4-disk version of the Tower of London (TOL4) was examined in stroke patients and unimpaired controls. Overall TOL4 solution scores indicated impaired planning in the frontal stroke but not non-frontal stroke patients. Consistent with the claim that processing the relations between current states, intermediate states, and goal states is a key process in planning, the domain-general relational complexity metric was a good indicator of the experienced difficulty of TOL4 problems. The relational complexity metric shared variance with task-specific metrics of moves to solution and search depth. Frontal stroke patients showed impaired planning compared to controls on problems at all three complexity levels, but at only two of the three levels of moves to solution, search depth and goal ambiguity. Non-frontal stroke patients showed impaired planning only on the most difficult quaternary-relational and high search depth problems. An independent measure of relational processing (viz., Latin square task) predicted TOL4 solution scores after controlling for stroke status and location, and executive processing (Trail Making Test). The findings suggest that planning involves a domain-general capacity for relational processing that depends on the frontal brain regions. PMID:25566042

  19. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations. PMID:27258327

  20. Complaints about dog faeces as a symbolic representation of incivility in London, UK: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Derges, Jane; Lynch, Rebecca; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Draper, Alizon

    2012-01-01

    During a ‘Well London’ study, residents were asked about their neighbourhood and its environment. Above all other complaints, ‘dog poo’ was mentioned as a key concern. Despite low rates of infection and disease among the human population resulting from contact with canine faecal matter, the concerns of the public continue to rate it as a serious public health issue. Most public health studies, therefore, seek to identify processes of transmission and disease pathology as a method of addressing the problem. This study approaches the issue through a contextualised analysis of residents’ complaints, using anthropological theory to examine the symbolic representation of ‘dog poo’. Analysis of the interviews shows that these specific complaints were located among less easily defined or articulated experiences of social and environmental neglect, where neighbours were estranged from one another and local authorities seen as negligent. This approach has important implications for public health, as it provides not only a strong indicator of the level of dissatisfaction within some of London's more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but also identifies a need for policies that are grounded in cross-disciplinary research into the relationship between health, ‘wellbeing’ and experiences of marginalisation among urban populations. PMID:23335839

  1. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  2. 'Shell shock' revisited: an examination of the case records of the National Hospital in London.

    PubMed

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2014-10-01

    During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain's leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient's military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria.

  3. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E; Gosling, Samuel D; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-20

    Residential location is thought to influence people's well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality-neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people's life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live.

  4. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  5. A rivalry of foulness: official and unofficial investigations of the London cholera epidemic of 1854.

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, N; Vinten-Johansen, P; Brody, H; Rip, M

    1998-01-01

    Contemporaneous with John Snow's famous study of the 1854 London cholera epidemic were 2 other investigations: a local study of the Broad Street outbreak and an investigation of the entire epidemic, undertaken by England's General Board of Health. More than a quarter-century prior to Koch's description of Vibrio comma, a Board of Health investigator saw microscopic "vibriones" in the rice-water stools of cholera patients that, in his later life, he concluded had been cholera bacilli. Although this finding was potential evidence for Snow's view that cholera was due to a contagious and probably live agent transmitted in the water supply, the Board of Health rejected Snow's conclusions. The Board of Health amassed a huge amount of information which it interpreted as supportive of its conclusion that the epidemic was attributable not so much to water as to air. Snow, by contrast, systematically tested his hypothesis that cholera was water-borne by exploring evidence that at first glance ran contrary to his expectations. Snow's success provides support for using a hypothetico-deductive approach in epidemiology, based on tightly focused hypotheses strongly grounded in pathophysiology. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9772861

  6. Sector Identification in a Set of Stock Return Time Series Traded at the London Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronnello, C.; Tumminello, M.; Lillo, F.; Micciche, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-09-01

    We compare some methods recently used in the literature to detect the existence of a certain degree of common behavior of stock returns belonging to the same economic sector. Specifically, we discuss methods based on random matrix theory and hierarchical clustering techniques. We apply these methods to a portfolio of stocks traded at the London Stock Exchange. The investigated time series are recorded both at a daily time horizon and at a 5-minute time horizon. The correlation coefficient matrix is very different at different time horizons confirming that more structured correlation coefficient matrices are observed for long time horizons. All the considered methods are able to detect economic information and the presence of clusters characterized by the economic sector of stocks. However, different methods present a different degree of sensitivity with respect to different sectors. Our comparative analysis suggests that the application of just a single method could not be able to extract all the economic information present in the correlation coefficient matrix of a stock portfolio.

  7. Absence of the London limit for the first-order phase transition to a color superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, Jorge L.; Ren Haicang; Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2006-05-01

    We study the effects of gauge-field fluctuations on the free energy density of a homogeneous color superconductor in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase. Gluonic fluctuations induce a strong first-order phase transition, in contrast to electronic superconductors where this transition is weakly first order. The critical temperature for this transition is larger than the one corresponding to the diquark pairing instability. The physical reason is that the gluonic Meissner masses suppress long-wavelength fluctuations as compared to the normal conducting phase where gluons are massless, which stabilizes the superconducting phase. In weak coupling, we analytically compute the temperatures associated with the limits of metastability of the normal and superconducting phases, as well as the latent heat associated with the first-order phase transition. We then extrapolate our results to intermediate densities and numerically evaluate the temperature of the fluctuation-induced first-order phase transition, as well as the discontinuity of the diquark condensate at the critical point. We find that the London limit of magnetic interactions is absent in color superconductivity.

  8. Evaluating London Dispersion Interactions in DFT: A Nonlocal Anisotropic Buckingham-Hirshfeld Model.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, A; Geldof, D; Vanommeslaeghe, K; Alsenoy, C Van; Geerlings, P

    2012-01-10

    In this work, we present a novel model, referred to as BH-DFT-D, for the evaluation of London dispersion, with the purpose to correct the performance of local DFT exchange-correlation functionals for the description of van der Waals interactions. The new BH-DFT-D model combines the equations originally derived by Buckingham [Buckingham, A. D. Adv. Chem. Phys1967, 12, 107] with the definition of distributed multipole polarizability tensors within the Hirshfeld method [Hirshfeld, F.L. Theor. Chim. Acta1977, 44, 129], resulting in nonlocal, fully anisotropic expressions. Since no damping function has been introduced yet into the model, it is suitable in its present form for the evaluation of dispersion interactions in van der Waals dimers with no or negligible overlap. The new method is tested for an extended collection of van der Waals dimers against high-level data, where it is found to reproduce interaction energies at the BH-B3LYP-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level with a mean average error (MAE) of 0.20 kcal/mol. Next, development steps of the model will consist of adding a damping function, analytical gradients, and generalization to a supramolecular system.

  9. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC.

  10. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.

  11. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  12. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  13. Integrating research & teaching: the Queen Mary, University of London module in Geodiversity & Geoconservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, M.

    2012-04-01

    The School of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London has been running a Level 6 (undergraduate) module in "Geodiversity & Geoconservation" since 2004. The course is based around the book Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature (John Wiley, 2004) but lectures are used to update each topic based on the latest research. The course is divided into 5 parts: 1. Defining and describing geodiversity - which discusses the concept of geodiversity, its definition and the nature of the geodiversity of Planet Earth; 2. Values of, and threats to, geodiversity - a lecture on valuing geodiversity is now based around important research on the role of geodiversity in "ecosystem services" assessments. A second lecture covers the major threats to geodiversity; 3. The protected area approach - lectures here cover geological World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks, GSSPs, and national geoconservation systems in the UK, USA and other parts of the world; 4. Protecting geodiversity in the wider landscape - the contribution of geology and geomorphology to landscape character are described, together with the role of land-use planning and policy-making in protecting geodiversity. 5. Putting it all together - lectures here emphasize that geodiversity is an important basis for geoconservation, that different geoconservation methods are appropriate to different elements of geodiversity, and that integrated geo/bio conservation is essential. A field trip to three Chalk/Quaternary Sites of Special Scientific Interest in East Sussex is included which discusses some of the planning issues that have arisen at these sites, a theme that is expanded in the lectures.

