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Sample records for improvement geosystems london

  1. Arid Zone Geosystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    the transition of the emphasis of the Nahal Yael Research Project from the direct measurement approach of the late six- ties and early seventies, to...lffLASSIFIEDflfl ARID ZONE GEOSYSTEMS A RESEARCH REPORT C- EDITED BY ASHER P. SCHICK fr~ PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY I INSTITUTE OF EARTH SCIENCESi o THE HEBREW...second comprehensive collection and analysis of geosystem- oriented environmental data based on the Nahal Yael Research Watershed, located in the Negev

  2. School Improvement in London: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavy, Tony; Elwick, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This report considers how successful London's schools have been over the past decade and identifies potentially transferable components of the success story. There is much to be learned from the transformation undergone in London that is relevant to policymakers and educationalists worldwide, working in both high-income and low-income countries.…

  3. Water in the Geosystem: Phase Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Ira W.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the hydrologic cycle, the overall flow of water in the geosystem. Reviews the basic phase relationships among water, ice, and water vapor which are integrat parts of the hydrologic cycle. (JR)

  4. Water in the Geosystem: Phase Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Ira W.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the hydrologic cycle, the overall flow of water in the geosystem. Reviews the basic phase relationships among water, ice, and water vapor which are integrat parts of the hydrologic cycle. (JR)

  5. Improved performance in the Tower of London test following yoga.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, S

    2001-07-01

    Twenty girls between 10 and 13 years of age, studying at a residential school were randomly assigned to two groups. One group practiced yoga for one hour fifteen minutes per day, 7 days a week, while the other group was given physical training for the same time. Time for planning and for execution and the number of moves required to complete the Tower of London task were assessed for both groups at the beginning and end of a month. These three assessments were separately tested in increasingly complex tasks requiring 2-moves, 4-moves and 5-moves. The pre-post data were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test. The yoga group showed a significant reduction in planning time for both 2-moves and 4-moves tasks (53.9 and 59.1 percent respectively), execution time in both 4-moves and 5-moves tasks (63.7 and 60.3 percent respectively), and in the number of moves in the 4-moves tasks (20.9 percent). The physical training group showed no change. Hence yoga training for a month reduced the planning and execution time in simple (2-moves) as well as complex tasks (4, 5-moves) and facilitated reaching the target with a smaller number of moves in a complex task (4-moves).

  6. Improving handovers across a North London Mental Health Trust

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer; Manghnani, Reena; Sommerlad, Andrew; Ikkos, George

    2014-01-01

    The GMC Survey June 2011 highlighted that trainees in Barnet, Enfield and Haringey Mental Health Trust (BEH-MHT) were dissatisfied with the Trust's handover process. At this time there were no Trust guidelines on handovers. A quality improvement project was developed to create a consistent out of hours handover process and to improve staff satisfaction thereafter. Handover guidelines were implemented throughout the Trust on 1/2/12. An audit was carried out to measure staff compliance with handovers. A questionnaire was sent out to staff before and after implementation of the guidelines to assess satisfaction with handovers. The audit results highlighted that handovers occurred relatively consistently across the Trust following implementation of the guidelines. The questionnaire results showed an improvement in staff satisfaction with the handover process. The clinical implication of this project is an improved process of out of hours handover across BEH-MHT. PMID:26732241

  7. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  8. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  9. Theoretical and methodological foundations of sustainable development of Geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pukish, A. V.; Zelmanovych, A.; Yakovlyuk, Kh

    2017-05-01

    The theoretical and methodological foundations of sustainable development of Geosystems were further evolved. It was grounded the new scientific direction “constructive Hydroecology” - the science that studies the Hydrosphere from the standpoint of natural and technogenic safety based on geosystematical approach. A structural separation for constructive Hydroecology based on objective, subjective, and application characteristics was set. The main object of study of the new scientific field is the hydroecological environment under which the part of Hydrosphere should be understood as a part of the multicomponent dynamic system that is influenced by engineering and economical human activities and, in turn, determines to some extent this activity.

  10. Natural and transformed geosystems of the Tunkinskaya depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the spatiotemporal variability in natural and transformed geosystems at different nature management stages. We investigated the spatiotemporal variability in the geosystems by using, as an example, the key area measuring 890 km2, located in the Tunka district (south part of Eastern Siberia) in the eastern part of the Tunkinskaya depression - the most developed area of the territory under consideration. Staring in the latter half of the 19th century till the present, the evolution of the derivative geosystems in the structure of natural piedmont taiga and piedmont and intermontane troughs of the subtaiga complexes in the Tunkinskaya depression was promoted by a whole set of economic activities. By virtue of the physical- geographical characteristics of the territory, the most widespread were agricultural activities leading to the absence (within the study area, on the slopes and bottoms of the depressions) of natural larch (with the inclusion of pine) forb swamped, Siberian bog sedge- fescue and small-grass steppizated-meadow cryogenic groups of facies. Throughout the entire 20th century and till the present, agricultural lands have occupied about one third of the study area while, with due regard for the meadows used as hayfields and pastures, the total percentage of the area occupied by these complexes constitutes about 53%. The forestry-related and recreational, highly fire- hazardous activities resulted in a considerable reduction in natural mountain-taiga Siberian stone pine and larch forests, with coniferous tree species being replaced by deciduous species. Thus, while in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, within the mountain-taiga territories, secondary small-leaved forests occupied slightly more than 4% of the study area, tending to occur in the vicinities to human settlements in places of old felling areas, this figure increased five times to exceed 20% in the mid- and late century. On the whole, taking into

  11. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  12. Improving pressure ulcer risk assessment and management using the Waterlow scale at a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, S; Gao, L; Nageshwaran, S; Vickers, C; Bottomley, T; Grewal, P

    2014-12-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) cost the National Health Service (NHS) up to 4% of its health care expenditure. Arising from this are also clinical negligence claims, where inadequate risk assessment has been cited as one of the principal drawbacks in the prevention of PUs. This two-cycle audit aims to examine the consistency and accuracy of risk assessment of patients, and demonstrates how simple focused interventions can improve the quality of care provided. The Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment tool was employed to assess inpatients during a 6-month period at a London teaching hospital. Patients were risk assessed, and examined to detect PUs and to determine the type of mattress. We compared our findings with clinical (nursing and medical) documentation. Interventions were made through questionnaires given to staff, educational sessions, presentations and posters addressing where improvements could be made in risk stratifying patients. A repeat audit was carried out 24 months later and the results from both cycles were compared. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher's exact and the Student's T-test. In total 100 in-patients were assessed in each cycle with a mean age of 71.4 years in cycle 1 and 70.1 years in cycle 2. A nursing Waterlow score was recorded for 81% of patients in cycle 1 and 100% in cycle 2 (p<0.05). In cycle 1, the average nursing score was significantly lower than that from the study (mean 13.7 versus 17.1, median 14.0 versus 18.0; p<0.05), but after intervention this had reduced to a minimal difference (mean 8.5 versus 9.0, median 8.0 versus 9.0, p=0.08). Nursing scores recorded in the notes were lower than the study scores in cycle 1, primarily from a failure to appropriately assess certain categories of the Waterlow scale. These differences reduced after focused education of staff. Our results suggest that targeted interventions tailored towards nursing and medical staff can result in improvements in the risk assessment for prevention

  13. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  14. Comprehensive studies of the dynamics of geosystems with the use of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilev, L. N.; Kaczyński, R.; Ney, B. I.

    The described research programme for comprehensive studies of changes occuring within geosystems is a part of scientific activity of INTERKOSMOS, which will be executed mainly with the use of remote sensing methods and techniques. The main aim of the programme is to get an insight into the seasonal rithm of environmental changes on both regional and global level. The work will consist of gathering systematized information concerning quantitative and qualitative relations between various components of the environment. The application of remote sensing methods enables the acquisition of such environmental data in dynamic setting. Research will be conducted for areas comprising distinct geosystems and will lead to the detection of diurnal, seasonal and yearly dynamics of geosystems as well as long-term trends. Except cognitive, the programme will also serve the methodological purpose. The first aim will be realized with respect to individual geosystems; the resulting sets of data will consist of matrixes of statistical data characterizing relations between various components of geosystems. The methodological aim will be achieved through the process of practical verification of the preliminary assumptions. Information will be collected from different data acquisition levels namely from satellite and aerial platforms and through ground measurements. Different types of data, such as multispectral photography (SALYUT, KOSMOS), multispectral scanner images (LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER, SPOT), infrared photography, radar imagery and spectrometric measurements will be gathered during simultaneous data acquisition projects. All types of observations will be timed in accordance with the natural rithm of the observed phenomena. The paper contains the description of geosystems under anthropogenic stress based on the previous research of the authors. The presented multifactor characteristics of soil and crops is a part of completed studies on agricultural geosystems. The results of

  15. [Improvement of public health in London in the nineteenth century and the probably limited role of the new sewage system].

    PubMed

    van Gelder, M M H J; Roeleveld, N

    2007-12-22

    --London was one of the most rapidly expanding cities in the world in the nineteenth century, but the water supply and sanitary conditions were extremely poor. --In the nineteenth century, there were many theories regarding the causes and spread of epidemic diseases. The miasma theory, which postulated that disease was the result of bad air and odours, was the most popular. --In 1858, as a result of the foul smells from the Thames, the decision was made to improve the sewage system. The new system was first used in 1865, but its actual effect on public health is not clear. --The life expectancy of Londoners did not change in the period 1826-1871, but increased substantially thereafter. In view of this time window, this may have been a result of improvements in the sewage system. --However, it is likely that several other factors, such as improvements in the food and water supply, vaccination programmes, and natural circumstances, were responsible for a large part of this increase.

  16. Fritz London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  17. Implementation of an improved urban parametrisation into the mesoscale meteorology model METRAS and application to London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawe, D.; Thompson, H. L.; Salmond, J.; Cai, X.-M.; Schluenzen, K. H.

    2009-09-01

    Urban areas have well documented effects on thermal and dynamic properties of the air as well as its chemical composition. E.g. increased heat storage, anthropogenic heat sources and radiative trapping can cause increased temperatures in the urban canopy, leading to an urban heat island with potentially adverse effects on human health and comfort. A nocturnal heat island may exacerbate the impact of summer heat waves. With growing urbanisation and in a changing climate it can be expected that these effects will increase. In order to mitigate adverse effects of the urban heat island, the strength of the heat island needs to be assessed for current levels of urbanisation, as well as for prospective urbanisation scenarios. For this purpose, the mesoscale meteorology model METRAS (Schlünzen, 2003) has been extended by the urban canopy model BEP (Martilli et al., 2002), which has previously been validated and implemented in other mesoscale meteorology models. BEP parameterises the effects of the urban canopy walls and surfaces on momentum, heat and turbulent kinetic energy and takes into account very detailed specifications of building parameters, such as building height distributions and street axis orientations. The implementation of BEP in METRAS allows the use of a separate numerical grid for BEP, so that for the model simulations presented in this study a very fine vertical grid with 5m cell height (compared to 20m in the METRAS grid) could be used. Greater London forms the largest urban area within the UK and has therefore been selected as the focus area for the validation of results from the improved model and for selected case studies. A domain covering 100km x 100km around London has been set up with a horizontal grid resolution of 1km x 1km. Results of the validation show that the inclusion of BEP improves the performance of METRAS for most cases when compared with measurements in the urban area. This improvement can ultimately be used to provide better

  18. London, England

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-18

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth. This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04301

  19. The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Williams, Gini; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Shimouchi, Akira; Simon, Carter

    2005-07-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) notification in Osaka City has been persistently high compared with other urban areas in Japan. Although the TB notification in Greater London has kept much lower level compared with that in Osaka City, it has been also persistently high compared with other urban areas in the UK. Nonetheless, the contexts of the two cities relating TB control programme as well as the epidemiological situation greatly vary; there must be some lessons to be learnt from each other to improve each TB control programme to tackle against TB more effectively. Comparing the epidemiological situation of TB in both cities, it is obvious that Osaka City suffers TB more than Greater London in terms of the TB notification rate. Concerning the context of the TB control programme, Osaka City has centralised approach with strong local government commitment; Greater London, on the other hand, has an approach that is greatly fragmented but coordinated through voluntary TB Networks. This paper aims to draw some constructive and practical lessons from Greater London TB control management for further improvement of Osaka City TB control management through literature review and interview to health professionals. TB epidemiology in Greater London shows distinct features in the extent of TB in new entrants and TB co-infected with HIV in comparison with those in Osaka City. TB epidemiology in Osaka City is to a great extent specifically related to homeless people whereas in Greater London, this relationship occurs to a lesser extent. Both areas have relatively high TB-notification rates compared with national figures, and they have "TB hot spots" where remarkably high TB-notification rates exist. TB control in Greater London is characterised with decentralised and devolved services to local government health authorities supplemented with co-ordinating bodies across sectors as well as across Greater London. Sector-wide TB Network as well as London TB Group (LTBG) and London TB Nurses

  20. Improvement of patient satisfaction with the neurosurgery service at a large tertiary care, London-based hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amad; Naushad Chaudhry, Mohammad; Khalid, Salema; Nandi, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is central to healthcare provision and the effective running of any surgical unit. Following on from both formal and informal feedback, we decided to look objectively at patient satisfaction with the neurosurgery service at a large tertiary care hospital in London and identify areas that needed improvement within the unit. Patient satisfaction was looked at with respect to four different aspects of the neurosurgery service: the surgeons, ward doctors, nurses, and hospital services. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted and once the data were collected a plan of action to improve service provision was put into place. Data were collected from 150 patients over a 3 month period from September to November 2012. Interventions were made and data re-collected from 150 patients from January to March 2013. With regards to satisfaction with the neurosurgery service, 76.7% (n=115) were satisfied; following implementation of our measures for improvement, which included staff education, meetings and posters, this figure increased to 90.6% (n=136, p<0.001 on Chi-square testing). In conclusion, patient satisfaction should be at the crux of patient care, with a strong focus on effective communication skills, and can be improved by identification of issues by direct patient feedback and subsequent action based on this. PMID:26733061

  1. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  2. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  3. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  4. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  5. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  6. Health impact assessment as an agent of policy change: improving the health impacts of the mayor of London's draft transport strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, J; Sheridan, L; Joffe, M; Samson-Barry, H; Atkinson, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To increase the positive and mitigate the negative health impacts of the mayor's draft transport strategy for London. Design: A rapid prospective health impact assessment (HIA) of the penultimate draft of the strategy, using a review commissioned by the regional director of public health; an appraisal of congestion charging; and a participatory workshop. Two audits of changes were performed to assess the impact on policy of the HIA process. Setting: Regional government policy development. Intervention: Recommendations from the rapid HIA were fed back into the drafting process. Main outcome measure: Changes (a) between the penultimate draft and the draft for public consultation and (b) between that and the final mayoral strategy. Results: The draft transport strategy published for consultation differed in a number of respects from the previous version. Almost all the recommendations from the HIA were incorporated into the final strategy. Significant changes included promoting sustainable travel plans for workplaces and schools; giving priority to infrastructure and services that benefit London's deprived communities; increased emphasis on promoting walking and cycling and reducing reliance on private cars; and a commitment to track the health impacts of the final strategy and its implementation. Specific additions included re-allocating road space. Conclusion: HIA was successful in influencing the transport strategy for London, resulting in several improvements from a health viewpoint. HIA is an effective method both for bringing about significant change in policy proposals and in increasing policy makers' understanding of determinants of health and hence in changing attitudes of policy makers. PMID:14966225

  7. Subsurface Thermal Erosion Of Ice-Wedge Polygon Terrains: Implications For Arctic Geosystem In Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. For inland ice-wedge polygon terrains, heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping along exposed permafrost and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment and carbon within the permafrost geosystem. Exportation of sediments by fluvial processes within gullies are positive mechanical feed-back effects that keep gully channels active over decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, plant colonization of disturbed gully slopes and wet to mesic plant succession of drained polygons change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were mapped and monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop a numerical, fully-coupled, heat and mass (water) transfer model of ice-wedge thermal erosion. We used data collected over 10 years of geomorphological gully monitoring, regional climate scenarios, our physics-based numerical thermal erosion model and our field

  8. Jack London's "White Fang."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westall, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Relates the kinds of reading done in childhood by a now distinguished writer, Robert Westall. Describes specifically how Jack London's novel, "White Fang," influenced the development of this writer. Narrates and comments on the action of the novel. (HB)

  9. The London Schools Planetarium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Jones, P.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the scientific activities conducted at the London Schools Planetarium by students of primary and secondary schools and of teacher colleges. Included is a table illustrating the astronomical background of student teachers. (CC)

  10. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  11. Climate change and response of geosystems of the Russian North (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, D. S.; Korostelev, Y. V.; Malkova, G. V.; Melnikov, V. P.; Orekhov, P. T.; Ukraintseva, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    The study of climate change, mainly air temperature and snow cover depth, is a key to understanding of modern trends in evolution of cryolithozone and response of geosystems of the North. Greenhouse and technogenic effects influence the cryolithozone and permafrost as well. Scenarios of substantial warming, temperate warming, and cooling were considered in our research. Weather station records show that the last so called “Earth Global Warming”, which started in 1960-1970s was initially most pronounced in Subarctic and Temperate zones. Maximum warming rate was observed in the 1980s. In Russia, the areas of warming in 20th century were Central Yakutia and Transbaikal, while in the European and Far East Russia the rate of warming was rather small. Later, the warming trend was observed only locally and new areas of maximum rates of warming appear within Russian cryolithozone. In 2000s, warming gradually extends to the Arctic regions while it slows down in Subarctic. Thermal regime of permafrost generally follows the climate change. Geocryological monitoring data evidence the rise of ground temperature at the depth of zero annual amplitude in the north of West Siberia by 0.2 to 1.4°C and in European Russia by 0.1 to 0.7°C. In these regions, slight trend of snow accumulation growth was also observed. At the same time, in Central Yakutia, though climate warms, permafrost temperature does not show increase due to reduction of snow depth in the last decades. In West Siberia, Urengoi gas field, ground temperatures in 1975-1993 increased by 1 to 1.5°C due to natural climate fluctuations (some times up to 2 to 3.5°C). Human impact added 1 to 1.5°C, this last being tightly linked to the effect of engineering structures. Some slowing of thaw and stabilization of ground temperature around 0°C is observed as incoming heat is consumed by phase transition in the near-surface layer. I was instrumentally detected that permafrost table lowered by 5-8 m and more at the

  12. 110. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. The wrong London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Hugh; Tong, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Your article "Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize" (November 2009 pp6-7) incorrectly states that Charles Kao, who shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics with Willard Boyle and George Smith, received his PhD from Imperial College London.

  16. Working with Secondary School Leadership in a Large-Scale Reform in London, UK: Consultants' Perspectives of Their Role as Agents of School Change and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Hagen

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a cultural and political theoretical framework to examine the relationship between consultants and secondary school leaders within a large-scale consultancy-based reform, the Secondary National Strategy (SNS), in London UK. The SNS follows a cascade model of implementation, in which nationally created initiatives are introduced…

  17. Working with Secondary School Leadership in a Large-Scale Reform in London, UK: Consultants' Perspectives of Their Role as Agents of School Change and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Hagen

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a cultural and political theoretical framework to examine the relationship between consultants and secondary school leaders within a large-scale consultancy-based reform, the Secondary National Strategy (SNS), in London UK. The SNS follows a cascade model of implementation, in which nationally created initiatives are introduced…

  18. Atmospheric merger in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    At the invitation of Imperial College, the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres, University College London, will be integrated in August with the Atmospheric Physics Group to form a single teaching and research unit. The new group, to be located at Imperial College, will be headed by Garry Hunt.The new group will possess a balanced research program in the observational and interpretative aspects of atmospheric physics. The existing Imperial College group actively researches cumulonimbus dynamics and climate modeling.

  19. A global perspective for managing obesity and improving health: conventional treatment and surgical options: 4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, April 2016

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Adeel Nazir; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2016-01-01

    4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, 12–14 April 2016 There are more than 1.9 billion overweight people worldwide, culminating in high rates of Type 2 diabetes; and cardiovascular, digestive and other health problems. This makes obesity a startling phenomenon and a significant global health epidemic. To address this, The 2016 Obesity Summit, 4th in the series of obesity-related annual events organized by EuroSciCon, was held from 12 to 14 April 2016 at Cineworld, The O2 in London. This conference set the stage for three days of stimulating high-quality presentations on the advancements in obesity in an informal academic setting. Approximately 156 delegates including students, researchers, healthcare professionals and scientists from 36 countries around the world attended the event. This meeting report summarizes some of the most outstanding presentations. PMID:28116126

  20. A global perspective for managing obesity and improving health: conventional treatment and surgical options: 4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Adeel Nazir; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2016-12-01

    4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, 12-14 April 2016 There are more than 1.9 billion overweight people worldwide, culminating in high rates of Type 2 diabetes; and cardiovascular, digestive and other health problems. This makes obesity a startling phenomenon and a significant global health epidemic. To address this, The 2016 Obesity Summit, 4th in the series of obesity-related annual events organized by EuroSciCon, was held from 12 to 14 April 2016 at Cineworld, The O2 in London. This conference set the stage for three days of stimulating high-quality presentations on the advancements in obesity in an informal academic setting. Approximately 156 delegates including students, researchers, healthcare professionals and scientists from 36 countries around the world attended the event. This meeting report summarizes some of the most outstanding presentations.

  1. Low on the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2013-09-01

    Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.

  2. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed.

  3. Thermal erosion of ice-wedge polygon terrains changes fluxes of energy and matter of permafrost geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.; Lamarque, L.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. Heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment, nutrients and carbon within the geosystem. Exportation of sediments out of gullies are positive mechanical feed-back that keep channels active for decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, gully walls colonization by vegetation and wet to mesic plant succession change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop model of permafrost thermal erosion. We used data, collected over 10 years, of geomorphological gully monitoring and regional climate scenarios to evaluate the potential response of ice-wedge polygon terrains to changes in snow, permafrost thermal regime and hydrological conditions over the coming decades and its implication for the short and long term dynamics of arctic permafrost geosystems.

  4. London air quality: a real world experiment in progress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Kelly, Julia

    2009-07-01

    London currently has the highest nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration recorded for any European city and for particulate matter (PM) it has some of the worst hot spots. Therefore overall, for these two pollutants, London is the worst in the UK and amongst the worst in Europe. Exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollutants such as PM and NO2 has well-established heath effects and most countries now have strict guidelines for air quality. London's air quality problems are driven largely by traffic. This, along with the high density of people in an urban area results in air quality guidelines being exceeded on a regular basis and large numbers of people being affected. In an attempt to combat London's air quality problems the Mayor of London introduced a series of measures to decrease traffic emissions. These included both a restriction on the number of vehicles entering central London each day--the Congestions Charging Scheme (CCS), and the discouragement of the most polluting heavy goods vehicles from entering--the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Together, it is hoped that these measures will lead to an improvement in air quality and provide a direct health benefit to Londoners. Research underway is charting the progress of this real world experiment.

  5. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  6. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  7. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  8. Long-term decline of the CO mixing ratio in SW London from 2000 to 2011: An example of policy success in improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Paniagua, I. Y.; Lowry, D.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric CO have been performed at Royal Holloway University of London (Egham, Surrey) since 2000 to 2011 and standardised using NOAA calibration gases. The CO has shown a marked and progressive decline since 2000 following the strict controls on vehicle emissions. A not linear decline was observed, but if linearised the decline rate was roughly 47 ppb per year in the 2000-2003 period, and 15 ppb per year post 2003. It agrees with the observed increment of 81% in the ratio CO2/CO from 2000 to 2011. There is a greater influence of anthropogenic emissions during weekdays when fossil fuel use and combustion processes are higher that at weekends. The seasonal cycle is driven by the temporal variation in meteorological conditions, changes in the combustion emissions and OH seasonality. The seasonal cycle shows maximum concentrations in winter and minimum in late summer. The largest seasonal amplitude observed, peak to trough, was 303.1 ppb in 2000 whereas the smallest was 128.3 ppb in 2011. The data set has been split into 8 categories (45°) using wind sector analysis. This shows that the greatest concentrations are recorded from the east and northeast sectors. The lowest concentrations were observed for air from the south and southwest sectors. Back trajectory and meteorological analysis of the data confirm that the main sources of CO are anthropogenic emissions from the Greater London area and the dense local road network to the East of the measurement site. Nowadays, compared with Mace Head (West Ireland) data, the CO measured at Egham is not far above Atlantic background levels during large periods of the year when prevailing S-SW winds reach the site. The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and 'bottom-up' inventory results. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful the UK.

  9. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  10. Looking into 'London'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock abrasion tool target, 'London.' The image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on its 149th sol on Mars (June 24, 2004). Scientists 'read' the geology of the image from bottom to top, with the youngest material pictured at the bottom of the image and the oldest material in the layers pictured at the top. Millimeter-scale layers run horizontally across the exposed surface, with two sliced sphere-like objects, or 'blueberries' on the upper left and upper right sides of the impression. This material is similar to the evaporative material found in 'Eagle Crater.' However, the intense review of these layers in Endurance Crater is, in essence, deepening the water story authored by ancient Mars.

    In Eagle Crater, the effects of water were traced down a matter of centimeters. Endurance Crater's depth has allowed the tracing of water's telltale marks up to meters. Another process that significantly affects martian terrain is muddying the water story a bit. Although it is clear that the layers in Endurance were affected by water, it is also evident that Aeolian, or wind, processes have contributed to the makeup of the crater.

