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Sample records for improving mouth angle

  1. Mouth gape angle has little effect on the transmitted signals of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A; Buck, John R

    2014-10-01

    Bats perform high-resolution echolocation by comparing temporal and spectral features of their transmitted pulses to the received echoes. In complex environments with moving prey, dynamically adapting the transmitted pulses can increase the probability of successful target representation and interception. This study further investigates the adaptive vocal-motor strategies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). During stationary target detection experiments, echolocation sounds were simultaneously recorded with high-speed, infrared video to examine the relationship of mouth position and movement to pulse characteristics among bats. All three bats produced strobe groups, but the proportion and frequency characteristics of the strobe group pulses differed for individual bats. Additionally, mouth gape angle had little effect on the emitted pulse characteristics, which suggests that laryngeal mechanisms drive changes in emitted pulses.

  2. CHO Mouth Rinsing Improves Neuromuscular Performance During Isokinetic Fatiguing Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Patrizio, Federica; Felici, Francesco; Nicolò, Andrea; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-12-14

    To determine whether repeated CHO mouth rinsing would improve neuromuscular performance during high intensity fatiguing contractions. 18 young men (26.1±5.0 yr; 22.9±1,9 BMI) performed 3 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICPRE). Immediately after, they completed 10 s mouth rinse with either 6.4% maltodextrine solution [MAL] or 7.1% glucose solution [GLU] or water [W] or artificially sweetened solution [PLA] or a control trial with no rinse [CON] in a cross over protocol. 5 sets of 30 isokinetic fatiguing contractions at 180°s(-1) and a MVICPOST with their elbow flexors were performed after each mouth rinse. Mechanical and electromyographic signals (EMG) were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle and parameters of interest analyzed. 1) When rinsing the mouth with a solution containing CHO, independently of the sweetness, isokinetic performance was enhanced as shown by the greater total work achieved in comparison with CON; 2) the decay of torque and mean fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) recorded at the end of the fatiguing task was lower when rinsing the mouth with GLU compared to CON; 3) the torque recorded during the MVICPOST was greater with CHO with respect to CON and this was associated to a lower decay of MFCV. CHO mouth rinse counteracts the fatigue-induced decline in neuromuscular performance, supporting the notion that CHO rinse may activate positive afferent signals able to modify the motor output. Repeated mouth rinsing with sweet and non-sweet CHO-containing solutions can improve neuromuscular performance during an isokinetic intermittent fatiguing task.

  3. Tracheal tube fixation: the effect on depth of insertion of midline fixation compared to the angle of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Varshney, M; Kumar, R

    2009-04-01

    Following successful placement of a tracheal tube (TT), it is frequently moved from the midline to the angle of the mouth. This study investigates the tracheal tube tip position in the two fixation positions in 200 adult patients. Following tracheal intubation, a fibreoptic bronchoscope (FOB) was introduced through a swivel connector and the distances from the swivel connector to the lips, carina, tip of TT and the crico-tracheal membrane were measured with the TT in the midline and at the right angle of the mouth. The mean (SD) TT tip to carinal distance decreased from 3.60 (1.50) cm to 2.28 (1.55) cm in female patients, and 5.04 (1.43) cm to 3.69 (1.65) cm in male patients on moving the tracheal tube to the angle of the mouth. We conclude that there is a significant movement of the tracheal tube towards the carina on moving the TT from midline to angle of mouth and the depth of insertion of the tube should be adjusted accordingly.

  4. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  5. Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves morning high-intensity exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Hammond, Scott; Kornilios, Evangelos; Mundy, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Oral carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has been demonstrated to provide beneficial effects on exercise performance of durations of up to one hour. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CHO mouth rinsing on morning high-intensity exercise performance. Following institutional ethical approval and familiarisation, 12 healthy males (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 years, height: 175.5 ± 7.4 cm, body mass: 75.4 ± 7.5 kg) participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, isometric mid-thigh pull peak force, 10 m sprint time and bench press and back squat repetitions to failure were assessed following CHO and placebo (PLA) rinsing or a control condition (CON). All testing took place at 07:30 following an 11 hour overnight fast. Performance of CMJ height (CHO: 39 ± 7 cm; PLA: 38 ± 7 cm; CON: 36 ± 6 cm; P = .003, [Formula: see text] = 0.40), 10 m sprint time (CHO: 1.78 ± 0.07 s; PLA: 1.81 ± 0.07 s; CON: 1.85 ± 0.05 s; P = .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.47), the number of bench press (CHO: 25 ± 3; PLA: 24 ± 4; CON: 22 ± 4; P < .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.55) and squat (CHO: 31 ± 4; PLA: 29 ± 5; CON: 26 ± 6; P < .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.70) repetitions and mean felt arousal (CHO: 5 ± 1; PLA: 4 ± 0; CON: 4 ± 0; P = .009, [Formula: see text] = 0.25) improved following CHO rinsing. However, isometric mid-thigh pull peak force was unchanged (CHO: 2262 ± 288 N; PLA: 2236 ± 354 N; CON: 2212 ± 321 N; P = .368, [Formula: see text] = 0.08). These results suggest that oral CHO rinsing solution significantly improved the morning performance of CMJ height, 10 m sprint times, bench press and squat repetitions to failure and felt arousal, although peak force during an isometric mid-thigh pull, rating of perceived exertion and heart rate were unaffected.

  6. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  7. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  8. Sniffing position combined with mouth opening improves facemask ventilation in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cuvas, O; Dikmen, B; Yucel, F

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of sniffing position combined with mouth opening on the effectiveness of facemask ventilation in paralyzed pediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy during sevoflurane-N(2)O anesthesia. After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 40 children 5-11 years of age who were scheduled for an elective adenotonsillectomy operation were enrolled in this prospective randomized study. After routine monitoring and pre-oxygenation, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% N(2)O-O(2). Three minutes after the administration of vecuronium, the sequence of the positions was randomized. Three positions were applied during facemask ventilation: Position CN (closed mouth - neutral head and neck position), position CS (closed mouth-sniffing position) and position OS (opened mouth-sniffing position). Volume-controlled ventilation was started. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (V(T)), expired tidal volume (V(Texp)) and end-tidal CO(2) pressure were recorded. The percent of leakage was calculated. The primary endpoint of this study was the expired tidal volume (V(Texp)). There was a statistically significant difference among the three positions for V(Texp) and PIP values. The OS resulted in higher V(Texp) values when compared with CN (P=0.022). The OS was significantly better than the other two positions, resulting in lower PIP values (P<0.001 and P=0.004, for CN and CS, respectively). The OS also resulted in less leakage during facemask ventilation when compared with CN and CS. Sniffing position combined with mouth opening improves V(Texp) and PIP values during facemask ventilation during sevoflurane-N(2)O anesthesia in paralyzed pediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  9. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle.

  10. Improving prediction of aerosol deposition in an idealized mouth using large-Eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Matida, Edgar A; Finlay, Warren H; Breuer, Michael; Lange, Carlos F

    2006-01-01

    Monodisperse aerosol deposition in an idealized mouth geometry with a relatively small inlet diameter (D (in) = 3.0 mm) was studied numerically using a standard Large Eddy Simulation (LES). A steady inhalation flow rate of Q = 32.2 L/min was used. Thousands of particles (2.5, 3.7, and 5.0 microm in diameter and rho (f) = 912.0 kg/m(3) density) were released separately in the computational domain and aerosol deposition was determined. The total aerosol deposition results in this idealized mouth were in relatively good agreement when compared with measured data obtained in separate experiments, showing considerable improvement over the standard RANS/EIM (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes/Eddy Interaction Model) approach.

  11. Can Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improve Performance during Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thays de Ataide e; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves; de Amorim, Jamile Ferro; Stathis, Christos G.; Leandro, Carol Góis; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59%) during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration). A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W) as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference = 5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z = 2.39, p = 0.02) but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 52%). An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise protocols

  12. Can carbohydrate mouth rinse improve performance during exercise? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Ataide e Silva, Thays; Di Cavalcanti Alves de Souza, Maria Eduarda; de Amorim, Jamile Ferro; Stathis, Christos G; Leandro, Carol Góis; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2013-12-19

    The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59%) during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration). A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W) as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference=5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z=2.39, p=0.02) but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2=52%). An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise protocols, and

  13. Use of mouth rinse during pregnancy to improve birth and neonatal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Su, Yi; Qian, Xu

    2015-11-25

    Poor oral health, such as periodontal (gum) disease, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality, especially in low-and middle-income countries. However, there is little or no access to preventive dental care in most low-and middle-income countries. We propose to develop and test a "Mouth Rinse Intervention" among pregnant women to prevent the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth and neonatal outcomes in a rural county of China. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A sample of 468 (234 in each arm of the study) women in early pregnancy with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through the methods of Periodontal Screening and Recording. All women diagnosed with periodontal disease will be randomly allocated into the intervention or control group. Women assigned in the intervention group will be provided with non-alcohol antimicrobial mouth rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride throughout the pregnancy and oral health education. Women in the control group will receive a package of tooth brush and paste, plus oral hygiene education. Women will be followed-up to childbirth until the 42nd day postpartum. The main outcomes include mean birthweight (gram) and mean gestational age (week). Compared with conventional mechanical 'scaling and root planning' periodontal treatment during pregnancy, our proposed mouth rinse intervention could be a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable solution to improve both mother's oral health and neonate outcomes. If the mouth rinse is confirmed to be effective, it would demonstrate great potential for the application in other low- or middle-income countries to prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight and to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. This trial was registered with Chinese

  14. Improved wide-angle, fisheye and omnidirectional camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Steffen; Leitloff, Jens; Hinz, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper an improved method for calibrating wide-angle, fisheye and omnidirectional imaging systems is presented. We extend the calibration procedure proposed by Scaramuzza et al. by replacing the residual function and joint refinement of all parameters. In doing so, we achieve a more stable, robust and accurate calibration (up to factor 7) and can reduce the number of necessary calibration steps from five to three. After introducing the camera model and highlighting the differences from the current calibration procedure, we perform a comprehensive performance evaluation using several data sets and show the impact of the proposed calibration procedure on the calibration results.