  14. Exploring the evolution of London's street network in the information space: A dual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masucci, A. Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the growth of London's street network in its dual representation, as the city has evolved over the past 224 years. The dual representation of a planar graph is a content-based network, where each node is a set of edges of the planar graph and represents a transportation unit in the so-called information space, i.e., the space where information is handled in order to navigate through the city. First, we discuss a novel hybrid technique to extract dual graphs from planar graphs, called the hierarchical intersection continuity negotiation principle. Then we show that the growth of the network can be analytically described by logistic laws and that the topological properties of the network are governed by robust log-normal distributions characterizing the network's connectivity and small-world properties that are consistent over time. Moreover, we find that the double-Pareto-like distributions for the connectivity emerge for major roads and can be modeled via a stochastic content-based network model using simple space-filling principles.

  15. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers. PMID:26877653

  16. Exploring Twitter to Analyze the Public’s Reaction Patterns to Recently Reported Homicides in London

    PubMed Central

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people’s perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public’s concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users’ estimated home locations to the homicides’ locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident’s occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  17. The permeable institution: an ethnographic study of three acute psychiatric wards in London.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Alan; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive

    2006-10-01

    In Asylums, Goffman [1961. Asylums. London: Penguin] identified some permeable features of the old mental hospitals but presented them as exceptions to the rule and focused on their impermeable aspects. We argue that this emphasis is no longer valid and offer an alternative ideal type that better represents the reality of everyday life in contemporary 'bricks and mortar' psychiatric institutions. We call this the "permeable institution". The research involved participant observation of between 3 and 4 months and interviews with patients, patient advocates and staff on 3 psychiatric wards. Evidence for permeability includes that ward membership is temporary and changes rapidly (patients tend to have very short stays and staff turnover is high); patients maintain contact with the outside world during their stay; and institutional identities are blurred to the point where visitors or new patients can easily mistake staff and patients for one another. Permeability has both positive consequences (e.g., reduced risk of institutionalism), and negative consequences (e.g., unwanted people coming into hospital to cause trouble, and illicit drug use among patients). Staff employ various methods to regulate their ward's permeability, within certain parameters. The metaphor of the total/closed institution remains valuable, but it fails to capture the highly permeable nature of the psychiatric institutions we studied. Analysts may therefore find the permeable institution a more helpful reference point or ideal type against which to examine and compare empirical cases. Perhaps most helpful is to conceptualise a continuum of institutional permeability with total and permeable institutions at each extreme.

  18. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  19. 'You are not yourself': exploring masculinities among heterosexual African men living with HIV in London.

    PubMed

    Doyal, Lesley; Anderson, Jane; Paparini, Sara

    2009-05-01

    It is now clear that gender is an essential factor shaping the narratives of men as well as women. However, there have been few studies of the daily lives or sexual activities of heterosexual men. Hence, strategies developed to prevent the spread of the HIV virus are rarely based on detailed knowledge of the men whose behaviours they are intended to change; this is especially evident in the developing world where the epidemic is most severe. Nor do we know very much about those men who have already been diagnosed as HIV positive. Around 13 million men are now living with HIV of whom around 96% are in low or middle income countries. Migrants from developing countries also make up the majority of positive people in a number of developed countries. In the UK, for example, heterosexual activity is now responsible for about half of all new HIV diagnoses with the majority of those involved being of African origin. But almost nothing is known about the ways in which different constructions of masculinity affect their experiences of illness. This study used qualitative methods to explore the experiences of a sample of black African men who defined themselves as heterosexual and were receiving treatment for HIV and/or AIDS in London. It explored their feelings, their needs, their hopes and their desires as they negotiated their lives in the diaspora.

  20. Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London.

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, G; Blizard, B; Mann, A

    1993-01-01

    Insomnia in elderly people has traditionally been regarded as inevitable and trivial. A longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance among elderly people in an inner London community and its association with demographic variables, depression, dementia and disability. Those aged 65 years and over living at home were interviewed using a validated and reliable semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 705 people were interviewed in 1987-88 and 524 were re-interviewed in 1990. Subjective sleep disturbance was found to be common (33% and 43%, respectively). Sleep disturbance was associated with being a woman, being unmarried, living alone, disability, and current and future depression, but not with dementia or older age. The best predictor of future depression in elderly people who were not depressed was current sleep disturbance. In the presence of current sleep disturbance, the traditional predictors of depression--being a woman, having a disability, being unmarried, living alone and being older--did not contribute further. This study has shown that sleep disorder is associated with pathology. Insomnia in elderly people requires assessment and this must be accompanied by the treatment of underlying disorders and monitoring of future health. PMID:8292414

  1. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  2. Is preparedness for CBRN incidents important to general practitioners in East London?

    PubMed

    Dabrera, Gavin; Anyaegbu, Emmanuel; Addiman, Sarah; Keeling, David; Ashton, Charlotte; Whala, Shakeel; Dunne, Adrienne; Figueroa, Jose; Lovitt, Chris; Basnett, Ian; Balasegaram, Sooria

    2012-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in public health response to CBRN incidents, including disseminating information to worried patients and undertaking risk assessments of patients. The authors undertook the first known UK survey of GPs' CBRN preparedness to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CBRN preparedness among GPs in East London, in the area of the Olympic Park. A questionnaire was developed, focusing on GPs' self-preparedness for, and perceived roles in CBRN incidents, and GPs' access to resources and policies for dealing with such incidents. Of 157 GPs, 56 responded, although some responded collectively for their practice. The majority of respondents recognised roles for themselves in CBRN incidents, including recognition of illness, supporting decontamination, and appropriate reporting. However, 79 per cent of GPs also felt unprepared for such incidents. The most popular topic for training to address this was clinical presentation of CBRN exposures. Most practices had no policy for dealing with suspect packages and white powder incidents. Since this survey, guidance and training has been made available to local GPs. As the UK will host more events like the 2012 Olympics, preparedness for GPs will continue to be an important consideration in the UK. PMID:22948105

  3. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    PubMed

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  4. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  5. The tree as evolutionary icon: TREE in the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Nils Petter

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Darwin celebrations in 2009, the Natural History Museum in London unveiled TREE, the first contemporary artwork to win a permanent place in the Museum. While the artist claimed that the inspiration for TREE came from Darwin's famous notebook sketch of branching evolution, sometimes referred to as his "tree of life" drawing, this article emphasises the apparent incongruity between Darwin's sketch and the artist's design -- best explained by other, complementary sources of inspiration. In the context of the Museum's active participation in struggles over science and religion, the effect of the new artwork is contradictory. TREE celebrates Darwinian evolutionism, but it resonates with deep-rooted, mythological traditions of tree symbolism to do so. This complicates the status of the Museum space as one of disinterested, secular science, but it also contributes, with or without the intentions of the Museum's management, to consolidate two sometimes conflicting strains within the Museum's history. TREE celebrates human effort, secular science and reason -- but it also evokes long-standing mythological traditions to inspire reverence and remind us of our humble place in the world.