  11. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  12. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  13. London through a Biologist's Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    A professor of biology discovered that the people who are in literature rather than science, saw the same readings very differently and were looking for very different things like how nature writings expressed the author's views on nature, or what they communicated about the human experience of the living world. Further he visits London to see the…

  14. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  15. London's Tutorial Classes; An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, F. G.

    1970-01-01

    Growth during the 1960s in the number and scope of tutorial classes by the London University Department of Extra-Mural Studies is attributed to considerable help from voluntary personnel, emphasis on written work, and other factors potentially signficant to extension education elsewhere in Britain. (LY)

  16. Well London Phase-1: results among adults of a cluster-randomised trial of a community engagement approach to improving health behaviours and mental well-being in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gemma; Bottomley, Christian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Yu, Ge; Lynch, Rebecca; Lock, Karen; Draper, Alizon; Moore, Derek; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Renton, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Methods Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30 m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. Results There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: −1.52, 95% CI −3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: −0.14, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). Conclusions The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings

  17. Japan Biotech Forum: London 2010.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamahi, Asma

    2010-11-01

    The Japan Biotech Forum, held in London, included topics covering new licensing developments in the Japanese pharma and biotech industries. This conference report highlights selected presentations on licensing opportunities from several Japanese companies, including CanBas, LivTech, REGiMMUNE, D Western Therapeutics Institute and Chiome Bioscience. Investigational drugs discussed include CBP-501 (CanBas), LIV-2008 (LivTech), RGI-2001 (REGiMMUNE), IVX-214 (D Western Therapeutics Institute/ Nippon Shinyaku) and anti-Sema 3A (Chiome Bioscience).

  18. Did the London Initiative Zone investment programme affect general practice structure and performance in East London? A time series analysis of cervical screening coverage and asthma prescribing.

    PubMed

    Naish, J; Eldridge, S; Moser, K; Sturdy, P

    2002-11-01

    A programme of incentives was set up in the London Initiative Zones to improve primary care in inner London based on the findings of the Tomlinson Enquiry in 1992. This descriptive study is a 4-y time series analysis of changes in general practice structure in East London as the result of London Initiative Zone investment, and an exploration of the possible effect of investment on practice performance. We used routinely available administrative data for the whole analysis. General practice characteristics and two selected performance indicators: the asthma prophylaxis to bronchodilator ratio and cervical cytology screening rate, for all practices in the East London and the City Health Authority for 4 y, 1993-1996, were used. Both reflect practice efficiency, but relate to different aspects of practice performance. The prescribing indicator is more indicative of the quality of clinical practise, whereas cervical screening coverage relates more to the characteristics of the practice population and to practice organisation. Repeated measures analyses were used to identify trends and to explore the relationship between changes in practice characteristics and performance. Graphical methods were used to compare East London trends with the rest of England. There were significant improvements in practice structure as the consequence of London Initiative Zone investment. There was a positive association with improvements in practice performance, but East London still lagged some way behind national patterns. The findings suggest that while improvements in asthma prescribing follow the national trend, practices have difficulty in achieving and sustaining the 80% target for cervical cytology screening, and that an overall population coverage of 80% may be in doubt.Increased investment in practice staffing may be influential in improving some aspects of performance. However, in common with other inner cities, a greater effort and more innovative strategies may be needed to

  19. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  20. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R S; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Chimonides, P J; Rumsey, F J; Tremper, A; Purvis, O W

    2007-03-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality.

  1. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion. PMID:27857453

  2. London's Jewish Communities and State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The Inner London education authority was a notable example of a radical and powerful local government body from which the fight for the comprehensive principle in English secondary education emerged. Building on previous work of women's contribution to state education in London, this articles focuses on Anglo-Jewish educator activists who helped…

  3. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in…

  4. See you at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Pulmonary function of London firemen.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, D B; Douglas, R B; Oakes, D; Scott, G

    1985-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of a sample of firemen in London 1006 firemen were interviewed and examined in 1976 and 895 were seen a second time 12 months later. On each occasion a Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured. The average levels of FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC in both years compared favourably with conventional predicted values. Separate multiple regression analysis for the two years indicated that the FEV1 and FVC fell more rapidly in those aged over 40, and that cigarette smoking had a strong harmful effect on these measures of function. Only among men with over 20 years' service was there possibly any evidence (not statistically significant) of an effect from duration of employment. The comparatively large fall in FEV1 and FVC from 1976 to 1977 was due mainly to instrumental variation. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in smokers than non-smokers and increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. PMID:3965016

  6. London Dispersion Forces and "The Wave"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, C. Jayne

    1998-10-01

    An analogy is presented likening London dispersion forces to "The Wave", a popular ritual performed by fans attending sports events in large stadia. Similarities between people in the stands and electrons in atoms are emphasized.

  7. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  8. The Tower of London bomb explosion.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, K; Lettin, A

    1975-01-01

    After the detonation of a bomb in the Tower of London 37 people were brought to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The explosion caused numerous severe injuries of a type rarely seen in peacetime. PMID:1148778

  9. 12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON LEDGE LIGHT STATION LIGHTING. Drawing no. 03-2730, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - New London Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, East of main harbor channel, New London, New London County, CT

  10. Fritz London's Legacy at Duke University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Horst

    2006-03-01

    When 3He became available in small quantities after WWII Fritz London, Professor at Duke University since 1939, became very interested in its properties in the liquid and solid phases, as contrasted with those of 4He. His influence and that of his colleague Walter Gordy led to the appointment of William Fairbank in 1952, who was able to verify experimentally the prediction on the Fermi degeneracy of liquid 3He below 1K, a few weeks before London's death in 1954. With his students and associates, Fairbank carried out a number of important experiments which became classics, several of which will be described. At Duke he also started planning other experiments inspired by London's predictions. After W. Fairbank's departure for Stanford in 1959, further research on liquid and solid 3He and 3He-4He mixtures was carried out by his successors at Duke University and some of the results in the sixties will be briefly described.

  11. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated.

  12. Integrated Cancer System: a perspective on developing an integrated system for cancer services in London

    PubMed Central

    Haire, K; Burton, C; Park, R; Reynolds, J; Stewart, D

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential for integrated cancer systems to improve the quality of care and deliver cost efficiencies and improve outcomes for cancer patients. Currently, patients in the UK still have poorer survival rates than comparable countries such as Canada, Sweden, Norway and Australia. Improving the quality of cancer services is a key policy objective and cancer is a priority outcome measure in both the NHS and Public Health Outcomes Framework. Evidence suggests that better integrated delivery has the potential to improve the quality and reduce the cost of healthcare, and ultimately improve health outcomes. One of the key themes from the Model of Care for Cancer Services1 was that cancer services should be commissioned along pathways and that provider networks should be established to deliver care. London has two integrated cancer systems; one covering north central and east London (London Cancer) and the other covering west and south London (London Cancer Alliance). There a number of areas in cancer care that the current model of service provision has failed to adequately address and which have the potential to improve significantly though implementation of integrated services. These include improving early diagnosis, reducing inequalities in access to treatment and outcomes and maximising research and training across the system. Important drivers for the integration of cancer services are strong clinical leadership, shared informatics systems, focusing on quality of services and improving patient experience. Emerging needs of integrated cancer in London are around strengthening the involvement of primary care, public health and the third sector; working to develop sufficient capacity and expertise in primary care and collaborating more closely with commissioners to develop integrated systems. PMID:25949664

  13. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  14. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  15. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  16. E. B. Nicholson and the London Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    This article provides a history of the London Institution from 1805 to 1912, with special emphasis on E. B. Nicholson's term of office. The last years of the Institution are considered, its financial difficulties being traced back to the terms of its original foundation, and to the changing situation of its members. (47 references) (Author/SJ)

  17. A resilient NHS for London 2012.

    PubMed

    Wapling, Andy; Mooney, Tom

    2011-02-01

    London will host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012. Hosting the Games brings with it both opportunities and challenges for the capital and country. The National Health Service (NHS) in London has a crucial role to play in the delivery of a safe and secure Games. It must also protect its business as usual services and be prepared to respond to any enhanced or additional threats and hazards that may be created by the presence of the Games. NHS London leads a programme of work to ensure that the NHS fulfils its responsibilities during the Games. The programme's Health Resilience workstream has adopted a structured planning process to assess risks, identify gaps in the capability of the NHS, and ensure those gaps are addressed prior to the Games. It acknowledges that training, exercising and testing play vital roles in capability. This work aims to ensure that London's health services will respond in a timely, proportionate and appropriate manner to any incident during the Games. This paper gives an overview of the Olympic context within which this resilience work is taking place, and details the planning processes and relationships employed in planning for such a major event.

  18. Michael Fisher at King's College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domb, Cyril

    Michael Fisher spent the first 16 years of his academic life in the Physics Department of King's College, London, starting as an undergraduate and ending as a full professor. A survey is undertaken of his activities and achievements during the various periods of this phase of his career.

  19. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  20. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  1. Black Pupils' Achievement in Inner London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabey, Christine

    1986-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between reading attainment and examination achievement of Black Afro-Caribbean students who formed part of a cohort of inner London schoolchildren included in a longitudinal study. The findings of the research are discussed in terms of policy implications for education. (Author/CT)

  2. Ensuring equine biosecurity at London 2012.

    PubMed

    Slater, Josh

    2013-02-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Equestrian Games were the highest profile event in the 2012 equestrian calendar and were the culmination of four years of detailed and meticulous biosecurity planning to ensure that all horses arrived, competed and returned home safely and in good health. Josh Slater, Anthony Greenleaves and Andy Paterson describe how this was achieved.

  3. 32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. OCTOBER 3, 1932. COMPLETION OF ERECTION OF STEELWORK FOR ELEVATOR. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. 30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. 2 JUNE 1930. SUBMARINE TRAINING TANK - STEELWORK 98% COMPLETE; BRICKWORK 95% COMPLETE, PIPING 10% IN PLACE. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. Recognising and Developing Urban Teachers: Chartered London Teacher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Sara; Porritt, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    Chartered London Teacher (CLT) status is a unique scheme designed by London Challenge to recognise and reward teachers' achievements and provide a framework for professional development. As well as having the prestige of being a Chartered London Teacher for life, educators receive a one-time payment of 1,000 British pounds from the school budget…

  6. 113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following bearings...

  9. 112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. Are Londoners Prepared for an Emergency? A Longitudinal Study Following the London Bombings

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, James; Amlôt, Richard; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The UK government sees increasing individual preparedness as a priority, but the level of preparedness of people in the UK for a large-scale emergency is not known. The London bombings of July 7, 2005, affected many Londoners and may have altered their sense of vulnerability to a future terrorist attack. We used a longitudinal study design to assess individual preparedness within the same sample of Londoners at 2 points in time: immediately after the bombings (T1) and 7 to 8 months later (T2). A demographically representative sample of 1,010 Londoners participated in a phone interview at T1. Subsequently, at T2, 574 of the same people participated in a follow-up phone interview. At T1 51% of Londoners had made 4 or more relevant emergency plans; 48% had gathered 4 or more relevant supplies in case of emergency. There was evidence of increased preparedness at T2, by which time 90% had made 4 or more emergency plans. Ethnicity, low social status, and having felt a sense of threat during the bombings predicted increased preparedness between T1 and T2. Women in general, and women of low social status in particular, perceived themselves to be unprepared in the event of a future terrorist attack. In summary, Londoners show moderate levels of emergency preparedness, which increased following the London bombings. Although we cannot know whether this association is causal, the prospective nature of the study increases the likelihood that it is. However, preparedness is still patchy, and there are important demographic associations with levels of preparedness and perception of vulnerability. These findings have implications for future development of individual and community emergency preparedness policy. PMID:19117430

  11. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  12. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented.

  13. Mortality and temperature in Sofia and London

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, S; Nikiforov, B; Armstrong, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: Heat and cold have been associated with increased mortality, independently of seasonal trends, but details are little known. This study explores associations between mortality and temperature in two European capitals—Sofia and London—using four years of daily deaths, air pollution, and weather data. Design: Generalised additive models were used to permit non-linear modelling of confounders such as season and humidity, and to show the shape of mortality-temperature relations—using both two day and two week average temperatures separately. Models with linear terms for heat and cold were used to estimate lags of effect, linear effects, and attributable fractions. Participants: 44 701 all age all cause deaths in Sofia (1996–1999) and 256 464 in London (1993–1996). Main results: In London, for each degree of extreme cold (below the 10th centile of the two week mean temperature), mortality increased by 4.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 5.1), and in Sofia by 1.8% (0.6 to 3.9). For each degree rise above the 95th centile of the two day mean, mortality increased by 1.9% (1.4 to 2.4) in London, and 3.5% (2.2 to 4.8) in Sofia. Cold effects appeared after lags of around three days and lasted—particularly in London—at least two weeks. Main heat effects occurred more promptly. There were inverse associations at later lags for heat and cold in Sofia. Conclusions: Average temperatures over short periods do not adequately model cold, and may be inadequate for heat if they ignore harvesting effects. Cold temperatures in London, particularly, seem to harm the general population and the effects are not concentrated among persons close to death. PMID:12883072

  14. Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s.…

  15. Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s.…

  16. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  17. Presence of Legionella in London's water supplies.

    PubMed

    Colbourne, J S; Trew, R M

    1986-09-01

    Legionella occurs frequently (52 to 54%) in domestic water and cooling water inside commercial, industrial and health care buildings, and these types of water systems are now regarded as a normal habitat for Legionella. The factors that predispose a particular water system to colonization by these organisms are ill-defined, although it is fairly certain that biological and physicochemical environmental factors play an important role in allowing Legionella to multiply in the circulating water. It has been postulated that the organism may gain access to water systems inside buildings by one of three routes: contact with air through open points such as uncovered storage tanks or vents, ingress of soil or surface water during construction or repair, or intermittent seeding with organisms present in low numbers in the public water supply. Three studies in the USA have found Legionella in 0.4 to 8.8% of drinking-water samples, but these were not representative of the public supply network as a whole. The aim of this study was to determine, over a period of 1 year, the frequency of Legionella in London's drinking water--from the treatment plant through to the consumer's tap. To date, Legionella has not been isolated from raw river water entering London's treatment works or from treated water entering the distribution network. Sixty-two monitoring taps in buildings located in 21 supply areas have been sampled twice for Legionella; only 2 (2.4%) have proved positive during the autumn and winter of 1985/86. The strain found was L. pneumophila serotype 1, subgroup Olda, and the numbers ranged from 10(2) to 10(4)/l. Although the survey is incomplete, it is already clear that the public water supplies in London are not a source of strains of Legionella associated with disease.

  18. Parasuicide in central London 1984-1988.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, G N; Rea, A J; Payne, J F; Lant, A F

    1989-01-01

    Experience of a central London unit dedicated to the care of patients following parasuicide between 1984 and 1988 is reviewed. There were 1160 admissions, which accounted for 11% of all acute adult medical admissions. The female to male ratio was 1.3, with a peak rate for females below 25 years and for males between 20 and 35. Unemployment was found to be a risk factor for parasuicide in men. Benzodiazepines were the most frequently used drug in parasuicide (35%), followed by paracetamol (13%) and aspirin (9%). PMID:2574238

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  20. Developing an Integrated Approach for Local Urban Climate Models in London from Neighbourhood to Street Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, M.; Davies, M.; Steadman, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    We currently have an incomplete understanding of how weather varies across London and how the city's microclimate will intensify levels of heat, cold and air pollution in the future. There is a need to target priority areas of the city and to promote design guidance on climate change mitigation strategies. As a result of improvements in the accuracy of local weather data in London, an opportunity is emerging for designers and planners of the built environment to measure the impact of their designs on local urban climate and to enhance the designer's role in creating more informed design choices at an urban micro-scale. However, modelling the different components of the urban environment separately and then collating and comparing the results invariably leads to discrepancies in the output of local urban climate modelling tools designed to work at different scales. Of particular interest is why marked differences appear between the data extracted from local urban climate models when we change the scale of modelling from city to building scale. An example of such differences is those that have been observed in relation to the London Unified Model and London Site Specific Air Temperature model. In order to avoid these discrepancies we need a method for understanding and assessing how the urban environment impacts on local urban climate as a whole. A step to achieving this is by developing inter-linkages between assessment tools. Accurate information on the net impact of the urban environment on the local urban climate will in turn facilitate more accurate predictions of future energy demand and realistic scenarios for comfort and health. This paper will present two key topographies of London's urban environment that influence local urban climate: land use and street canyons. It will look at the possibilities for developing an integrated approach to modelling London's local urban climate from the neighbourhood to the street scale.

  1. Experiential Approaches to the Global City: London as Social Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gristwood, Anthony; Woolf, Michael

    2011-01-01

    London is the paramount example of a city that is not bounded by its geography and cannot be grasped in isolation. The U.K.'s national capital and the prime focus for business, finance and creative industries, London also transcends the U.K.'s borders as a hub of the world economy. This paper argues that London, a city riddled by the socioeconomic…

  2. Digital London: Creating a Searchable Web of Interlinked Sources on Eighteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the conceptual and technical difficulties encountered, as well as the opportunities created, when developing an interlinked collection of web-based digitised primary sources on eighteenth century London. Design/methodology/approach: As a pilot study for a larger project, a variety of primary sources, including the "Old…

  3. Digital London: Creating a Searchable Web of Interlinked Sources on Eighteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the conceptual and technical difficulties encountered, as well as the opportunities created, when developing an interlinked collection of web-based digitised primary sources on eighteenth century London. Design/methodology/approach: As a pilot study for a larger project, a variety of primary sources, including the "Old…

  4. Optical legacy of Imperial College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger Webb-Moore, Tina E.

    2016-10-01

    The Industrial Revolution, beginning primarily in the UK, generated an increasing need for highly skilled technical people. Throughout the 19th century, technical instruction increased dramatically and the formation of schools specializing in science and technology grew quickly. In England, there was much motivation in favour of a national prestige center for science and technology centered in London. Central among the motivating forces was Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert. Although there were already existing specialist science and technology institutions in major English cities, the growth of superior institutions in other countries within Europe, especially Germany and the Charlottenburg area of Berlin (e.g., the Berlin Technical High School), encouraged important English dignitaries to become more competitive with continental Europe. As a result of this strong continental motivation, several science and technology institutions were built in the south Kensington part of London during the latter half of the 19th century. Imperial College, founded at the start of the 20th century, was a culmination and consolidation of several of these 19th century English institutions. Optical science and technology was an early beneficiary of the founding of Imperial College. This paper will attempt to provide the reader with an understanding of how great was the influence of the optical section of Imperial College in the further development of the world's optical science and technology.

  5. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  6. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergencies, vessels shall not anchor in New London Harbor or the approaches thereto outside the anchorages... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147 Section 110.147 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  7. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  8. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  9. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  10. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  11. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  12. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  13. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  14. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  15. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  16. London in Space and Time: Peter Ackroyd and Will Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the treatment of London by two authors who are profoundly influenced by the concept of the power of place and the nature of urban space. The works of Peter Ackroyd, whose writings embody, according to Onega (1997, p. 208) "[a] yearning for mythical closure" where London is "a mystic centre of…

  17. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon

    2017-01-06

    Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  18. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. Setting, population and outcomes A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. Results A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. Conclusions BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. PMID:28062467

  19. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London?

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W

    2016-11-01

    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  20. Multiple sclerosis among immigrants in Greater London.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G; McLoughlin, H; Brady, R; Adelstein, A M; Tallett-Williams, J

    1976-01-01

    Among immigrants resident in greater London from Europe, Ireland, the USSR, the old Commonwealth countries of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, North and South America, Egypt, Turkey, and Iran the incidence of admission to hospital for probable multiple sclerosis (MS) between 1960 and 1972 was high or moderately high. The incidence was the same order as that found in those born in the United Kingdom. Immigrants from India, Pakistan, and other Asian countries and from new Commonwealth Africa and America, which includes the West Indies, had a low incidence of hospital admission for MS. Immigrants from countries where the risk of MS is low whose parents were born in Europe had a reduced incidence of admission to hospital but not the very low incidence found in those parents were also born in these countries. Emigrating to England from low risk parts of the world did not seem to increase the risk of developing MS. PMID:1260384

  1. London Trusts proud to describe their work.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    'Waste not, Want not' was the title of a recent IHEEM seminar which examined some of the key issues for those responsible for dealing with healthcare waste--from regulatory compliance and correct segregation of waste streams, to the opportunities for more on-site processing. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on the joint presentations given by key environmental and sustainability personnel at two of London's largest NHS Trusts, and their private sector waste management partners. These discussed some of the key initiatives that each Trust and its 'partner' have taken to not only significantly reduce the amount of waste generated on their estate, but also to dispose of it in an environmentally responsible way. These initiatives, the speakers explained, were all part of their organisations' journey on the road to achieving 'Deep Green', a 'nirvana'-like state where their activities have a zero net impact on the environment.

  2. Application of MM5/CMAQ for modelling urban air pollution a case study for London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitwiroon, N.; Fragkou, E.; Sokhi, R. S.; San Jose, R.; Pérez Camaño, J. L.; Middleton, D.

    2003-04-01

    Urban air pollution has been particularly studied for the last few decades because of its recognised environmental dangers and health implications. The complexity of the urban surface characteristics and turbulence patterns has dictated the use of numerical models by environmental research agencies and regulators in order to predict and manage urban air pollution. However, most of these models are not specifically adapted to urban applications and normally do not include detailed urban parameterisation, such as for surface roughness or urban heat fluxes. Flow structure and dispersion of air pollutants within cities, however, are influenced by urban features such as increased surface roughness. This paper presents a study using MM5 and CMAQ to assess the effect of urban boundary layer features on meteorological parameters, and hence London's air quality. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic (version 3), terrain-following sigma-coordinate model designed to simulate mesoscale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation. This paper employs an improved surface roughness treatment on meteorological profiles and pollution dispersion. A surface roughness scale has been developed for London and the surrounding region. The land cover data was derived from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) data, with a spatial resolution of 25 × 25 m. These z_o values are employed with MM5 for modelling meteorological parameters over London, covering an inner domain area of 49 × 49 km. The outputs of MM5 have been coupled to CMAQ photochemical model to predict concentrations of particles, NO_2 and O_3 for London and the surrounding regions at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km. The predicted concentrations have been compared with monitored data obtained from a range of national air quality monitoring sites including Central London (Bloomsbury, Brent), East London (Bexley) and West London (Hillingdon). Comparison of hourly model predictions with measured data is made for pollution levels for

  3. Insights into the experiences of patients with cancer in London: framework analysis of free-text data from the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012/2013 from the two London Integrated Cancer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Randolph, Anuska; Stapleton, Sarah; Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Harris, Katherine; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dolan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Objective To shed light on experiences of patients with cancer in London National Health Service (NHS) trusts that may not be fully captured in national survey data, to inform improvement action plans by these trusts. Design Framework analysis of free-text data from 2012/2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from the 2 London Integrated Cancer Systems. Setting and participants Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated by the NHS across 27 trusts in London. Main outcome measures Free-text data received from patients categorised into what patients found good about their cancer care and what could be improved. Methods Using Framework analysis, a thematic framework was created for 15 403 comments from over 6500 patients. Themes were identified across the London data set, by tumour group and by trust. Results Two-thirds of free-text comments from patients in London were positive and one-third of those related to the good quality of care those patients received. However, the majority of comments for improvement related to quality of care, with a focus on poor care, poor communication and waiting times in outpatient departments. Additionally, 577 patients (9% of those who returned free-text data in London) commented on issues pertaining to the questionnaire itself. Some patients who experienced care from multiple trusts were unclear on how to complete the questionnaire for the single trust whose care they were asked to comment on, others said the questions did not fit their experiences. Conclusions NCPES free-text analysis can shed light on the experiences of patients that closed questions might not reveal. It further indicates that there are issues with the survey itself, in terms of ambiguities in the questionnaire and difficulties in identifying patients within specific trusts. Both of these issues have the potential to contribute to knowledge and understanding of the uses and limitations of free-text data in improving cancer services. PMID:26482767

  4. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  5. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  6. What explains worse patient experience in London? Evidence from secondary analysis of the Cancer Patient Experience Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Catherine L; Abel, Gary A; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    . Efforts to improve care in London should aim to meet patient expectations and improve care quality. PMID:24390383

  7. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  8. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  9. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  10. 106. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 109. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 108. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 107. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 105. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. Contemporary terrorism: risk perception in the London options market.

    PubMed

    Garvey, John; Mullins, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have a demonstrated a linkage between terrorist attacks and the operation of financial markets. This article focuses on terrorist events carried out over the last five years and examines how they have been perceived among participants on the London financial market. Data from the London options market suggest a high degree of sensitivity to these events. We argue that this sensitivity reveals a vulnerability in the financial markets should the recent trends in terrorist activity continue.

  5. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  6. Cord blood banking in London: the first 1000 collections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, S; Warwick, R; Fehily, D; Navarrete, C; Contreras, M

    1999-07-01

    The London Cord Blood Bank was established with the aim of collecting, processing and storing 10000 unrelated stem cell donations for the significant number of children in the UK requiring transplantation, for whom a matched unrelated bone marrow donor cannot be found. Collection is performed at two hospitals by dedicated cord blood bank staff after delivery of the placenta. Mothers are interviewed regarding medical, ethnic and behavioural history by nurse counsellors and sign a detailed consent form. Donations are returned to the bank for processing. Volume reduction is undertaken by a simple, closed, semi-automated blood processing system, with excellent recovery of progenitor cells. Units are cryopreserved and stored in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. Blood samples from mothers and cord blood donations are tested for the UK mandatory red cell and microbiology markers for blood donors. Donations are typed for HLA-A, B and DR at medium resolution (antigen split) level using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing and sequence-specific priming techniques. The selection of collection hospitals on the basis of ethnic mix has proven effective, with 41.5% of donations derived from non-European caucasoid donors. Bacterial contamination of collections has been dramatically reduced by implementation of improved umbilical cord decontamination protocols.