  15. Object localization using a biosonar beam: how opening your mouth improves localization

    PubMed Central

    Arditi, G.; Weiss, A. J.; Yovel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the location of a sound source is crucial for survival. Both predators and prey usually produce sound while moving, revealing valuable information about their presence and location. Animals have thus evolved morphological and neural adaptations allowing precise sound localization. Mammals rely on the temporal and amplitude differences between the sound signals arriving at their two ears, as well as on the spectral cues available in the signal arriving at a single ear to localize a sound source. Most mammals rely on passive hearing and are thus limited by the acoustic characteristics of the emitted sound. Echolocating bats emit sound to perceive their environment. They can, therefore, affect the frequency spectrum of the echoes they must localize. The biosonar sound beam of a bat is directional, spreading different frequencies into different directions. Here, we analyse mathematically the spatial information that is provided by the beam and could be used to improve sound localization. We hypothesize how bats could improve sound localization by altering their echolocation signal design or by increasing their mouth gape (the size of the sound emitter) as they, indeed, do in nature. Finally, we also reveal a trade-off according to which increasing the echolocation signal's frequency improves the accuracy of sound localization but might result in undesired large localization errors under low signal-to-noise ratio conditions. PMID:26361552

  16. Object localization using a biosonar beam: how opening your mouth improves localization.

    PubMed

    Arditi, G; Weiss, A J; Yovel, Y

    2015-08-01

    Determining the location of a sound source is crucial for survival. Both predators and prey usually produce sound while moving, revealing valuable information about their presence and location. Animals have thus evolved morphological and neural adaptations allowing precise sound localization. Mammals rely on the temporal and amplitude differences between the sound signals arriving at their two ears, as well as on the spectral cues available in the signal arriving at a single ear to localize a sound source. Most mammals rely on passive hearing and are thus limited by the acoustic characteristics of the emitted sound. Echolocating bats emit sound to perceive their environment. They can, therefore, affect the frequency spectrum of the echoes they must localize. The biosonar sound beam of a bat is directional, spreading different frequencies into different directions. Here, we analyse mathematically the spatial information that is provided by the beam and could be used to improve sound localization. We hypothesize how bats could improve sound localization by altering their echolocation signal design or by increasing their mouth gape (the size of the sound emitter) as they, indeed, do in nature. Finally, we also reveal a trade-off according to which increasing the echolocation signal's frequency improves the accuracy of sound localization but might result in undesired large localization errors under low signal-to-noise ratio conditions.

  17. Righty fish are hooked on the right side of their mouths - observations from an angling experiment with largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mifuyu; Yodo, Taiga; Katano, Osamu

    2007-09-01

    The development of muscles and bones in fish is laterally asymmetric (laterality). A "lefty" individual has a "C"-shaped body, with its left-side muscles more developed and the left side of its head facing forward. The body of a "righty" is the mirror-image. This laterality causes asymmetric interactions between individuals of different fish species, in that a righty or lefty fish consumes more lefty or righty fish, respectively. To investigate the coupling mechanisms between body asymmetry and predatory behavior, we conducted angling experiments with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We used the position of the fishhook set in the mouth to indicate the movement direction of the fish when it took the bait. Righty fish had more hooks set on the right side, whereas lefty fish had more on the left side, indicating that righty fish moved more to the left, and lefty fish moved more to the right, in successful catches. The relationship between the hooked position and movement direction was confirmed by video-image analysis of the angling.

  18. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  19. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard to eat, drink or even smile. Some common mouth problems include Cold sores - painful sores on the lips and around the mouth, caused by a virus Canker sores - painful sores in the mouth, caused ...

  20. Anterior uterocervical angle measurement improves prediction of cerclage failure.

    PubMed

    Knight, J C; Tenbrink, E; Sheng, J; Patil, A S

    2017-04-01

    To compare the anterior uterocervical angle and cervical length as predictors of spontaneous preterm delivery in patients with transvaginal cerclage. We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 142 pregnant women with transvaginal cerclage placed over a 5-year period (2010 to 2015) were evaluated. Cervical morphology characteristics were measured from endovaginal imaging, including cervical length, cerclage height, funnel volume and anterior uterocervical angle prior to cerclage placement (UCA 1), shortly after cerclage placement (UCA 2) and the last image prior to delivery (UCA 3). Cerclage failure was defined as delivery prior to 36 weeks. Univariate analysis, receiver operator characteristic curves and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as a P<0.05. Among the 142 women with a transvaginal cerclage, 38% had cerclage failure. The mean gestational age at birth was 29.3±5.2 weeks in the failure group compared with 37.9±2.8 weeks in those that did not fail (P<0.001). Univariate analysis identified cervical length (P=0.034) and UCA 3 (P<0.001) as significantly associated with gestational age at birth. Receiver operator characteristic curves demonstrated improved prediction of delivery prior to 34 weeks at UCA 3=108(o) (97% sensitivity, 65% specificity) compared to a cervical length of 25 mm. At <28 weeks, optimal performance of UCA 3 was found at 112(o) (100% sensitivity, 62% specificity) compared with cervical length of 25 mm (29% sensitivity, 39% specificity). Binary logistic regression revealed UCA 3>108(o) conferred an OR 35.1 (95% CI 7.7 to 160.3) for delivery prior to 34 weeks, and UCA 3>112(o) an OR 42.0 (95% CI 5.3 to 332.1) for delivery prior to 28 weeks. In comparison, CL<25 mm had an OR 4.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 12.2) for delivery prior to 34 weeks and OR 6.0 (95% CI 1.9 to 19.3) prior to 28 weeks. In patients with transvaginal cerclage, an increasingly obtuse anterior uterocervical angle

  1. Requirements for improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are currently used worldwide. With the emergence of various FMD virus serotypes and subtypes, vaccines must become more suitable for field-based uses under the current circumstances in terms of the fast and proper selection of vaccine strains, an extended vaccine development period for new viruses, protecting against the risk of virus leakage during vaccine manufacture, counteracting the delayed onset of immune response, counteracting shorter durations of immunity, and the accurate serological differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals and multiple vaccination. The quality of vaccines should then be improved to effectively control FMD outbreaks and minimize the problems that can arise among livestock after vaccinations. Vaccine improvement should be based on using attenuated virus strains with high levels of safety. Moreover, when vaccines are urgently required for newly spread field strains, the seed viruses for new vaccines should be developed for only a short period. Improved vaccines should offer superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. In addition, they should have highly protective effects without persistent infection. In this way, if vaccines are developed using new methods such as reverse genetics or vector vaccine technology, in which live viruses can be easily made by replacing specific protective antigens, even a single vaccination is likely to generate highly protective effects with an extended duration of immunity, and the safety and stability of the vaccines will be assured. We therefore reviewed the current FMD vaccines and their adjuvants, and evaluated if they provide superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. PMID:23596585

  2. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  3. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts. Blind crossover clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alqumber, Mohammed A; Arafa, Khaled A

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria. Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine Cool Mint mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity.

  4. Accuracy Improvement on the Measurement of Human-Joint Angles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dai; Shoepe, Todd; Vejarano, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    A measurement technique that decreases the root mean square error (RMSE) of measurements of human-joint angles using a personal wireless sensor network is reported. Its operation is based on virtual rotations of wireless sensors worn by the user, and it focuses on the arm, whose position is measured on 5 degree of freedom (DOF). The wireless sensors use inertial magnetic units that measure the alignment of the arm with the earth's gravity and magnetic fields. Due to the biomechanical properties of human tissue (e.g., skin's elasticity), the sensors' orientation is shifted, and this shift affects the accuracy of measurements. In the proposed technique, the change of orientation is first modeled from linear regressions of data collected from 15 participants at different arm positions. Then, out of eight body indices measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the percentage of body fat is found to have the greatest correlation with the rate of change in sensors' orientation. This finding enables us to estimate the change in sensors' orientation from the user's body fat percentage. Finally, an algorithm virtually rotates the sensors using quaternion theory with the objective of reducing the error. The proposed technique is validated with experiments on five different participants. In the DOF, whose error decreased the most, the RMSE decreased from 2.20(°) to 0.87(°). This is an improvement of 60%, and in the DOF whose error decreased the least, the RMSE decreased from 1.64(°) to 1.37(°). This is an improvement of 16%. On an average, the RMSE improved by 44%.

  5. Investigation of spatial resolution improvement by use of a mouth-insert detector in the helmet PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdella M; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-10-06

    The dominant factor limiting the intrinsic spatial resolution of a positron emission tomography (PET) system is the size of the crystal elements in the detector. To increase sensitivity and achieve high spatial resolution, it is essential to use advanced depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors and arrange them close to the subject. The DOI detectors help maintain high spatial resolution by mitigating the parallax error caused by the thickness of the scintillator near the peripheral regions of the field-of-view. As an optimal geometry for a brain PET scanner, with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, we proposed and developed the helmet-chin PET scanner using 54 four-layered DOI detectors consisting of a 16 × 16 × 4 array of GSOZ scintillator crystals with dimensions of 2.8 × 2.8 × 7.5 mm(3). All the detectors used in the helmet-chin PET scanner had the same spatial resolution. In this study, we conducted a feasibility study of a new add-on detector arrangement for the helmet PET scanner by replacing the chin detector with a segmented crystal cube, having high spatial resolution in all directions, which can be placed inside the mouth. The crystal cube (which we have named the mouth-insert detector) has an array of 20 × 20 × 20 LYSO crystal segments with dimensions of 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3). Thus, the scanner is formed by the combination of the helmet and mouth-insert detectors, and is referred to as the helmet-mouth-insert PET scanner. The results show that the helmet-mouth-insert PET scanner has comparable sensitivity and improved spatial resolution near the center of the hemisphere, compared to the helmet-chin PET scanner.

  6. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V˙O2max: 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  7. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-05-09

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  8. Optimal handle angle of the fencing foil for improved performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Tsan

    2004-06-01

    Improperly designed hand tools and sports equipment contribute to undesired injuries and accidents. The idea of bending the tool, not the wrist, has been applied to sports equipment. According to Bennett's idea, the design of an ideal handle angle should be in the range of 14 degrees to 24 degrees. Thus design of the handle angle in the sport of fencing is also important. A well-designed handle angle could not only reduce ulnar deviation to avoid wrist injury but also enhance performance. An experiment with several different handle angles was conducted to analyze the effect on performance. Analysis showed an angle of 18 degrees to 21 degrees provided best overall performance in fencing.

  9. Mouth Rinses

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. Mouth rinses are ... anti-plaque/anti-gingivitis rinses or anti-cavity fluoride rinses, for example. Dentists will prescribe special rinses ...

  10. Mouth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mouth ProblemsMouth problems, such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults.Our trusted Symptom Checker is ...