  6. Superbugs and Superdrugs-SMi's 12th annual conference--Overcoming resistance. 17-18 March 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adekemi

    2010-05-01

    The 12th Annual Superbugs and Superdrugs conference, held in London, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antimicrobial research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on antimicrobial peptides, addressing bacterial resistance, and new treatments for bacterial infections. Investigational drugs discussed include DPK-060 (DermaGen AB), DAV-132 (Da Volterra), PF-4287881, PNU-100480 and PF-02538084 (all Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) and lanbiotics from Novacta.

  7. Examining the Reasons Black Male Youths Give for Committing Crime with Reference to Inner City Areas of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mini research carried out by the Focus Learning Support (FLS) team on reasons why young black males in the community commit crime. Knife and gun crime is seen as a serious problem in the black community involving black males in the inner London city areas--many of whom are both victims and offenders of knife and gun crime.…

  8. The ethics of dental practice in London in the sixteenth century. 2. Sir Thomas More's 'Ordinances' for the Barber-Surgeons, 1530.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M

    2012-07-27

    Sir Thomas More's Ordinances can tell us much about London dental practice in the sixteenth century, providing an overview of training, development and practice within a healthcare service much like our own.

  9. Dr. C.E. Brown-Séquard, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., London: the casting of the die.

    PubMed

    Gooddy, W

    1996-04-01

    In 1858 Dr. Brown-Séquard arrived in London. During his stay there, he was appointed physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (now the National Hospital), and was elected Fellow of the Royal College of Physician's of London, as well as Fellow of the Royal society. During this time he also published his 'Course of Lectures on the Physiology and Pathology of the Central Nervous System' an early exposition of what is now know as 'his' syndrome. During his time in London, Dr. Brown-Séquard made many well-known acquaintances, amongst others Charles Darwin, T.H. Huxley, and Louis Pasteur. Three years after his appointment as physician at the National Hospital, he left London. Increasingly, he was to abondon fashionable practice to concentrate on his study of what are now known as the endocrinal glands. In this way, he became a pioneer of the study of endocrinology.

  10. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. Methods An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. Results The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip rate were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11293: 95% CI 5169 to 17416). Conclusions Brief interventions that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have short-term effects on travel behaviour. Repeated brief interventions at frequent intervals could contribute to increasing population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of active modes of transportation. PMID:22024219

  11. John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina": notes on the publication history of the London (1709) edition.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Marcus B; Simpson, Sallie W

    2008-01-01

    John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina," an important source document for American colonial natural history, was first printed in 1709 in "A New Collection of Voyages and Travels," a two-volume set that also contained travel books translated by John Stevens. Lawson's publishers were leaders in the book trade of early eighteenth century London, and the "New Voyage" is typical of the resurgent popular interest in foreign travel narratives and exotic flora and fauna that began in the late 1600s. The "New Collection" was among the earliest examples of books published in serial instalments or fascicles, a marketing strategy adopted by London booksellers to broaden the audience and increase sales. Analysis of London issues of the "New Voyage" indicates that the 1709, 1711, 1714, and 1718 versions are simply bindings of the original, unsold sheets from the 1709 "New Collection" edition, differing only by new title-pages, front matter, and random stop-press corrections of type-set errors. Lawson's "New Voyage" illustrates important aspects of the British book trade during the hand press period of the early eighteenth century. PMID:19271343

  12. Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services.

    PubMed

    Hartley, A; Foster, R; Brook, M G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Coyne, K; Hughes, G; Crook, P

    2015-04-01

    With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers reported that 16% started working in the sex industry and 7% moved to London to work during the Olympics. Fifty-eight per cent and 45% of sex workers reported fewer clients and an increase in police crack-downs, respectively. Our results show a change in activity across these services during the 2012 summer, which may be associated with the Olympics. Our data are a guide to other services when anticipating changes in service activity and planning staffing for mass-gathering events. PMID:24894726

  13. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists.

  14. Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services.

    PubMed

    Hartley, A; Foster, R; Brook, M G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Coyne, K; Hughes, G; Crook, P

    2015-04-01

    With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers reported that 16% started working in the sex industry and 7% moved to London to work during the Olympics. Fifty-eight per cent and 45% of sex workers reported fewer clients and an increase in police crack-downs, respectively. Our results show a change in activity across these services during the 2012 summer, which may be associated with the Olympics. Our data are a guide to other services when anticipating changes in service activity and planning staffing for mass-gathering events.

  15. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  16. An annotated catalogue of type specimens of the land snail genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Nantarat, Nattawadee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Ablett, Jonathan; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The collection of land caenogastropod snails in the genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 52 type lots. Lectotypes have been designated for 43 available species-level names to stabilize existing nomenclature, two previously designated lectotype, two holotypes, one paratype, one syntype, one possible syntype and two paralectotypes are also listed. A complete catalogue of the Cyclophorus types in NHM, London is provided for the first time. PMID:24899854

  17. Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionment of black carbon aerosol in London during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Coe, H.; Beddows, D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Harrison, R. M.; Lee, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Taylor, J. W.; Yin, J.; Williams, P. I.; Zotter, P.

    2014-09-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) at a London urban site were characterised in both winter- and summertime 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) factors of organic aerosol mass spectra measured by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) showed traffic-dominant sources in summer but in winter the influence of additional non-traffic sources became more important, mainly from solid fuel sources (SF). Measurements using a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT), showed the traffic-dominant BC exhibited an almost uniform BC core size (Dc) distribution with very thin coating thickness throughout the detectable range of Dc. However, the size distribution of sf (project average mass median Dc = 149 ± 22 nm in winter, and 120 ± 6 nm in summer) and BC coating thickness varied significantly in winter. A novel methodology was developed to attribute the BC number concentrations and mass abundances from traffic (BCtr) and from SF (BCsf), by using a 2-D histogram of the particle optical properties as a function of BC core size, as measured by the SP2. The BCtr and BCsf showed distinctly different sf distributions and coating thicknesses, with BCsf displaying larger Dc and larger coating thickness compared to BCtr. BC particles from different sources were also apportioned by applying a multiple linear regression between the total BC mass and each AMS-PMF factor (BC-AMS-PMF method), and also attributed by applying the absorption spectral dependence of carbonaceous aerosols to 7-wavelength Aethalometer measurements (Aethalometer method). Air masses that originated from westerly (W), southeasterly (SE), and easterly (E) sectors showed BCsf fractions that ranged from low to high, and whose mass median Dc values were 137 ± 10 nm, 143 ± 11 nm and 169 ± 29 nm, respectively. The corresponding bulk relative coating thickness of BC (coated particle size/BC core - Dp/Dc) for these same sectors was 1.28 ± 0.07, 1.45 ± 0

  18. Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionments of black carbon aerosols in London during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Coe, H.; Beddows, D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Harrison, R. M.; Lee, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Taylor, J. W.; Yin, J.; Williams, P. I.; Zotter, P.