  7. Terahertz vibrations of crystalline acyclic and cyclic diglycine: benchmarks for London force correction models.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Thomas R; Korter, Timothy M

    2013-10-10

    Terahertz spectroscopy provides direct information concerning weak intermolecular forces in crystalline molecular solids and therefore acts as an excellent method for calibrating and evaluating computational models for noncovalent interactions. In this study, the low-frequency vibrations of two dipeptides were compared, acyclic diglycine and cyclic diglycine, as benchmark systems for gauging the performance of semiempirical London force correction approaches. The diglycine samples were investigated using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy from 10 to 100 cm(-1) and then analyzed using solid-state density functional theory (DFT) augmented with existing London force corrections, as well as a new parametrization (DFT-DX) based on known experimental values. The two diglycine molecules provide a useful test for the applied models given their similarities, but more importantly the differences in the intermolecular forces displayed by each. It was found that all of the considered London force correction models were able to generate diglycine crystal structures of similar accuracy, but considerable variation occurred in their abilities to predict terahertz frequency vibrations. The DFT-DX parametrization was particularly successful in this investigation and shows promise for the improved analysis of low-frequency spectra.

  8. The Struggle to Study. Financial Implications for Adults Studying in London. A Research Report Funded by London's Four Open College Networks: ALFA, CAWLOC, GLEAN, and OCSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Anne; Goddard, Ty

    The four Open College Networks in London assessed the climate in inner London for adult students who wished to return to education and training. The research focussed on: the extent to which recent legislative changes threatened adult participation in education and training; the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and…

  9. The Struggle to Study. Financial Implications for Adults Studying in London. A Research Report Funded by London's Four Open College Networks: ALFA, CAWLOC, GLEAN, and OCSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Anne; Goddard, Ty

    The four Open College Networks in London assessed the climate in inner London for adult students who wished to return to education and training. The research focussed on: the extent to which recent legislative changes threatened adult participation in education and training; the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and…

  10. 'Well London' and the benefits of participation: results of a qualitative study nested in a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Derges, Jane; Clow, Angela; Lynch, Rebecca; Jain, Sumeet; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Renton, Adrian; Draper, Alizon

    2014-04-02

    Well London is a multicomponent community engagement and coproduction programme designed to improve the health of Londoners living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. To evaluate outcomes of the Well London interventions, a cluster randomised trial (CRT) was conducted that included a longitudinal qualitative component, which is reported here. The aim is to explore in depth the nature of the benefits to residents and the processes by which these were achieved. The 1-year longitudinal qualitative study was nested within the CRT. Purposive sampling was used to select three intervention neighbourhoods in London and 61 individuals within these neighbourhoods. The interventions comprised activities focused on: healthy eating, physical exercise and mental health and well-being. Interviews were conducted at the inception and following completion of the Well London interventions to establish both if and how they had participated. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analysed using Nvivo. Positive benefits relating to the formal outcomes of the CRT were reported, but only among those who participated in project activities. The extent of benefits experienced was influenced by factors relating to the physical and social characteristics of each neighbourhood. The highest levels of change occurred in the presence of: (1) social cohesion, not only pre-existing but also as facilitated by Well London activities; (2) personal and collective agency; (3) involvement and support of external organisations. Where the physical and social environment remained unchanged, there was less participation and fewer benefits. These findings show interaction between participation, well-being and agency, social interactions and cohesion and that this modulated any benefits described. Pathways to change were thus complex and variable, but personal well-being and local social cohesion emerged as important mediators of change.

  11. Listening to those on the frontline: service users’ experiences of London tuberculosis services

    PubMed Central

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Woods, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore tuberculosis (TB) service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision. Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London’s TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously. Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users’ permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services’ aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals’ attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified. Conclusion: This first in-depth study of TB service users’ experiences across London offers valuable insights into service users’ experiences, providing information and recommendations for a strategic

  12. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-10-24

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  13. Response of London's urban heat island to a marine air intrusion in an easterly wind regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, C.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2010-09-01

    London is long known to develop a pronounced urban heat island (UHI) resulting primarily from the storage of heat in the urban fabric during the day and released during the night, the differences in thermal and radiative properties of the surface between urban and rural areas, and lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas. Under calm, clear, and dry weather conditions, the difference in near-surface air temperature between two representative urban centre and rural locations at a given time typically reaches several degrees (i.e. warming) during the night and can be negative (i.e. cooling) during the day. Like the majority of large cities in the world, London is located in a coastal area. On certain occasions cooler marine air from the North Sea is advected across London by a sea breeze or easterly winds. In our work we examine the effects of a marine air intrusion, in an easterly wind regime, on the structure of London's UHI for a case study on 7 May 2008. For this purpose, numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model are performed for multiple nested domains with the innermost domain covering London and its rural surroundings at the kilometre scale. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess how the categorisation of the urban land use and the parameterisation of the urban canopy in the model affect its performance characteristics for the near-surface air temperature field. The categorisation of the urban landuse, according to the fractional area that is built-up within each grid cell, is found to be key to capturing the spatial pattern of the temperature field. Using a multilayer rather than single layer urban canopy model improves the representation of the variability of the pattern and the intensity of the UHI. A notable outcome of this work is that the inclusion of building anthropogenic fluxes is comparatively less important as regards model performance for near-surface air temperature. The effects of the marine air intrusion on

  14. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A. Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  15. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, D. R.; Williams, L. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Dubey, M.; Ng, N. L.; Thornton, J.; Knighton, B.; Coulter, R.; Prévôt, Ash

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  16. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed.

  17. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network.

    PubMed

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  18. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  19. City lights of London, England taken during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-04

    ISS006-E-22939 (4 February 2003) --- City lights of London, England were captured with a digital still camera by one of the Expedition Six crewmembers on the International Space Station (ISS). This nighttime view of the British capital shows the city’;s urban density and infrastructure as highlighted by electrical lighting. Beyond lie isolated bright areas marking the numerous smaller cities and towns of the region and as far southeast as Hastings on the coast. London’;s two major airports, Heathrow and Gatwick, are visible to the south of the city.

  20. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1) To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2) To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3) To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10), lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13) representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8) and non-London network professionals (n = 2). Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed accommodation for

  1. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  2. Medical student experience of London general practice teaching attachments.

    PubMed

    Schamroth, A J; Haines, A P; Gallivan, S

    1990-07-01

    Forty-eight students kept a log diary of activities during their central London general practice teaching attachments associated with the Department of Primary Health Care of University College and Middlesex School of Medicine. The students each saw on average 96 patients per week, of whom 69% were discussed by the general practitioner with the student after the consultation. Students spent an average of 21.5 hours a week sitting in with the general practitioner. While most of this time was as a passive observer, the students were also able to participate more actively, personally taking histories for a median of 1.25 hours a week and personally examining patients for a median of 1.7 hours a week. During these periods of active involvement each student personally took a mean of 10 short and 2.5 long histories per week and performed a mean of 25.5 short and 1.2 long examinations per week. General practitioners to whom the students were attached spent a mean of 4 hours a week on (patient-oriented) teaching. The tuition was highly rated by the students in terms of both usefulness and stimulation. Students also received a mean of 2.3 hours a week of teaching from other members of the primary health care team, which was somewhat less well received. Areas for improvement were: the relatively few home visits (median of 6 per week) per student; the limited time students spent on self-education (average of 65 minutes per week); and the few practical procedures performed by the students. Students could also be encouraged to play a more active role in examining and interviewing patients.

  3. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  4. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  6. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  7. Battersea: Education in a London Parish since 1750

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of educational institutions and buildings in one slice of a big city over a long timescale. The city is London and the slice Battersea, an inner suburb of mixed character and volatile fortunes. The narrative explores the shifts and interactions between state and voluntary provision, local community needs and…

  8. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2013-01-01

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring ‘The Knowledge’ of London’s complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also submitting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable to controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus. PMID:22955143

  9. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  10. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven…

  11. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Method: Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to…

  12. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  13. Multicultural Music in the London Borough of Harrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A project to introduce the music of different cultures into primary and secondary classrooms in London is reported. The six cultures are Indian music and dance, Latin American rock and steel pans, jazz, Indian drums, and Chinese music and movement. The project model is related to multicultural education in general. (Author/LB)

  14. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  15. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  16. Multicultural Music in the London Borough of Harrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A project to introduce the music of different cultures into primary and secondary classrooms in London is reported. The six cultures are Indian music and dance, Latin American rock and steel pans, jazz, Indian drums, and Chinese music and movement. The project model is related to multicultural education in general. (Author/LB)

  17. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009.

    PubMed

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D

    2009-02-12

    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified.

  18. Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654): London's first general practitioner?

    PubMed

    Farthing, Michael J G

    2015-08-01

    Nicholas Culpeper is often regarded as an ill-disciplined, maverick, mid-17th century herbalist and the father of contemporary alternative medicine. There are elements of this statement that have some truth but to dismiss his contribution to the development of health provision in London at the time would be a great injustice. Culpeper did not complete his apprenticeship as an apothecary and was not a formally trained physician, but he developed a clinical practice for the poor of London, indistinguishable from the role of the present day general practitioner. Observers at the time recognised his concern and compassion and his commitment to treat the whole patient and not just the disease. His enduring contribution was his translation from Latin of the physicians' Pharmacopoeia Londinensis which could be regarded as the first major step towards the demystification of medicine. Culpeper's London Dispensatory and the many other medical treatises that followed were affordable and widely available to the common man. Culpeper antagonised both apothecaries and physicians because he breached the regulations of the day by accepting patients directly. So perhaps Culpeper was, de facto, London's first general practitioner, at least 150 years before the role was formally recognised in the Apothecaries Act 1815.

  19. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven…

  20. The London Lighthouse. A centre for people with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    In October last year an Evian Health Award was presented to Mr Christopher Spence, director of London Lighthouse, for pioneering the first independent aids hospice against much opposition. The Lighthouse is now open and although the hospice is the core of its work it also provides a range of other services.

  1. Fit for What? Special Education in London, 1890-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the implementation by the London School Board of special education for children designated 'feeble-minded' or 'mentally defective' in the period from 1890 to the passing of the Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act in 1914. Through an analysis of the choice of pedagogy for special schools,…

  2. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  3. Gender Politics and Privatization in the London Borough of Camden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lisa D.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the differential impact of the privatization of social services on women in the London borough of Camden. Concludes that women will suffer greater decline than men in employment, wages, and status as a result of the privatization taking place in Great Britain. (JDH)

  4. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  5. Battersea: Education in a London Parish since 1750

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of educational institutions and buildings in one slice of a big city over a long timescale. The city is London and the slice Battersea, an inner suburb of mixed character and volatile fortunes. The narrative explores the shifts and interactions between state and voluntary provision, local community needs and…

  6. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  7. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p < 0.001) and the two correlated significantly (r = 0.50 p < 0.001). Then two hundred consecutive patients per city attending tertiary specialised 'dizzy patient' clinics, one in London led by a neurologist, one in Siena led by an ear, nose and throat specialist (ENT), were investigated with SWID. Amongst the 400 patients, 27% reported changing their jobs and 21% giving up work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  8. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21). 146 deaths (60%) were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7) other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43%) of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%). The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03). Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found. PMID:21078190

  9. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…

  10. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  11. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  12. Building a Hypertextual Digital Library in the Humanities: A Case Study on London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Gregory; Smith, David A.; Wulfman, Clifford E.

    This paper describes the creation of a new humanities digital library collection: 11,000,000 words and 10,000 images representing books, images, and maps on pre-twentieth century London and its environs. The London collection contained far more dense and precise information than the materials from the Greco-Roman world. The London collection thus…

  13. Age differences in strategic planning as indexed by the tower of London.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s. Furthermore, whereas age-related performance gains by children and adolescents (ages 10-17) on the hardest problems were partially mediated by maturational improvements in both working memory and impulse control, improved performance in adulthood (ages 18+) was fully mediated by late gains in impulse control. Findings support an emerging picture of late adolescence as a time of continuing improvement in planned, goal-directed behavior.

  14. Effects of London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J. P.; Brazier, J. E.; Snooks, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of the London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma. DESIGN--Prospective comparison of outcomes in cohorts of seriously injured patients attended by the helicopter and attended by London ambulance service land ambulances crewed by paramedics. SETTING--Greater London. SUBJECTS--337 patients attended by helicopter and 466 patients attended by ambulance who sustained traumatic injuries and died, stayed in hospital three or more nights, or had other evidence of severe injury and who were taken to any one of 20 primary receiving hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Survival at six months after the incident. RESULTS--After differences in the nature and severity of the injuries in the two cohorts were accounted for the estimated survival rates were the same (relative risk of death with helicopter = 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.4). An analysis with trauma and injury severity scores (TRISS) found 16% more deaths than predicted in the helicopter cohort but only 2% more in the ambulance cohort. There was no evidence of a difference in survival for patients with head injury but a little evidence that patients with major trauma (injury severity score > or = 16) were more likely to survive if attended by the helicopter. An estimated 13 (-5 to 39) extra patients with major trauma could survive each year if attended by the helicopter. CONCLUSION--Any benefit in survival is restricted to patients with very severe injuries and amounts to an estimated one additional survivor of major trauma each month. Over all the helicopter caseload, however, there is no evidence that it improves the chance of survival in trauma. PMID:7627033

  15. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.

  16. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952.

    PubMed

    Black, J

    2003-12-01

    To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles.

  17. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952

    PubMed Central

    Black, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Methods: Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. Results: During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. Conclusions: The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles. PMID:14670763

  18. Popular opinion leaders in London: a response to Kelly.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Bolding, G; Sherr, L

    2004-02-01

    Controlled trials conducted in the USA provide clear evidence that peer education can bring about a reduction in high risk sexual behaviour among gay men. HIV prevention interventions that systematically identified, recruited, trained and engaged popular opinion leaders (POLs) made a significant impact on sexual behaviour at a community level in small US towns. However, recent trials conducted in the UK have failed to replicate these findings. A POL intervention in London made no significant impact at a community level on the risk behaviours of gay men. Jeffrey Kelly, one of the authors of the US studies, has identified nine core elements central to the popular opinion leader model. In Kelly's view 'the UK projects were not tests of the popular opinion leader model because they did not employ most of these POL core elements'. The absence of any significant impact of the UK programmes on sexual risk behaviour at a community level was not, therefore, surprising. In fact, the London POL project incorporated all the core elements into its design and succeeded in employing seven out of nine in its delivery. Attempts to employ all the core elements, however, were hampered by problems in recruiting popular opinion leaders as well as barriers to communication. Process evaluation revealed that it was these obstacles which limited diffusion. This in turn explained the absence of any impact of the London POL project on sexual risk behaviour at a community level. The obstacles to successful diffusion in London have provided a valuable opportunity for examining the processes that underlie the POL model. Our study raises the question as to whether social interventions shown to be effective in one setting, place or moment in time can be replicated in another.

  19. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  20. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (4) Anchorage D. In Long Island Sound approximately two miles west-southwest of New London Ledge...,460 yards; 009°, 2,480 yards; 026°, 1,175 yards; and 008°, 1,075 yards. (3) Anchorage C. In the Thames... Ledge Light: 246°, 2.6 miles; 247°, 2.1 miles; 233°, 2.1 miles; and 235°, 2.6 miles. (5) Anchorage...

  1. Millennium-long recession of limestone facades in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2008-12-01

    Historical data on the temperature and precipitation data for London has been combined with output from the Hadley Model to estimate the climate of London for the period 1100-2100 CE. This has been converted to other parameters such as freeze-thaw frequency and snowfall relevant to the weathering of stone facades. The pollutant concentrations have been estimated for the same period, with the historical values taken from single box modelling and future values from changes likely given current policy within the metropolis. These values are used in the Lipfert model to show that the recession from karst weathering dominates across the period, while the contributions of sulphur deposition seem notable only across a shorter period 1700-2000 CE. Observations of the late seventeenth century suggest London architects witnessed a notable increase in the recession rate and attributed “fretting quality” to “smoaks of the sea-coal”. The recession rates measured in the late twentieth century lend some support to the estimates from the Lipfert model. The recession looks to increase only slightly, and frost shattering will decrease while salt weathering is likely to increase.

  2. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  3. Place and provision: mapping mental health advocacy services in London.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Platzer, Hazel

    2007-02-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Executive for London carried out an investigation in 2002 as part of their wider mental health strategy to establish whether existing mental health advocacy provision in the city was meeting need. The project took a two-part approach, with an emphasis on, (a) mapping the provision of advocacy services and, (b) cartographic mapping of service location and catchments. Data were collected through a detailed questionnaire with service providers in collaboration with the Greater London Mental Health Advocacy Network (GLMHAN) and additional health and government sources. The service mapping identified some key statistics on funding, caseloads and models of service provision with an additional emphasis on coverage, capacity, and funding stability. The questionnaire was augmented by interviews and focus groups with commissioners, service providers and service users and identified differing perspectives and problems, which informed the different perspectives of each of these groups. The cartographic mapping exercise demonstrated a spatially-even provision of mental health advocacy services across the city with each borough being served by at least one local service as well as by London wide specialist schemes. However, at local level, no one borough had the full range of specialist provision to match local demographic need. Ultimately the research assisted the Advisory Group in providing commissioning agencies with clear information on the current status of city-wide mental health advocacy services, and on gaps in existing advocacy provision alongside previously unconsidered geographical and service dimensions of that provision.

  4. Timeliness of electronic reporting and acceptability of public health follow-up of routine nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, London and South East England, 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Severi, E; Dabrera, G; Boxall, N; Harvey-Vince, L; Booth, L; Balasegaram, S

    2014-01-01

    Nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are major causes of food poisoning in England. Diagnostic laboratories and clinicians have a statutory responsibility to report NTS infection cases to the Health Protection Agency via various means, with electronic reporting encouraged as the universal method. The Health Protection Agency (Public Health England since 1 April 2013) refers cases to environmental health departments for follow-up. Timeliness of reporting and adequacy of NTS infection case follow-up are key factors in the implementation of public health actions. Laboratories, health protection units, and environmental health departments in London and South East (SE) regions of England completed three surveys between December 2010 and April 2011, collecting data about the NTS infection case reporting methods and the time elapsed between symptom onset and public health actions. The median period between symptom onset and public health investigation was 25 days in London and 23 days in SE when electronic reporting was used and 12 days in London and 11 days in SE when other means of reporting were used. The most common follow-up method was a telephone questionnaire in London (53%) and a postal questionnaire in SE (52%). The telephone questionnaire had the highest response rate (98% in London; 96% in SE). Timeliness and efficiency of electronic NTS infection case reports can be improved by decreasing the electronic laboratory report period and using telephone-administered questionnaires to maximize the public health benefit when following up single cases of NTS infection.

  5. Forecasting asthma-related hospital admissions in London using negative binomial models.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.

  6. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Lisa K.; Stone, Daniel; Bandy, Brian; Dunmore, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Hopkins, James; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2016-02-01

    Near-continuous measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on air mass origin, with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the east, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ˜ 27 s-1 in the morning, with a minimum of ˜ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement data set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from a gas chromatography flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs α-pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (⩾ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α-pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (⩾ C

  7. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Bandy, B.; Dunmore, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Heard, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Near-continuous measurements of OH reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on airmass origin with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the East, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ~ 27 s-1 in the morning with a minimum of ~ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement dataset of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from GC-FID and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs of α pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) (particularly α pinene and limonene) and model

  8. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2011-03-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be correlated with traffic but also exhibited an inverse dependency on atmospheric stability in the near-neutral range, with higher fluxes coinciding with unstable stratification during most seasons and perhaps reflecting how changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing and caused the tower to become decoupled from street level. CO2 fluxes observed at night were not always correlated with traffic counts, probably reflecting this decoupling, but also the fact that at night heating was always a larger source than traffic. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due

  9. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2010-10-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken semi-continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity that controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due to the large ratio of measurement height to mean building height.

  10. Religion and HIV diagnosis among Africans living in London.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, I; Johnson, Am; Fenton, Ka; Anderson, J; Nwokolo, N; Sullivan, Ak; Munday, P; Burns, Fm

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the paper was to describe the association of religion with HIV outcomes in newly diagnosed Africans living in London. A survey of newly diagnosed HIV-positive Africans attending 15 HIV treatment centres across London was carried out between April 2004 and February 2006. Confidential self-completed questionnaires were used, linked to clinical records. Bivariate analyses were conducted to ascertain whether religious beliefs were associated with late diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and immunological and virological outcome 6 months post diagnosis. A total of 246 Black Africans were eligible and included in the analysis: 62.6% were women, and the median age was 34 years. The median CD4 count at diagnosis was 194 cells/μL (range 0-1334 cells/μL) and 75.6% presented late, as defined as a CD4 count < 350 cells/μL. Most participants were religious: non-Roman Catholic Christians (55.7%), Roman Catholics (35.2%) and Muslims (6.1%). Only 1.2% stated that they did not have a religion. Participants who attended religious services at least monthly were more likely to believe that 'faith alone can cure HIV' than those who attended less frequently (37.7% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.002). A small proportion (5.2%) believed that taking antiretroviral therapy implied a lack of faith in God. Bivariate analysis found no relationship between religiousness (as measured using frequency of attendance at religious services and religious attitudes or beliefs) and late diagnosis, changes in CD4 count/viral load 6 months post diagnosis, or initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Strong religious beliefs about faith and healing are unlikely to act as a barrier to accessing HIV testing or antiretroviral treatment for Black Africans living in London. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  11. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground.

  12. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  13. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961-2005.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-04-18

    A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  14. The psychological and psychiatric effects of terrorism: lessons from London.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon

    2013-09-01

    The 7 July 2005 bombings in London caused heightened levels of distress among some in the general community. This distress was most notable in Muslims and members of ethnic minority groups. These effects were transient for most. An estimated 30% of those who were more affected by the attacks, including victims and witnesses, developed psychiatric disorders as a result. An outreach program was set up to screen those who were exposed to potentially traumatic events and to offer them evidence-based treatment. This article discusses what lessons might be learned from studies of the general community and the screen-and-treat approach.

  15. Miscellanea: Survey of nameplates in a well known London Street

    PubMed Central

    Bickerton, Richard C; Milton, Catherine M

    1986-01-01

    In 1951 a well known otolaryngologist recorded 798 brass nameplates in a well known London street. In the 35 years since this last survey was conducted the number has decreased by 23. This surprising finding is attributed to the communal entryphone and to the emergence of the shoddy plate. A definition of a plate is proposed, the concentration described, and the geographical distribution of plates summarised. A new phenomenon is encountered, the ghost plate, type A and type B. Further study is required to elucidate the significance of ghost plates. Imagesp1680-a PMID:20742754

  16. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  17. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  18. Changing geographies of access to medical education in London.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gavin; Garlick, Pamela

    2007-06-01

    This paper highlights the need for health geographers to consider the social and cultural geographies of who gets to train as a doctor. The paper presents a case study of a scheme intended to widen access to medical education for working class students from inner London. This work examines the role of local education markets and cultures of education in shaping the aspirations and achievements of potential future doctors. It employs ethnographic data to consider how 'non-traditional' learners acclimatise to medical school. Our findings indicate that the students who succeed best are those who can see themselves as belonging within the education system, regardless of their social and cultural background.

  19. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyze different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with the divine are created in the personal life of people and at the sites where the casting out of demons takes place. Unlike in other spirit-centered healing traditions, the Christian Holy Spirit is not conceived of as embodied in specific places, but rather is spatially unbound. To manifest, however, the Holy Spirit requires specific spatial qualities and esthetics.

  20. An Olympic Legacy? Does the urban regeneration associated with the London 2012 Olympic Games impact on adolescent mental health?

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie Jc; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2017-06-08

    Public expenditure on mega-events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and wellbeing benefits for local communities. The ORiEL (Olympic Regeneration in East London) study examined whether urban regeneration associated with the 2012 Games was associated with improved mental health. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host London Borough of Newham or in three adjacent comparison London Boroughs, completed a survey prior to the Olympic Games (2012) and six-months and 18-months after the Games (2013 and 2014, respectively). Change in depressive symptoms and wellbeing between baseline and each follow-up were examined. 2254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from the Olympic host borough were more likely to have 'remained depressed' between baseline and the six-month and 18-month follow-ups (Relative Risk = 1.78, 95%CI 1.12-2.83; Relative Risk = 1.93, 95%CI 1.01-3.70), compared with adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in wellbeing were observed. There was very little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programmes may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Observation of the London moment and trapped flux in precision gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Y. M.; Felson, W.; Wu, C. H.; Keiser, G. M.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The London-moment readout has been observed in flight quality gyroscopes and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce magnetic field trapped in these gyroscopes to levels as low as 1.5 x 10 exp -11 T. A preliminary analysis shows that the horizontal component of the London-moment signal is 60 percent of the total expected London-moment signal and is proportional to the gyro spin speed. Experiments were carried out in a unique ground test facility which was designed to provide the conditions necessary to observe the London moment of the spinning gyroscope.

  2. Cookery, diet and district nursing in late nineteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuriko

    2009-03-01

    While health education in late nineteenth-century Britain could be beneficial for every household, it was particularly so where district nurses understood family circumstances and adapted knowledge to individual needs. During this period sick room cookery training and lectures on hygiene and dietetics became standard for nurses--especially following the reforms of Matron Eva Lückes at the London Hospital. Because understanding about health was not widespread in society, due to the living conditions and poverty of so many patients, and because doctors had few opportunities to convey such knowledge, the active support of nurses in the community proved to be essential for translating professional knowledge into words commonly understood. By demonstrating cooking and other health-related skills in the homes of the poor, nurses played an important part in improving the nation's health.