  11. Topical lidocaine to improve oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers: a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Sandy M; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Babl, Franz E

    2014-03-01

    We establish the efficacy of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions compared with placebo. This was a randomized placebo-controlled trial of viscous lidocaine versus placebo at a single pediatric emergency department. Study staff, clinicians, nurses, caregivers, and participants were blinded to the group assignment. Children with acute infectious ulcerative mouth conditions (gingivostomatitis, ulcerative pharyngitis, or hand, foot, and mouth disease) and poor oral fluid intake were randomized to receive 0.15 mL/kg of either 2% viscous lidocaine or placebo with identical appearance and flavor. The primary outcome was the amount of fluid ingested in the 60 minutes after administration of the intervention, with a difference in intake of 4 mL/kg considered clinically important. Secondary outcomes were specific milliliter per kilogram fluid targets and incidence of adverse events. One hundred participants were recruited (50 per treatment group), all of whom completed the 60-minute fluid trial period. Oral intake 1 hour after drug administration was similar in both groups: lidocaine median 8.49 mL/kg (interquartile range 4.07, 13.84 mL/kg) versus placebo 9.31 mL/kg (interquartile range 3.06, 15.18 mL/kg); difference in medians 0.82 mL/kg (95% confidence interval -2.52 to 3.26); Mann-Whitney P=.90. Likewise, short-term secondary outcomes were similar between the groups and there were no adverse events in either group. Viscous lidocaine is not superior to a flavored gel placebo in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of Mouth Functional Disability in Systemic Sclerosis Patients over One Year in a Trial of Fat Transplantation versus Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Fioramonti, Paolo; Carella, Sara; Fino, Pasquale; Marchese, Cinzia; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Face and mouth changes include telangiectasia, sicca syndrome, and thinning and reduction of mouth width (microcheilia) and opening (microstomia). We applied autologous fat transplantation compared with autologous adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) injection to evaluate the clinical improvement of mouth opening. Methods. From February to May 2013 ten consecutive SSc patients were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of Plastic Surgery Department of Sapienza University of Rome. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: 5 patients were treated with fat transplantation and 5 patients received infiltration of ADSCs produced by cell factory of our institution. To value mouth opening, we use the Italian version of Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (IvMHISS). Mouth opening was assessed in centimetres (Maximal Mouth Opening, MMO). In order to evaluate compliance and physician and patient satisfaction, we employed a Questionnaire of Satisfaction and the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) performed before starting study and 1 year after the last treatment. Results and Conclusion. We noticed that both procedures obtained significant results but neither one emerged as a first-choice technique. The present clinical experimentation should be regarded as a starting point for further experimental research and clinical trials. PMID:26880939

  13. Use of "Submental Muscular Medialization and Suspension" to improve the Cervicomental Angle.

    PubMed

    Langsdon, Phillip R; Moak, Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Many techniques have been presented over recent decades to address the neck contour in facial cosmetic surgery. Despite advances, limitations remain when dealing with the obtuse cervicomental angle. The authors describe a technique for improving the obtuse cervicomental angle. Submental muscular medialization and suspension is a simple yet highly effective surgical technique that can result in dramatic and enduring improvement in the cervicomental angle. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... protect your teeth may also help your dry mouth condition: Brush with a fluoride toothpaste and floss your teeth. Ask your dentist ... acids. Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before ... historically to treat dry mouth, such as teas made from marshmallow or slippery ...

  15. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  16. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    PubMed

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-09

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states.

  17. Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C J; Thoseby, B; Sculley, D V; Callister, R; Taylor, L; Dascombe, B J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a cooling strategy designed to predominately lower thermal state with a strategy designed to lower thermal sensation on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven moderately trained male runners completed familiarization and three randomized, crossover 5-km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill in hot conditions (33 °C). The trials included ice slurry ingestion before exercise (ICE), menthol mouth rinse during exercise (MEN), and no intervention (CON). Running performance was significantly improved with MEN (25.3 ± 3.5 min; P = 0.01), but not ICE (26.3 ± 3.2 min; P = 0.45) when compared with CON (26.0 ± 3.4 min). Rectal temperature was significantly decreased with ICE (by 0.3 ± 0.2 °C; P < 0.01), which persisted for 2 km of the run and MEN significantly decreased perceived thermal sensation (between 4 and 5 km) and ventilation (between 1 and 2 km) during the time trial. End-exercise blood prolactin concentration was elevated with MEN compared with CON (by 25.1 ± 24.4 ng/mL; P = 0.02). The data demonstrate that a change in the perception of thermal sensation during exercise from menthol mouth rinse was associated with improved endurance running performance in the heat. Ice slurry ingestion reduced core temperature but did not decrease thermal sensation during exercise or improve running performance.

  18. Engineering Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses with Improved Growth Properties for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haixue; Guo, Jianhong; Jin, Ye; Yang, Fan; He, Jijun; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Kesan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Xiangtao; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    Background No licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in China, despite the isolation of A/WH/CHA/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to construct a chimeric strain by replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09. The chimeric virus displayed growth kinetics similar to those of O/CHA/99 and was selected for use as a candidate vaccine strain after 12 passages in BHK cells. Cattle were vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine and humoral immune responses were induced in most of the animals on day 7. A challenge infection with A/WH/CHA/09 on day 28 indicated that the group given a 4-µg dose was fully protected and neither developed viremia nor seroconverted to a 3ABC antigen. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the chimeric virus not only propagates well in BHK cells and has excellent antigenic matching against serotype A FMD, but is also a potential marker vaccine to distinguish infection from vaccination. These results suggest that reverse genetics technology is a useful tool for engineering vaccines for the prevention and control of FMD. PMID:23372840

  19. Engineering foot-and-mouth disease viruses with improved growth properties for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haixue; Guo, Jianhong; Jin, Ye; Yang, Fan; He, Jijun; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Kesan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Xiangtao; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    No licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in China, despite the isolation of A/WH/CHA/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. A novel plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to construct a chimeric strain by replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09. The chimeric virus displayed growth kinetics similar to those of O/CHA/99 and was selected for use as a candidate vaccine strain after 12 passages in BHK cells. Cattle were vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine and humoral immune responses were induced in most of the animals on day 7. A challenge infection with A/WH/CHA/09 on day 28 indicated that the group given a 4-µg dose was fully protected and neither developed viremia nor seroconverted to a 3ABC antigen. Our data demonstrate that the chimeric virus not only propagates well in BHK cells and has excellent antigenic matching against serotype A FMD, but is also a potential marker vaccine to distinguish infection from vaccination. These results suggest that reverse genetics technology is a useful tool for engineering vaccines for the prevention and control of FMD.

  20. An alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).

    PubMed

    Pandya, Mital; Pacheco, Juan M; Bishop, Elizabeth; Kenney, Mary; Milward, Francis; Doel, Timothy; Golde, William T

    2012-04-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. One of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly acting vaccines. Needle inoculation of killed virus vaccine is an efficient method of swiftly vaccinating large numbers of animals, either in eradication efforts or in outbreak situations in disease free countries, although, to be efficient, this requires utilizing the same needle with multiple animals. Here we present studies using a needle free system for vaccination with killed virus vaccine, FMDV strain O1 Manisa, as a rapid and consistent delivery platform. Cattle were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended dose as well as four and sixteen fold less antigen load per dose. Animals were challenged intradermalingually (IDL) with live, virulent virus, homologous strain O1 Manisa, at various times following vaccination. All non-vaccinated control cattle exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia and lesions, specifically vesicle formation. Cattle vaccinated with the 1/16× and 1/4× doses using the needle free device were protected when challenged at both 7 and 28 days after vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose when delivered using the needle free, intradermal delivery system, indicating the current vaccine stockpile that can be extended by many fold using this system.

  1. Initial diagnosis of anemia from sore mouth and improved classification of anemias by MCV and RDW in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shin-Yu; Wu, Hong-Cheng

    2004-12-01

    Thirty patients with a wide range of sore mouth that led to the diagnosis of iron deficiency in 12 patients, pernicious anemia in 8 patients, combined deficiency of iron and vitamin B12 in 2 patients, and anemia of chronic disease in 8 patients were investigated. The oral signs and symptoms included glossitis, glossodynia, angular cheilitis, recurrent oral ulcer, oral candidosis, diffuse erythematous mucositis, and pale oral mucosa. The values of hemoglobin in 30 patients varied from normal to severe life-threatening levels, but none had developed generalized symptoms sufficiently advanced to arouse suspicions of anemia before they visited the Oral Medicine Clinic. The aim of this paper is to describe a retrospective study of 30 patients with oral changes as the initial manifestation of nutritional deficiency or anemia of chronic diseases. Improved diagnosis and classification of anemia based on the mean and heterogeneity of red cell size will be discussed.

  2. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions.

  3. Mouth Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rich in fruits and vegetables. The vitamins and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables may help reduce your risk of mouth cancer. Avoid excessive sun exposure to your lips. Protect the skin on your lips from the sun by staying ...

  4. Meth mouth.

    PubMed

    Heng, Christine K; Badner, Victor M; Schiop, Luminita Adela

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a drug traditionally sought by groups living on the fringes of society. But now, it has entered the mainstream. Over the last five years, meth has seen a surge in abuse, media coverage and attention from law-enforcement officers. Meth mouth is characterized by rampant caries, typically on the smooth surfaces of dentition. This article gives a history of meth use and abuse. It describes the condition of meth mouth and its etiology. Treatment options and other dental considerations are discussed.

  5. Using the angle-dependent resonances of molded plasmonic crystals to improve the sensitivities of biosensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hanwei; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Lin, Julia Y; Stuparu, Andreea D; Lee, Min Hyung; Mrksich, Milan; Odom, Teri W

    2010-07-14

    This paper describes how angle-dependent resonances from molded plasmonic crystals can be used to improve real-time biosensing. First, an inexpensive and massively parallel approach to create single-use, two-dimensional metal nanopyramidal gratings was developed. Second, although constant in bulk dielectric environments, the sensitivities (resonance wavelength shift and resonance width) of plasmonic crystals to adsorbed molecular layers of varying thickness were found to depend on incident excitation angle. Third, protein binding at dilute concentrations of protein was carried out at an angle that optimized the signal to noise of our plasmonic sensing platform. This angle-dependent sensitivity, which is intrinsic to grating-based sensors, is a critical parameter that can assist in maximizing signal to noise.

  6. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su; Deng, Yanqing; Ge, Xulei; Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun; Sheng, Zhengming; Yuan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  7. Colchicine mouth washings to improve oral mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Garavito, Andrés Avila; Cardona, Andrés Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Ospina, Edgar; Yepes, Andrés; Ospina, Vannesa

    2008-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a frequently encountered problem as a complication of cancer treatment. We investigated whether daily washings with colchicine solution improved mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. This study was a one-arm, nonrandomized clinical trial that used a historical control group. Patients were included in the study from the first day of mucositis and followed up until discharge. Patients received 2 mg colchicine mouthwashes daily for 5 days or saline solution. OM was assessed once daily until symptom resolution, using the WHO grading scale of 0-4 and a visual analogue scale. We determined that at least 40 patients in the colchicine group would be needed to detect a 20% difference in the duration of OM between Groups A and B, with a 95% confidence level and a power of 80%. 82 patients were included in the final analysis, 40 in the colchicine group and 42 in the control group. Median duration of OM was significantly different among groups; 9 days (range 1-17 days) for the control group versus 6 days (range 3-13 days) for those exposed to colchicine mouthwash (p = .028). The median days of regression of mucosal lesions were significantly different (p = .047) among the control group (7 days [range 3-20]) compared to the colchicine group (4 days [range 2-14]). Although our findings suggest that colchicine mouthwash is helpful in reducing the severity and duration of chemotherapy-induced OM, randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Novel angle estimation for bistatic MIMO radar using an improved MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Han

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we study the problem of angle estimation for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and propose an improved multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. The proposed algorithm obtains initial estimations of angles obtained from the signal subspace and uses the local one-dimensional peak searches to achieve the joint estimations of DOD and DOA. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm, and is almost the same as that of two-dimensional MUSIC. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can be suitable for irregular array geometry, obtain automatically paired DOD and DOA estimations, and avoid two-dimensional peak searching. The simulation results verify the effectiveness and improvement of the algorithm.

  9. Detection method of inclination angle in image measurement based on improved triangulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jiye

    2015-02-01

    Image distortion seriously affects the accuracy in microscope image measurement. One source of such distortion is related to the tilting of the microscope stage during laser scanning, thereby resulting in various degrees of inclination angles. This paper describes a novel technique that improves the traditional laser triangulation method by using multiple parallel laser beams that can solve the inclination problem. Moreover, a multi-light-spot measurement device, based on the improved laser triangulation technique, is proposed that can accurately detect the degree and directions of the inclination angles in real time. Furthermore, experimental results generated from a prototype of this device show that the new measurement system can effectively detect small inclination angles at a precision up to ±0.5  μrad.