    2014-06-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) at a London urban site were characterized in both winter and summer time 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) factors of organic aerosol mass spectra measured by a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) showed traffic-dominant sources in summer but in winter the influence of additional non-traffic sources became more important, mainly from solid fuel sources (SF). Measurements using a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT), showed the traffic-dominant BC exhibited an almost uniform BC core size (Dc) distribution with very thin coating thickness throughout the detectable range of Dc. However the size distribution of Dc (project average mass median Dc = 149 ± 22 nm in winter, and 120 ± 6 nm in summer) and BC coating thickness varied significantly in winter. A novel methodology was developed to attribute the BC number concentrations and mass abundances from traffic (BCtr) and from SF (BCsf), by using a 2-D histogram of the particle optical properties as a function of BC core size, as measured by the SP2. The BCtr and BCsf showed distinctly different Dc distributions and coating thicknesses, with BCsf displaying larger Dc and larger coating thickness compared to BCtr. BC particles from different sources were also apportioned by applying a multiple linear regression between the total BC mass and each AMS-PMF factor (BC-AMS-PMF method), and also attributed by applying the absorption spectral dependence of carbonaceous aerosols to 7-wavelength Aethalometer measurements (Aethalometer method). Air masses that originated from westerly (W), southeasterly (SE), or easterly (E) sectors showed BCsf fractions that ranged from low to high, and whose mass median Dc values were 137 ± 10 nm, 143 ± 11 nm, and 169 ± 29 nm respectively. The corresponding bulk relative coating thickness of BC (coated particle size / BC core - Dp / Dc) for these same sectors was 1.28 ± 0.07, 1.45 ± 0

  19. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Whalley, L. K.; Heard, D. E.; Stone, D.; Dunmore, R. E.; Hamilton, J. F.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in summer 2012. Data were collected from 22 July to 18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation, and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ˜ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime, peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak, suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH, and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to 0, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources from the literature, including dark conversion of NO2 on surfaces, direct emission, photolysis of ortho-substituted nitrophenols, the postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 × H2O with NO2, photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 on ground and aerosols, and HONO produced by photosensitized conversion of NO2 on the surface increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant missing daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity (used as a proxy for organic material), with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2), in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. Increasing the photosensitized surface conversion rate of NO2 by a factor of 10 to a mean daytime first

  20. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in antenatal clinic attenders in south east London.

    PubMed

    Hale, A; Leung, T; Sivasubramaniam, S; Kenny, J; Sutherland, S

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in women attending a south east London antenatal clinic between October 1990 and July 1992 was determined using sera referred for routine rubella antibody testing. Samples were screened for HTLV antibody using a modified Fujirebio gel particle agglutination test and reactive sera confirmed by ELISA (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and two commercial Western blots (Cambridge Biotech Inc., Rockville, MD, and Diagnostic Biotechnology, Genelab Diagnostics, Louvaine, Belgium). This strategy confirmed the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies in 12 out of 6,289 sera (0.19%, 95% confidence limits 0.083% to 0.30%) and HTLV-2 antibodies in 2 (0.03%) sera. Specimens from 8 of 821 (0.97%, 95% confidence limits 0.42% to 1.9%) Afro-Caribbean women, three of 1,136 (0.26%, 95% confidence limits 0.055% to 0.78%) African women, and one of 3,049 (0.033%, 95% confidence limits 0.006% to 0.18%) Caucasian women were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the Caribbean were 7.6 times more likely to be HTLV-1 antibody positive than sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the UK (P = 0.012). Selective testing of Afro-Caribbean and African antenatal clinic attenders, in this setting, would have identified 11 of the 12 HTLV-1 infections at an estimated cost of prevention of HTLV-1 associated disease of 100,000 pounds per case which is considerably less than the 1.3 million pounds which has been estimated to prevent a case by universal screening of UK blood donors.

  2. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear. PMID:10535124

  3. Fear of crime, mobility and mental health in inner-city London, UK.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Prince, Martin

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the relationship between fear of crime and mental health, and assesses the role interventions may have in helping overcome any negative impact arising from this fear. The data were gathered over a 2-year period in the Gospel Oak neighbourhood of North London using in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. The data are analysed primarily by comparing the impact of fear of crime across sub-groups notably divided by gender, age and mental health status. It was found that fear of crime had a disproportionately negative impact on certain sub-groups, most notably low-income mothers, and to a lesser extent the mentally ill. They experienced what we term "time-space inequalities" as a consequence of fear of crime and other related factors. These inequalities describe variation in the ability to access and utilise different times and spaces within both the immediate and the wider environment. These have negative behavioural and affective consequences that appear to impact on overall mental health. They restrict spatial and temporal movement deterring protective social activity, health-promoting community involvement and use of services. Affective consequences include negative mood and low self-esteem. These inequalities were experienced less in other groups such as mentally healthy men or middle-income women. They appeared to be diminished by interventions that encourage spatial and temporal movement. These include comprehensive local transport, government-issued free travel passes for vulnerable populations and neighbourhood community safety measures such as the installation of CCTV. We suggest that experience of time-space inequalities may be damaging to mental health and that interventions which lessen them may help prevent, ameliorate or shorten episodes of mental illness.

  4. Scheduling and adaptation of London's future water supply and demand schemes under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, Ivana; Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Harou, Julien J.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-04-01

    The changing needs of society and the uncertainty of future conditions complicate the planning of future water infrastructure and its operating policies. These systems must meet the multi-sector demands of a range of stakeholders whose objectives often conflict. Understanding these conflicts requires exploring many alternative plans to identify possible compromise solutions and important system trade-offs. The uncertainties associated with future conditions such as climate change and population growth challenge the decision making process. Ideally planners should consider portfolios of supply and demand management schemes represented as dynamic trajectories over time able to adapt to the changing environment whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Decisions can be scheduled and adapted over the planning period to minimize the present cost of portfolios while maintaining the supply-demand balance and ecosystem services as the future unfolds. Yet such plans are difficult to identify due to the large number of alternative plans to choose from, the uncertainty of future conditions and the computational complexity of such problems. Our study optimizes London's future water supply system investments as well as their scheduling and adaptation over time using many-objective scenario optimization, an efficient water resource system simulator, and visual analytics for exploring key system trade-offs. The solutions are compared to Pareto approximate portfolios obtained from previous work where the composition of infrastructure portfolios that did not change over the planning period. We explore how the visual analysis of solutions can aid decision making by investigating the implied performance trade-offs and how the individual schemes and their trajectories present in the Pareto approximate portfolios affect the system's behaviour. By doing so decision makers are given the opportunity to decide the balance between many system goals a posteriori as well as

  5. Food, home and health: the meanings of food amongst Bengali Women in London

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores the nature of food and plants and their meanings in a British Bengali urban context. It focuses on the nature of plants and food in terms of their role in home making, transnational connections, generational change and concepts of health. Methods An ethnographic approach to the research was taken, specific methods included participant observation, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. Thirty women of Bengali origin were mostly composed of “mother” and “daughter” pairs. The mothers were over 45 years old and had migrated from Bangladesh as adults and their grown-up daughters grew up in the UK. Results Food and plants play an important role in the construction of home “here” (London) while continuing to connect people to home “there” (Sylhet). This role, however, changes and is re-defined across generations. Looking at perceptions of “healthy” and “unhealthy” food, particularly in the context of Bengali food, multiple views of what constitutes “healthy” food exist. However, there appeared to be little two-way dialogue about this concept between the research participants and health professionals. This seems to be based on “cultural” and power differences that need to be addressed for a meaningful dialogue to occur. Conclusion In summary, this paper argues that while food is critical to the familial spaces of home (both locally and globally), it is defined by a complex interplay of actors and wider meanings as illustrated by concepts of health and what constitutes Bengali food. Therefore, we call for greater dialogue between health professionals and those they interact with, to allow for an enhanced appreciation of the dynamic nature of food and plants and the diverse perceptions of the role that they play in promoting health. PMID:24886061

  6. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  7. The Self-Association of Graphane Is Driven by London Dispersion and Enhanced Orbital Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changwei; Mo, Yirong; Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason

    2015-04-14

    We investigated the nature of the cohesive energy between graphane sheets via multiple CH···HC interactions, using density functional theory (DFT) including dispersion correction (Grimme's D3 approach) computations of [n]graphane σ dimers (n = 6-73). For comparison, we also evaluated the binding between graphene sheets that display prototypical π/π interactions. The results were analyzed using the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory. BLW interprets the intermolecular interactions in terms of frozen interaction energy (ΔE(F)) composed of electrostatic and Pauli repulsion interactions, polarization (ΔE(pol)), charge-transfer interaction (ΔE(CT)), and dispersion effects (ΔE(disp)). The BLW analysis reveals that the cohesive energy between graphane sheets is dominated by two stabilizing effects, namely intermolecular London dispersion and two-way charge transfer energy due to the σ(CH) → σ*(HC) interactions. The shift of the electron density around the nonpolar covalent C-H bonds involved in the intermolecular interaction decreases the C-H bond lengths uniformly by 0.001 Å. The ΔE(CT) term, which accounts for ∼15% of the total binding energy, results in the accumulation of electron density in the interface area between two layers. This accumulated electron density thus acts as an electronic "glue" for the graphane layers and constitutes an important driving force in the self-association and stability of graphane under ambient conditions. Similarly, the "double faced adhesive tape" style of charge transfer interactions was also observed among graphene sheets in which it accounts for ∼18% of the total binding energy. The binding energy between graphane sheets is additive and can be expressed as a sum of CH···HC interactions, or as a function of the number of C-H bonds. PMID:26574371

  8. Impact of rotavirus infection on a paediatric hospital in the east end of London.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, J S; Parker, S P; Choules, K; Phillips, A D; Walker-Smith, J; Cubitt, W D

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To study the impact of confirmed rotavirus infection at a paediatric hospital; to use the data to obtain a minimum estimate of the cost of treating reported cases of rotavirus in England and Wales. METHODS--Data were obtained on all patients with rotavirus over a two year period. Information was collected on 386 patients with rotavirus infection who were treated at the 120 bed Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in East London. This included the virus serotype, the patient's age, whether they required intravenous infusion, duration of hospital stay, numbers of patients treated in the casualty department, and numbers who had to be admitted. Treatment costs were obtained from the Finance Department of the Hospitals for Sick Children. RESULTS--The minimum cost of treating patients, excluding the cost of medical staff at the hospital, was estimated to be 95,400 pounds a year. One hundred and forty eight (38%) patients were admitted to the wards and a further 49 patients developed symptoms while in hospital. Intravenous infusion was required by 18 patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.5 days. One hundred and eighty nine (49%) patients were treated with oral rehydration solution in casualty, given advice, and sent home. Ninety four per cent of the patients were aged under 2 years. The findings were comparable with those obtained in a study at Texas Children's Hospital, USA. The G serotype (VP7) of rotavirus did not influence the severity of infection. CONCLUSION--Rotavirus infections accounted for a significant number of patients treated in casualty, admissions to hospital, and bed occupancy in a paediatric hospital. The estimated cost of treating reported cases of rotavirus in England and Wales is in excess of 6.3 pounds million a year. PMID:8132813

  9. The Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviors of Latino Children in London (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Mandich, Gillian; Burke, Shauna; Gaston, Anca; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of a sample of Latino children in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods: Seventy-four Latino children (54.1% male; mean age = 11.4) completed self-report questionnaires related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A subset of children (n = 64) wore Actical (Mini Mitter, Respironics) accelerometers for a maximum of four days. Results: Latino children self-reported moderate levels of physical activity (i.e., mean score of 2.8 on 5-point scale). Accelerometer data revealed that children spent an average of 50.0 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 59.2 min on weekdays and 50.6 min on weekend days) and were sedentary for an average of 8.4 h (508.0 min) per day (533.5 min on weekdays and 497.7 min on weekend days). Children reported spending an average of 3.8 h (228 min) daily in front of screens—1.7 h (102 min) watching television, 1.2 h (72 min) on the computer, and 0.9 h (54 min) playing video games. Conclusions: This feasibility project provided a preliminary account of objectively measured daily physical activity and sedentary time among a sample of Latino children in Canada, as well as insight into the challenge of measuring these behaviors. Sedentary behavior reduction techniques should be explored and implemented in this young population, along with strategies to promote adherence to accelerometer protocols. PMID:26006126

  10. Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Kelly, F J

    2014-01-01

    Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are powerful oxidants in ambient air that are intimately linked through atmospheric chemistry and which continuously interchange over very short timescales. Based upon atmospheric chemistry alone, there is a strong, a priori, reason for considering O3 and NO2 together in epidemiological studies, rather than either of the two pollutants separately in single-pollutant models. This paper compares two approaches to this, using Ox, defined as O3 + NO2, as a single metric and also using O3 and NO2 together in two-pollutant models. We hypothesised that the magnitude of the association between Ox and daily mortality would be greater than for NO2 and O3 individually. Using collocated hourly measurements for O3 and NO2 in London, from 2000 to 2005, we carried out a time series analysis of daily mortality. We investigated O3, NO2 and Ox individually in single-pollutant Poisson regression models and NO2 and O3 jointly in two-pollutant models in both all-year and season-specific analyses. We observed larger associations for mean 24-h concentrations of Ox (1.30 % increase in mortality per 10 ppb) than for O3 (0.87 %) and NO2 (0 %) individually. However, when analysed jointly in two-pollutant models, associations for O3 (1.54 %) and NO2 (1.07 %) were comparable to the Ox association. Season-specific analyses broadly followed this pattern irrespective of whether the Ox concentrations were driven by O3 production (summer) or depletion (winter). This novel approach in air pollution epidemiology captures the simultaneous impact of both oxidants whilst avoiding many of the statistical issues associated with two-pollutant models and potentially simplifies health impact calculations. PMID:25431629

  11. Use of contraception in women who present for termination of pregnancy in inner London.

    PubMed

    Price, S J; Barrett, G; Smith, C; Paterson, C

    1997-11-01

    To assess the contraceptive needs of induced abortion patients, a 3-month (1992-93) prospective study was conducted of 269 women presenting to a National Health Service clinic in London, England, for pregnancy termination. 163 women (62.6%) had been using contraception--primarily condoms--around the time they became pregnant, but 86 failed to use the method correctly. Another 81 women (31.2%) had used contraceptives in the past, but not at the time of the index conception. 73 of these women were former pill users and 39 had used condoms. 39.5% of these women had discontinued use because of contraceptive side effects, particularly nausea. Finally, 16 women (6.2%) had never used a contraceptive method. 15 of these women were from outside the UK and had difficulties speaking English. When asked what form of contraception they would like to use in the future, 48.8% of abortion patients identified the pill, 11.9% wanted Depo-Provera, 7.3% chose condoms, and 6.5% wanted the IUD. Chemists were a major source of contraceptive supplies for women in this study, and this trend may represent a way of avoiding discussions of sexual activity with health professionals. Among the recommendations emerging from this study are more widespread education about and availability of emergency contraception, health promotion education in pharmacies, enhanced training of general practitioners in pill prescribing criteria and counseling, efforts to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancies, and the preparation of educational materials for non-English speaking family planning clients.

  12. More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen

    2014-03-01

    This study contributes to the literature on mobility and wellbeing at older ages through an empirical exploration of the meanings of free bus travel for older citizens, addressing the meanings this holds for older people in urban settings, which have been under-researched. Taking London as a case study, where older citizens have free access to a relatively extensive public transport network through a Freedom Pass, we explore from a public health perspective the mechanisms that link this travel benefit to determinants of wellbeing. In addition to the ways in which the Freedom Pass enabled access to health-related goods and services, it provided less tangible benefits. Travelling by bus provided opportunities for meaningful social interaction; travelling as part of the 'general public' provided a sense of belonging and visibility in the public arena - a socially acceptable way of tackling chronic loneliness. The Freedom Pass was described not only as providing access to essential goods and services but also as a widely prized mechanism for participation in life in the city. We argue that the mechanisms linking mobility and wellbeing are culturally, materially and politically specific. Our data suggest that in contexts where good public transport is available as a right, and bus travel not stigmatised, it is experienced as a major contributor to wellbeing, rather than a transport choice of last resort. This has implications for other jurisdictions working on accessible transport for older citizens and, more broadly, improving the sustainability of cities.