  3. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-26

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base.

  4. Combined heat and power for the City of London

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1994-06-01

    The first phase of an innovative combined heat and power (CHP) system for the City of London is now almost complete and should be operating at full capacity by the end of 1994. Test runs are taking place. The system is powered by two large 18-cylinder Waertsilae Vasa 46GD multifuel engines developing a total of just under 32 MW of power. The engines drive ABB Stromberg HSG 160O water-cooled generators with electrical efficiencies exceeding 97%. The station will use natural gas and heavy fuel oil to generate electricity for the grid, hot water for district heating and chilled water for air conditioning. In the first phase of the project, underground pipework and cabling will connect the power station to various buildings in the City including the Barbican Center, Guildhall and the Museum of London/Bastion House. State-of-the-art emission control equipment has been installed to reduce NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by over 90%. 5 figs.

  5. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. On the exchange-hole model of London dispersion forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángyán, János G.

    2007-07-01

    First-principles derivation is given for the heuristic exchange-hole model of London dispersion forces by Becke and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154104 (2005)]. A one-term approximation is used for the dynamic charge density response function, and it is shown that a central nonempirical ingredient of the approximate nonexpanded dispersion energy is the charge density autocorrelation function, a two-particle property, related to the exchange-correlation hole. In the framework of a dipolar approximation of the Coulomb interaction around the molecular origin, one obtains the so-called Salem-Tang-Karplus approximation to the C6 dispersion coefficient. Alternatively, by expanding the Coulomb interaction around the center of charge (centroid) of the exchange-correlation hole associated with each point in the molecular volume, a multicenter expansion is obtained around the centroids of electron localization domains, always in terms of the exchange-correlation hole. In order to get a formula analogous to that of Becke and Johnson, which involves the exchange-hole only, further assumptions are needed, related to the difficulties of obtaining the expectation value of a two-electron operator from a single determinant. Thus a connection could be established between the conventional fluctuating charge density model of London dispersion forces and the notion of the "exchange-hole dipole moment" shedding some light on the true nature of the approximations implicit in the Becke-Johnson model.

  7. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Thurston, G D

    1989-01-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British Smoke and SO2 were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO2 and British Smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors. PMID:2651105

  8. The decline of adult smallpox in eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Romola; Schwarz, Leonard; Boulton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Smallpox was probably the single most lethal disease in eighteenth-century Britain, but was a minor cause of death by the mid-nineteenth century. Although vaccination was crucial to the decline of smallpox, especially in urban areas, from the beginning of the nineteenth century, it remains disputed the extent to which smallpox mortality declined before vaccination. Analysis of age-specific changes in smallpox burials within the large west London parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a precipitous reduction in adult smallpox risk from the 1770s, and this pattern was duplicated in the east London parish of St Dunstan's. Most adult smallpox victims were rural migrants, and such a drop in their susceptibility is consistent with a sudden increase in exposure to smallpox in rural areas. We investigated whether this was due to the spread of inoculation, or an increase in smallpox transmission, using changes in the age patterns of child smallpox burials. Smallpox mortality rose among infants, and smallpox burials became concentrated at the youngest ages, suggesting a sudden increase in infectiousness of the smallpox virus. Such a change intensified the process of smallpox endemicization in the English population, but also made cities substantially safer for young adult migrants.

  9. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  10. Increasing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest London: a 25 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Chitre, M; Sharland, M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To identify changes in the presenting number and species of imported malaria in children in southwest London. Methods: A prospective single observer study over 25 years (1975–99) of all cases of paediatric malaria seen at St George's Hospital. Results: A confirmed diagnosis was made in 249 children (56% boys; 44% girls; median age 8.0 years). Of these, 53% were UK residents and 44% were children travelling to the UK. A significant increase was noted in the number of cases over the 25 years (1975–79: mean 4.8 cases/year; 1990–99: mean 13.7 cases/year). Over the 25 years Plasmodium falciparum was seen in 77%, P vivax in 14%, P ovale in 6%, and P malariae in 3% of cases. P falciparum had increased in frequency (1975–79: P falciparum 50%, P vivax 50%; 1990–99: P falciparum 82%, P vivax 6%), associated with an increase in the proportion of children acquiring their infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Median time between arrival in the UK to the onset of fever was: P falciparum, 5 days; P ovale, 25 days; P malariae, 37 days; and P vivax, 62 days. Median time interval between the onset of fever to commencement of treatment was 4 days. This had not improved over the 25 year period. Only 41% of UK resident children presenting to hospital had taken prophylaxis and the overall number of symptomatic children taking no prophylaxis was increasing. Conclusion: Imported childhood P falciparum malaria is increasing in southwest London associated with increasing travel from sub-Saharan Africa. Over the 25 year period there has been no improvement in chemoprophylaxis rates or time to diagnosis. PMID:12023177

  11. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  12. Getting food policy on the Mayoral table: a comparison of two election cycles in New York and London.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, N; Atkinson, S

    2015-04-01

    Cities and Mayors are increasingly being recognized as important in shaping social policy and improving social well-being. And municipal food policies are increasingly important as a tool to reduce food insecurity and prevent diet-related chronic diseases. Thus city governments have a unique ability to improve local food environments. To realize this potential for improving urban food environments, nutrition advocates will need to find innovative approaches for influencing municipal food policy. This paper examines Mayoral elections as a vehicle to advance food policy. To explore this strategy, Mayoral elections in two cities, New York City (NYC) and London, during two recent cycles were compared. To gather evidence multiple sources were used including campaign documents, media and opinion polls as well as the authors' own observations as food policy observers and participants in the two cities. Mayoral governance differs between NYC and London, with the Mayor in NYC having greater powers of management and administration, whilst the London Mayor has a more strategic role and may need to also use 'influence'. Food policy and related issues did not feature strongly in the first election cycles in either city. However by the 2012 and 2013 elections food issues were definitely 'on the table' and featured in main candidates' campaign literature. These latter elections also saw the importance of food advocates coming together to form common alliances and place food issues higher on the municipal agenda. In this way, food policy has become part of the election dialogue in both cities and candidates are expected to consider food policy issues. This analysis leads to make observations which could guide advocates as to how to use Mayoral elections to raise policy objectives for the benefit of public health.

  13. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  14. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  15. The Increasing Presence of Spanish-Speaking Latinos in London: An Emergent Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the number of Spanish-speaking Latinos in Britain and London has grown considerably. Estimates from different sources put the population in London as high as 300,000. Unfortunately, this growing ethnolinguistic group is an underresearched minority, and information of any kind is hard to come by. In this article, my aim is to…

  16. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... restricted area provided their vessels display registration numbers issued by the Naval Submarine Base, New... above, providing: (i) The Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, and the Coast...

  17. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  18. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  19. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  20. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  1. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Thames River in New London Harbor, New London, CT. The RNA will establish speed and wake restrictions and allow the Coast Guard to prohibit all vessel traffic through the RNA during degaussing range replacement...

  2. Report to the Vincent Astor Foundation; New York/London Middle School Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Urban Coalition, NY.

    The New York-London Middle Schools Project of 1976 provided an opportunity for a representative group of London educators to study New York City's public school system in terms of school community relations, school based planning and staff development at the junior high/intermediate school level. In this report, British educators provide a brief…

  3. Schools Library Services: Their Changing Value to the Education of London's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In the history of education Schools Library Services are relative newcomers. The London County Council and its successor, the Inner London Education Authority, developed Schools Library Services for their own schools from the 1950s onwards. After the Education Reform Act 1988 became law, responsibility for education passed to the inner London…

  4. The New Education and the Institute of Education, University of London, 1919-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The London Day Training College (LDTC), founded in 1902, soon became the leading institution for the study of education and for the training of teachers in England. In 1932 it was transmuted into the Institute of Education of the University of London. Its title and pre-eminence have continued to this day. In the period 1919-1945 it was closely,…

  5. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  6. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... operates a fixed degaussing range in New London Harbor, New London, CT. This range is buried in sand on the... sensors and cables encompasses a much larger area of the river bottom, from the river's west shore by Fort... supporting system's boundaries are outlined with a magenta dotted line and labeled ``Cable Area''. The Navy...

  7. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  8. Acheiving speech intelligibility at Paddington Station, London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Helen M.

    2002-11-01

    Paddington Station in London, UK is a large rail terminus for long distance electric and diesel powered trains. This magnificent train shed has four arched spans and is one of the remaining structural testaments to the architect Brunel. Given the current British and European legislative requirements for intelligible speech in public buildings AMS Acoustics were engaged to design an electroacoustic solution. In this paper we will outline how the significant problems of lively natural acoustics, the high operational noise levels and the strict aesthetic constraints were addressed. The resultant design is radical, using the most recent dsp controlled line array loudspeakers. In the paper we detail the acoustic modeling undertaken to predict both even direct sound pressure level coverage and STI. Further it presents the speech intelligibility measured upon handover of the new system. The design has proved to be successful and given the nature of the space, outstanding speech intelligibility is achieved.

  9. Herald waves of cholera in nineteenth century London.

    PubMed

    Tien, Joseph H; Poinar, Hendrik N; Fisman, David N; Earn, David J D

    2011-05-06

    Deaths from cholera in London, UK, were recorded weekly from 1824 to 1901. Three features of the time series stand out: (i) cholera deaths were strongly seasonal, with peak mortality almost always in the summer, (ii) the only non-summer outbreaks occurred in the spring of 1832, the autumn of 1848 and the winter of 1853, and (iii) extraordinarily severe summer outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849, 1854 and 1866 (the four 'great' cholera years). The non-summer outbreaks of 1832, 1848 and 1853 appear to have been herald waves of newly invading cholera strains. In addition, a simple mathematical model confirms that a non-summer introduction of a new cholera strain can result in an initial herald wave, followed by a severe outbreak the following summer. Through the analysis of the genomes of nineteenth-century specimens, it may be possible to identify the strains that caused these herald waves and the well-known cholera epidemics that followed.

  10. Attraction or Repulsion? London Dispersion Forces Control Azobenzene Switches.

    PubMed

    Schweighauser, Luca; Strauss, Marcel A; Bellotto, Silvia; Wegner, Hermann A

    2015-11-02

    Large substituents are commonly seen as entirely repulsive through steric hindrance. Such groups have additional attractive effects arising from weak London dispersion forces between the neutral atoms. Steric interactions are recognized to have a strong influence on isomerization processes, such as in azobenzene-based molecular switches. Textbooks indicate that steric hindrance destabilizes the Z isomers. Herein, we demonstrate that increasing the bulkiness of electronically equal substituents in the meta-position decreases the thermal reaction rates from the Z to the E isomers. DFT computations revealed that attractive dispersion forces essentially lower the energy of the Z isomers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cosmic Rays & ULF Waves: Research in Schools Projects in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Research in Schools (RiS) projects offer school students opportunities to experience scientific research over prolonged periods within their school environment. Over the past two years we have piloted a RiS programme with five London schools across two research areas: the cosmic ray muons which serve as backgrounds to current neutrino experiments; and the magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves that play a key role within space weather. From the evaluation of this pilot programme we have found that RiS can have significantly positive results on students' understanding and appreciation of science, as well as equipping them with vital skills. Teachers are also found to benefit from the projects, reconnecting them with their subject at an academic level, challenging them and aiding towards their professional development. It is important to note that supervision from current researchers was key to these outcomes. Finally, a number of recommendations on project structure, resources and workloads are presented.

  12. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M

    2016-09-19

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets.

  13. Cost benefit analysis of 20 mph zones in London.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Cairns, John; Grundy, Chris; Edwards, Phil

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify uncertainty in the results associated with model parameters. Results indicate a net present value (NPV) of £18 947 (90% credible limits -£75 252 to £82 021 2005 prices) after 5 years and £67 306 (£-29 157 to £137 890) after 10 years when 20 mph zones are implemented in areas with one or more casualty per kilometre of road. Simulations from our model suggest that the 'threshold of casualties' where NPVs become positive using a 10 year time horizon is 0.7 casualties per kilometre.

  14. Brachial plexus injury: the London experience with supraclavicular traction lesions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Rolfe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author details the experiences of his hospital and other London hospitals in treating brachial plexus injury. As noted, important advances have been made in methods of diagnosis and repair. Myelography was replaced by CT scan and later by MRI. Among the topics the author explores are diagnosis (including pain, the presence or absence of the Tinel sign, and the irradiation of pins and needles) and the principles of repair. The author emphasizes that it is imperative that ruptured nerves be repaired as soon as possible, with the closed traction lesion coming, in urgency, close behind reattachment of the amputated hand or repair of a great artery and a trunk nerve in the combined lesion. Finally, the article concludes that the surgeon must be actively engaged in the whole process of rehabilitation and treatment of pain. This is part of a Point-Counterpoint discussion with Dr. David G. Kline's presentation of "A Personal Experience."

  15. A cluster of suicides at a London psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Haw, C M

    1994-01-01

    In an epidemiologically based study, a spate of 14 suicides among current patients of a London psychiatric unit was investigated. Statistical analysis showed it to be a discrete cluster of suicides, rather than a chance occurrence. There was no evidence of direct linkage or "contagion" between the suicides. Thirteen of the patients suffered from severe, chronic mental illness and all but 2 had been known to the psychiatric unit for at least a year. Twelve used violent methods, in 8 cases jumping from a high place. Although no definite cause for the cluster could be established, it coincided with a period of uncertainty concerning the future of the hospital and with changes in and absenteeism of senior medical staff.

  16. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  17. Polonium-210 poisoning in London: hypochondriasis and public health.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver W; Page, Lisa; Forrester, Sarah; Maguire, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In November 2006, a Russian dissident died from radioactive Polonium-210 (210Po) poisoning in London. Providing reassuring messages during a public health incident may be ineffective for individuals with high health anxiety (hypochondriasis). Members of the public who called a 24-hour telephone helpline were offered a follow-up call by a health protection specialist for reassurance. A psychiatrist attempted to contact those callers who were unable to be reassured by the health protection specialist. Of 872 individuals contacted for reassurance, seven (0.6%) could not be reassured. The psychiatrist contacted four of these individuals. Three had a history of health-related anxiety and two attributed somatic symptoms to 210Po exposure. For individuals with hypochondriasis, reassurance during major public health incidents may be ineffective. Having a psychiatrist available was helpful in managing individuals with excessive health anxiety.

  18. Clostridium botulinum in the lakes and waterways of London.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. R.; Moryson, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Mud samples collected during 1974 from a large proportion of the lakes and waterways of London were examined for Clostridium botulinum. Of 69 such sites, 50 (72.5%) contained at least one type of the organism. Of the 50 positive sites, 31, 12, 1 and 10 contained, respectively, types B, C, D and E. Most of the demonstrations of type B required trypsinization of culture filtrates. An examination of 7 lakes in Edinburgh, made for the purpose of comparison, showed that 4 contained type B and one type C. An analysis of the results gave quantitative information on the value of (1) resampling apparently negative lakes, (2) the use of both heated and unheated culture inocula, and (3) trypsinization of culture filtrates. PMID:1104711

  19. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  20. The prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population.

    PubMed

    Brewin, James; Hill, Martin; Ellis, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Cervical ribs are an important cause of neurovascular compression at the thoracic outlet. Previous studies have shown the prevalence of cervical ribs to be between 0.05 and 3%, depending on the sex and race of the population studied. We examined 1,352 chest radiographs to determine the prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population of mixed sex and ethnicity. Our study found that the overall prevalence of cervical ribs was 0.74% with a higher rate in females compared with males (1.09 and 0.42%, respectively). Of the 10 individuals with a cervical rib, five were on the left, three were on the right and two were bilateral. The presence of elongated C7 transverse processes (transverse apophysomegaly) was also noted. We found a total of 30 elongated transverse processes with an overall prevalence of 2.21%. They were also more common in females (3.43%) than males (1.13%).

  1. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  2. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society.

  3. A 10-year retrospective review of Salmonella infections at the Children's Hospital in London, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, Tania; Seabrook, Jamie A; Chagla, Yasmine; Bannister, Susan L; Salvadori, Marina I

    2010-01-01

    To describe Salmonella infections in children presenting to the Children's Hospital (London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario), to assess risk factors for infection and to examine whether younger children, particularly infants younger than 12 weeks of age, experience higher morbidity than older children. A 10-year retrospective review of children with Salmonella infections at the Children's Hospital was conducted. Patient demographics, risk factors for infection, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and outcome were collected from the hospital charts and laboratory records. Data were separated into groups based on age and recent use of antibiotics to analyze differences in outcomes. Sixty-six children with Salmonella infections presented to the Children's Hospital over a 10-year period. Common risk factors for Salmonella infection included having sick contacts, living in a rural area, recent travel, contact with pets (especially reptiles) and exposure to local water. Younger age was associated with an increased likelihood of admission to hospital, treatment with antibiotics and a longer course of antibiotic therapy. This was true when comparing older infants with those younger than 12 weeks of age. Patients recently treated with antibiotics and those with significant underlying medical conditions were more likely to be admitted. A wider knowledge of the epidemiological risk factors for Salmonella infection may improve diagnosis. Higher admission rates were expected in children younger than 12 weeks of age, those recently treated with antibiotics and those who had a significant underlying medical condition. A prospective, multicentre study is needed to further address questions regarding increased illness severity and appropriate management of Salmonella infections in children younger than 12 weeks of age.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of water pipe and cigarette smoking among secondary school students in London.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Wilson, Amanda; Lee, John Tayu; Jawad, Sena; Hamilton, Fiona L; Millett, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking appears to be an increasing public health concern, with anecdotal reports of higher prevalence than cigarette smoking among young people in some high-income countries. We examined the prevalence and predictors of water pipe and cigarette smoking among students attending secondary schools in a deprived, ethnically diverse part of inner London. We conducted a 96-item, validated smoking habits questionnaire with 2,399 students from Years 8, 10, and 12/13 from 15 secondary schools in Brent, northwest London. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of current and ever cigarette and water pipe smoking. Current water pipe smoking prevalence was more than double that of cigarette smoking prevalence (7.6% vs. 3.4%, p < .001). One in 4 students had tried water pipe compared with 1 in 6 who had tried cigarette smoking (24.0% vs. 15.8%, p < .001). Significant predictors of ever water pipe use include being in a higher age group, South Asian or Middle Eastern ethnicity, and personal, family, or friends tobacco use. Significant predictors of ever cigarette use include being in a higher age group, White ethnicity, and personal, family, or friends tobacco use. Students attending schools with more water pipe cafes within 0.5 miles were more likely to be current water pipe users (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.33-4.42). Water pipe smoking may be more prevalent than cigarette smoking among young people in some high-income countries. Improved surveillance and dedicated tobacco control interventions are required to better understand the epidemiology of water pipe use and address its growing use.

  5. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  6. Sex differentials in caries frequencies in Medieval London.

    PubMed

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-03-01

    Tooth decay is one of the most common oral infections observed in skeletal assemblages. Sex differentials in caries frequency are commonly examined, with most studies finding that females tend to have a higher frequency of carious lesions (caries) compared to males. Less research has examined differences in caries between males and females with respect to age in past populations. Findings from living populations indicate that caries frequencies are higher in females, at least in part, because of the effects of estrogen and pregnancy. We are interested in the interaction of age, sex, and caries in medieval London, during a period of repeated famines, which might have exacerbated underlying biological causes of caries sex differentials. We examined caries in adults from two medieval London cemeteries dating to c. 1120-1539 AD: St. Mary Spital (n=291) and St. Mary Graces (n=80) to test the hypothesis that males and females have different caries frequencies irrespective of age. The association between maxillary molar caries and sex was tested using hierarchical log-linear analysis to control for the effects of age on caries frequencies. The results indicate a higher frequency of maxillary molar caries in females (P<0.00), and that the age distribution of caries differs between the sexes (P=0.01), with a consistent increase in frequency with age for females until late adulthood, but not males. The difference in caries frequencies is not explained by differences in the age distributions of the sexes. Differences in the age patterns of caries for males and females could be the result of biological factors that present during reproductive age, differences in diet, or differential access to resources during famine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BK virus nephropathy in renal transplant patients in London.

    PubMed

    White, Laura H; Casian, Alina; Hilton, Rachel; Macphee, Iain A M; Marsh, James; Sweny, Paul; Trevitt, Ray; Frankel, Andrew H; Warrens, Anthony N

    2008-04-15

    BK nephropathy (BKN) is an important cause of renal transplant dysfunction, believed to be associated with higher levels of immunosuppression. We assessed the experience of BKN in renal transplant patients in the London region. All six London transplant centers participated and case notes of patients with BKN in 2004 to 2005 were reviewed. There were 17 cases of BKN, giving an incidence of 2.1%. Median time to diagnosis was 9 months. Median baseline creatinine rose from 150 to 196 mumol/L. At diagnosis, 16 patients were on tacrolimus, 15 on mycophenolate mofetil, and 10 on triple therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Management of BKN involved reducing immunosuppression; cidofovir was used in two patients and methylprednisolone in five for acute rejection. Median follow-up time was 29.2 months. Creatinine returned to baseline in four patients, remained elevated in 12 and one patient lost his graft. The new median baseline creatinine was 216 mumol/L. Eight patients underwent repeat biopsies of which four became negative for BKV and three subsequently cleared the virus on blood and urine polymerase chain reaction and urine decoy cells. Overall, eight patients cleared the virus. None of age, sex, viral load, or biopsy characteristics (Banff ct score, Drachenberg grade, and number of BKV positive cells) were associated with poorer outcome when patients with increase in creatinine of less than 30% (n=7) or more than 30% (n=10) from baseline were compared. The incidence of BKN in this study is comparable with previous studies, with more favorable outcomes. It supports the association of BKN with potent immunosuppression.

  8. Impact of HIV on adult (15-54) mortality in London: 1979-96

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, M.; Bardsley, M.; De Angelis, D.; Ward, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of HIV on mortality in men and women aged 15-54 in London. DESIGN: Combination of routine mortality statistics with reports of AIDS deaths adjusted for underreporting and change in address from time of report to time of death. Calculation of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for males including and excluding HIV comparing inner London and outer London with the rest of England and Wales. METHODS: Comparison of trends in all cause mortality and SMRs in males over time. Comparison of trends in HIV related deaths with other main causes of deaths in males and females in London. RESULTS: Age standardised rates for the rest of England and Wales showed a continual decline from 1979 to 1996 but rates in inner London males (ages 15-54) stopped declining around 1984-5 leading to a considerable increase in the SMR for inner London from 127 for 1985-7 to 171 for 1994-6. SMRs excluding HIV related deaths for inner London, however, showed no significant change over this time. There was a fall in HIV related mortality in 1996, though HIV was still the leading cause of death in males and second leading cause of death in females in inner London, and the fourth commonest cause of death in males in outer London. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to indicate the impact of HIV on mortality within a significant population in England and Wales. They show that public health priorities in London are different from the rest of the country. Analyses of trends of all cause mortality in people under 65 may mislead unless they take account of HIV. 


 PMID:10754940

  9. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  10. Are fuel poverty reduction schemes associated with decreased excess winter mortality in elders? A case study from London, U.K.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; El-Silimy, Sally

    2008-12-01

    The London Borough of Newham, London piloted the Warm Zone, a government-led fuel poverty reduction scheme. Fuel poverty is often cited as a factor in excess winter mortality (EWM) in the U.K. This study reported in this paper assessed whether EWM decreased for people aged > or =65 years in Newham as compared to all London, employing data from before and throughout the duration of the Warm Zone project. The paper also discusses the difficulties surrounding the measurement and interpretation of health impact relating to fuel poverty. We calculated and compared the yearly EWM indices for people aged > or =65 years for all of London, and for Newham over 12 years (1993-2005). The yearly EWM ratio for Newham in relation to all London was then calculated and compared. No definitive evidence to support the effect of the War Zone on EMW were noted. Relationships between EWM and fewer poverty reduction schemes are difficult to interpret, as many factors are entangled. These include cold strain and biological, genetic, gender, physiological, thermoregulation, environmental, meteorological, socio-economic, healthcare provision/expenditure, lifestyle and co-morbidity aspects, besides the challenges of sample sizes and whether other fuel poverty reduction schemes were simultaneously in operation. Those in privately owned housing might be ;masked' (underestimated) in their vulnerability to fuel poverty. Redefining the specific criteria for eligibility for fuel poverty grants and tackling heat inefficiency in privately owned homes not eligible for home heating improvement despite fulfilling other criteria for vulnerability requires attention. The implications are discussed.

  11. Inequalities in the use of dental services among adults in inner South East London.

    PubMed

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Klass, Charlotte; Jones, Kate; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Improving access to National Health Service (NHS) dentistry is a public health issue that has been a focus for successive governments and policy makers in the UK. To inform this process, commissioners of services need to understand trends in service use and demands of the local population. This study explored inequalities in dental services use among adults in a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London; satisfaction with services; and public views for improvement of services. Data from 695 adults were analysed for this study (56% of the eligible sample). Inequalities in dental services use and satisfaction with care according to sociodemographic factors were assessed in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. The proportion of participants who reported attending the dentist in the last 24 months was 69%, with inequalities according to social grade, ethnicity, sex and age but not according to borough of residence. The most common areas identified by respondents for service improvement were availability of dentists, affordability of care, and accommodation of services. Among those who visited the dentist in the last 24 months, 90% were satisfied with the quality of care provided. However, there were inequalities in satisfaction with care according to borough and reason for the last dental visit. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  13. Stuart London's standard of living: re-examining the Settlement of Tithes of 1638 for rents, income, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Baer, William C

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement of Tithes of 1638 can be tested for biases in its London rents. Even so, it proves to be a relatively good source for seventeenth-century London, and for calculating associated median and mean rents, as well as a Gini coefficient of inequality for the distribution of resources. Through other evidence in the Settlement, rent/income ratios for London can be approximated, and from them estimates made of London's median income. Median rents and income also allow estimates of the percentage of Londoners in poverty. Though the last is inevitably disputable, the estimate holds up well to testing by other evidence.