  10. Improving spatial-resolution in high cone-angle micro-CT by source deblurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heyang; Kingston, Andrew; Myers, Glenn; Recur, Benoit; Turner, Michael; Sheppard, Andrian

    2014-09-01

    Micro scale computed tomography (CT) can resolve many features in cellular structures, bone formations, minerals properties and composite materials not seen at lower spatial-resolution. Those features enable us to build a more comprehensive model for the object of interest. CT resolution is limited by a fundamental trade off between source size and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given acquisition time. There is a limit on the X-ray flux that can be emitted from a certain source size, and fewer photons cause a lower SNR. A large source size creates penumbral blurring in the radiograph, limiting the effective spatial-resolution in the reconstruction. High cone-angle CT improves SNR by increasing the X-ray solid angle that passes through the sample. In the high cone-angle regime current source deblurring methods break down due to incomplete modelling of the physical process. This paper presents high cone-angle source de-blurring models. We implement these models using a novel multi-slice Richardson-Lucy (M-RL) and 3D Conjugate Gradient deconvolution on experimental high cone-angle data to improve the spatial-resolution of the reconstructed volume. In M-RL, we slice the back projection volume into subsets which can be considered to have a relative uniform convolution kernel. We compare these results to those obtained from standard reconstruction techniques and current source deblurring methods (i.e. 2D Richardson-Lucy in the radiograph and the volume respectively).

  11. Radar Performance Improvement. Angle Tracking Modification to Fire Control Radar System for Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The AN/APQ-153 fire control radar modified to provide angle tracking was evaluated for improved performance. The frequency agile modifications are discussed along with the range-rate improvement modifications, and the radar to computer interface. A parametric design and comparison of noncoherent and coherent radar systems are presented. It is shown that the shuttle rendezvous range and range-rate requirements can be made by a Ku-Band noncoherent pulse radar.

  12. Improving the viewing angle properties of microcavity OLEDs by using dispersive gratings.

    PubMed

    Choy, Wallace C H; Ho, C Y

    2007-10-01

    The changes of emission peak wavelength and angular intensity with viewing angles have been issues for the use of microcavity OLEDs. We will investigate Distributed Bragg Gratings (DBRs) constructed from largely dispersive index materials for reducing the viewing angle dependence. A DBR stack mirror, aiming at a symmetric structure and less number of grating period for a practical fabrication, is studied to achieve a chirp-featured grating for OLEDs with blue emission peak of 450nm. For maximizing the compensation of the viewing angle dependence, the effects of dispersive index, grating structure, thickness of each layer of the grating, grating period and chirp will be comprehensively investigated. The contributions of TE and TM modes to the angular emission power will be analyzed for the grating optimization, which have not been expressed in detail. In studying the light emission of OLEDs, we will investigate the Purcell effect which is important but has not been properly considered. Our results show that with a proper design of the DBR, not only a wider viewing angle can be achieved but also the color purity of OLEDs can be improved.

  13. Engineering viable foot-and-mouth disease viruses with increased thermostability as a step in the development of improved vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Roberto; Luna, Eva; Rincón, Verónica; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2008-12-01

    We have rationally engineered foot-and-mouth disease virus to increase its stability against thermal dissociation into subunits without disrupting the many biological functions needed for its infectivity. Amino acid side chains located near the capsid intersubunit interfaces and either predicted or found to be dispensable for infectivity were replaced by others that could establish new disulfide bonds or electrostatic interactions between subunits. Two engineered viruses were normally infectious, genetically stable, and antigenically indistinguishable from the natural virus but showed substantially increased stability against irreversible dissociation. Electrostatic interactions mediated this stabilizing effect. For foot-and-mouth disease virus and other viruses, some evidence had suggested that an increase in virion stability could be linked to an impairment of infectivity. The results of the present study show, in fact, that virion thermostability against dissociation into subunits may not be selectively constrained by functional requirements for infectivity. The thermostable viruses obtained, and others similarly engineered, could be used for the production, using current procedures, of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines that are less dependent on a faultless cold chain. In addition, introduction of those stabilizing mutations in empty (nucleic acid-free) capsids could facilitate the production of infection-risk-free vaccines against the disease, one of the economically most important animal diseases worldwide.

  14. Mouth Rinsing With Carbohydrate Solutions at the Postprandial State Fail to Improve Performance During Simulated Cycling Time Trials.

    PubMed

    Ispoglou, Theocharis; OʼKelly, Damian; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Bargh, Melissa; OʼHara, John P; Duckworth, Lauren C

    2015-08-01

    Mouth rinsing with carbohydrate (CHO) solutions during cycling time trials results in performance enhancements; however, most studies have used approximately 6% CHO solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mouth rinsing with 4, 6, and 8% CHO solutions on 1-hour simulated cycling time trial performance. On 4 occasions, 7 trained male cyclists completed at the postprandial period, a set amount of work as fast as possible in a randomized counterbalanced order. The subjects rinsed their mouth for 5 seconds, on completion of each 12.5% of the trial, with 25 ml of a non-CHO placebo and 4, 6, and 8% CHO solutions. No additional fluids were consumed during the time trial. Heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thirst (TH), and subjective feelings (SF) were recorded after each rinse. Furthermore, blood samples were drawn every 25% of the trial to measure blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations, whereas whole-body CHO oxidation was monitored continuously. Time to completion was not significant between conditions with the placebo, 4, 6, and 8% conditions completing the trials in 62.0 ± 3.0, 62.8 ± 4.0, 63.4 ± 3.4, and 63 ± 4.0 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between conditions in any of the variables mentioned above; however, significant time effects were observed for HR, RPE, TH, and SF. Post hoc analysis showed that TH and SF of subjects in the CHO conditions but not in the placebo were significantly increased by completion of the time trial. In conclusion, mouth rinsing with CHO solutions did not impact 1-hour cycling performance in the postprandial period and in the absence of fluid intake. Our findings suggest that there is scope for further research to explore the activation regions of the brain and whether they are receptive to CHO dose, before specific recommendations for athletic populations are established. Consequently, mouth rinsing as a practical strategy for coaches

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  16. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Measure Mouth Moisturization and Dry Mouth Relief in Dry Mouth Subjects Using Dry Mouth Products.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Atassi, Mounir; Shneyer, Lucy; Cronin, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ratings of two subjective aspects (moisturization and dry mouth relief) that may be changed following the use of dry mouth relief products (an oral gel, an oral rinse, or a mouth spray), in comparison to water over a period of four hours following a single supervised use on two separate occasions. This was a single-center, two site, randomized, examiner blind, four treatment arm, stratified (by dry mouth screening score at baseline), parallel group study in healthy subjects with a self-reported feeling of dry mouth. Prior to product use, subjects rated their current subjective perception of moisturization and dry mouth on an 11-point scale. Subjects then rated the two questions immediately after product use and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minutes later. At the 240-minute time point, subjects also rated global efficacy questions regarding "overall" and "long-lasting" moisturization and dry mouth relief, and overall product opinion. Subjects then used their assigned products at home for three days and the procedures were repeated on Day 4. In total, 300 subjects were randomized to treatment. Compared with water, all test products showed statistically significantly greater improvements over baseline on both Day 1 and Day 4 at most time points, on the area under the curve from baseline for the moisturization and dryness questions, and after 240 minutes for the global efficacy and overall opinion assessments (all p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-dosing assessments on Day 1 versus Day 4 (p < 0.001) for both efficacy questions. Products were generally well-tolerated. Three different types of dry mouth relief products were shown to provide significant relief of dry mouth and increased feelings of moisturization compared to water using subjective questionnaires.

  17. Operationality Improvement Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair by Fuzzy Algorithm Considering Posture Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu; Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel operationality improvement control for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel operationality improvement control by fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity, the posture angle of the wheelchair, the human input torque proportion and the total human torque of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  18. Grazing angle scattering of electromagnetic waves based on an improved two-scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjad, Naheed; Khenchaf, Ali; Mushtaq, Sajjad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing applications require developing accurate models to predict radar bistatic scattering from random rough surfaces. In this context, an improved two-scale model (TSM) is developed. The simplest TSM (TSM1) combines the first order small perturbation method (SPM1) with geometrical optics (GO) to be able to cope with both the small- and large-scale components of the surface. To get improved results at grazing angles and better depolarization estimation, we include the effects of multiscattering due to the target surface by adding the second order SPM (SPM2) contribution to SPM1 at small scale and develop an improved TSM (TSM2). The applications of TSM2 are presented for sea surface by assuming the surface-height spectrum of Elfouhaily et al., at grazing angles. In the backscattering configuration the numerical results are compared with the published experimental data and other approximate analytical models. Finally, we use the TSM2 to predict the sea scattering in the bistatic configuration and compare the results with TSM1.

  19. A new self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving film to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Yi, Tao; Liu, Ying

    2013-09-01

    A new self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving film (SMMDF) for poorly water-soluble drugs such as indomethacin was developed by incorporating self-microemulsifying components with solid carriers mainly containing microcrystalline cellulose, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose and hypromellose. The uniformity of dosage units of the preparation was acceptable according to the criteria of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The SMMDF was disintegrated within 20 s after immersion into water, released completely at 5 min in the dissolution medium and achieved microemulsion particle size of 28.81 ± 3.26 nm, which was similar to that of liquid self- microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Solid state characterization of the SMMDF was performed by SEM, DSC and X-ray powder diffraction. Results demonstrated that indomethacin in the SMMDF was in the amorphous state, which might be due to self-microemulsifying ingredients. Pharmacokinetic parameters in rats including T(max), C(max), AUC were similar between the SMMDF and liquid SMEDDS. AUC and C(max) from the SMMDF were significantly higher than those from the common mouth dissolving film or the conventional tablet, and Tmax from SMMDF group was also significantly decreased. These findings suggest that the SMMDF is a new promising dosage form, showing notable characteristics of convenience, quick onset of action and enhanced oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  20. Improvements in Vertebral-Column Angles and Psychological Metrics After Abdominoplasty With Rectus Plication.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Türkmen, Arif; Berberoğlu, Ömer

    2016-05-01

    Substantial fluctuations in body weight can result in diastasis recti and weakening of the connections between the lateral abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath. The authors sought to determine the postural and psychological effects of abdominoplasty with vertical rectus plication. Forty women with substantial back and lumbar pain owing to abdominal lipodystrophy were evaluated in a prospective study. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, patients underwent bidirectional radiography of the thoracic and lumbar regions. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were applied to assess physical, psychological, and quality-of-life changes following surgery. Significant improvements in posture, assessed in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and the lumbosacral angle, were observed 6 months after abdominoplasty with rectus plication. Results of the VAS and BDI indicated significant improvements in pain and quality of life, respectively. Results of the NHP indicated significant postoperative improvements in fatigue, pain, and sleep. Abdominoplasty with rectus plication improves posture by tightening the thoracolumbar fascia. In selected patients, abdominoplasty can reduce back and lumbar pain, thereby improving quality of life. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegun, A. K.; Takatsu, J.; Nakaji, T.; van Goethem, M. J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Koffeman, E. N.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images, should be minimized from 3-5% or higher to less than 1%, to make the treatment plan with proton beams more accurate, and thereby better treatment for the patient. With Geant4 we simulated a proton radiography detection system with two position-sensitive and residual energy detectors. A complex phantom filled with various materials (including tissue surrogates), was placed between the position sensitive detectors. The phantom was irradiated with 150 MeV protons and the energy loss radiograph and scattering angles were studied. Protons passing through different materials in the phantom lose energy, which was used to create a radiography image of the phantom. The multiple Coulomb scattering of a proton traversing different materials causes blurring of the image. To improve image quality and material identification in the phantom, we selected protons with small scattering angles. A good quality proton radiography image, in which various materials can be recognized accurately, and in combination with xCT can lead to more accurate relative stopping powers predictions.