  13. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378 000 (2013). Participants 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. Outcome measures (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Results Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). Conclusions In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. PMID:26656014

  14. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0–2 years. Methods Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. Results The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Conclusions Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. PMID:25724610

  15. More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen

    2014-03-01

    This study contributes to the literature on mobility and wellbeing at older ages through an empirical exploration of the meanings of free bus travel for older citizens, addressing the meanings this holds for older people in urban settings, which have been under-researched. Taking London as a case study, where older citizens have free access to a relatively extensive public transport network through a Freedom Pass, we explore from a public health perspective the mechanisms that link this travel benefit to determinants of wellbeing. In addition to the ways in which the Freedom Pass enabled access to health-related goods and services, it provided less tangible benefits. Travelling by bus provided opportunities for meaningful social interaction; travelling as part of the 'general public' provided a sense of belonging and visibility in the public arena - a socially acceptable way of tackling chronic loneliness. The Freedom Pass was described not only as providing access to essential goods and services but also as a widely prized mechanism for participation in life in the city. We argue that the mechanisms linking mobility and wellbeing are culturally, materially and politically specific. Our data suggest that in contexts where good public transport is available as a right, and bus travel not stigmatised, it is experienced as a major contributor to wellbeing, rather than a transport choice of last resort. This has implications for other jurisdictions working on accessible transport for older citizens and, more broadly, improving the sustainability of cities. PMID:24478532

  16. Reexamination of London, England, mortality in relation to exposure to acidic aerosols during 1963-1972 winters

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Ito, K.; Lippmann, M.; Hayes, C.

    1989-02-01

    Air pollution epidemiology since the 1950s has been able to demonstrate that increases in daily mortality in London, England, were associated with elevated concentrations of index air pollutants, i.e., British Smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). In this work, we reanalyze that portion of the 1958-1972 winter mortality-pollution record for which daily direct acid aerosol measurements were made at a central site in London (St. Bartholomew's Medical College). The purposes of these exploratory analyses are to examine the dataset for indications of a relationship between acid aerosol pollution and human mortality and to compare any noted associations with those for other pollution variables. It is found that the log of acid aerosol concentrations is more strongly associated with raw total mortality in bivariate analyses than is BS or SO2, despite the fact that acid data are available from only one central site (versus seven disperse sites for BS and SO/sub 2/). The logarithmic nature of the exposure side of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-mortality relationship implies a saturation model of pollution effects, possibly due to multiday pollution harvesting influences on a susceptible subpopulation. Moreover, mortality-pollution cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality effects usually follow pollution in time, supporting a causal relationship between the two. The apparent advantage of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ over BS in predicting total raw mortality is consistent with the hypothesis that it is the portion of particulate mass of greater health significance and may also allow the development of London mortality results which are more easily transferable to other environments than is the case for existing BS results.

  17. Reexamination of London, England, mortality in relation to exposure to acidic aerosols during 1963-1972 winters.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G D; Ito, K; Lippmann, M; Hayes, C

    1989-02-01

    Air pollution epidemiology since the 1950s has been able to demonstrate that increases in daily mortality in London, England, were associated with elevated concentrations of index air pollutants, i.e., British Smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In this work, we reanalyze that portion of the 1958-1972 winter mortality-pollution record for which daily direct acid aerosol measurements were made at a central site in London (St. Bartholomew's Medical College). The purposes of these exploratory analyses are to examine the dataset for indications of a relationship between acid aerosol pollution and human mortality and to compare any noted associations with those for other pollution variables. It is found that the log of acid aerosol concentrations is more strongly associated with raw total mortality in bivariate analyses than is BS or SO2, despite the fact that acid data are available from only one central site (versus seven disperse sites for BS and SO2). The logarithmic nature of the exposure side of the H2SO4-mortality relationship implies a saturation model of pollution effects, possibly due to multiday pollution harvesting influences on a susceptible subpopulation. Moreover, mortality-pollution cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality effects usually follow pollution in time, supporting a causal relationship between the two. The apparent advantage of H2SO4 over BS in predicting total raw mortality is consistent with the hypothesis that it is the portion of particulate mass of greater health significance and may also allow the development of London mortality results which are more easily transferable to other environments than is the case for existing BS results.

  18. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Muslim footballers towards Ramadan fasting during the London 2012 Olympics: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Christopher P; Zerguini, Yacine; Almudahka, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Muslims observe fasting during the month of Ramadan by abstaining from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Available literature shows that although several studies have been conducted on athletes to determine the effects of Ramadan fasting in terms of physical fitness and performance, little data are available regarding the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of athletes (particularly footballers) towards Ramadan fasting during high-level competitions. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among football players participating in the London 2012 Olympics football tournament. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings Team training facility. Participants 54 Muslim footballers participating in the London Olympics, 2012 Outcome measures Each participant was asked to complete a pre-validated structured questionnaire to assess knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding Ramadan fasting and their intention to fast during London 2012. Results Of the 54 participating athletes, 21(39%) reported that they intended to fast during Ramadan, but not on a match day. This attitude differed across three teams interviewed —83%, 15% and 0%—showing cross-cultural variation. Overall, there was a lack of knowledge among footballers regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep and performance; around 30% of athletes gave incorrect responses. This knowledge was independent of their decision to fast on non-competition days (p>0.05). Conclusions This is the first study to describe the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among athletes from Muslim-majority countries participating in a high-level competition. Appropriate knowledge can ensure optimum performance for athletes during Ramadan fasting. Coaches, family members and friends also in possession of this knowledge can provide moral support to the players. PMID:27670523

  19. Reexamination of London, England, mortality in relation to exposure to acidic aerosols during 1963-1972 winters.

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, G D; Ito, K; Lippmann, M; Hayes, C

    1989-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology since the 1950s has been able to demonstrate that increases in daily mortality in London, England, were associated with elevated concentrations of index air pollutants, i.e., British Smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In this work, we reanalyze that portion of the 1958-1972 winter mortality-pollution record for which daily direct acid aerosol measurements were made at a central site in London (St. Bartholomew's Medical College). The purposes of these exploratory analyses are to examine the dataset for indications of a relationship between acid aerosol pollution and human mortality and to compare any noted associations with those for other pollution variables. It is found that the log of acid aerosol concentrations is more strongly associated with raw total mortality in bivariate analyses than is BS or SO2, despite the fact that acid data are available from only one central site (versus seven disperse sites for BS and SO2). The logarithmic nature of the exposure side of the H2SO4-mortality relationship implies a saturation model of pollution effects, possibly due to multiday pollution harvesting influences on a susceptible subpopulation. Moreover, mortality-pollution cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality effects usually follow pollution in time, supporting a causal relationship between the two. The apparent advantage of H2SO4 over BS in predicting total raw mortality is consistent with the hypothesis that it is the portion of particulate mass of greater health significance and may also allow the development of London mortality results which are more easily transferable to other environments than is the case for existing BS results. PMID:2785034

  20. The sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans (SALLEE Project): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK). The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans) set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet) and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number of CEE migrants for the