  14. Herald waves of cholera in nineteenth century London

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Joseph H.; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Fisman, David N.; Earn, David J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Deaths from cholera in London, UK, were recorded weekly from 1824 to 1901. Three features of the time series stand out: (i) cholera deaths were strongly seasonal, with peak mortality almost always in the summer, (ii) the only non-summer outbreaks occurred in the spring of 1832, the autumn of 1848 and the winter of 1853, and (iii) extraordinarily severe summer outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849, 1854 and 1866 (the four ‘great’ cholera years). The non-summer outbreaks of 1832, 1848 and 1853 appear to have been herald waves of newly invading cholera strains. In addition, a simple mathematical model confirms that a non-summer introduction of a new cholera strain can result in an initial herald wave, followed by a severe outbreak the following summer. Through the analysis of the genomes of nineteenth-century specimens, it may be possible to identify the strains that caused these herald waves and the well-known cholera epidemics that followed. PMID:21123253

  15. INVITATION : Latest astronomical results from ISO: Press briefing in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    Representatives of the media are invited to attend the briefing at the Institute of Physics, which will commence with registration and demonstrations at 10:00 a.m. London time. As of 10:30, Paul Murdin, Head of Astronomy at PPARC will initiate the briefing on behalf of PPARC. Reinhard Genzel, a German astronomer and Director of the Max Planck Institute, will make an independent assessment of ISO's achievements and announce some recent discoveries. Martin Kessler, the European Space Agency's project scientist, will summarize the extent of ISO's observations and describe the continuing work of analysis. At 11:45 (after questions) ISO scientists will be available for interviews, with quiet rooms for radio interviews and a scale model of ISO as backdrop for TV interviews and still pictures. Other facilities will include digital images from ISO, and a demonstration of educational project work. To coincide with the event, ESA will distribute a video news release, an Information Note, and new pictures from ISO. After the briefing there will be a buffet lunch. The nearest underground stations to the Institute of Physics are Great Portland Street and Regent's Park. Representatives of the media wishing to attend are requested to return by fax (+33(0)1.53.69.76.90) the attached accreditation form. For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax : +33(0)1.53.69.76.90

  16. Urban smoke concentrations at Kew, London, 1898-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    Historical smoke concentrations at monthly resolution for the early twentieth century are found for Kew Observatory, London, using the atmospheric electricity proxy technique. Smoke particles modify the electrical properties of urban air: an increase in smoke concentration reduces air's electrical conductivity and increases the Potential Gradient (PG). Calibrated PG data are available from Kew since 1898, and air conductivity was measured routinely between 1909 and 1979 using the technique developed by C.T.R. Wilson. Automated smoke observations at the same site overlap with the atmospheric electrical measurements from 1921, providing an absolute calibration to smoke concentration. This shows that the late nineteenth century winter smoke concentrations at Kew were approximately 100 times greater than contemporary winter smoke concentrations. Following smoke emission regulations reducing the smoke concentration, the electrical parameters of the urban air did not change dramatically. This is suggested to be due to a composition change, with an increase in the abundance of small aerosol compensating for the decrease in smoke.

  17. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerhayes, Colin

    2011-02-01

    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site//GSL//lang/en/climatechange) about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/page8578.html) reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  18. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-11-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  19. Fatty liver in birds at the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M; Pugsley, S L

    1984-04-01

    The livers of 531 captive wild birds necropsied at the Zoological Society of London were examined histologically. Marked fatty infiltration of the liver was found in 13 cases. Seven of the 13 cases were from the order Psittaciformes indicating that some species (cockatoos, parakeets and parrots) in this order may be particularly susceptible to fatty infiltration of the liver. Affected livers were commonly swollen or enlarged, pale, white or yellow in colour and soft, friable or fatty at post mortem examination. Histologically, marked fatty infiltration of the liver was characterised by the presence of intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles within hepatocytes without zonal or lobular distribution throughout the sections examined. Reticulolysis and fibrosis of the hepatic parenchyma were found in association with marked fatty liver in a proportion of cases. Macroscopic or histological evidence of hepatic haemorrhages was not found in affected birds. In psittacine birds, obesity was frequently seen at post mortem examination and it was considered that nutritional and/or metabolic factors were important causes of fatty liver in this group. Fatty liver was found in association with chronic wasting diseases caused by mycotic infection in two cases.

  20. Efficient Calculation of Molecular Integrals over London Atomic Orbitals.

    PubMed

    Irons, Tom J P; Zemen, Jan; Teale, Andrew M

    2017-08-08

    The use of London atomic orbitals (LAOs) in a nonperturbative manner enables the determination of gauge-origin invariant energies and properties for molecular species in arbitrarily strong magnetic fields. Central to the efficient implementation of such calculations for molecular systems is the evaluation of molecular integrals, particularly the electron repulsion integrals (ERIs). We present an implementation of several different algorithms for the evaluation of ERIs over Gaussian-type LAOs at arbitrary magnetic field strengths. The efficiencies of generalized McMurchie-Davidson (MD), Head-Gordon-Pople (HGP), and Rys quadrature schemes are compared. For the Rys quadrature implementation, we avoid the use of high precision arithmetic and interpolation schemes in the computation of the quadrature roots and weights, enabling the application of this algorithm seamlessly to a wide range of magnetic fields. The efficiency of each generalized algorithm is compared by numerical application, classifying the ERIs according to their total angular momenta and evaluating their performance for primitive and contracted basis sets. In common with zero-field integral evaluation, no single algorithm is optimal for all angular momenta; thus, a simple mixed scheme is put forward that selects the most efficient approach to calculate the ERIs for each shell quartet. The mixed approach is significantly more efficient than the exclusive use of any individual algorithm.

  1. Gonorrhoea in a south London genitourinary medicine department.

    PubMed

    Newell, A; Herbert, E; Vigus, J; Grieg, A; Rodgers, M E

    2003-09-01

    The management and outcome of all cases of gonorrhoea which presented to a south London genitourinary medicine clinic during 1999 were assessed and compared with published national guidelines. The incidence of penicillin resistance was calculated, as was the rate of co-infection with chlamydia and trichomonas. Information regarding demographic data, microscopy, culture results, test of cure, antibiotic use, sensitivity and health adviser contact was examined. A total of 257 cases of gonorrhoea were diagnosed in 238 patients. Heterosexual men constituted 52.9% of cases, 6.6% were in homosexual men and 40.5% in women. Direct microscopy was positive in 88.8% of men and in 40.5% of women. In women, the rate of gonorrhoea co-infection with chlamydia was 34.7% and with trichomonas was 11.5%. In men the rate of chlamydia co-infection was only 3.3%, however, we do not believe this to be an accurate figure as we are unable to routinely screen all men for chlamydia due to financial restrictions. Amoxicillin with probenecid were the most commonly used antibiotics in line with local guidelines. Penicillin resistance was demonstrated in 4.6% of infected cases. Health advisers saw 73.2% of patients.

  2. External and internal noise surveys of London primary schools.

    PubMed

    Shield, Bridget; Dockrell, Julie E

    2004-02-01

    Internal and external noise surveys have been carried out around schools in London, UK, to provide information on typical levels and sources to which children are exposed while at school. Noise levels were measured outside 142 schools, in areas away from flight paths into major airports. Here 86% of the schools surveyed were exposed to noise from road traffic, the average external noise level outside a school being 57 dB L(Aeq). Detailed internal noise surveys have been carried out in 140 classrooms in 16 schools, together with classroom observations. It was found that noise levels inside classrooms depend upon the activities in which the children are engaged, with a difference of 20 dB L(Aeq) between the "quietest" and "noisiest" activities. The average background noise level in classrooms exceeds the level recommended in current standards. The number of children in the classroom was found to affect noise levels. External noise influenced internal noise levels only when children were engaged in the quietest classroom activities. The effects of the age of the school buildings and types of window upon internal noise were examined but results were inconclusive.

  3. Air earth current measurements at Kew, London, 1909 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Ingram, W. J.

    2005-07-01

    A vertical conduction current arises from the global ionospheric potential and the integrated electrical resistance between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. The conduction current density varies with the ionospheric potential and the vertical (columnar) resistance. At the surface, the conduction current density is known as the air-earth current. C.T.R. Wilson developed a measurement technique for the air-earth current in 1906, which was implemented by the British Meteorological Office at its Kew Observatory (51° 28'N, 0° 19'W) near London in 1909. Simultaneous measurements of air-earth current, potential gradient and positive air conductivity were made almost continuously until 1979 using the Wilson method on fine afternoons. A summary of the complete set of monthly mean measurements is presented here for the first time. The data span the nuclear weapons testing period and the UK Clean Air Act of 1956, both of which influenced the measurements obtained. Annual average values of the air earth current density at Kew are 0.97 pA·m -2 (1909-1931), 1.04 pA·m -2 (1932-1949) and 1.41 pA·m -2 (1967-1979).

  4. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  5. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  6. Evaluating sexual health planning for the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The public health impact of mass gatherings should not be underestimated, requiring careful planning. This evaluation identified the successes and failures of a programme targeted to mitigate against potential increases in sexual ill health during the London 2012 Olympics. Programme planning was evaluated using documentary analysis. Stakeholders' experiences were explored using an online survey. Finally, selected stakeholders were interviewed in depth. Over 100 documents were analysed, 36 survey responses received and 12 interviews conducted. Most respondents felt aims were appropriate, potentially overambitious. 'Business as usual', with no disruption or increased demand, was reported in sexual health services. Some interviewees felt evidence for increased demand was limited, although contingency planning was needed. Signposting service users and providing 'residual risk responses' appeared successful. Planned service transformation was not fully achieved and perhaps inappropriate, although new service collaborations emerged. Over 2000 individuals participated; wider public engagement was seen as inappropriate. A 'Sex Factor 2012' competition was particularly successful. Legacy opportunities included planning work, groundwork for transformation, relationship building and continuing the resilience changes. The Games allowed sexual health services to explore new ways of working, engage with stakeholders and develop new relationships, although in reality demand for services did not increase. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world. PMID:27849598

  8. Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, J; Brunner, E J; Anderson, H R; Tiittanen, P; Atkinson, R W

    2000-12-01

    The reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Data on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between September 1991 and May 1993, were combined with data on concentrations of air pollution during the day of blood sampling and during the 3 preceding days. After adjustment for weather and other confounding factors, an increase in the 24 hour mean NO(2) during the previous day from the 10th to the 90th percentile (61.7 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 1.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4% to 2.5%) higher fibrinogen concentration. The respective increase for CO (1.6 mg/m(3)) was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5%, 2.5%). These associations tended to be stronger in the warm season (April to September). Significant associations were found for black smoke and particulate matter of diameter 10 microm (PM(10)) only in the warm season. No association with fibrinogen was found for SO(2) or ozone. The short term association between air pollution, possibly from traffic, and risk of cardiovascular events may be at least partly mediated through increased concentrations of plasma fibrinogen, possibly due to an inflammatory reaction caused by air pollution.

  9. The London Academic Training Scheme: learning research methods through teaching.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J; Iliffe, S

    1998-04-01

    The London Academic Training Scheme (LATS) provides a 1-year training programme in research methods and teaching for GPs who have recently finished vocational training. This paper describes an adult educational approach to learning about research methods through teaching as part of the LATS trainees' weekly academic programme. We aimed to provide and evaluate a course exploring research methodologies used in primary care by a three-step approach to learning, with trainees taking the main role as teachers. Trainees on the LATS programme met for one afternoon each week for one term. During alternate sessions a pair of trainees would deliver a whole afternoon's seminar on one aspect of primary care research methodology. The teaching of each session was evaluated by the whole group, by academic supervisors and by experts. Sessions were scored by participants for content, style of presentation, educational value and enjoyment on a seven-point rating scale where 1 = no value, 4 = neutral and 7 = very valuable. All sessions scored above 4 and usually above 5 for each aspect. Open comments collected showed that trainees greatly appreciated this self-directed approach to learning and teaching. The active involvement of learners as teachers is a practical and rewarding means of using adult educational principles in providing an academic programme.

  10. Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Mhd Nour; Bedi, Raman; Foster, Claire; Jopanputra, Pooja; Allan, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC). Methods A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC). Results 2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05) whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment PMID:16188024

  11. London 2012: occupational health in the construction programme.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    This article explores the approach to occupational health in the UK construction industry in both broad and narrow contexts. The construction programme for the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games includes the creation of a large urban park in east London containing many sports venues and served by enhanced infrastructure. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), responsible for the construction programme, is developing plans that seek to assure the health of the thousands of workers who will be engaged in this work. Such plans are not being drafted in a vacuum. In addition to considerable consultation with stakeholders the ODA is also drawing on some of the exciting work that has been undertaken in occupational health in recent years. In particular, the move from a focus on technical health services provided by 'experts' to an acceptance that health issues should be managed within employing organizations. Understanding this broad context provides a solid basis for analysing the specific proposals for occupational support during the Olympic Park construction.

  12. Stratified, precision or personalised medicine? Cancer services in the 'real world' of a London hospital.

    PubMed

    Day, Sophie; Coombes, R Charles; McGrath-Lone, Louise; Schoenborn, Claudia; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    We conducted ethnographic research in collaboration with a large, research-intensive London breast cancer service in 2013-2014 so as to understand the practices and potential effects of stratified medicine. Stratified medicine is often seen as a synonym for both personalised and precision medicine but these three terms, we found, also related to distinct facets of treatment and care. Personalised medicine is the term adopted for the developing 2016 NHS England Strategy, in which breast cancer care is considered a prime example of improved biological precision and better patient outcomes. We asked how this biologically stratified medicine affected wider relations of care and treatment. We interviewed formally 33 patients and 23 of their carers, including healthcare workers; attended meetings associated with service improvements, medical decision-making, public engagement, and scientific developments as well as following patients through waiting rooms, clinical consultations and other settings. We found that the translation of new protocols based on biological research introduced further complications into an already-complex patient pathway. Combinations of new and historic forms of stratification had an impact on almost all patients, carers and staff, resulting in care that often felt less rather than more personal. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  13. Investigation of the emissions and profiles of a wide range of VOCs during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rachel; Lidster, Richard; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Lee, James; Hopkins, James; Whalley, Lisa; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    The majority of the World's population live in polluted urbanized areas. Poor air quality is shortening life expectancy of people in the UK by an average 7-8 months and costs society around £20 billion per year.[1] Despite this, our understanding of atmospheric processing in urban environments and its effect on air quality is incomplete. Air quality models are used to predict how air quality changes given different concentrations of pollution precursors, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The urban environment of megacities pose a unique challenge for air quality measurements and modelling, due to high population densities, pollution levels and complex infrastructure. For over 60 years the air quality in London has been monitored, however the existing measurements are limited to a small group of compounds. In order to fully understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in London, more intensive and comprehensive measurements should be made. The Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project was conducted to investigate the air quality, in particular the boundary layer pollution, of London. A relatively new technique, comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) [2] was combined with a well-established dual channel GC (DC-GC) [3] system to provide a more comprehensive measurement of VOCs. A total of 78 individual VOCs (36 aliphatics, 19 monoaromatics, 21 oxygenated and 2 halogenated) and 10 groups of VOCs (8 aliphatic, 1 monoaromatic and 1 monoterpene) from C1-C13+ were quantified. Seasonal and diurnal profiles of these VOCs have been found which show the influence of emission source and chemical processing. Including these extra VOCs should enhance the prediction capability of air quality models thus informing policy makers on how to potentially improve air quality in megacities. References 1. House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, Air Quality: A follow-up report, Ninth Report of session 2012-12. 2. Lidster, R.T., J.F. Hamilton

  14. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  15. Scoping the role and education needs of practice nurses in London.

    PubMed

    Procter, Susan; Griffiths, Lauren; Fanning, Agnes; Wallman, Lizzie; Loveday, Heather P

    2017-03-27

    Aims To identify education priorities for practice nursing across eight London Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs); to identify the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses in undertaking current and future roles.

  16. Apprentices in Trouble: Some Problems in the Training of Surgeons and Apothecaries in Seventeenth Century London

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    Mayor's Court interrogatories and depositions in six disputes between apprentices and their surgeon and apothecary masters in London in 1654-1684 are reviewed. Evidence is presented to illustrate aspects of the operation of the apprentice system. PMID:377827

  17. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  18. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-02-01

    To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. Twenty civil service departments in London. Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and management on psychological wellbeing, satisfaction, and psychiatric

  19. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  20. Royal London space analysis: plaster versus digital model assessment.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Balpreet; Lee, Robert T; Zou, Lifong; Johal, Ama

    2017-06-01

    With the advent of digital study models, the importance of being able to evaluate space requirements becomes valuable to treatment planning and the justification for any required extraction pattern. This study was undertaken to compare the validity and reliability of the Royal London space analysis (RLSA) undertaken on plaster as compared with digital models. A pilot study (n = 5) was undertaken on plaster and digital models to evaluate the feasibility of digital space planning. This also helped to determine the sample size calculation and as a result, 30 sets of study models with specified inclusion criteria were selected. All five components of the RLSA, namely: crowding; depth of occlusal curve; arch expansion/contraction; incisor antero-posterior advancement and inclination (assessed from the pre-treatment lateral cephalogram) were accounted for in relation to both model types. The plaster models served as the gold standard. Intra-operator measurement error (reliability) was evaluated along with a direct comparison of the measured digital values (validity) with the plaster models. The measurement error or coefficient of repeatability was comparable for plaster and digital space analyses and ranged from 0.66 to 0.95mm. No difference was found between the space analysis performed in either the upper or lower dental arch. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted. The digital model measurements were consistently larger, albeit by a relatively small amount, than the plaster models (0.35mm upper arch and 0.32mm lower arch). No difference was detected in the RLSA when performed using either plaster or digital models. Thus, digital space analysis provides a valid and reproducible alternative method in the new era of digital records.

  1. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    PubMed Central

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  2. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Cherrie, J; Dennekamp, M; Donaldson, K; Hurley, J; Tran, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Methods: Concentrations of dust, as mass (PM2.5) and particle number, were measured at different underground stations and in train cabs; its size and composition were analysed; likely maximal exposures of staff and passengers were estimated; and in vitro toxicological testing of sample dusts in comparison with other dusts was performed. Results: Concentrations on station platforms were 270–480 µg/m3 PM2.5 and 14 000–29 000 particles/cm3. Cab concentrations over a shift averaged 130–200 µg/m3 and 17 000–23 000 particles/cm3. The dust comprised by mass approximately 67% iron oxide, 1–2% quartz, and traces of other metals, the residue being volatile matter. The finest particles are drawn underground from the surface while the coarser dust is generated by interaction of brakes, wheels, and rails. Taking account of durations of exposure, drivers and station staff would have maximum exposures of about 200 µg/m3 over eight hours; the occupational exposure standard for welding fume, as iron oxide, is 5 mg/m3 over an eight hour shift. Toxicology showed the dust to have cytotoxic and inflammatory potential at high doses, consistent with its composition largely of iron oxide. Discussion: It is unjustifiable to compare PM2.5 exposure underground with that on the surface, since the adverse effects of iron oxide and combustion generated particles differ. Concentrations of ultrafine particles are lower and of coarser (PM2.5) particles higher underground than on the surface. The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters. PMID:15901881

  3. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health.

    PubMed

    Seaton, A; Cherrie, J; Dennekamp, M; Donaldson, K; Hurley, J F; Tran, C L

    2005-06-01

    To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Concentrations of dust, as mass (PM2.5) and particle number, were measured at different underground stations and in train cabs; its size and composition were analysed; likely maximal exposures of staff and passengers were estimated; and in vitro toxicological testing of sample dusts in comparison with other dusts was performed. Concentrations on station platforms were 270-480 microg/m3 PM2.5 and 14,000-29,000 particles/cm3. Cab concentrations over a shift averaged 130-200 microg/m3 and 17,000-23,000 particles/cm3. The dust comprised by mass approximately 67% iron oxide, 1-2% quartz, and traces of other metals, the residue being volatile matter. The finest particles are drawn underground from the surface while the coarser dust is generated by interaction of brakes, wheels, and rails. Taking account of durations of exposure, drivers and station staff would have maximum exposures of about 200 microg/m3 over eight hours; the occupational exposure standard for welding fume, as iron oxide, is 5 mg/m3 over an eight hour shift. Toxicology showed the dust to have cytotoxic and inflammatory potential at high doses, consistent with its composition largely of iron oxide. It is unjustifiable to compare PM2.5 exposure underground with that on the surface, since the adverse effects of iron oxide and combustion generated particles differ. Concentrations of ultrafine particles are lower and of coarser (PM2.5) particles higher underground than on the surface. The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters.

  4. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C; Roberts, I; Speirs, N

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area. Cross sectional study. 40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs. Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate. Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing. 39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5). Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

  5. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

 PMID:10519711

  6. East London Experience with Enteric Fever 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayshree; Millar, Michael; Maxeiner, Horst; Freedman, Joanne; Meade, Rachel; Rosmarin, Caryn; Jordan, Matthew; Andrews, Nick; Holliman, Richard; Sefton, Armine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007–2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0–57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1–20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required. PMID:25790017

  7. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  8. Millennium-long damage to building materials in London.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2009-02-01

    Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, so non-instrumental weather records and modelled pollution are utilised for historic values, while future climate is adapted from the HadCM3A2 model output and pollution assessed from likely regulatory trends. The results from the different damage functions compare reasonably well showing comparable changes in damage rates with time. A potential square-root dependence of change in deposition velocity of SO2 to limestone suggests a possible overestimate of damage when pollution is high. Deterioration is especially intense from the 1700s. It is difficult to be certain whether the corrosion of copper accelerated as early as this or it developed in the 20th century. Nevertheless all the functions predict a decline in copper corrosion from the end of the 20th century. A blackening function was developed to relate elemental carbon concentration and the colour of deposited particulate matter to blackening rate, which suggests that soiling was particularly rapid in the late 19th century. The increase and subsequent decrease in damage to building materials is interpreted in terms of a Kuznets curve. The centuries where pollution controlled damage to durable building material seems to be over. Weathering, in a changing climate may have the greatest impact in the future.

  9. Insights into the oral health beliefs and practices of mothers from a north London Orthodox Jewish community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to explore oral health knowledge and beliefs and access to dental care in a culturally distinct Orthodox Jewish community in North London, with a view to informing local health policy. Methods A dual method qualitative approach to data collection was adopted in this study utilising semi-structured face to face interviews and focus groups with women from this North London orthodox Jewish community. In total nine interviews and four focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of thirty three mothers from the community aged 21-58 years. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology Results Cultural influences, competing pressures and perceptions of hereditary influences, together with a lack of contemporary oral health knowledge are the main factors affecting oral health knowledge and beliefs. This supported an overall perspective of disempowerment or a perceived lack of control over oral health behaviours, both for mothers and their children. Community signposting pointed mothers to dental services, whilst family pressures together with inadequate capacity and capability and generic barriers such as fear and cost acted as barriers. Mothers from this community welcomed community development initiatives from the NHS. Conclusions The results of this study provide insight into the challenges of a culturally isolated community who would welcome community support through schools and expanded culturally appropriate opening hours to improve access to dental care. PMID:20529247

  10. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country.