  2. Improved Mapping of SuperDARN Observations Using Elevation Angle Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. G.; Greenwald, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade the network of ground-based HF radars known as SuperDARN has undergone an accelerating rate of expansion to higher and lower geomagnetic latitudes. Three distinct layers of radars now exist at mid, high and polar latitudes and are capable of making continuous measurements of plasma convection from ~50-90 degrees geomagnetic. The expanding network continues to improve the completeness of global convection electric field observations in addition to increasing the range of geomagnetic activity over which observations are made. With multiple overlapping measurements it is increasingly important for global convection maps, and for other studies, that measurements are mapped accurately above a geodetic sphere. By using elevation angle information it is possible to obtain better determinations of the mode of propagation and therefore improved geodetic location of the measurements. In this study we demonstrate that the improved mapping leads to better agreement between the measurements of the radars in the network and improves the resulting global convection patterns.

  3. Ultra-narrow bandpass filters for infrared applications with improved angle of incidence performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmlow, Thomas D.; Fredell, Markus; Chanda, Sheetal; Johnson, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Narrow band-pass optical interference filters are used for a variety of applications to improve signal quality in laser based systems. Applications include LIDAR, sensor processing and free space communications. A narrow band width optical filter allows for passage of the laser signal while rejecting ambient light. The more narrow the bandwidth, the better the signal to noise. However, the bandwidth of a design for a particular application is typically limited by a number of factors including spectral shift over the operational angles of incidence, thermal shift over the range of operating temperature and, in the case of laser communication, rejection of adjacent laser channels. The trade-off of these parameters can significantly impact system design and performance. This paper presents design and material approaches to maximize the performance of narrow bandpass filters in the infrared.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2010-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by burning of the oral mucosa, with or without dysgeusia and xerostomia, in the setting of no underlying systemic disease or identifiable abnormalities on physical examination or laboratory testing. BMS disproportionately affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown; no single treatment has proven universally successful. In light of these shortcomings, having a practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with BMS can improve both patient quality of life and physician satisfaction.

  6. Mouth Problems and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... orientation. This information is for people who have mouth (oral) problems related to HIV infection. It explains ... look like. It also describes where in the mouth they occur and how they are treated. They ...

  7. New method for improving angle measurement precision of laser collimation system under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, He; Tan, Lilong; Zhang, Zhili; Cai, Wei

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed a new method for improving angle measurement precision based on the principle of CCD laser collimation in this paper. First, through the control of the laser's state, on or off, by the Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the collimation light and the background light can be sampled, individually. Second, with the comparison between the sampled value of the background light intensity and the threshold value which has been set in the DSP previously, the DSP can automatically control Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) to adjust the light integral time of CCD to adapt to different environment background and the changeable scanning driver of CCD is realized. Last, by the digital wave filtering the impact of the background light on the collimation light can be removed. With the comprehensive application of the controlling technology of automatically changeable scanning driving, collimation light on or off, A/D conversion and adaptive filtering, the integration time of the collimation system can automatically adjust to the proper value according to the change of the environment and the impact of the background light on the collimation system can be well removed. The simulation results show that the new method can achieve the self-adaptable control with the change of the environment and can improve the measurement precision of the laser collimation system under the complex environment.

  8. Improved hyperspectral vegetation detection using neural networks with spectral angle mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Okan Bilge; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral images have been used in many areas including city planning, mining and military decision support systems. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques have a great potential for vegetation detection and classification with their capability to identify the spectral differences across the electromagnetic spectrum due to their ability to provide information about the chemical compositions of materials. This study introduces a vegetation detection method employing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) over hyperspectral imaging. The algorithm employed backpropagation MLP algorithm for training neural networks. The performance of ANN is improved by the joint use with Spectral Angle Mapper(SAM). The algorithm first obtains the certainty measure from ANN, following the completion of this process, every pixels' angular distance is computed by SAM. The certainty measure is divided by angular distance. Results from ANN, SAM and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms are compared and evaluated with the result of the algorithm. Limited number of training samples are used for training. The results demonstrate that joint use of ANN and SAM significantly improves classification accuracy for smaller training samples.

  9. Application of the thermofluor PaSTRy technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Abhay; Zhang, Fuquan; Juleff, Nicholas; Jackson, Terry; Perez, Eva; Stuart, Dave; Fry, Elizabeth; Charleston, Bryan; Seago, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. Current FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. FMDV exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. A lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control FMD by vaccination. Thus, vaccines for one serotype do not afford protection against the others, and multiple-serotype-specific vaccines are required for effective control. The FMDV serotypes exhibit variation in their thermostability, and the capsids of inactivated preparations of the O, C and SAT serotypes are particularly susceptible to dissociation at elevated temperature. Methods to quantify capsid stability are currently limited, lack sensitivity and cannot accurately reflect differences in thermostability. Thus, new, more sensitive approaches to quantify capsid stability would be of great value for the production of more stable vaccines and to assess the effect of production conditions on vaccine preparations. Here we have investigated the application of a novel methodology (termed PaSTRy) that utilizes an RNA-binding fluorescent dye and a quantitative (q)PCR machine to monitor viral genome release and hence dissociation of the FMDV capsid during a slow incremental increase in temperature. PaSTRy was used to characterize capsid stability of all FMDV serotypes. Furthermore, we have used this approach to identify stabilizing factors for the most labile FMDV serotypes.

  10. Application of the thermofluor PaSTRy technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Abhay; Zhang, Fuquan; Juleff, Nicholas; Jackson, Terry; Perez, Eva; Stuart, Dave; Fry, Elizabeth; Charleston, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. Current FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. FMDV exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. A lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control FMD by vaccination. Thus, vaccines for one serotype do not afford protection against the others, and multiple-serotype-specific vaccines are required for effective control. The FMDV serotypes exhibit variation in their thermostability, and the capsids of inactivated preparations of the O, C and SAT serotypes are particularly susceptible to dissociation at elevated temperature. Methods to quantify capsid stability are currently limited, lack sensitivity and cannot accurately reflect differences in thermostability. Thus, new, more sensitive approaches to quantify capsid stability would be of great value for the production of more stable vaccines and to assess the effect of production conditions on vaccine preparations. Here we have investigated the application of a novel methodology (termed PaSTRy) that utilizes an RNA-binding fluorescent dye and a quantitative (q)PCR machine to monitor viral genome release and hence dissociation of the FMDV capsid during a slow incremental increase in temperature. PaSTRy was used to characterize capsid stability of all FMDV serotypes. Furthermore, we have used this approach to identify stabilizing factors for the most labile FMDV serotypes. PMID:27002540

  11. Security Analysis of Image Encryption Based on Gyrator Transform by Searching the Rotation Angle with Improved PSO Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Xiang, Zhili; Cai, Bin; Xiang, Hong

    2015-08-05

    Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms.

  12. Novel topcoat materials with improved receding angles and dissolution properties for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sang Geun; Lee, Jin Young; Yang, Young Soo; Shin, Seung Wook; Lee, Sung Jae; Kwon, Hyo Young; Cho, Youn Jin; Choi, Seung Jib; Choi, Sang Jun; Kim, Jong Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2010-04-01

    A topcoat material plays a significant role in achieving technology nodes below 45 nm via ArF immersion lithography. Switching the exposure medium between the lens and the photoresist (PR) film from gas (air, n=1) to liquid (H2O, n=1.44) may lead to leaching of the polymer, the photoacid generator (PAG), or the solvent. These substances can contaminate the lens or cause bubbles, which can lead to defects during the patterning. Previously reported topcoat materials mainly use hydrophobic fluoro-compounds and carboxylic acids to provide high dissolution rates (DR) to basic developers as well as high receding contact angles (RCA). Recently, the demand for a new top-coat material has risen since current materials cause water-mark defects and decreases in scan speeds, due to insufficient RCA's. However, RCA and DR are in a trade-off relationship as an increase in RCA generally results in a lower DR. To overcome this, a novel polymer with high-fluorine content was synthesized to produce a topcoat material with improved DR (120 nm/s in 2.38 wt% TMAH) and RCA (>70°). In addition, a strategy to control the pattern profile according to needs of customers was found.

  13. Improved Correction System for Vibration Sensitive Inertial Angle of Attack Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Finley, Tom D.

    2000-01-01

    Inertial angle of attack (AoA) devices currently in use at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) are subject to inaccuracies due to centrifugal accelerations caused by model dynamics, also known as sting whip. Recent literature suggests that these errors can be as high as 0.25 deg. With the current AoA accuracy target at LaRC being 0.01 deg., there is a dire need for improvement. With other errors in the inertial system (temperature, rectification, resolution, etc.) having been reduced to acceptable levels, a system is currently being developed at LaRC to measure and correct for the sting-whip-induced errors. By using miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers and magnetohydrodynamic rate sensors, not only can the total centrifugal acceleration be measured, but yaw and pitch dynamics in the tunnel can also be characterized. These corrections can be used to determine a tunnel's past performance and can also indicate where efforts need to be concentrated to reduce these dynamics. Included in this paper are data on individual sensors, laboratory testing techniques, package evaluation, and wind tunnel test results on a High Speed Research (HSR) model in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel.