  1. PM2.5 Indoor Air Quality at Two Sites in London Ontario - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, A. V.; Xu, X.; Gilliland, J.; Maltby, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Studies have shown an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health impacts, particularly for the elderly and children. As part of a larger study, PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the DustTrak (Model 8520, TSI, St. Paul, MN, USA) at two schools within the city of London, Ontario (Canada). Site A was in a suburban environment while site B was in an urban setting. Monitoring took place for 3 weeks during winter (Feb. 16 - Mar. 8) and 3 weeks during spring (May 05 - 25) of 2010. The winter campaign monitored indoor PM2.5 only, while the spring campaign added outdoor monitors (PM2.5 and CO2) after the first week. Ten min. concentrations were used for analysis. Indoor measurements were split into weekday and weekend. For the same time interval, the outdoor concentrations showed mean values of 18 and 21 μg/m3 for sites A & B, respectively, both under the Canada Wide Standard of 30 μg/m3. Measurements at the two sites showed good associations (R^2 = 0.44), during the spring campaign. This indicates that the outdoor PM2.5 had similar sources. For indoor concentrations, Site B showed a significantly different mean concentration 5 times higher compared to site A during the winter ( 8.1 vs. 1.5 μg/m3 ) and 3 times higher (11.9 vs. 3.7 μg/m3) during the spring campaign. Since the outdoor concentrations were similar the large difference in indoor concentrations could be attributed to the following factors: site B being an older building, and the different physical characteristics between the two sites. The spring measurements showed an increase of 50% from weekday to weekend for site A and 22% for site B. The higher level of PM2.5 during weekends is possibly due to the infiltration of outdoor air while the ventilation/filtration system is shut off. During the winter campaign, Site A showed a 14% higher concentration during weekdays compared to weekends while site B weekend concentrations were 17% higher compared to weekday, which will be

  2. London-vdW and EDL effects in the coalescence of oil drops

    SciTech Connect

    Deshiikan, S.R.; Papadopoulos, K.D.

    1995-09-15

    Visual observations of coalescence of n-hexadecane oil drops (70--140 {micro}m in diameter) suspended inside an aqueous phase of varying pH are reported. The oil drops are produced in situ and confined inside the aqueous-phase-filled fine capillary (100--160 {micro}m i.d.). Rapid, spontaneous coalescence was observed at low pH ({approx_lt} 2.5) as soon as two drops were very carefully brought into apparent contact. At very high pH ({approx_gt} 13.0), coalescence was observed some time after the drops made contact. No coalescence was observed at intermediate pH 5.2, 7.1, and 10.9. The coalescence times at pH 2.2 and 2.4 were less than 0.033 s. At pH 3.2, 12, and 13.1, the coalescence times were 8, 20, and 1.8 s, respectively. The coalescence time in the acidic solution of a certain pH was distinctly lower than that in the basic solution of equivalent pOH. The coalescence tendency increased with an increase in the acidity or basicity of the aqueous phase. Also, in strongly basic or acidic media, freshly formed drops were more susceptible to coalescence. Visual observations of collision interactions are qualitatively described. When two drops were made to collide, coalescence was rapid at all pH at which coalescence was previously observed for the stationary drops. Almost no coalescence was observed at the intermediate pH`s 5.2, 7.1, and 10.9, even after repeated collisions between the drops. The relative velocity of the collision interactions ranged from 100 to 2,100 {micro}m/s. The observed phenomena are explained on the basis of the London-van der Waals and electrical double layer forces, which are important either in stabilizing the thin liquid film formed between the approaching drops or in drawing the two interfaces close enough to thin the liquid film to the critical rupture thickness range. In this range, it is believed that thin liquid film properties control the rupture process.

  3. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  4. Receptor modelling of both particle composition and size distribution from a background site in London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Green, D. C.; Fuller, G. W.

    2015-09-01

    Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis was applied to PM10 chemical composition and particle number size distribution (NSD) data measured at an urban background site (North Kensington) in London, UK, for the whole of 2011 and 2012. The PMF analyses for these 2 years revealed six and four factors respectively which described seven sources or aerosol types. These included nucleation, traffic, urban background, secondary, fuel oil, marine and non-exhaust/crustal sources. Urban background, secondary and traffic sources were identified by both the chemical composition and particle NSD analysis, but a nucleation source was identified only from the particle NSD data set. Analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data set revealed fuel oil, marine, non-exhaust traffic/crustal sources which were not identified from the NSD data. The two methods appear to be complementary, as the analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data is able to distinguish components contributing largely to particle mass, whereas the number particle size distribution data set - although limited to detecting sources of particles below the diameter upper limit of the SMPS (604 nm) - is more effective for identifying components making an appreciable contribution to particle number. Analysis was also conducted on the combined chemical composition and NSD data set, revealing five factors representing urban background, nucleation, secondary, aged marine and traffic sources. However, the combined analysis appears not to offer any additional power to discriminate sources above that of the aggregate of the two separate PMF analyses. Day-of-the-week and month-of-the-year associations of the factors proved consistent with their assignment to source categories, and bivariate polar plots which examined the wind directional and wind speed association of the different factors also proved highly consistent with their inferred sources. Source attribution according to the air mass back trajectory showed, as

  5. The flow mechanism in the Chalk based on radio-isotope analyses of groundwater in the London Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downing, R.A.; Pearson, F.J.; Smith, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    14C analyses of groundwaters from the Chalk of the London Basin are re-interpreted and the age of the groundwater is revised. Radio-isotope analyses are used to examine the flow mechanism in the aquifer. The evidence supports the view that a network of micro-fissures and larger intergranular pores in the matrix provides a significant part of the water pumped from Chalk wells and the major fissures distribute the water to the wells. Most of the matrix is fine-grained and contains a very old water. This diffuses into the micro-fissures and larger pores and is carried to the wells by the major fissures. ?? 1979.

  6. "Wham bam tap scratch screech": the brief-but proud-history of Lesbian London, 1991-1994.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    During its time in circulation from 1991-1994, Lesbian London set out to provide a voice for lesbians, but also to resist what it saw as the creeping malaise of commercialization and depoliticization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. Virtually every topic of relevance to its readership was covered within the pages of each monthly issue, available free of charge. Despite its standout contribution, the magazine has been all but forgotten. Moreover, its untimely demise raises important questions about the future prospects of radical, non-commercial publications as well as about the direction of LGBT politics. PMID:24400633

  7. Medical societies and insanity in late-eighteenth-century London: the fight between Andrew Marshal and John Hunter.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2005-03-01

    In 1789, at a meeting of a small London society for the promotion of medical and surgical knowledge, Andrew Marshal (1742-1813) and John Hunter (1728-1793) engaged in heated debate regarding the association between mania and the structure of the brain. Marshal claimed to have observed abnormalities when dissecting brains of those who died insane and Hunter denied this connection. At the next meeting a scuffle between them ensued and they had to be parted. Although Marshal did not publish his observations during his lifetime, they were assembled by his assistant in 1815. Marshal's descriptions of the brains of hydrophobics and maniacs are worthy of note.

  8. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) - 17th Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (June 8-11, 2016 - London, UK).

    PubMed

    Walker, G; Croasdell, G

    2016-06-01

    The 2016 Annual European Congress of Rheumatology, an annual conference organized by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), took place in London, U.K. Over 4,000 abstracts were submitted this year with over 199 sessions and poster tours on offer. The congress has become a major event in the field of rheumatology with participants attending from around the world. The oral sessions, poster displays and lectures cover a broad spectrum of topics, including the latest understanding of disease processes, as well as recent advances in diagnosis and patient care. PMID:27458612

  9. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  10. "Persons that live remote from London": apothecaries and the medical marketplace in seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Wales.