  11. Exploring Leaders' Views on the Influence of Applied A Levels and Vocational Education on Preparation for Students' Progression to Higher Education and Employment, in the Context of an Inner City London School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garforth, Graham

    2011-01-01

    In London particularly there is increasing competitiveness for jobs and a need for transferable tertiary industry skills. There has been decades of change in vocational education and training; but there is evidence that little has changed to improve the chances of students progression to higher education and employment. With the age that students…

  12. Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, S.; Slowik, J. G.; Furger, M.; Zotter, P.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Green, D. C.; Tremper, A. H.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Williams, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Nemitz, E.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Fleming, Z. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model, conducted on data sets comprising all three sites but segregated by size. Combining the sites enabled separation of sources with high temporal covariance but significant spatial variability. Separation of sizes improved source resolution by preventing sources occurring in only a single size fraction from having too small a contribution for the model to resolve. Anchor profiles were retrieved internally by analysing data subsets, and these profiles were used in the analyses of the complete data sets of all sites for enhanced source apportionment. A total of nine different factors were resolved (notable elements in brackets): in PM10-2.5, brake wear (Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), other traffic-related (Fe), resuspended dust (Si, Ca), sea/road salt (Cl), aged sea salt (Na, Mg) and industrial (Cr, Ni); in PM2.5-1.0, brake wear, other traffic-related, resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt and S-rich (S); and in PM1.0-0.3, traffic-related (Fe, Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt, reacted Cl (Cl), S-rich and solid fuel (K, Pb). Human activities enhance the kerb-to-rural concentration gradients of coarse aged sea salt, typically considered to have a natural source, by 1.7-2.2. These site-dependent concentration differences reflect the effect of local resuspension processes in London. The anthropogenically influenced factors traffic (brake wear and other traffic-related processes), dust and sea/road salt provide further kerb-to-rural concentration enhancements by direct source emissions by a factor of 3.5-12.7. The traffic and dust factors are mainly emitted in PM10-2.5 and show strong

  13. Short-term associations between particle oxidative potential and daily mortality and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Samoli, Evangelia; Analitis, Antonis; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Anderson, H Ross; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Chrissi; Aitlhadj, Layla; Kelly, Frank J; Mudway, Ian S

    2016-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from traffic and other sources has been associated with adverse health effects. One unifying theory is that PM, whatever its source, acts on the human body via its capacity to cause damaging oxidation reactions related to its content of pro-oxidants components. Few epidemiological studies have investigated particle oxidative potential (OP) and health. We conducted a time series analysis to assess associations between daily particle OP measures and numbers of deaths and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. During 2011 and 2012 particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively) were collected daily on Partisol filters located at an urban background monitoring station in Central London. Particulate OP was assessed based on the capacity of the particles to oxidize ascorbate (OP(AA)) and glutathione (OP(GSH)) from a simple chemical model reflecting the antioxidant composition of human respiratory tract lining fluid. Particulate OP, expressed as % loss of antioxidant per μg of PM, was then multiplied by the daily concentrations of PM to derive the daily OP of PM mass concentrations (% loss per m(3)). Daily numbers of deaths and age- and cause-specific hospital admissions in London were obtained from national registries. Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death or admission associated with an interquartile increment in particle OP. We found little evidence for adverse associations between OP(AA) and OP(GSH) and mortality. Associations with cardiovascular admissions were generally positive in younger adults and negative in older adults with confidence intervals including 0%. For respiratory admissions there was a trend, from positive to negative associations, with increasing age although confidence intervals generally included 0%. Our study, the first to analyse daily particle OP measures and

  14. Putting partnership into practice: participatory wellbeing assessment on a south London housing estate

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, Andrea; Lall, Pawan; Kennedy, Ken; Owen, Felicity

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Purpose  Bridging the gap between professionals and communities and establishing new forms of partnership is essential if service provision is to be made more responsive and accountable. This article describes an innovative approach to creating the basis for partnerships to address community wellbeing on an estate in south London. Methods  Drawing on participatory appraisal and action planning methods, and drawing together residents and professionals within and beyond the health service, a participatory wellbeing assessment exercise was carried out on a housing estate with a population of around 6000 people, involving just under 10% of residents. Results  The participatory wellbeing assessment exercise served as a means of seeking to bridge different perceptions, priorities and perspectives on wellbeing and forge new relationships, alliances and partnerships for change. Creating this vehicle for change also created opportunities for local people to participate in community wellbeing issues. This, in turn, strengthened connections between health policy, provision and grassroots community health development, broadening opportunities for service responsiveness and citizen involvement. Conclusion  Broadening involvement in assessing and determining priorities for improving wellbeing can serve to do more than enable citizens to engage more directly in making and shaping the policies that affect their lives. It can also serve as a way of establishing new kinds of partnerships across and within the statutory and non‐statutory services, opening up space for new, more ‘joined up’ forms of work that help to bridge the gap between citizens and services. PMID:12603626

  15. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  16. ICU fire evacuation preparedness in London: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G R F; Foot, C

    2011-05-01

    Hospital fires present a sporadic but significant threat to patients and staff. This is especially so within an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, due to the complexity of moving acutely unwell patients reliant on invasive monitoring and organ support. Despite an average of 500 in-hospital fires reported to the UK department of health per annum, causing 65 injuries and 1-2 fatalities, the readiness of ICUs for urgent evacuation has not been assessed. A cross-sectional survey of all 50 adult and paediatric ICUs within the London Postgraduate Deanery was conducted; neonatal units were excluded. The senior nurse at each unit was asked to complete a 90-question structured questionnaire, covering unit patient characteristics, design, equipment, training, and their evacuation plan. Thirty-five of 50 (70%) responded within 2 months of the study. Significant weaknesses were reported in unit design, equipment, and planning. Unit design was compromised by inadequate fire doors (20%), ventilation cut-outs (17%), and escape routes (up to 60%). The ability to evacuate multiple patients simultaneously may be limited by a lack of portable monitoring equipment (49% of beds) and emergency drug supplies (20% of beds). Evacuation plans were often limited in their scope (96% expected to remain on their floor; 14% had plans to obtain medications after evacuation), and not rehearsed (60%). Staff training, while well provided for permanent staff, is less so for temporary staff (34%). Forward planning for an urgent evacuation can be improved.

  17. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    PubMed

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  18. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. The impact of thunderstorm asthma on emergency department attendances across London during July 2013.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; Hughes, H E; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Brown, R; Sarran, C; Clewlow, Y; Murray, V; Bone, A; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G E

    2014-08-01

    This study illustrates the potential of using emergency department attendance data, routinely accessed as part of a national syndromic surveillance system, to monitor the impact of thunderstorm asthma. The Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) routinely monitors anonymised attendance data on a daily basis across a sentinel network of 35 emergency departments. Attendance data for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing are analysed on a daily basis. A statistically significant spike in asthma attendances in two EDSSS emergency departments in London was detected on 23 July 2013, coinciding with a series of large violent thunderstorms across southern England. There was also an increase in the reported severity of these attendances. This preliminary report illustrates the potential of the EDSSS to monitor the impact of thunderstorms on emergency department asthma attendances. Further work will focus on how this system can be used to quantify the impact on emergency departments, thus potentially improving resource planning and also adding to the thunderstorm asthma evidence-base. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Addressing London's modern urban health challenges: learning from other global cities.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Y G; Mills, A J; Korkodilos, M

    2017-03-18

    Around 150 cities have emerged as notable at a global scale. With a global population of fewer than 12%, they generate 46% of world gross domestic product. There is growing interest in how cities can accelerate health improvements through wider social and economic collaboration. A team led by Public Health England in London visited counterparts in New York City and Paris to examine how city health leaders addressed public health challenges. The three cities have similar health challenges but different legal, political and fiscal resources for promoting and protecting health. Consequently, there is no single model that every city could adopt. Organizational structures, interpersonal relationships and individual skills can play an important part in effective delivery of better city health. Lack of access to published evidence on how practice has been influenced by city health policies hampers learning between cities. There is little easily comparable data to guide those interested in such learning. Municipal governments are ideally situated to join researchers to fill this gap in the literature. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  2. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  3. Police deaths in New York and London during the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, D N; Monkkonen, E H; Peek‐Asa, C; Lucke, R E; Labbett, S; Pearlman, K S; Hutson, H R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the incidences and causes of occupational police deaths in New York City in the United States and Greater London in the United Kingdom during the twentieth century. To assess the relation between overall societal violence and violence directed toward police officers in these metropolitan areas. Design and setting Ecological study of New York and London from 1900 through 1999. Main outcome measures Intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates for New York and London were estimated for each decade. The general population homicide rates of both New York and London were assessed for their correlation with their respective intentional occupational police mortality rates. Results During the 20th century, 585 police officers in New York and 160 police officers in London died while participating in law enforcement activities. New York had markedly greater intentional police mortality rates compared to London throughout most of the 20th century, but these differences decreased significantly by the end of the century. Intentional gunshot wounds comprised 290 police deaths in New York, but only 14 police deaths in London. In New York, gun shot wounds (both intentional and unintentional) accounted for more occupational police deaths (51.6%) than did all other injury mechanisms combined. In London, motor vehicle collision was the most common cause (47.5%) of occupational police death. There were no apparent correlations between the general population homicide rates and intentional police mortality rates in either New York (r2 = 0.05, 95% CI −0.77 to 0.81) or London (r2 = 0.34, 95% CI −0.61 to 0.89). Conclusions During the 20th century, both intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates were significantly greater in New York compared to London. These differences are likely from several socioeconomic, cultural, and occupational factors. The declines in police deaths in New York during the latter part of

  4. Psychological and behavioural reactions to the bombings in London on 7 July 2005: cross sectional survey of a representative sample of Londoners

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, G James; Brewin, Chris R; Greenberg, Neil; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of the bombings in London on 7 July on stress levels and travel intentions in London's population. Design A cross sectional telephone survey using random digit dialling was conducted to contact a representative sample of adults. Respondents were asked to participate in an interview enquiring about current levels of stress and travel intentions. Setting Interviews took place between 18 and 20 July. Participants 1010 participants (10% of the eligible people we contacted) completed the interviews. Main outcome measures Main outcomes were presence of substantial stress, measured by using an identical tool to that used to assess the emotional impact of 11 September 2001 in the US population, and intention to travel less on tubes, trains, and buses, or into central London, once the transport network had returned to normal. Results 31% of Londoners reported substantial stress and 32% reported an intention to travel less. Among other things, having difficulty contacting friends or family by mobile phone (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.7), having thought you could have been injured or killed (3.8, 2.4 to 6.2), and being Muslim (4.0, 2.5 to 6.6) were associated with a greater presence of substantial stress, whereas being white (0.3, 0.2 to 0.4) and having previous experience of terrorism (0.6, 0.5 to 0.9) were associated with reduced stress. Only 12 participants (1%) felt that they needed professional help to deal with their emotional response to the attacks. Conclusions Although the psychological needs of those intimately caught up in the attacks will require further assessment, we found no evidence of a widespread desire for professional counselling. The attacks have inflicted disproportionately high levels of distress among non-white and Muslim Londoners. PMID:16126821

  5. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    PubMed

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  6. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons.

    PubMed

    Marklein, Kathryn E; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2-11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman's correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative indices for

  7. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Douglas E.

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2–11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman’s correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative

  8. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  9. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  10. Oral health and oral health behaviours of five-year-old children in the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London, UK.

    PubMed

    Klass, C; Mondkar, A; Wright, D

    2017-03-01

    To report on the oral health status and oral health behaviours of five-year-old Charedi Orthodox Jewish children attending schools in London, UK. Cross-sectional survey. Clinical examinations mirroring the 2015 National Dental Public Health Epidemiology Programme for England for five-year-olds and a parental questionnaire on oral health behaviours. 137 five-year-olds attending Charedi Orthodox Jewish schools in Hackney, North London. Prevalence dmft⟩0 (%) and severity (mean dmft) of dental caries. Of these children 58% had experienced dental caries (95%CI 50,67), the mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 2.38 (95%CI 1.90,2.82) and 23% (95%CI 16,30) had caries affecting their incisors. Only 20% reported that their children had their teeth brushed twice a day and 16% of the children started having their teeth brushed between six months and one year of age. The oral health of five-year-old children in the Charedi Orthodox Jewish community is significantly worse than their counterparts across Hackney, London and England. The establishment of robust baseline data supports the local authority plan to develop targeted oral health improvement programmes tailored to address the health needs and cultural sensitivities of this community. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  11. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  12. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  13. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    PubMed

    Skjøth, C A; Smith, M; Brandt, J; Emberlin, J

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts>80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts (n=60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  14. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  15. Imaging at London 2012 summer Olympic Games: analysis of demand and distribution of workload.

    PubMed

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Very little data on the provision of imaging services at the summer Olympic Games have been published before. With 7.9 million Euros (£6.6 million, US$11 million) invested into setting up the imaging equipment at the purpose-built polyclinics for London 2012 summer Olympics, an ideal opportunity was presented to study the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at the games. Imaging services within polyclinics, London 2012 summer Olympic Games. To analyse the demand and distribution of workload on radiology services at the London 2012 summer Olympic Games. Data on radiological investigations performed at London 2012 summer Olympic Games were retrieved from Radiology Information System-picture archiving communication system, ATOS medical encounter database and analysed. 1711 diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed at the Stratford Polyclinic within the main games village. Of these 48.8% were MRI scans, 20.2% were diagnostic ultrasound examinations, 23.6% were plain radiographs, 2.9% were CT scans and interventional procedures accounted for 4.3%. Nearly 75% of imaging was performed on athletes while less than 5% of the services were utilised by the workforce. Demand on radiology services peaked during week 2 of the games. Imaging played a substantial role in providing medical services at the London 2012 summer Olympics.

  16. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  17. A tale of two cities: factors affecting place of cancer death in London and New York.

    PubMed

    Decker, Sandra L; Higginson, Irene J

    2007-06-01

    Most American and English cancer patients prefer to die at home. Factors associated with greater likelihood of dying at home have been contradictory in many studies and no studies have compared the effects of factors in different countries. The objective of this paper is to compare the factors affecting place of cancer death in two major cities, New York and London. We use data on all individuals aged >/=40 dying of cancer in London (59 604) and New York City (51 668) in the years 1995 through 1998. The probability of death at home is examined in each city as a function of gender, age group (40-55, 56-64, 65-74, 75+), year, type of cancer, and area socioeconomic status, using multiple logistic regression. Although the probability of death at home is the same in the two cities (approximately 1 in 5), being female lowers the odds of death at home by approximately 7% in London, and raises it by approximately 22% in New York. Older age is associated with increased odds of dying at home in New York but decreased odds of dying at home in London. Being in the lowest tercile of socioeconomic status (relative to the highest) lowers the odds of death at home by 22% in London and 39% in New York. Site of death varies significantly by patient and area characteristics in both cities, an understanding, which should be taken account of in future planning of end-of-life care.

  18. Medical education in London during 1939-41, with special reference to the Blitz.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, K

    2006-03-01

    This article is concerned with medical education in London during 1939-41. It is set against the London Blitz, an event that was then unique in its subjecting of civilians to an intense and prolonged aerial bombardment. Its very uniqueness ensured that medical students, like others in the capital, had no set rules of conduct with which to govern their response to death and destruction on such an unprecedented scale in an urban area. For students at London's world-famous medical schools, the outbreak of war in 1939 resulted in the execution of evacuation plans formulated during the 1930s; these are outlined in the text. The London teaching hospitals and their attached medical schools were removed to sector hospitals and, in the case of the medical schools, to universities and colleges in areas deemed to be safe. Just as the schooling of children evacuated from Britain's big cities was subject to considerable disruption during this period, so was medical education. This article attempts to both chart the effects of these difficulties and study the manner in which the medical schools and, more particularly, London medical students, overcame them. Emphasis is placed on the dramatic months of the Blitz, not least because of the moulding effect such a sudden experience of warfare must have had on the very young, mainly male, students who lived through it. Finally, mention is made of some of the medical innovations the improvisations of the Blitz brought about.

  19. The passing of the night watch: night nursing reform in the London teaching hospitals, 1856-90.

    PubMed

    Helmstadter, C

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the nineteenth century a separate team of women called the "night watch" was responsible for the night nursing in the London teaching hospitals. Rough, uneducated, and frequently the "scrubbers," or charwomen, who cleaned the halls and stairways in the hospitals in the daytime, the night watchers came to be closely identified with Dickens's Sarah Gamp. As the century progressed, the expanding capabilities of the new academic medicine forced an improvement in the standard of nursing. The difficulty in finding clinically experienced nurses who were willing to work nights at an affordable price, however, made it possible for the night watchers to remain in the new professionally organized hospital long after such unskilled and undisciplined workers had been phased out of other areas of the late Victorian workforce. By the end of the century when hospitals began rotating partially trained probationer, or student, nurses onto nights, the night watchers finally disappeared from the teaching hospitals.

  20. Provision of health promotion programmes to people with serious mental illness: a mapping exercise of four South London boroughs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, C; Gardner-Sood, P; Corlett, S K; Ismail, K; Smith, S; Atakan, Z; Greenwood, K; Joseph, C; Gaughran, F

    2014-03-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of developing various physical health diseases, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies compared with the general population. In light of this, the Department of Health have set the physical health of people with mental health problems as a priority for improvement. Additionally, the UK government encourages the NHS and local authorities to develop health promotion programmes (HPPs) for people with SMI. To document how many and what types of HPPs were available to people with SMI across four South London boroughs, UK. We found 145 HPPs were available to people with SMI across the four boroughs, but with an inequitable distribution. We also found that certain HPPs set admission criteria that were likely to act as a barrier to improving health. A more integrated approach of documenting and providing information regarding the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people with SMI is needed. People with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders and bipolar disorder are at increased risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies. As a result, emphasis has been placed on developing Health Promotion Programmes (HPPs) to modify the risk of poor physical health in SMI. We examined how many and what types of HPPs are available for or inclusive of people with SMI across four borough in South London, UK. A cross-sectional mapping study was carried out to identify the number of HPPs available to people with SMI. We found 145 HPPs available to people with SMI existed across the four boroughs but with an inequitable distribution, which in some boroughs we anticipate may not meet need. In some cases, HPPs set admission conditions which were likely to further impede access. We recommend that accurate and readily available information on the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people

  1. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  2. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    PubMed

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  3. Analytical calculations of frequency-dependent hypermagnetizabilities and Cotton-Mouton constants using London atomic orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia

    2008-10-01

    We present the first gauge-origin-independent, frequency-dependent calculations of the hypermagnetizability anisotropy, which determines the temperature-independent contribution to magnetic-field-induced linear birefringence, the so-called Cotton-Mouton effect. A density-matrix-based scheme for analytical calculations of frequency-dependent molecular properties for self-consistent field models has recently been developed, which is also valid with frequency- and field-dependent basis sets. Applying this scheme to Hartree-Fock wave functions and using London atomic orbitals in order to obtain gauge-origin-independent results, we have calculated the hypermagnetizability anisotropy. Our results show that the use of London orbitals leads to somewhat better basis-set convergence for the hypermagnetizability compared to conventional basis sets and that London orbitals are mandatory in order to obtain reliable magnetizability anisotropies.

  4. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  5. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    PubMed

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  7. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  8. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration."

  9. Internationally recruited neonatal nurses' experiences in the National Health Service in London.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Obrey; Shillingford, Adeline

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore internationally recruited neonatal nurses' (IRNNs) perceptions of their experiences of working in the National Health Service (NHS) in London. This was an exploratory study. A purposive sample of 13 nurses (all females) from two teaching hospitals in London participated in this study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to capture IRNNs views of working in the NHS in London. Five themes emerged, namely: motivation to migrate, lack of preparation for neonatal nurses, environmental conditions impacting on care delivery, neonatal nurses deskilling, and role restrictions as well as professional development. The findings of this study provide first-hand insights from the subjective perspectives of IRNN experiences. IRNNs experienced some challenges to their working lives; however, good preparation is important when recruiting them to work in the NHS. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  11. Small area estimates of smoking prevalence in London. Testing the effect of input data.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Kerstin; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Small area estimates (SAEs) can provide information about health behaviour at small area levels that is otherwise not available. Because of its increasing use by policy makers, more attention needs to be paid to the reliability of these estimates. This paper reports on smoking prevalence data generated for London at the neighbourhood level using spatial microsimulation modelling. We test the reliability of smoking prevalence estimates at the neighbourhood level using different input datasets. The paper further underlines the importance of estimating health behaviours at the small area level, particularly in diverse cities such as London, where estimation at the city level can mask significant spatial differences.

  12. The sooterkin doctor: the London career of John Maubray, MD (1700-1732), "andro-boethogynist".

    PubMed

    Bates, A W

    2004-08-01

    Dr John Maubray (1700-1732) was one of the most prominent man-midwives of Georgian London. His emphasis on the importance of physical examination and a combination of theoretical and practical teaching seems to have foreshadowed later methods of training in midwifery. His espousal of the non-instrumental Deventerian system of obstetrics and his activities in the parish of St George's, Hanover Square in London, identified him with the dominant Whig party. Although he failed to acquire a major patron, his network of social connections enabled him to obtain charitable and public service appointments, culminating in his chairmanship of the Charitable Corporation.

  13. Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; McDowall, M E

    1986-01-01

    The Atlas of Cancer Mortality for England and Wales showed pronounced excesses of male mortality from nasal and bladder cancer in certain London boroughs. These excesses were investigated by case-referent studies using death certificate data for male deaths, 1968-78. Nasal cancer was found to be significantly associated with occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust. Bladder cancer was significantly associated with occupations in road transport driving and in the handling of leather, whereas consistently raised relative risk ratios were also found for wood-workers, engineering fitters, printers, machinists, plumbers, and motor mechanics. These findings highlight the potential role of occupational factors in cancer causation in London.

  14. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality.

  15. Orientational phase transitions of a lattice of magnetic dots embedded in a London-type superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhezherya, Yuri I.; Novak, I. Yu; Kruchinin, Sergei P.

    2010-10-01

    In recent experiments, structured arrays of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the bulk of a superconductor have been fabricated. We present the theory of orientational phase transitions in a planar regular lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic particles embedded in a superconductor. In the London approximation, we show that the interactions between ferromagnetic particles can lead to either a parallel or antiparallel spin alignment depending on the ratio of the interparticle distance, the London penetration depth and the temperature. The extension of the results to systems of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with more complicated geometries is discussed.

  16. Breast cancer screening uptake among women from different ethnic groups in London: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Ruth H; Møller, Henrik; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use newly available self-assigned ethnicity information to investigate variation in breast cancer screening uptake for women from the 16 specific ethnic groups within the broad Asian, Black and White groups that previous studies report. Setting National cancer screening programme services within London. Participants 655 516 female residents aged 50–69, invited for screening between March 2006 and December 2009. Ethnicity information was available for 475 478 (72.5%). White British women were the largest group (306 689, 46.8%), followed by Indian (34 687, 5.3%), White Other (30 053, 4.6%), Black Caribbean (25 607, 3.9%), White Irish (17 271, 2.6%), Black African (17 071, 2.6%) and Asian Other (10 579, 1.6%). Outcome measures Uptake for women in different ethnic groups aged 50–52 for a first call invitation to the programme, and for women aged 50–69 for a routine recall invitation after a previous mammography. Uptake is reported (1) for London overall, adjusted using logistic regression, for age at invitation, socioeconomic deprivation and geographical screening area, and (2) for individual areas, adjusted for age and deprivation. Results White British women attended their first call (67%) and routine recall (78%) invitations most often. Indian women were more likely to attend their first (61%) or routine recall (74%) than Bangladeshi women (43% and 61%, respectively), and Black Caribbean women were more likely than Black African women to attend first call (63% vs 49%, respectively) and routine recall (74% vs 64%, respectively). There was less variation between ethnic groups in some screening areas. Conclusions Breast cancer screening uptake in London varies by specific ethnic group for first and subsequent invitations, with White British women being more likely to attend. The variation in the uptake for women from the same ethnic groups in different geographical areas suggests that collaboration about the successful engagement of

  17. Breast cancer screening uptake among women from different ethnic groups in London: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Møller, Henrik; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-16

    To use newly available self-assigned ethnicity information to investigate variation in breast cancer screening uptake for women from the 16 specific ethnic groups within the broad Asian, Black and White groups that previous studies report. National cancer screening programme services within London. 655,516 female residents aged 50-69, invited for screening between March 2006 and December 2009. Ethnicity information was available for 475,478 (72.5%). White British women were the largest group (306,689, 46.8%), followed by Indian (34,687, 5.3%), White Other (30,053, 4.6%), Black Caribbean (25,607, 3.9%), White Irish (17,271, 2.6%), Black African (17,071, 2.6%) and Asian Other (10,579, 1.6%). Uptake for women in different ethnic groups aged 50-52 for a first call invitation to the programme, and for women aged 50-69 for a routine recall invitation after a previous mammography. Uptake is reported (1) for London overall, adjusted using logistic regression, for age at invitation, socioeconomic deprivation and geographical screening area, and (2) for individual areas, adjusted for age and deprivation. White British women attended their first call (67%) and routine recall (78%) invitations most often. Indian women were more likely to attend their first (61%) or routine recall (74%) than Bangladeshi women (43% and 61%, respectively), and Black Caribbean women were more likely than Black African women to attend first call (63% vs 49%, respectively) and routine recall (74% vs 64%, respectively). There was less variation between ethnic groups in some screening areas. Breast cancer screening uptake in London varies by specific ethnic group for first and subsequent invitations, with White British women being more likely to attend. The variation in the uptake for women from the same ethnic groups in different geographical areas suggests that collaboration about the successful engagement of services with different communities could improve uptake for all women. Published by the

  18. Psychiatric morbidity of overseas patients in inner London: A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, Fredy J; Parshall, Alice M

    2005-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the referral, admission, treatment, and outcome of overseas patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in central London. Ethical, legal and economic implications, and the involvement of consulates in the admission process, are discussed. Method Assessment and review of overseas patients admitted between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. Non-parametric statistical tests were used, and relevant outcomes described. Results 19% of admissions were overseas patients. Mean age was 38 years. 90% were unattached; 84% were white, 71% from European countries. 45% spoke fluent English. Differences in socio-economic status between home country and England were found. 74% were unwell on arrival; 65% travelled to England as tourists. 65% of admissions came via the police. 32% had been ill for more than one year before admission; 68% had psychiatric history. 77% were admitted and 48% discharged under section of the Mental Health Act. 74% had psychotic disorders, all of them with positive symptoms. 55% showed little to moderate improvement in mental state; 10% were on Enhanced Care Programme Approach. Relatives of 48% of patients were contacted. The Hospital repatriated 52% of patients; the Mental Health Team followed up 13% of those discharged. The average length of admission was 43.4 days (range 1–365). Total cost of admissions was GBP350, 600 ($577, 490); average individual cost was GBP11, 116 (range GBP200-81, 000). Conclusions Mentally ill overseas individuals are a vulnerable group that need recognition by health organisations to adapt current practice to better serve their needs. The involvement of consulates needs further evaluation. PMID:15845140

  19. Constructing a 7-day ahead forecast model for grass pollen at north London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Emberlin, J

    2005-10-01

    A number of media outlets now issue medium-range ( approximately 7 day) weather forecasts on a regular basis. It is therefore logical that aerobiologists should attempt to produce medium-range forecasts for allergenic pollen that cover the same time period as the weather forecasts. The objective of this study is to construct a medium-range (London. The forecast models were produced using regression analysis based on grass pollen and meteorological data from 1990 to 1999 and tested on data from 2000 and 2002. The modelling process was improved by dividing the grass pollen season into three periods; the pre-peak, peak and post-peak periods of grass pollen release. The forecast consisted of five regression models: two simple linear regression models predicting the start and end date of the peak period, and three multiple regression models forecasting daily average grass pollen counts in the pre-peak, peak and post-peak periods. Overall, the forecast models achieved 62% accuracy in 2000 and 47% in 2002, reflecting the fact that the 2002 grass pollen season was of a higher magnitude than any of the other seasons included in the analysis. This study has the potential to make a notable contribution to the field of aerobiology. Winter averages of the North Atlantic Oscillation were used to predict certain characteristics of the grass pollen season, which presents an important advance in aerobiological work. The ability to predict allergenic pollen counts for a period between five and seven days will benefit allergy sufferers. Furthermore, medium-range forecasts for allergenic pollen will be of assistance to the medical profession, including allergists planning treatment and physicians scheduling clinical trials.