  14. Does Use of a Variable Distal Femur Resection Angle Improve Radiographic Alignment in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Vajapey, Sravya; Haynes, Jacob A; Barrack, Robert L; Nunley, Ryan M

    2016-09-01

    The distal femur resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is commonly made using a fixed angle relative to an intramedullary rod. This study's purpose was to assess if a variable distal femur resection angle technique improves femoral component alignment in TKA. This was a review of primary TKAs performed by 2 surgeons. One surgeon used a fixed resection angle of 5° for varus and 3° for valgus knees ("fixed" cohort). The second used hip-knee-ankle (HKA) radiographs to measure the angle between the femoral anatomic axis and a line perpendicular to the femoral mechanical axis, which was used as the resection angle for each patient ("variable" cohort). Femoral component and HKA alignment were measured from standing HKA radiographs by 2, independent, blinded observers. Two hundred ninety patients were needed for power to detect a 15% difference in femoral component "outliers" (target of 0° ± 2°; significance = P < .05). Three hundred twenty consecutive patients were included with no differences in age, body mass index, or preoperative deformity (P = .3-.8). A 5° resection angle was used in 46.3% of the variable and 80.0% of the fixed cohort patients. A total of 80.2% of femoral components in the variable and 63.1% in the fixed cohort were within 0° ± 2° (P = .002; 84.6% of variable and 56.3% of fixed for valgus knees, P < .001). The mean HKA alignment was improved in the variable cohort (-1.4° ± 3.3° vs -2.6° ± 3.3°, P = .001). Use of a variable distal femur resection angle improves femoral component alignment after TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An improved method for calibrating the gantry angles of linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Kyle; Treas, Jared; Jones, Andrew; Fallahian, Naz Afarin; Simpson, David

    2013-11-01

    Linear particle accelerators (linacs) are widely used in radiotherapy procedures; therefore, accurate calibrations of gantry angles must be performed to prevent the exposure of healthy tissue to excessive radiation. One of the common methods for calibrating these angles is the spirit level method. In this study, a new technique for calibrating the gantry angle of a linear accelerator was examined. A cubic phantom was constructed of Styrofoam with small lead balls, embedded at specific locations in this foam block. Several x-ray images were taken of this phantom at various gantry angles using an electronic portal imaging device on the linac. The deviation of the gantry angles were determined by analyzing the images using a customized computer program written in ImageJ (National Institutes of Health). Gantry angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees were chosen and the results of both calibration methods were compared for each of these angles. The results revealed that the image method was more precise than the spirit level method. For the image method, the average of the measured values for the selected angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees were found to be -0.086 ± 0.011, 90.018 ± 0.011, 180.178 ± 0.015, and 269.972 ± 0.006 degrees, respectively. The corresponding average values using the spirit level method were 0.2 ± 0.03, 90.2 ± 0.04, 180.1 ± 0.01, and 269.9 ± 0.05 degrees, respectively. Based on these findings, the new method was shown to be a reliable technique for calibrating the gantry angle.

  16. Improved 3D Look-Locker Acquisition Scheme and Angle Map Filtering Procedure for T1 Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, CheukKai; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Look-Locker (LL) acquisition is a widely used fast and efficient T1 mapping method. However, the multi-shot approach of 3D LL acquisition can introduce reconstruction artifacts that result in intensity distortions. Traditional 3D LL acquisition generally utilizes centric encoding scheme that is limited to a single phase encoding direction in the k-space. To optimize the k-space segmentation, an elliptical scheme with two phase encoding directions is implemented for the LL acquisition. This elliptical segmentation can reduce the intensity errors in the reconstructed images and improve the final T1 estimation. One of the major sources of error in LL based T1 estimation is lack of accurate knowledge of the actual flip angle. Multi-parameter curve fitting procedure can account for some of the variability in the flip angle. However, curve fitting can also introduce errors in the estimated flip angle that can result in incorrect T1 values. A filtering procedure based on goodness of fit (GOF) is proposed to reduce the effect of false flip angle estimates. Filtering based on the GOF weighting can remove likely incorrect angles that result in bad curve fit. Simulation, phantom, and in-vivo studies have demonstrated that these techniques can improve the accuracy of 3D LL T1 estimation. PMID:23784967

  17. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  18. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  19. Improving the precision and speed of Euler angles computation from low-cost rotation sensor data.

    PubMed

    Janota, Aleš; Šimák, Vojtech; Nemec, Dušan; Hrbček, Jozef

    2015-03-23

    This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)-the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles' time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object's attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware).

  20. Hypertrophy-type Resistance Training Improves Phase Angle in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A S; Avelar, A; Dos Santos, L; Silva, A M; Gobbo, L A; Schoenfeld, B J; Sardinha, L B; Cyrino, E S

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a hypertrophy-type resistance training protocol on phase angle, an indicator of cellular integrity, in young adult men and women. 28 men (22.2±4.3 years, 67.8±9.0 kg and 174.2±6.8 cm) and 31 women (23.2±4.1 years, 58.7±12.1 kg and 162.7±6.4 cm) underwent a progressive RT for 16 weeks (2 phases, 8 weeks each), 3 times per week, consisting of 10 to 12 whole body exercises with 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions maximum. Phase angle, resistance, reactance and total body water (intra and extracellular water compartments) were assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy (Xitron 4200 Bioimpedance Spectrum Analyzer). Total body water, intracellular water and phase angle increased significantly (P<0.05) in men (7.8, 8.3, and 4.3%, respectively) and women (7.6, 11.7, and 5.8% respectively), with no significant difference between sexes (P>0.05). Bioimpedance resistance decreased (P<0.05) similarly in both sex (men=-4.8%, women=-3.8%). The results suggest that regardless of sex, progressive RT induces an increase in phase angle and a rise in cellular hydration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Informing the improvement of forest products durability using small angle neutron scattering

    Treesearch

    Nayomi Plaza-Rodriguez; Sai Venkatesh Pingali; Shuo Qian; William T. Heller; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of how wood nanostructure swells with moisture is needed to accelerate the development of forest products with enhanced moisture durability. Despite its suitability to study nanostructures, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) remains an underutilized tool in forest products research. Nanoscale moisture-induced structural changes in intact and...

  2. Improved Brewster Angle experiment using a capacitor induced electric field, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplan, Don M.

    This thesis expands on the analysis of the optical response of dielectrics using a modified Brewster Angle technique. The present experiment has been modified by adding an electric field, provided by a capacitor, and an isotropic source of radiation from a blackbody source. The blackbody source refers to a source in thermal equilibrium, which emits all radiations and reflects none. Our studies were performed for scenarios involving these two energy sources configured together as well as separately. As a result of the experimentation done as part of this thesis, a correlation between both the radiation of a blackbody source and the energy associated to the electric field in the form of voltage across a dielectric, as well as the optical properties of this dielectric has been discovered. By increasing the power provided to the electric field, the dielectric perceives the radiation of a laser beam reflected by its surface as one of a different wavelength, providing a shift of the corresponding Brewster Angle to this new wavelength. The effect of the blackbody presence, which has a similar effect on the Brewster angle as the electric field, produces an additive effect on the dielectric's surface when they are implemented simultaneously. We observe that the more isotropic energy is added to a dielectric surface, the larger the shift of the Brewster Angle toward larger values, and implicitly, larger the index of refraction of the dielectric when is analyzed with the same probe wavelength (i.e. from a laser source). In essence, this is due to the scalar addition of energies transferred to the atomic dipoles of the dielectric. A number of applications can be conceived, provided these effects, due to or in the context of the Brewster Angle experiments. Examples can be made in the fields of photovoltaics, security, as well as satellite design. Also, there are prospects for future experimentation that can be pursued.

  3. Improved classification of drainage networks using junction angles and secondary tributary lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kichul; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-06-01

    River networks in different regions have distinct characteristics generated by geological processes. These differences enable classification of drainage networks using several measures with many features of the networks. In this study, we propose a new approach that only uses the junction angles with secondary tributary lengths to directly classify different network types. This methodology is based on observations on 50 predefined channel networks. The cumulative distributions of secondary tributary lengths for different ranges of junction angles are used to obtain the descriptive values that are defined using a power-law representation. The averages of the values for the known networks are used to represent the classes, and any unclassified network can be classified based on the similarity of the representative values to those of the known classes. The methodology is applied to 10 networks in the United Arab Emirates and Oman and five networks in the USA, and the results are validated using the classification obtained with other methods.

  4. High-angle-of-attack stability and control improvements for the EA-6B Prowler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Frank L.; Hahne, David E.; Masiello, Matthew F.; Gato, William

    1987-01-01

    The factors involved in high-angle-of-attack directional divergence phenomena for the EA-6B ECM aircraft have been investigated in NASA-Langley wind tunnel facilities in order to evaluate airframe modifications which would eliminate or delay such divergence to angles-of-attack farther removed from the operational flight envelope of the aircraft. The results obtained indicate that an adverse sidewash at the aft fuselage and vertical tail location is responsible for the directional stability loss, and that the sidewash is due to a vortex system generated by the fuselage-wing juncture. Modifications encompassing a wing inboard leading edge droop, a wing glove strake, and a vertical fin extension, have significantly alleviated the stability problem.

  5. Improving the Precision and Speed of Euler Angles Computation from Low-Cost Rotation Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Janota, Aleš; Šimák, Vojtech; Nemec, Dušan; Hrbček, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)—the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles’ time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object’s attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware). PMID:25806874

  6. Improving low-energy boron/nitrogen ion implantation in graphene by ion bombardment at oblique angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhitong; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically analyzing the effects of the incident angle and ion energy in determining the probabilities of six distinct types of physics that may occur in an ion bombardment event, including reflection, absorption, substitution, single vacancy, double vacancy, and transmission. By analyzing the atomic trajectories from 576 000 simulations, we identified three single vacancy creation mechanisms and four double vacancy creation mechanisms, and quantified their probability distributions in the angle-energy space. These findings further open the door for improved control of ion implantation towards a wide range of applications of graphene.Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically

  7. Accelerator test of an improved Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) prototype with beams of 78Kr and fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McLaughlin, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles in space is basic to our understanding of the Galaxy, the Sun, phenomena in the heliosphere and the emerging field of space weather. For these reasons, cosmic ray instruments are common on both scientific spacecraft and operational spacecraft such as weather satellites. Cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles include ions over the full range of elements found in the Solar System. High-resolution measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition require the angle of incidence of these energetic ions be determined to correct for pathlength variation in detectors within an instrument. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) system is a simple detector configuration used to determine the angle of incidence of heavy ions in space instruments. ADIS replaces complex position sensing detectors (PSDs) with a system of simple, reliable and robust detectors inclined at an angle to the instrument axis. An ADIS instrument thus offers significant advantages in mass, power, telemetry and cost. In February 2008 an improved ADIS prototype was tested with a 150 MeV/u 78Kr beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). This demonstrated a charge resolution of σ 0.3 e at Kr (Z=36), an exceptional charge resolution for such a simple instrument system.

  8. Does Topical Application of Placental Extract Gel on Postoperative Fibrotomy Wound Improve Mouth Opening and Wound Healing in Patients With Oral Submucous Fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Bhargava, Darpan; Pandey, Ankit

    2015-07-01

    Placental extract has been used as a therapeutic agent with application in various fields of medicine. Placental extract is well known for its effects on wound healing with anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and angiogenic effects and is also a biogenic modulator. The present study evaluated the effect of placental extract on wound healing, mouth opening, and postoperative patient discomfort in patients with oral submucous fibrosis treated with fibrotomy with buccal fat pad coverage and coronoidectomy. Ten subjects with oral submucous fibrosis who presented with mouth opening less than 20 mm were enrolled in the present prospective randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of placental extract on the fibrotomy wound covered with a pedicled buccal pad fat (5 patients allocated to the study group, group S and 5 to the control group, group C). The following criteria were used to analyze the postoperative effect of placental extract on fibrotomy wounds compared with that of the controls: subjective assessment of the wound, postoperative discomfort, and postoperative mouth opening assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. The average difference in the preoperative and fourth week postoperative mouth opening for group C was 13.8 ± 2.68 mm and was 21.20 ± 2.77 mm in group S. The median calculated for group C was a 15.0-mm increase in mouth opening and was 20.0 mm in group S. The results obtained with topical application of placental extract on fibrotomy wound healing and postoperative mouth opening were superior to those of the control group in whom placental extract was not used. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined administration of synthetic RNA and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-03-16

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies.