    PubMed

    Withey, Alun

    2011-01-01

    This article uses evidence from Welsh apothecary shops as a means to access the mechanisms of the "medical marketplace" in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Wales. As a country physically remote from large urban medical centers, and with few large towns, Wales has often been overlooked in terms of medical commerce. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that Welsh apothecaries participated in broad and sophisticated networks of trade with London suppliers. Moreover, their shops contained a wide range of medicines from herbal simples to exotic ingredients and chemical preparations, highlighting the availability of such goods far from large urban centers. PMID:21804184

  11. "Persons That Live Remote from London": Apothecaries and the Medical Marketplace in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century Wales

    PubMed Central

    Withey, Alun

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article uses evidence from Welsh apothecary shops as a means to access the mechanisms of the "medical marketplace" in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Wales. As a country physically remote from large urban medical centers, and with few large towns, Wales has often been overlooked in terms of medical commerce. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that Welsh apothecaries participated in broad and sophisticated networks of trade with London suppliers. Moreover, their shops contained a wide range of medicines from herbal simples to exotic ingredients and chemical preparations, highlighting the availability of such goods far from large urban centers. PMID:21804184

  12. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  13. Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Dutch Version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale in Patients With Severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Klijn, Peter; Legemaat, Monique; Beelen, Anita; van Keimpema, Anton; Garrod, Rachel; Bergsma, Mirella; Paterson, Bill; Stuijfzand, Andrew; van Stel, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study assesses the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL). The English LCADL version was translated into Dutch and then back-translated to English to check if the translation was conceptually equivalent to the original LCADL. Measurement properties were evaluated in191 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (70 males; age 62 ± 9 years; FEV1 33 ± 10% pred). Construct validity was assessed using disease-specific health status, generic functional status, and functional and peak exercise capacity (Wmax). LCADL was completed twice to assess test–retest reliability. Responsiveness was assessed after 8 to 12 weeks inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. LCADL correlated significantly with the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (r = 0.24 to 0.64), functional status (r = 0.45 to 0.82), walking distance (r = −0.3 to −0.58), and Wmax (−0.27 to −0.38) and Wmax % pred (−0.26 to −0.43). Test–retest reliability was high (ICC 0.87 to 0.98). The smallest detectable change for the LCADL total and domain score self-care, domestic, physical, and leisure was 4.5, 2.9, 3.3, 4.9, and 2.2, respectively. Improvement in LCADL after PR correlated significantly with improvement in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (−0.43; P < 0.001). The Dutch LCADL is a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument to assess limitations in performing activities of daily living in patients with severe COPD. PMID:26656349

  14. Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Dutch Version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale in Patients With Severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Peter; Legemaat, Monique; Beelen, Anita; Keimpema, Anton van; Garrod, Rachel; Bergsma, Mirella; Paterson, Bill; Stuijfzand, Andrew; van Stel, Henk

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL).The English LCADL version was translated into Dutch and then back-translated to English to check if the translation was conceptually equivalent to the original LCADL.Measurement properties were evaluated in191 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (70 males; age 62 ± 9 years; FEV1 33 ± 10% pred). Construct validity was assessed using disease-specific health status, generic functional status, and functional and peak exercise capacity (Wmax). LCADL was completed twice to assess test-retest reliability. Responsiveness was assessed after 8 to 12 weeks inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation.LCADL correlated significantly with the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (r = 0.24 to 0.64), functional status (r = 0.45 to 0.82), walking distance (r = -0.3 to -0.58), and Wmax (-0.27 to -0.38) and Wmax % pred (-0.26 to -0.43). Test-retest reliability was high (ICC 0.87 to 0.98). The smallest detectable change for the LCADL total and domain score self-care, domestic, physical, and leisure was 4.5, 2.9, 3.3, 4.9, and 2.2, respectively. Improvement in LCADL after PR correlated significantly with improvement in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (-0.43; P < 0.001).The Dutch LCADL is a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument to assess limitations in performing activities of daily living in patients with severe COPD.

  15. Evaluation of an Intervention to Help Students Avoid Unintentional Plagiarism by Improving Their Authorial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elander, James; Pittam, Gail; Lusher, Joanne; Fox, Pauline; Payne, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Students with poorly developed authorial identity may be at risk of unintentional plagiarism. An instructional intervention designed specifically to improve authorial identity was delivered to 364 psychology students at three post-1992 universities in London, UK, and evaluated with before-and-after measures of beliefs and attitudes about academic…

  16. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  17. Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

    2010-08-24

    In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats, the definitive role of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Further studies led to identifying the structural features of vitamin D.Although the Bland-Sutton diet provided calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamins A and D from cod-liver oil, some other benefits of this diet were not recognized. Taurine-conjugated bile salts, necessary for intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. Unlike canine and rodent species, felines are unable to synthesize taurine, yet conjugate bile acids exclusively with taurine; hence, it must be provided in the diet. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by addition of minerals and vitamin D. Taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamins A and D, thus preventing the occurrence of metabolic bone disease and rickets.

  18. Characterisation of hydraulic head changes and aquifer properties in the London Basin using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry ground motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, R.; Cigna, F.; Bricker, S.; Meisina, C.; McCormack, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry was applied to ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite data covering 1992-2000 and 2002-2010 respectively, to analyse the relationship between ground motion and hydraulic head changes in the London Basin, United Kingdom. The integration of observed groundwater levels provided by the Environment Agency and satellite-derived displacement time series allowed the estimation of the spatio-temporal variations of the Chalk aquifer storage coefficient and compressibility over an area of ∼1360 km2. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer reaches values of 1 × 10-3 and the estimated average aquifer compressibility is 7.7 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 1.2 × 10-9 Pa-1 for the periods 1992-2000 and 2002-2010, respectively. Derived storage coefficient values appear to be correlated with the hydrogeological setting, where confined by the London Clay the storage coefficient is typically an order of magnitude lower than where the chalk is overlain by the Lambeth Group. PSI-derived storage coefficient estimates agree with the values obtained from pumping tests in the same area. A simplified one-dimensional model is applied to simulate the ground motion response to hydraulic heads changes at nine piezometers. The comparison between simulated and satellite-observed ground motion changes reveals good agreement, with errors ranging between 1.4 and 6.9 mm, and being 3.2 mm on average.

  19. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible. PMID:25568838

  20. The impact of educational level on oral health-related quality of life in older people in London.

    PubMed

    Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Iliffe, Steve; Kharicha, Kalpa; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Gillman, Gerhard; Stuck, Andreas E

    2009-06-01

    There are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health, but the relationship between education and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among older adults has not been adequately studied. This study assessed whether there is an educational gradient in OHRQoL among older people in London. We employed secondary analysis of baseline data (n = 1,090) from a randomized controlled trial of health-risk appraisal on community-dwelling non-disabled people 65 yr of age and older, registered with three group medical practices in suburban London. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the association between OHRQoL [measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI)] and education, adjusted for age, gender, pension status, and denture wearing. Overall, 30.6% reported low levels of OHRQoL. Eating discomfort was the most frequent problem (24% reported 'often/always'), while concerns about appearance were also prevalent. Significant variations in OHRQoL existed between socioeconomic groups. In adjusted analyses, there was a clear education gradient in OHRQoL, with worse perceptions at each lower level of education. Low educational level has an independent negative impact on OHRQoL in older people, which is not explained by differences in income or in denture wearing between educational groups. Policies targeting lower educated groups should be complemented with whole-population strategies for the reduction of oral health inequalities.