  20. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  1. A review of social housing regeneration in the London Borough of Brent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Rhoden, M

    2003-03-01

    Council high-rise estates sprang up rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, with cross-governmental support to resolve the nation's housing crisis. It soon became apparent that many such new estates, designed by remote architects, and sometimes constructed rapidly and unsatisfactorily, did not provide the ideal living initially perceived. Many estates had early problems with architecture, construction and design. They proved an inhumane environment for many residents and there were frequent problems with communal features. Such estates were soon stigmatised and difficult to let as increasingly residual households were placed there, creating majority welfare-dependent estates. This created a downward spiral that traditional, and remote, housing management found difficult to address, and was too wide-scale to rectify financially within existing regimes. Prior to the 1980s, there were no specific government policies to tackle housing regeneration on high-rise estates. Problems became wider than traditional housing management and poor housing environments, encompassing social and economic exclusion. This paper, based on historical and contemporary literature as well as estate visits, reviews regeneration policy in three council housing estates within the London Borough of Brent. It traces successive government approaches since the 1980s from one that challenged the very status of council housing--notably at Stonebridge Park and Chalkhill, to one of partnership with the local authority--at South Kilburn. Housing policy is now concerned with more than just housing--it is about moving toward social inclusion, which requires initiative, flair, resource and commitment. It is about new accountabilities--not just numbers of bricks and mortar constructions, but about the lives, opportunities and health of those who live in an area. This fundamentally involves a partnership approach with residents at the centre of regeneration. This paper finds that sustainable estate regeneration

  2. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  3. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Helen E.; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S.; Bremner, Stephen A.; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B.; Kelly, Frank J.; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children’s respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8–9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00–1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04–1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08–1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  4. Think of your art-eries: Arts participation, behavioural cardiovascular risk factors and mental well-being in deprived communities in London

    PubMed Central

    Renton, A.; Phillips, G.; Daykin, N.; Yu, G.; Taylor, K.; Petticrew, M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives To investigate the association of participation in arts and cultural activities with health behaviours and mental well-being in low-income populations in London. Study design Cross-sectional, community-based observational study. Methods Data were taken from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the Well London cluster randomized trial, conducted during 2008 in 40 of the most deprived census lower super output areas in London (selected using the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation). Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the Well London survey. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine the association between participation in arts and cultural activities and physical activity (meeting target of five sessions of at least 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week), healthy eating (meeting target of at least five portions of fruit or vegetables per day) and mental well-being (Hope Scale score; feeling anxious or depressed). Results This study found that levels of arts and cultural engagement in low-income groups in London are >75%, but this is well below the national average for England. Individuals who were more socially disadvantaged (unemployed, living in rented social housing, low educational attainment, low disposable income) were less likely to participate in arts or cultural activities. Arts participation was strongly associated with healthy eating, physical activity and positive mental well-being, with no evidence of confounding by socio-economic or sociodemographic factors. Neither positive mental well-being nor social capital appeared to mediate the relationship between arts participation and health behaviours. Conclusion This study suggests that arts and cultural activities are independently associated with health behaviours and mental well-being. Further qualitative and prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between health

  5. Think of your art-eries: arts participation, behavioural cardiovascular risk factors and mental well-being in deprived communities in London.

    PubMed

    Renton, A; Phillips, G; Daykin, N; Yu, G; Taylor, K; Petticrew, M

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association of participation in arts and cultural activities with health behaviours and mental well-being in low-income populations in London. Cross-sectional, community-based observational study. Data were taken from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the Well London cluster randomized trial, conducted during 2008 in 40 of the most deprived census lower super output areas in London (selected using the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation). Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the Well London survey. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine the association between participation in arts and cultural activities and physical activity (meeting target of five sessions of at least 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week), healthy eating (meeting target of at least five portions of fruit or vegetables per day) and mental well-being (Hope Scale score; feeling anxious or depressed). This study found that levels of arts and cultural engagement in low-income groups in London are >75%, but this is well below the national average for England. Individuals who were more socially disadvantaged (unemployed, living in rented social housing, low educational attainment, low disposable income) were less likely to participate in arts or cultural activities. Arts participation was strongly associated with healthy eating, physical activity and positive mental well-being, with no evidence of confounding by socio-economic or sociodemographic factors. Neither positive mental well-being nor social capital appeared to mediate the relationship between arts participation and health behaviours. This study suggests that arts and cultural activities are independently associated with health behaviours and mental well-being. Further qualitative and prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between health behaviours, mental well-being and arts participation. If arts

  6. Pentecostal and Catholic Migrant Churches in London--The Role of Ideologies in the Language Planning of Faith Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Ana; Kwapong, Amoafi; Woodham, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The former British Labour Government acknowledged that religious practices play an important role in the development of children's identities [DCFS. (2009). "Your child, your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools system." London: HMSO; DfES (2007). "Curriculum review: Diversity and citizenship." London: HMSO].…

  7. Adaptation and Validation of the Tower of London Test of Planning and Problem Solving in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, J. D.; Dagnan, D.; Evans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for validated, standardised tools for the assessment of executive functions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examines the validity of a test of planning and problem solving (Tower of London) with adults with ID. Method: Participants completed an adapted version of the Tower of London (ToL) while…

  8. Rhetoric and Realities of London 2012 Olympic Education and Participation "Legacies": Voices from the Core and Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohe, Geoffery Z.; Bowen-Jones, Will

    2016-01-01

    A legacy emphasis was one of the fundamental pillars of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The notion of an Olympic legacy was predicated on assumptions that the event's value would not purely derive from the sporting spectacle, but rather from the "success" of enduring effects met out in London and across the country. For physical education…

  9. Rhetoric and Realities of London 2012 Olympic Education and Participation "Legacies": Voices from the Core and Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohe, Geoffery Z.; Bowen-Jones, Will

    2016-01-01

    A legacy emphasis was one of the fundamental pillars of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The notion of an Olympic legacy was predicated on assumptions that the event's value would not purely derive from the sporting spectacle, but rather from the "success" of enduring effects met out in London and across the country. For physical education…

  10. 'Islamic fatalism': life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study 2.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent 'fatalism', which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London.

  11. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  12. A 10-year retrospective review of Salmonella infections at the Children’s Hospital in London, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Cellucci, Tania; Seabrook, Jamie A; Chagla, Yasmine; Bannister, Susan L; Salvadori, Marina I

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe Salmonella infections in children presenting to the Children’s Hospital (London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario), to assess risk factors for infection and to examine whether younger children, particularly infants younger than 12 weeks of age, experience higher morbidity than older children. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective review of children with Salmonella infections at the Children’s Hospital was conducted. Patient demographics, risk factors for infection, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and outcome were collected from the hospital charts and laboratory records. Data were separated into groups based on age and recent use of antibiotics to analyze differences in outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-six children with Salmonella infections presented to the Children’s Hospital over a 10-year period. Common risk factors for Salmonella infection included having sick contacts, living in a rural area, recent travel, contact with pets (especially reptiles) and exposure to local water. Younger age was associated with an increased likelihood of admission to hospital, treatment with antibiotics and a longer course of antibiotic therapy. This was true when comparing older infants with those younger than 12 weeks of age. Patients recently treated with antibiotics and those with significant underlying medical conditions were more likely to be admitted. CONCLUSIONS: A wider knowledge of the epidemiological risk factors for Salmonella infection may improve diagnosis. Higher admission rates were expected in children younger than 12 weeks of age, those recently treated with antibiotics and those who had a significant underlying medical condition. A prospective, multicentre study is needed to further address questions regarding increased illness severity and appropriate management of Salmonella infections in children younger than 12 weeks of age. PMID:21629615

  13. The Training of Teachers and Educational Studies: The London Day Training College, 1902-1932

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the respective roles of the training of teachers and educational studies at the London Day Training College (LDTC), 1902-1932. Following an introduction that indicates different models within the United Kingdom and summarizes the subsequent history of the LDTC's successor, the Institute of Education of the University of…

  14. "Little Prisoners of City Streets": London Elementary Schools and the School Journey Movement, 1918-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Hester

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experience of the "school journey", an educational fieldtrip of a fortnight's duration, as practised in London's interwar elementary schools. Established historical debates over perceptions of the countryside in interwar Britain have previously failed to discuss the messages promoted in schools. This article…

  15. Reconnecting to Mission: Connecticut College's Outreach to New London during the Claire Gaudiani Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marthers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    During her presidency (1988-2001), Claire Gaudiani reconnected Connecticut College with New London, the college's home city, whose citizens through grassroots fund raising and donations of land established the college in 1911. Through an emphasis on service-learning, community outreach, and an education not for oneself as well as economic…

  16. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  17. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  18. Urban Education: Confronting the Contradictions--An Analysis with Special Reference to London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide some answers to two questions: What are the distinctive challenges of urban education (especially in London) and how can schools help to meet them? Using theoretical frameworks derived from the writings of two leading scholars of the urban, Manuel Castells and David Harvey, this paper argues that the challenges…

  19. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained…

  20. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  1. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  2. Teachers' Experiences of Autonomy in Continuing Professional Development: Teacher Learning Communities in London and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Berry, Rita; Lai, Y. C.; Leung, Pamela; Scott, David; Stobart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' experiences of autonomy as they undertook Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the form of Teacher Learning Communities (TLCs) to develop Assessment for Learning (AfL). Participant teacher interview data were used from two parallel TLC projects, one in Hong Kong and one in London, UK. Autonomy was defined in…

  3. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  4. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  5. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  6. The London Association for the Teaching of English 1947-67: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This is the fascinating story of the birth, growth, and development of the London Association for the Teaching of English from its earliest years through to the formation of the National Association for the Teaching of English and thereafter. The work of founder members of LATE, such as James Britton, Harold Rosen, and Nancy Martin, was critical…

  7. The London Association for the Teaching of English 1947-67: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This is the fascinating story of the birth, growth, and development of the London Association for the Teaching of English from its earliest years through to the formation of the National Association for the Teaching of English and thereafter. The work of founder members of LATE, such as James Britton, Harold Rosen, and Nancy Martin, was critical…

  8. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Methods Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Results Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. Conclusions This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients. PMID:25077991

  9. Different Spaces: Learning and Literacy with Children and Their Grandparents in East London Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessel, John; Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates informal learning, literacy and language development occurring in the home through exchanges between children of three to six years of age and their grandparents in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families of mixed ethnicity living in east London. A survey identifying…

  10. Families and Parenting: Conference Report. Proceedings of a Conference (London, England United Kingdom, September 26, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utting, David, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at a conference sponsored by the Family Policy Studies Centre in London, September, 1995, which brought together professionals to describe their parenting support or education projects which were part of the Department of Health's Parenting Initiative. Conference papers discussed the role of government in…

  11. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  12. Help to buy plan will not ease burden of London house prices, says union.

    PubMed

    2015-12-02

    Chancellor George Osborne's plans for interest-free loans to cover up to 40% of the costs of newly-built homes in London will do little to help the capital's nurses get on the housing ladder, say health worker unions.

  13. Deconstructing the Tower: Parameters and Predictors of Problem Difficulty on the Tower of London Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, W. Keith; Byrd, Dana L.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Case, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) task has been widely used in both clinical and research realms. In the current study, 104 healthy participants attempted all possible moderate- to high-difficulty TOL problems in order to determine: (1) optimal measures of problem solving performance, (2) problem characteristics, other than the minimum moves necessary to…

  14. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  15. Developing the next Generation of Black and Global Majority Leaders for London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the views of black and ethnic minority school leaders about the "Investing in Diversity" program, a black-led program developed in 2004 to address the underrepresentation of black leaders in the London schools. Major themes are identified from interviews with black and South Asian women…

  16. What Kind of Literacy? Reflections on the Experiences of Migrant Domestic Workers Negotiating Learning in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the literacy learning experiences of a group of female migrant domestic workers from Nepal and India who participated in weekly literacy support sessions at the Migrant Resource Centre in London. The article draws on qualitative research to explore the women's engagement with different forms of learning, and…

  17. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  18. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  19. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  20. Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the…

  1. With Permission: Education Policy, Space and Everyday Globalisation in London's East End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to make sense of a public-private partnership in London's East End. I am interested in how policy directions, in terms of cultural practices, may operate as links between transnational corporations and education provision, and, additionally, how concepts of space and place provide possibilities for different understandings of…

  2. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  3. The Best, the Worst and the Average: Secondary School Choice and Education Performance in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Tim; Hamnett, Chris; Ramsden, Mark; Webber, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the distance between school and the pupil's home is related to social background in a six borough area of East London. Also investigated is the extent to which schools in the area perform in line with expectations on the basis of the social composition of their intake. The research involves analysis of the…

  4. Families and Parenting: Conference Report. Proceedings of a Conference (London, England United Kingdom, September 26, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utting, David, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at a conference sponsored by the Family Policy Studies Centre in London, September, 1995, which brought together professionals to describe their parenting support or education projects which were part of the Department of Health's Parenting Initiative. Conference papers discussed the role of government in…

  5. Symbolic Boundaries and School Structure in New York and London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warikoo, Natasha Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This article shows that an ethnically diverse student population leads to blurred ethnic and racial boundaries in high schools. Still, students in New York distinguish themselves much more along ethnic and racial lines than do London students. The evidence presented suggests that, in addition to national-level differences, traditional British…

  6. Assessment of executive functioning in childhood epilepsy: the Tower of London and BRIEF.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Bender, H Allison; Whitman, Lindsay; Welsh, Antoinette; Keller, Shari; Granader, Yael; Sherman, Elisabeth M S

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy are known to demonstrate executive function dysfunction, including working memory deficits and planning deficits. Accordingly, assessing specific executive function skills is important when evaluating these individuals. The present investigation examined the utility of two measures of executive functions-the Tower of London and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF)-in a pediatric epilepsy sample. Ninety clinically referred children and adolescents with seizures were included. Both the Tower of London and BRIEF identified executive dysfunction in these individuals, but only the Tower of London variables showed significant relations with epilepsy severity variables such as age of epilepsy onset, seizure frequency, number of antiepileptic medications, etc. Further, the Tower of London and BRIEF variables were uncorrelated. Results indicate that objective measures of executive function deficits are more closely related to epilepsy severity but may not predict observable deficits, as reported by parents. Comprehensive evaluation of such deficits, therefore, should include both objective measures as well as subjective ratings from caregivers.

  7. Bangladeshi women's experiences of infant feeding in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet; McCourt, Christine; Vaughan, Lisa; Christie, Janice; Trenchard-Mabere, Esther

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the main factors that influence Bangladeshi women living in London's decisions to partially breastfeed their children, including the influence of older women within the community. Fifty-seven women of Bangladeshi origin living in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets took part in seven discussion groups between April and June 2013. Five groups were held with women of child-bearing age and two groups with older women in the community. A further eight younger women and three older women took part in one-on-one interviews. Interviews were also carried out with eight local health care workers, including public health specialists, peer support workers, breastfeeding coordinators and a health visitor. The influences on women's infant feeding choices can be understood through a 'socio-ecological model', including public health policy; diverse cultural influences from Bangladesh, London and the Bangladeshi community in London; and the impacts of migration and religious and family beliefs. The women's commitment to breastfeeding was mediated through the complexity of their everyday lives. The tension between what was 'best' and what was 'possible' leads them not only to partially breastfeed but also to sustain partial breastfeeding in a way not seen in other socio-cultural groups in the United Kingdom.

  8. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  9. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  10. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart…

  11. A view from the streets: women and medical work in Elizabethan London.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Deborah E

    2008-01-01

    In Elizabethan London, women occupied a significant position in the city's medical marketplace, both as consumers of medical services and as practitioners. Though male medical authors of the period objected to the presence and practices of these women, a very different view of their medical work emerges if we shift our historical vantage point to the streets, houses, churches, and hospitals of the city. Using relatively underutilized sources such as parish records, probate records, lists of immigrants to London, hospital records, and individual manuscripts it is possible to draw a richer, more detailed portrait of how female health-care workers engaged with the business of health and healing. Women emerge from these records as active, prominent, and acknowledged participants in the delivery of services that promoted and preserved the health of many Londoners from cradle to grave. Hired by public institutions such as parishes and hospitals, as well as by private individuals, women were central figures in the delivery of nursing, medical, pharmaceutical, and surgical services throughout the city as part of organized systems of health care. Exploring how Londoners saw female practitioners, and how women played a recognized role within the city's range of health-care options, demonstrates that women were crucial to community health, and were also valued as such by their neighbors and patients.

  12. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  13. Deconstructing the Tower: Parameters and Predictors of Problem Difficulty on the Tower of London Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, W. Keith; Byrd, Dana L.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Case, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) task has been widely used in both clinical and research realms. In the current study, 104 healthy participants attempted all possible moderate- to high-difficulty TOL problems in order to determine: (1) optimal measures of problem solving performance, (2) problem characteristics, other than the minimum moves necessary to…

  14. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained…

  15. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  16. With Permission: Education Policy, Space and Everyday Globalisation in London's East End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to make sense of a public-private partnership in London's East End. I am interested in how policy directions, in terms of cultural practices, may operate as links between transnational corporations and education provision, and, additionally, how concepts of space and place provide possibilities for different understandings of…

  17. Motor Creativity of Preschool Children on the London Trestle Tree Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Ellen; Sherrill, Claudine

    The motor creativity of preschoolers when encountering a novel piece of athletic equipment was observed and analyzed. The London Trestle Tree Apparatus, consisting of eight trestles of various sizes, two poles, a rope ladder, two ropes, pommel top, rubber top, balance bar, slide plank, ladder, and beat board was erected for the children to use in…

  18. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  19. Scenarios of London Local Authorities' Engagement with Evidence Bases for Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Hallami, Mariam; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the use of research and evidence in the formation of education policy within London local authorities. In particular it explores the policy processes in three local authorities, and observes the role of research and the interplay between research and policy within each. We begin the paper with a general overview of policy…

  20. Physical activity in deprived communities in London: examining individual and neighbourhood-level factors.

    PubMed

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5 × 30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301-600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and from 601-900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics.

  1. Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…

  2. Language and the Capital: A Case Study of English "Language Shock" among Chinese Students in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the experience of a group of Chinese teachers of English studying on ELT/Applied Linguistics-related MA courses at a London university. Drawing mainly on data from questionnaires, it shows how the early part of their stay was marked by surprise, disappointment and disorientation at the diversity and perceived poor quality of…

  3. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  4. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  5. Complementary Schools in Action: Networking for Language Development in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    In a challenging economic and political context, complementary schools in East London are mentoring each other and forming networks across communities to gain recognition and status for community languages in education and the wider community. As issues of power and status impact in different ways on differently situated communities, complementary…

  6. Making the Geography Curriculum: Reflections on the IGU-CGE London Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2013-01-01

    "Curriculum making", highlighted in the Geographical Association's Manifesto in 2009, was the focus of a research symposium held in London in April 2011. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, I reflect on and explore my experience of participating in that symposium. The analysis explores the "cultures of influence" and the…

  7. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  8. Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the…

  9. Motor Creativity of Preschool Children on the London Trestle Tree Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Ellen; Sherrill, Claudine

    The motor creativity of preschoolers when encountering a novel piece of athletic equipment was observed and analyzed. The London Trestle Tree Apparatus, consisting of eight trestles of various sizes, two poles, a rope ladder, two ropes, pommel top, rubber top, balance bar, slide plank, ladder, and beat board was erected for the children to use in…

  10. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart…

  11. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  12. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2014-07-31

    Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients.

  13. Conference Report: Online Information Meeting 2005, Olympia, London (UK), 29 November-1 December 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education for Information, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For many years now the Holiday season has been associated with the gathering of information professionals in west London for the annual Online Information Meeting. The Meeting currently is organized by VNU Exhibitions Europe (formerly Imark Communication), though for old-timers it will forever be associated with Learned Information, the…

  14. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  15. Lecture Courses and Private Instruction Advertised in Selected London Newspapers, 1742-1765.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1984-01-01

    This study of selected London newspapers between 1742 and 1765 reveals that advertised educational opportunities for adults, such as public lectures, lecture courses, and private instruction, were relatively expensive. Prior to 1760 medical and scientific topics were emphasized; an emerging interest in dancing, fencing, and music is also noted.…

  16. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  17. Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures: Adaptations to Racial and Social Marginality in Los Angeles and London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews with African American youth in Los Angeles and Afro-Caribbean youth in London found gangs to be one of their five top issues; identified social, educational, and employment factors fostering gang formation; and identified psychological, social, and economic functions of gangs for their members. (Contains 95 references.)…

  18. Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…

  19. Making the Geography Curriculum: Reflections on the IGU-CGE London Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2013-01-01

    "Curriculum making", highlighted in the Geographical Association's Manifesto in 2009, was the focus of a research symposium held in London in April 2011. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, I reflect on and explore my experience of participating in that symposium. The analysis explores the "cultures of influence" and the…

  20. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  1. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  2. Urban Education: Confronting the Contradictions--An Analysis with Special Reference to London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide some answers to two questions: What are the distinctive challenges of urban education (especially in London) and how can schools help to meet them? Using theoretical frameworks derived from the writings of two leading scholars of the urban, Manuel Castells and David Harvey, this paper argues that the challenges…

  3. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  4. Developing the next Generation of Black and Global Majority Leaders for London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the views of black and ethnic minority school leaders about the "Investing in Diversity" program, a black-led program developed in 2004 to address the underrepresentation of black leaders in the London schools. Major themes are identified from interviews with black and South Asian women…

  5. Teachers' Experiences of Autonomy in Continuing Professional Development: Teacher Learning Communities in London and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Berry, Rita; Lai, Y. C.; Leung, Pamela; Scott, David; Stobart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' experiences of autonomy as they undertook Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the form of Teacher Learning Communities (TLCs) to develop Assessment for Learning (AfL). Participant teacher interview data were used from two parallel TLC projects, one in Hong Kong and one in London, UK. Autonomy was defined in…

  6. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  7. The Wrong Side of the Tracks: Starting School in a Socially Disadvantaged London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsford, Elizabeth; Ralephata, Andrew; Bolderson, Sarah; Curtin, Martina; Parish, Esther; Klaber, Victoria; Griffin, Sue; Nash, Lisa; Cullen, Rachel; Musoke, Brenda; Bhalla, Sangheeta; Walker, Lindsay; Duffer, Luisa; O'Sullivan, Sylvia; Knowland, Victoria; Cozens, Suzanne; McLaren, Lindsey; Camilleri, Bernard; Halil, Suzan; Furze, Rachael; Leung, Wai; O'Gorman, Ciara; Carver, Verity; Young, Dorothy; Pring, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that social circumstances can affect children's language development. As a result many children in socially deprived areas start school with delayed language, which may persist and adversely affect their attainment. We assessed the language of children in seven reception classes in a London (UK) borough and followed the…

  8. Conference Report: Online Information Meeting 2005, Olympia, London (UK), 29 November-1 December 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education for Information, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For many years now the Holiday season has been associated with the gathering of information professionals in west London for the annual Online Information Meeting. The Meeting currently is organized by VNU Exhibitions Europe (formerly Imark Communication), though for old-timers it will forever be associated with Learned Information, the…

  9. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  10. LondonMet e-Packs: A Pragmatic Approach to Learner/Teacher Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschirhart, Cecile; Rigler, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Online learning can play an important role in engaging language learners and fostering autonomy. The LondonMet e-pack, which provides online interactive language learning materials, is used as a case study to illustrate some of the theoretical and practical issues faced by those implementing online language learning programmes. This article begins…

  11. The types of Phasmida in the Natural History Museum, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Brock, Paul D; Marshall, Judith A; Beccaloni, George W; Harman, Allan J E

    2016-10-31

    Type specimens of 437 Phasmida taxa have been located in the Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK, formerly BMNH), including 480 primary types of 372 taxa. Taxa with types are listed alphabetically by their specific or subspecific name, and the number of specimens, sex and locality data are given.