  10. A bivalent dendrimeric peptide bearing a T-cell epitope from foot-and-mouth disease virus protein 3A improves humoral response against classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, José Alejandro; Defaus, Sira; Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Rosell, Rosa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Sobrino, Francisco; Andreu, David; Ganges, Llilianne

    2017-06-15

    Three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in domestic pigs. Construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a B-cell epitope derived from CSFV E2 glycoprotein connected to an also CSFV-derived T-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. Construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the B-cell epitope, and in also bivalent construct 3 the CSFV T-cell epitope was replaced by a previously described one from the 3A protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Animals were inoculated twice with a 21-day interval and challenged 15days after the second immunization. Clinical signs were recorded daily and ELISA tests were performed to detect antibodies against specific peptide and E2. The neutralising antibody response was assessed 13days after challenge. Despite the change to maleimide connectivity, only partial protection against CSFV was again observed. The best clinical protection was observed in group 3. Animals inoculated with constructs 2 and 3 showed higher anti-peptide humoral response, suggesting that two copies of the B-cell epitope are sufficient or even better than four copies for swine immune recognition. In addition, for construct 3 higher neutralizing antibody titres against CSFV were detected. Our results support the immunogenicity of the CSFV B-cell epitope and the cooperative role of the FMDV 3A T-cell epitope in inducing a neutralising response against CSFV in domestic pigs. This is also the first time that the FMDV T-cell epitope shows effectivity in improving swine immune response against a different virus. Our findings highlight the relevance of dendrimeric peptides as a powerful tool for epitope characterization and antiviral strategies development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance After Isometric Squats Depends on Knee Angle and Vertical Jumping Ability.

    PubMed

    Tsoukos, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Tsoukos, A, Bogdanis, GC, Terzis, G, and Veligekas, P. Acute improvement of vertical jump performance after isometric squats depends on knee angle and vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2250-2257, 2016-This study examined the acute effects of maximum isometric squats at 2 different knee angles (90 or 140°) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in power athletes. Fourteen national-level male track and field power athletes completed 3 main trials (2 experimental and 1 control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order 1 week apart. Countermovement jump performance was evaluated using a force-plate before and 15 seconds, 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after 3 sets of 3 seconds maximum isometric contractions with 1-minute rest in between, from a squat position with knee angle set at 90 or 140°. Countermovement jump performance was improved compared with baseline only in the 140° condition by 3.8 ± 1.2% on the 12th minute of recovery (p = 0.027), whereas there was no change in CMJ height in the 90° condition. In the control condition, there was a decrease in CMJ performance over time, reaching -3.6 ± 1.2% (p = 0.049) after 12 minutes of recovery. To determine the possible effects of baseline jump performance on subsequent CMJ performance, subjects were divided into 2 groups ("high jumpers" and "low jumpers"). The baseline CMJ values of "high jumpers" and "low jumpers" differed significantly (CMJ: 45.1 ± 2.2 vs. 37.1 ± 3.9 cm, respectively, p = 0.001). Countermovement jump was increased only in the "high jumpers" group by 5.4 ± 1.4% (p = 0.001) and 7.4 ± 1.2% (p = 0.001) at the knee angles of 90 and 140°, respectively. This improvement was larger at the 140° angle (p = 0.049). Knee angle during isometric squats and vertical jumping ability are important determinants of the acute CMJ performance increase observed after a conditioning activity.

  12. Multi-angle backscatter classification and sub-bottom profiling for improved seafloor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alevizos, Evangelos; Snellen, Mirjam; Simons, Dick; Siemes, Kerstin; Greinert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    This study applies three classification methods exploiting the angular dependence of acoustic seafloor backscatter along with high resolution sub-bottom profiling for seafloor sediment characterization in the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea Germany. This area is well suited for acoustic backscatter studies due to its shallowness, its smooth bathymetry and the presence of a wide range of sediment types. Backscatter data were acquired using a Seabeam1180 (180 kHz) multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler data were recorded using a SES-2000 parametric sonar transmitting 6 and 12 kHz. The high density of seafloor soundings allowed extracting backscatter layers for five beam angles over a large part of the surveyed area. A Bayesian probability method was employed for sediment classification based on the backscatter variability at a single incidence angle, whereas Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were applied to the multi-angle layers. The Bayesian approach was used for identifying the optimum number of acoustic classes because cluster validation is carried out prior to class assignment and class outputs are ordinal categorical values. The method is based on the principle that backscatter values from a single incidence angle express a normal distribution for a particular sediment type. The resulting Bayesian classes were well correlated to median grain sizes and the percentage of coarse material. The MLC method uses angular response information from five layers of training areas extracted from the Bayesian classification map. The subsequent PCA analysis is based on the transformation of these five layers into two principal components that comprise most of the data variability. These principal components were clustered in five classes after running an external cluster validation test. In general both methods MLC and PCA, separated the various sediment types effectively, showing good agreement (kappa >0.7) with the Bayesian

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron)  Infection in the mouth, such as a yeast infection  Acid reflux TREATMENT Your doctor will help ... the underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or yeast infection, is treated. If a drug is causing ...

  14. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron) Infection in the mouth, such as a yeast infection Acid reflux Back to Top Treatment Your ... the underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or yeast infection, is treated. If a drug is causing ...

  15. An Improved Azimuth Angle Estimation Method with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor Based on an Active Sonar Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Anbang; Ma, Lin; Ma, Xuefei; Hui, Juan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved azimuth angle estimation method with a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) is proposed based on matched filtering theory. The proposed method is mainly applied in an active sonar detection system. According to the conventional passive method based on complex acoustic intensity measurement, the mathematical and physical model of this proposed method is described in detail. The computer simulation and lake experiments results indicate that this method can realize the azimuth angle estimation with high precision by using only a single AVS. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed method achieves better estimation performance. Moreover, the proposed method does not require complex operations in frequency-domain and achieves computational complexity reduction. PMID:28230763

  16. An Improved Azimuth Angle Estimation Method with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor Based on an Active Sonar Detection System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Anbang; Ma, Lin; Ma, Xuefei; Hui, Juan

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, an improved azimuth angle estimation method with a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) is proposed based on matched filtering theory. The proposed method is mainly applied in an active sonar detection system. According to the conventional passive method based on complex acoustic intensity measurement, the mathematical and physical model of this proposed method is described in detail. The computer simulation and lake experiments results indicate that this method can realize the azimuth angle estimation with high precision by using only a single AVS. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed method achieves better estimation performance. Moreover, the proposed method does not require complex operations in frequencydomain and achieves computational complexity reduction.

  17. Improved reverse projection method for large refraction angle in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenbin; Wu, Zhao; Wei, Chenxi; Hu, Yue; Liu, Gang; Tian, Yangchao

    2016-03-01

    Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging has attracted significant attentions in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. The reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose information extraction approach, which bases on the linear approximation of the shifting curve around its half-slope. However, when the refraction angle is beyond the linear range of the shifting curve, the extracted information is no longer credible. In this paper, we present an improved retrieval method by calculating an inverse function. Compared with the original retrieval method, our method does not rely on the first order approximation, and thus is suitable for large refraction angle. Theoretical derivations and numerical simulations are performed to confirm the accuracy of the method.

  18. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (українська ) ... नेपाली (Nepali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Dry Mouth - English Dry Mouth - ...

  19. Improving small-angle X-ray scattering data for structural analyses of the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the shape, conformation, or assembly state of an RNA in solution often requires multiple investigative tools ranging from nucleotide analog interference mapping to X-ray crystallography. A key addition to this toolbox is small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS provides direct structural information regarding the size, shape, and flexibility of the particle in solution and has proven powerful for analyses of RNA structures with minimal requirements for sample concentration and volumes. In principle, SAXS can provide reliable data on small and large RNA molecules. In practice, SAXS investigations of RNA samples can show inconsistencies that suggest limitations in the SAXS experimental analyses or problems with the samples. Here, we show through investigations on the SAM-I riboswitch, the Group I intron P4-P6 domain, 30S ribosomal subunit from Sulfolobus solfataricus (30S), brome mosaic virus tRNA-like structure (BMV TLS), Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch, the recombinant tRNAval, and yeast tRNAphe that many problems with SAXS experiments on RNA samples derive from heterogeneity of the folded RNA. Furthermore, we propose and test a general approach to reducing these sample limitations for accurate SAXS analyses of RNA. Together our method and results show that SAXS with synchrotron radiation has great potential to provide accurate RNA shapes, conformations, and assembly states in solution that inform RNA biological functions in fundamental ways. PMID:20106957

  20. Improving large mixing angle predictions with nonstandard interactions: Neutrino decay in solar matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao

    2011-03-01

    It has been known for some time that the well-established large mixing angle (LMA) solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for Super-Kamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with nonstandard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the {nu}{sub {alpha}}{nu}{sub {beta}} and {nu}{sub {alpha}}e vertices that affect both the propagation of neutrinos in the Sun and their detection. We find that, among the many possibilities for nonstandard couplings, only the diagonal imaginary ones lead to a solution to the tension between the LMA predictions and the data, implying neutrino instability in the solar matter. Unitarity requirements further restrict the solution and a neutrino decay into an antineutrino and a Majoron within the Sun is the one favored. Antineutrino probability is however too small to open the possibility of experimentally observing antineutrinos from the Sun due to NSI.

  1. Recent improvements in small angle x-ray diffraction for the study of muscle physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reconditi, Massimo

    2006-10-01

    The molecular mechanism of muscle contraction is one of the most important unresolved problems in biology and biophysics. Notwithstanding the great advances of recent years, it is not yet known in detail how the molecular motor in muscle, the class II myosin, converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into work by interacting with its track, the actin filament; neither is it understood how the high efficiency in energy conversion depends on the cooperative action of myosin motors working in parallel along the actin filament. Research in muscle contraction involves the combination of mechanical, biochemical and structural methods in studies that span from tissue to single molecule. Therefore, more than for any other research field, progress in the comprehension of muscle contraction at the molecular level is related to, and in turn contributes to, the advancement of methods in biophysics. This review will focus on the progress achieved by time-resolved small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from muscle, an approach made possible by the highly ordered arrangement of both the contractile proteins myosin and actin in the ca 2 µm long structural unit, the sarcomere, that repeats along the whole length of the muscle cell. Among time-resolved structural techniques, SAXS has proved to be the most powerful method of investigation, as it allows the molecular motor to be studied in situ, in intact single muscle cells, where it is possible to combine the structural study with fast mechanical methods that synchronize the action of the molecular motors. The latest development of this technique allows Angstrom-scale measurements of the axial movement of the motors that pull the actin filament towards the centre of the sarcomere, by exploiting the x-ray interference between the two arrays of myosin motors in the two halves of the sarcomere.