  12. Cecilia John: An Australian Heads the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 1932-1955

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (LSDE) was established in 1913, and a significant figure in its history was the remarkable Cecilia John, one of seven Australians to complete the three-year course between 1917 and 1927. Apart from two short visits to Australia, John lived and taught in England for the remainder of her life. Following the…

  13. Biliteracy in a Monolingual School System? English and Gujarati in South London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research with 4-7-year-olds in a South London primary school to provide a longitudinal case study of one child's relationship to mother tongue literacy within the classroom. Findings demonstrate how the child, from the age of 4, actively combined Gujarati and English to enhance her literacy learning and to construct text that synthesized…

  14. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  15. Unmaking and Remaking the "One Best System": London, Ontario, 1852-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the rocky development of a dominant common school system in London, Ontario between 1852 and 1860. Details the support and opposition to the move among the various social, economic, and ethnic groups in the provincial city. Even after the system implementation, school attendance indicated social differentiation. (MJP)

  16. Discursive Constructions of Language and Identity: Parents' Competing Perspectives in London Turkish Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytra, Vally

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on interview data to explore parents' constructions of language and identity in two London Turkish complementary schools. I examine parents' evaluative talk about standard Turkish, Cypriot-Turkish and other regional varieties of Turkish, the cultural values they attach to them and images of personhood these invoke. I…

  17. Bilingual Behaviour, Attitudes, Identity and Vitality: Some Data from Japanese Speakers in London, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ivan; Sachdev, Itesh

    2009-01-01

    Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and reflects several aspects of Japan's relationship with the international community. Yet there appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in…

  18. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2014-10-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions can exceed the contributions from traffic emissions, and have been identified as a major cause of exceedences of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction likely included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC using average source ratios from published data was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Black carbon (BC) data from 2 and 7 wavelength Aethalometers were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic, based upon the enhanced absorption of wood smoke at UV wavelengths compared to BC. While the source apportionment of BC using this approach found similar trends to that observed for EC, higher percentage contributions of wood burning to BC were estimated. Based on a wood smoke mass conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at the sites was found to range from 0.78-1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m

  19. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a

  20. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O'Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-02-13

    To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Central and inner London, England. Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). 578,607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change -72 DALYs (95% credible interval -110 to -43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; -15 (-42 to -6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change -49 DALYs (-88 to -17) among men; -1 DALY (-27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age

  1. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  2. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    PubMed

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-08-09

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessing the sources and bioaccessibility of Lead in Soils from London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Chenery, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The lead content of soil is important since it is toxic to humans and particularly because children tend to more readily absorb lead than do adults: children absorb up to 40% into the bloodstream from ingested or inhaled lead, versus 5-15% in adults. Studies have shown that relatively low concentrations of lead in blood can lead to significant decrease in IQ of children (e.g. Jakubowski, 2011) leading to neuropathy and hypertension in adults. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a systematic high-density geochemical soil survey of the Greater London Area (GLA) in which over 6000 surface soil samples were collected and analysed for 50 elements. The Pb content of the soils range from 11 mg/kg to greater than 10000 mg/kg with mean and median values of 301 and 185 mg/kg, respectively. The ingestion bioaccessible fraction of Pb was measured using an in-vitro bioaccessibility test showing that 68% of the total Pb in London soils is bioaccessible. Measurement of Pb isotopic ratios in selected soils matched with those found in London air particulates and, to a lesser extent, with petrol lead. Self modelling mixture resolution of the 50 element geochemical data set was used to identify geochemically distinct components in the data with Pb being associated with 11 of the components which were of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Relationships between the soil components, the bioaccessible fraction and the Pb isotope ratios provided an indication of the sources of mobile lead in the London soils. References JAKUBOWSKI, M. 2011. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children - the current concepts of risk assessment. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 24, 1-7. APPLETON, J D, CAVE, M R, and WRAGG, J. 2012. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 171, 265-272.

  4. The ghost of Christmas past: health effects of poverty in London in 1896 and 1991.

    PubMed

    Dorling, D; Mitchell, R; Shaw, M; Orford, S; Smith, G D

    To compare the extent to which late 20th century patterns of mortality in London are predicted by contemporary patterns of poverty and by late 19th century patterns of poverty. To test the hypothesis that the pattern of mortality from causes known to be related to deprivation in early life can be better predicted by the distribution of poverty in the late 19th century than by that in the late 20th century. Data from Charles Booth's survey of inner London in 1896 were digitised and matched to contemporary local government wards. Ward level indices of relative poverty were derived from Booth's survey and the 1991 UK census of population. All deaths which took place within the surveyed area between 1991 and 1995 were identified and assigned to contemporary local government wards. Standardised mortality ratios for various causes of death were calculated for each ward for all ages, under age 65, and over age 65. Simple correlation and partial correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of the indices of poverty from 1896 and 1991 in predicting ward level mortality ratios in the early 1990s. Inner London. For many causes of death in London, measures of deprivation made around 1896 and 1991 both contributed strongly to predicting the current spatial distribution. Contemporary mortality from diseases which are known to be related to deprivation in early life (stomach cancer, stroke, lung cancer) is predicted more strongly by the distribution of poverty in 1896 than that in 1991. In addition, all cause mortality among people aged over 65 was slightly more strongly related to the geography of poverty in the late 19th century than to its contemporary distribution. Contemporary patterns of some diseases have their roots in the past. The fundamental relation between spatial patterns of social deprivation and spatial patterns of mortality is so robust that a century of change in inner London has failed to disrupt it.

  5. Geographical analysis of socioeconomic factors in risk of domestic burn injury in London 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jacob S; Atkins, Joanne; Clancy, Olivia; Takata, Masao; Dunn, Ken W; Jones, Isabel; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to explore the geographical distribution of burn injuries in Greater London and the association of socioeconomic factors in areas at risk. Data on burn injury cases classified as occurring in patients' own homes in Greater London and admitted to a specialised burns service for ≥1 day during a 7-year period were obtained from the International Burn Injury Database (iBID). Age- and gender-adjusted standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA) in Greater London. Bayesian methods were used to calculate relative risks as best estimates of spatially-smoothed SIRs. Of a total of 2911 admissions to specialised burns services in Greater London in the study period, 2100 (72.1%) cases occurred in patients' own homes. Percentage of ethnic minorities (p=0.005), Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (p<0.001), Health Deprivation and Disability Score (p=0.031), percentage of families with 3 or more children (p=0.004) and Barriers to Housing and Services Score (p=0.001) remained independently associated with the relative risk of paediatric domestic burn injury in a multivariate linear regression model. Percentage of ethnic minorities (p<0.001), Health Deprivation and Disability Score (p<0.001) and Barriers to Housing and Services Score (p=0.036) remained independently associated with the relative risk of adult domestic burn injury in a multivariate linear regression model. Socioeconomic factors are associated with an increased risk of burn injury in Greater London, but may be more important in children than adults. The specific factors identified are ethnicity, poor general health, household structure, housing issues and income deprivation affecting children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ghost of Christmas Past: health effects of poverty in London in 1896 and 1991

    PubMed Central

    Dorling, Danny; Mitchell, Richard; Shaw, Mary; Orford, Scott; Davey Smith, George

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To compare the extent to which late 20th century patterns of mortality in London are predicted by contemporary patterns of poverty and by late 19th century patterns of poverty. To test the hypothesis that the pattern of mortality from causes known to be related to deprivation in early life can be better predicted by the distribution of poverty in the late 19th century than by that in the late 20th century. Design Data from Charles Booth's survey of inner London in 1896 were digitised and matched to contemporary local government wards. Ward level indices of relative poverty were derived from Booth's survey and the 1991 UK census of population. All deaths which took place within the surveyed area between 1991 and 1995 were identified and assigned to contemporary local government wards. Standardised mortality ratios for various causes of death were calculated for each ward for all ages, under age 65, and over age 65. Simple correlation and partial correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of the indices of poverty from 1896 and 1991 in predicting ward level mortality ratios in the early 1990s. Setting Inner London. Results For many causes of death in London, measures of deprivation made around 1896 and 1991 both contributed strongly to predicting the current spatial distribution. Contemporary mortality from diseases which are known to be related to deprivation in early life (stomach cancer, stroke, lung cancer) is predicted more strongly by the distribution of poverty in 1896 than that in 1991. In addition, all cause mortality among people aged over 65 was slightly more strongly related to the geography of poverty in the late 19th century than to its contemporary distribution. Conclusions Contemporary patterns of some diseases have their roots in the past. The fundamental relation between spatial patterns of social deprivation and spatial patterns of mortality is so robust that a century of change in inner London has failed to disrupt it

  7. Yet another inquiry into the trustworthiness of eighteenth-century London's Bills of Mortality.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Jeremy; Schwarz, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This is an enquiry into how eighteenth-century London's Bills of Mortality were compiled. It concludes that while they remain tolerably accurate in aggregate, particularly when considered over a number of years, they are liable to be very misleading if particular localities or parishes are considered. They are a record of registered burials-not deaths-of most of those who had been baptised as Anglicans, so they omit some burial grounds within London, and some dissenters. Crucially, they are most misleading guides to those who had died in one parish but whose family chose to have them buried in another. Several London parishes deliberately undercut their neighbours by charging lower burial fees to attract custom; others opened extra-parochial burial grounds. St Martin-in-the-Fields offers an example of the latter from 1806, but the scale of the new burial ground was not large and it was mainly confined to those who had died in the workhouse. Much more significant was the neighbouring parish of St Anne Soho, which at its peak period in the 1760s to the 1790s was alone handling the equivalent of between 2 and 5 per cent of all Anglican burials within the total area of London's Bills of Mortality. This was only one, though perhaps a particularly egregious, London parish, while the export of corpses to one's erstwhile 'home' parish demonstrates why the Bills cannot be trusted in their detailed geography, as well as providing a warning to all English population historians confronted with a sudden fall or rise in their burial totals.

  8. Aircraft observations above London city during a day and a night: ozone and alkyl nitrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Di Carlo, Piero; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Busilacchio, Marcella; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Bauguitte, Stephane; O'Sullivan, Debbie; Morgan, Will; Ouyang, Bin; Kennedy, Oliver; Jones, Rod; Forster, Grant; Reeves, Claire; Vaughan, Stewart; Heard, Dwayne

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of NO2, ΣPNs, ΣANs and HNO3 have been done using a TD-LIF instrument, installed on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft, during the RONOCO (ROle of Nighttime chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity) campaign. We analyse in detail the chemical mechanisms that have been established during two flights (B536 and B548) characterized by a similar track (flying above the M25 highway around London) and carried out during a day (B548) and a night (B536). In the daytime flight, the chemical species around London present a net spatial distribution defining two distinct areas: the East London region (up-wind) with an older and less polluted (lowest concentrations of NOx) air masses and the West London region (down-wind) with fresh emissions and more polluted (highest concentrations of NOx with peaks of about 30 ppb). In correspondence of these peaks strong ozone tritation phenomena due to the high NOx levels are verified with a corresponding increase of the ΣANs concentrations. In order to verify the impact of the high concentrations of alkyl nitrate (with maximum values of about 3 ppb) on the tropospheric ozone budget, the production and loss of ozone and ΣANs has been studied. The slopes between the production of ozone and alkyl nitrates confirm that around London the ΣANs formation on one side and the relative ozone loss on the other side represent significant processes. Moreover, the loss of the O3 during the nocturnal flight (B536) is less evident that during the B548 flight.

  9. Investigation of the impact of higher molecular weight organics on OH reactivity in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Hopkins, Jimmy; Lee, James; Lidster, Richard; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the formation of pollution in the air, particularly in the boundary layer of the atmosphere. VOCs in an urban atmosphere react with radical species to form ozone (O3), which at ground levels can pose a significant threat to health.[1] Air quality models have been developed to predict the effect of emissions on air quality. Numerous studies of urban environments show discrepancies between measured and predicted estimates of the lifetime of OH radicals. One possibility is that the magnitude of VOCs as a sink for reactive species is underestimated in models, including unmeasured and larger aromatic species. To study some of these additional compounds we have developed a method using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector (GC×GC-FID). GC×GC is a hyphenated technique where two columns are coupled together via a modulator, providing two discrete separations of each species based on boiling point and polarity.[2] This provides a high resolution method, with increased separation power and improved peak capacity when compared to many single column systems.[3] This technique was used in conjunction with a dual channel GC (DC-GC) during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project to increase the speciation of the complex air matrix. Target compounds were in the range C1 to C13+ VOCs, including oxygenates, aromatics, saturated and unsaturated aliphatics. Calculations of the pseudo first order OH reactivity indicates that higher carbon number VOCs may account for some of the missing OH sinks in comparison to emission inventory estimates. During summer measurements the role of biogenic VOCs increases, with isoprene and monoterpenes acting as important OH sinks. Including these should enhance the prediction capability of air quality models. This can then lead to the introduction of new policies for the reduction of pollution precursors and hopefully result in improved

  10. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London.

    PubMed

    Ghotane, Swapnil G; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Kendall, Nick; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-09-21

    Dentists with a special interest hold enhanced skills enabling them to treat cases of intermediate complexity. The aim of this study was to explore primary dental care practitioners' views of dentists with a special interest (DwSIs) in Endodontics in London, with reference to an educational and service initiative established by (the former) London Deanery in conjunction with the NHS. A cross-sectional postal survey of primary care dentists working across different models of care within London was conducted, with a target to achieve views of at least 5 % of London's dentists. The questionnaire instrument was informed by qualitative research and the dental literature and piloted prior to distribution; data were analysed using SPSS v19 and STATA v12.0. Six per cent of London's primary care dentists (n = 243) responded to the survey; 53 % were male. Just over one third (37 %; n = 90) were aware of the DwSI service being provided. Most practitioners reported that having access to a DwSI in Endodontics would support the care of their patients (89 %; n = 215), would carry out more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care if adequately reimbursed (93 %; n = 220), and had more time (76 %; n = 180). Female respondents appeared to be less confident in doing endodontic treatment (p = 0.001). More recently qualified respondents reported greater need for training/support for performing more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.001), were more dissatisfied with access to endodontic service in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.007) and more interested to train as a DwSI in endodontics (p = 0.001) compared with respondents having a greater number of years of clinical experience since qualification. The findings lend support to the concept of developing dentists with enhanced skills as well as ensuring additional funding, time and support to facilitate more routine endodontics through the NHS primary care to meet

  11. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578 607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change −72 DALYs (95% credible interval −110 to −43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; −15 (−42 to −6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change −49 DALYs (−88 to −17) among men; −1 DALY (−27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled

  12. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael; Paice, Elisabeth

    2016-05-03

    In North West London, health and social care leaders decided to design a system of integrated care with the aim of improving the quality of care and supporting people to maintain independence and participation in their community. Patients and carers, known as 'lay partners,' were to be equal partners in co-production of the system. Lay partners were recruited by sending a role profile to health, social care and voluntary organisations and requesting nominations. They formed a Lay Partners Advisory Group from which pairs were allocated to system design workstreams, such as which population to focus on, financial flow, information technology and governance. A larger and more diverse Lay Partners Forum provided feedback on the emerging plans. A key outcome of this approach was the development of an integration toolkit co-designed with lay partners. Lay partners provided challenge, encouraged innovation, improved communication, and held the actions of other partners to account to ensure the vision and aims of the emerging integrated care system were met. Key lessons from the North West London experience for effective co-production include: recruiting patients and carers with experience of strategic work; commitment to the vision; willingness to challenge and to listen; strong connections within the community being served; and enough time to do the work. Including lay partners in co-design from the start, and at every level, was important. Agreeing the principles of working together, providing support and continuously recruiting lay representatives to represent their communities are keys to effective co-production.

  13. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  14. Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.

    PubMed

    Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

    2014-07-01

    Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    PubMed

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-04

    Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. A series of observational studies. Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. 10,158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Of the 10,158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the potential to identify affected patients and promote good uptake of referrals for in

  16. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. Design A series of observational studies. Setting Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. Participants 10 158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. Main outcome measures (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Results Of the 10 158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Conclusions Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the

  17. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Pill, Roisin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of how first time mothers who belong to a socioeconomic group with particularly low rates of breast feeding decide whether or not to initiate breast feeding. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. Setting Women’s homes in east end of London. Subjects 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their partner or a relative. Two focus groups were conducted. Results Women who had regularly seen a relative or friend successfully breast feed and described this experience positively were more confident about and committed to breast feeding. They were also more likely to succeed. Exposure to breast feeding, however, could be either a positive or a negative influence on the decision to breast feed, depending on the context. Women who had seen breast feeding only by a stranger often described this as a negative influence, particularly if other people were present. All women knew that breast feeding has health benefits. Ownership of this knowledge, however, varied according to the woman’s experience of seeing breast feeding. Conclusions The decision to initiate breast feeding is influenced more by embodied knowledge gained from seeing breast feeding than by theoretical knowledge about its benefits. Breast feeding involves performing a practical skill, often with others present. The knowledge, confidence, and commitment necessary to breast feed may be more effectively gained through antenatal apprenticeship to a breastfeeding mother than from advice given in consultations or from books. Key messagesWomen who have seen successful breast feeding as part of their daily lives and perceive this as a positive experience are more likely to initiate breast feedingEmbodied knowledge gained through seeing breast feeding may be more influential than theoretical knowledge about the health benefits for women of lower social classListening to

  18. Imported dengue fever in East London: a 6-year retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Anna; Babiker, Zahir Osman Eltahir

    2017-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a frequently imported arthropod-borne infection in the United Kingdom but its broad range of clinical presentations makes it potentially unrecognized by clinicians. We conducted a 6-year retrospective case note review of laboratory confirmed DF patients in East London in the period from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2015. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of imported DF were described. Risk factors associated with viraemic DF presentations were assessed. Forty-four patients (4 from primary care clinics and 40 from three acute hospitals) were confirmed to have DF through RNA and/or IgM detection. In total, 86.4% (38/44) had primary infection compared to 13.6% (6/44) with secondary infection. Viraemic DF presentations accounted for 59.1% (26/44) of cases. The median age was 34 years (IQR 25-43). Most patients were males (68.2%, 30/44) and of non-white ethnicity (81.8%, 36/44). South Asia was the most frequent travel destination (52.3%, 23/44) followed by Southeast Asia (20.5%, 9/44). July-September was the peak season of presentation (43.2%, 19/44). The median interval between arrival in the UK and laboratory testing was 7 days (IQR 4-13). Arriving from abroad ≤ 7 days before molecular testing (age-adjusted odds ratios [OR] 16.98, 95% CI 2.43-118.75, P  =   0.004) and travel to South or Southeast Asia regions (age-adjusted OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.07-18.21, P  =   0.040) were associated with detectable viraemia at presentation. Only one DF patient met the WHO severity criteria. HIV serostatus was determined in 61.4% (27/44) of cases. Clinicians need to improve DF recognition as well as rates of HIV testing in tropical travellers. Region of travel and time since arrival from DF endemic settings may help clinicians optimize requests for molecular testing. Further research on the clinical and public health aspects of imported DF is needed.

  19. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised.

  20. London theory for superconducting phase transitions in external magnetic fields: application to UPt3.

    PubMed

    Agterberg, D F; Dodgson, Matthew J W

    2002-07-01

    For multicomponent superconductors, it is known that the presence of symmetry breaking fields can lead to multiple superconducting phase transitions. Motivated by recent small angle neutron scattering experiments on the vortex state of UPt3, the London theory in the vicinity of such phase transitions is determined. It is found that the form of this London theory is in general quite different than that for conventional superconductors. This is due to the existence of a diverging correlation length associated with these phase transitions. One striking consequence is that nontrivial vortex lattices exist arbitrarily close to H(c1). Applications to UPt3, CeIn3, U(1-x)Th(x)Be(13), electron doped cuprate superconductors, Sr(2)RuO(4), and MgCNi(3) are discussed.

  1. Bipartisan politics and practical knowledge: advertising of public science in two London newspapers, 1695-1720.

    PubMed

    Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R

    2008-12-01

    This article explores the enticement of consumers for natural philosophy (buyers of books, audiences at public lectures and purchasers of instruments) in London between 1695 and 1720 through advertisements placed in two political newspapers. This twenty-five-year period witnessed both the birth of public science and the rage of party politics. A consideration of public science adverts within the Whig-leaning Post Man and the Tory-leaning Post Boy reveals that members of both the Whig and Tory parties were equally targeted and that natural philosophy was sold to London's reading population in bipartisan fashion. In the process of integrating natural philosophy into the wider culture through commercial sales, political allegiances were not imprinted on the advertising process. This conclusion raises questions regarding the historiographical assertion of Whig-supported public science and Tory opposition to it at the level of consumers.

  2. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  3. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  4. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Singularity of the London Penetration Depth at Quantum Critical Points in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-01

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 [K. Hashimoto , Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1219821].

  6. Estimation of the Rate of Unrecognized Cross-Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in London Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, M.; McHugh, T. D.; Dale, J. W.; Banerjee, D.; Maguire, H.; Wilson, P.; Drobniewski, F.; Butcher, P.; Gillespie, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    Isolates from patients with confirmed tuberculosis from London were collected over 2.5 years between 1995 and 1997. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed by the international standard technique as part of a multicenter epidemiological study. A total of 2,779 samples representing 2,500 individual patients from 56 laboratories were examined. Analysis of these samples revealed a laboratory cross-contamination rate of between 0.54%, when only presumed cases of cross-contamination were considered, and 0.93%, when presumed and possible cases were counted. Previous studies suggest an extremely wide range of laboratory cross-contamination rates of between 0.1 and 65%. These data indicate that laboratory cross-contamination has not been a common problem in routine practice in the London area, but in several incidents patients did receive full courses of therapy that were probably unnecessary. PMID:12409381

  7. Quasiclassical approach to nonlocal generalized London equation in mixed state of s -wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiho, R.; Safonchik, M.; Traito, K. B.

    2007-05-01

    We extend the Ginsburg-Landau solution for cutoff function in London equation to low temperatures by solving numerically the quasiclassical Eilenberger equations in mixed state of s -wave superconductors. As a result the nonlocal generalized London equation (NGLE) is obtained. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cutoff function parameter k1(B,T) are calculated. Due to Kramer-Pesch effect k1 decreases strongly at low temperatures. It is also found that k1 has a minimum at a value of magnetic field depending on temperature. We reduce the NGLE model to an effective local model and calculate the value of an effective penetration depth λeff(B,T) . The sublinear field dependence of λeff is predicted that agrees with experimental μ SR results for the penetration depth of magnetic field in the s -wave superconductor V3Si and NbSe2 .

  8. Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; McDowall, M E

    1986-01-01

    The Atlas of Cancer Mortality for England and Wales showed pronounced excesses of male mortality from nasal and bladder cancer in certain London boroughs. These excesses were investigated by case-referent studies using death certificate data for male deaths, 1968-78. Nasal cancer was found to be significantly associated with occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust. Bladder cancer was significantly associated with occupations in road transport driving and in the handling of leather, whereas consistently raised relative risk ratios were also found for wood-workers, engineering fitters, printers, machinists, plumbers, and motor mechanics. These findings highlight the potential role of occupational factors in cancer causation in London. Images PMID:3947560

  9. The "Dreadful Visitation": public health and public awareness in seventeenth-century London.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S J

    1997-01-01

    The decision was made in Britain three centuries ago that an educated populace was best able to deal with a public health crisis of staggering proportions--outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague. As early as 1603, the printing press was enlisted to educate the public about urgent health issues. This education took several forms. The City of London, with the tacit permission of the Crown, printed bills of mortality that reported who was dying of what in London, detailed by parish, for the years in the seventeenth century when plague deaths were reported. New books about plague prevention and cures were published; older works were reprinted. The resulting wealth of data gave impetus to the evolution of the new field of epidemiological demographics, founded by John Graunt and Sir William Petty. Publishing in the plague years also established a model for informing the general populace that is not without parallel in today's "information society." Images PMID:9431429

  10. Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-11

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 [K. Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)].

  11. Nonperturbative ab initio calculations in strong magnetic fields using London orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren, Erik I.; Soncini, Alessandro; Helgaker, Trygve

    2008-10-01

    A self-consistent field (SCF) London-orbital computational scheme to perform gauge-origin independent nonperturbative calculations for molecules in strong magnetic fields is presented. The crucial difference in the proposed approach with respect to common-origin finite-field SCF implementations consists in the evaluation of molecular integrals over the field-dependent molecular basis functions, which is tantamount to computing molecular integrals in a hybrid Gaussian and plane-wave basis set. The implementation of a McMurchie-Davidson scheme for the calculation of the molecular integrals over London orbitals is discussed, and preliminary applications of the newly developed code to the calculation of fourth-rank hypermagnetizabilities for a set of small molecules, benzene, and cyclobutadiene are presented. The nonperturbative approach is particularly useful for studying the highly nonlinear response of paramagnetic closed-shell systems such as boron monohydride, or the π-electron response of cyclobutadiene.

  12. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-12-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study.

  13. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    PubMed

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  14. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  15. Assessing patients' experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, Nikolaos; Gunn, Laura; Harris, Matthew; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Pappas, Yannis

    2014-04-01

    Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients' views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policymakers understand patients' acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  16. 'By merit raised to that bad eminence': Christopher Merrett, artisanal knowledge, and professional reform in restoration London.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge - particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes.

  17. ‘By Merit Raised to That Bad Eminence’: Christopher Merrett, Artisanal Knowledge, and Professional Reform in Restoration London

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge – particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes. PMID:23752982

  18. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  19. Wastewater filtration and re-use: an alternative water source for London.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan D; Blunt, Martin J

    2012-10-15

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. Here, we propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in pure water. The problem is approached from four different scales. First, we define two localities in London where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions which combine a thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity, both essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. We show that rivers impose a regular groundwater flow regime, whereas pre-existing abstraction wells will lead to less predictable results. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the Kent coast similar to that beneath London, we quantify transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around disconnected fracture tips. Finally we demonstrate the efficacy of chalk in contaminant removal by injecting an analogue 'effluent' through a chalk core. ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution shows the contaminants (viz. a suite of heavy metals) are arrested or removed over relatively small time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of

  20. Meeting Report: BAA Out of London Weekend, 2007 August 31 to September 2, Glasgow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clackson, T.

    2008-02-01

    In 2007 the BAA travelled north of the Border to visit 'Bonnie Scotland' for the annual Out-of-London weekend. The BAA last held a weekend in Scotland in 1994 and the offer from the Astronomical Society of Glasgow (ASG) to host the 2007 event was very welcome. The ASG recently celebrated its centenary and is an active society with over 140 members. They were both pleased and a little daunted when their offer was accepted by the BAA.