  2. RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN SMALL ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION FOR THE STUDY OF MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Reconditi, Massimo

    2006-10-01

    The molecular mechanism of muscle contraction is one of the most important unresolved problems in Biology and Biophysics. Notwithstanding the great advances of recent years, it is not yet known in detail how the molecular motor in muscle, the class II myosin, converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into work by interacting with its track, the actin filament, neither it is understood how the high efficiency in energy conversion depends on the cooperative action of myosin motors working in parallel along the actin filament. Researches in muscle contraction imply the combination of mechanical, biochemical and structural methods in studies that span from tissue to single molecule. Therefore, more than for any other research field, progresses in the comprehension of muscle contraction at molecular level are related to, and in turn contribute to, the advancement of methods in Biophysics.This review will focus on the progresses achieved by time resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from muscle, an approach made possible by the highly ordered arrangement of both the contractile proteins myosin and actin in the ca 2 mum long structural unit the sarcomere that repeats along the whole length of the muscle cell. Among the time resolved structural techniques, SAXS has proved to be the most powerful method of investigation, as it allows the molecular motor to be studied in situ, in intact single muscle cells, where it is possible to combine the structural study with fast mechanical methods that synchronize the action of the molecular motors. The latest development of this technique allows Angstrom-scale measurements of the axial movement of the motors that pull the actin filament toward the centre of the sarcomere, by exploiting the X-ray interference between the two arrays of myosin motors in the two halves of the sarcomere.

  3. Improving optical transmission and image contrast in medium and high performance optical systems using weighted average angle of incidence techniques to optimize coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, James A.; Sprague, Michaelene

    2008-10-01

    Designers of medium and high performance optical systems often overlook a very simple technique that can improve the system transmission and image contrast, as well as reduce scattering within the system. The resulting improvement in the optical collection efficiency can be used to increase performance or be traded off to realize improvements in other areas (i.e. aperture size, weight, etc.). The technique is based on the observation that many (if not most) anti-reflection coatings specified for lens surfaces, are specified at a normal angle of incidence. Since most of the energy incident on a typical lens impinges at angles other than the normal, the efficiency of an anti-reflection coating at any surface might be improved by using an approach based on weighted average angles of the incident radiation. This paper describes one approach to calculate weighted average coating angles for a optical systems. The optical transmissions are estimated, when the respective coatings are specified at the normal angle of incidence and at an angle based on the incident ray geometry. The measured transmission of two (otherwise identical) aspheric lenses, one coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at a normal incidence angle and the other coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at optimized incidence angles are presented.

  4. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Sandy M; Babl, Franz E; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Oakley, Ed

    2011-11-21

    Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia.20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation.The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay

  5. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length

  6. Simultaneous Variable Flip Angle – Actual Flip Angle Imaging (VAFI) Method for Improved Accuracy and Precision of Three-dimensional T1 and B1 Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Samuel A.; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Field, Aaron S.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.

    2011-01-01

    A new time-efficient and accurate technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 and B1 is proposed based on a combination of the Actual Flip angle Imaging (AFI) and Variable Flip Angle (VFA) methods: VAFI. VAFI utilizes a single AFI and one or more spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) acquisitions with a simultaneous non-linear fitting procedure to yield accurate T1/B1 maps. The advantage of VAFI is high accuracy at either short T1 times or long TR in the AFI sequence. Simulations show this method is accurate to 0.03% in FA and 0.07% in T1 for TR/T1 times over the range of 0.01 to 0.45. We show for the case of brain imaging that it is sufficient to use only one small flip angle SPGR acquisition, which results in reduced spoiling requirements and a significant scan time reduction compared to the original VFA. In-vivo validation yielded high-quality 3D T1 maps and T1 measurements within 10% of previously published values, and within a clinically acceptable scan time. The VAFI method will increase the accuracy and clinical feasibility of many quantitative MRI methods requiring T1/B1 mapping such as DCE perfusion and quantitative MTI. PMID:22139819

  7. Measurement of multi-directional azimuth and tilt angles using an improved DVD pickup head with a CMOS sensor: A simulation design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Lin, Yan-Nan; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Chang, Jenq-Yang

    2013-06-01

    We present a new detection method for an improved DVD pickup head system capable of measuring the multidirectional azimuth and small tilt angles. A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor is used to capture images and analyze the slight shift of the central position of the beam shape when the test plane rotates to create a tilt angle and angular signal. The proposed detection method can determine the azimuth angle of the test plane from 0° to 360° at intervals of 5°. The tilt angle measurement is varied from 0° to 4.2° at intervals of 0.3°. The simulation results show that the improved DVD pickup head system can recognize multi-directional azimuth angles of the test plane under a small tilt.

  8. Improved beam steering efficiency of large deflection angle for periodic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Kong, Ling-jiang; Xiao, Feng; Zhuo, Jing-yi; Yang, Xiao-bo

    2013-08-01

    The limited quantization digit of voltage and the effect of fringing field between adjacent electrodes (phased-array controlling units) limit the deflection efficiency when a Liquid-Crystal Phased Array (LCPA) is used for beam steering. In this paper, an optimization algorithm named pattern search is proposed to improve the diffraction efficiency. This algorithm directly optimizes the step phase slope to obtain high diffraction efficiency, rather than discussing the complex relationship between the diffraction efficiency and various influence factors. Besides, other optimization algorithms based on phase retrieval, such as GS, need the entire energy distribution; however, it is hard to obtain in practical. Our algorithm need only the energy of the target diffraction point and it can be easily realized. Firstly, we construct the model for beam steering, and point out that the deformation of the phase slope by influence factors is the reason why conventional method can not realize high diffraction efficiency. Secondly, we construct an optimization model for the issues and apply the pattern search algorithm to optimize the diffraction efficiency. The simulation results show high performance of our algorithm comparing with the conventional steering method. Finally, a set of beam steering experiments were performed with a one-dimensional LCPA being set both according to the un-optimized and the optimized recipe, and the results were in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We show that the deflection efficiency can be drastically improved.

  9. Flexible torsion-angle noncrystallographic symmetry restraints for improved macromolecular structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Gildea, Richard J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in refining macromolecular crystal structures is a low data-to-parameter ratio. Historically, knowledge from chemistry has been used to help to improve this ratio. When a macromolecule crystallizes with more than one copy in the asymmetric unit, the noncrystallographic symmetry relationships can be exploited to provide additional restraints when refining the working model. However, although globally similar, NCS-related chains often have local differences. To allow for local differences between NCS-related molecules, flexible torsion-based NCS restraints have been introduced, coupled with intelligent rotamer handling for protein chains, and are available in phenix.refine for refinement of models at all resolutions. PMID:24816103

  10. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ... themselves. Until they are 7 or 8 years old, you will need to help them brush. Try ...

  11. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  12. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high‐flip‐angle fast gradient echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a framework in which time‐varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. Methods A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Results Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. Conclusions A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called “hexagonal spoiling,” has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231–1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27037941

  13. APL: An angle probability list to improve knowledge-based metaheuristics for the three-dimensional protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Borguesan, Bruno; Barbachan e Silva, Mariel; Grisci, Bruno; Inostroza-Ponta, Mario; Dorn, Márcio

    2015-12-01

    Tertiary protein structure prediction is one of the most challenging problems in structural bioinformatics. Despite the advances in algorithm development and computational strategies, predicting the folded structure of a protein only from its amino acid sequence remains as an unsolved problem. We present a new computational approach to predict the native-like three-dimensional structure of proteins. Conformational preferences of amino acid residues and secondary structure information were obtained from protein templates stored in the Protein Data Bank and represented as an Angle Probability List. Two knowledge-based prediction methods based on Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization were developed using this information. The proposed method has been tested with twenty-six case studies selected to validate our approach with different classes of proteins and folding patterns. Stereochemical and structural analysis were performed for each predicted three-dimensional structure. Results achieved suggest that the Angle Probability List can improve the effectiveness of metaheuristics used to predicted the three-dimensional structure of protein molecules by reducing its conformational search space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical estimation of mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Gunjigake, Kaori

    2009-11-01

    Breathing mode was objectively determined by monitoring airflow through the mouth, measuring nasal resistance and lip-seal function, and collecting information via questionnaire on the patient's etiology and symptoms of mouth breathing. The expiratory airflow through the mouth was detected with a carbon dioxide sensor for 30 minutes at rest. Fifteen men and 19 women volunteers (mean age, 22.4 +/- 2.5 years) were classified as nasal breathers, complete mouth breathers, or partial mouth breathers based on the mean duration of mouth breathing. Nasal resistance, lip-sealing function, and the subjective symptoms of mouth breathing ascertained by questionnaire were statistically compared by using 1-way and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the chi-square test in the breathing groups. Nasal resistance was significantly (P <0.05) greater for the mouth breathers than for the nasal breathers, and significantly (P <0.05) greater for the partial mouth breathers than for the complete mouth breathers. There were no significant differences in the subjective responses to questions about mouth breathing among the 3 groups. Detecting airflow by carbon dioxide sensor can discriminate breathing mode. Degree of nasal resistance and subjective symptoms of mouth breathing do not accurately predict breathing mode.

  15. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  16. Evaluation of the dry mouth patient.

    PubMed

    Zunt, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the questions "who is the dry mouth patient and how is the dry mouth patient evaluated"? It reviews the clinical features of dry mouth. It presents current treatment options for dry mouth care.

  17. Improved Measurement of B^ \\to\\rho^ \\rho^0 and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle~\\alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J.Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /Annecy, LAPP /Barcelona U., ECM /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U.

    2009-07-14

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B meson decay channel B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}) = (23.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -6}, f{sub L} = 0.950 {+-} 0.015 {+-} 0.006, and A{sub CP} = -0.054 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, they perform an isospin analysis and determine the CKM weak phase angle {alpha} to be (92.4{sub -6.5}{sup +6.0}){sup 0}.

  18. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  19. Simulator study of the effectiveness of an automatic control system designed to improve the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.; Vangunst, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted to study the effectiveness of some automatic control system features designed to improve the stability and control characteristics of fighter airplanes at high angles of attack. These features include an angle-of-attack limiter, a normal-acceleration limiter, an aileron-rudder interconnect, and a stability-axis yaw damper. The study was based on a current lightweight fighter prototype. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation were measured on a 0.15-scale model at low Reynolds number and low subsonic Mach number. The simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show the fully augmented airplane to be quite stable and maneuverable throughout the operational angle-of-attack range. The angle-of-attack/normal-acceleration limiting feature of the pitch control system is found to be a necessity to avoid angle-of-attack excursions at high angles of attack. The aileron-rudder interconnect system is shown to be very effective in making the airplane departure resistant while the stability-axis yaw damper provided improved high-angle-of-attack roll performance with a minimum of sideslip excursions.

  20. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

    2013-07-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care.

  1. Changing the culture of mouth care: mouth care without a battle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Barrick, Ann Louise

    2014-02-01

    Culture change aims to fundamentally improve care provision in a manner consistent with individual preferences. However, few studies of culture change have focused on the quality of daily care, despite the fact that system-wide efforts are important to assure the effectiveness, adoption, and sustainability of person-centered care to meet daily needs. This paper describes a new culture change practice, Mouth Care Without a Battle. The focus on mouth care is predicated on the important association between person-centered support for oral hygiene and quality of life. Mouth Care Without a Battle is a person-centered approach to quality mouth care for persons with cognitive and physical impairment. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team of clinician researchers based on literature review, consultation with experts, environmental scan of existing programs, and testing in nursing homes. Building from the success of Bathing Without a Battle, Mouth Care Without a Battle was evaluated in terms of changed care practices and outcomes, developed into a training program, and packaged for dissemination as a digital video disk (DVD) and website. The development and evaluation of Mouth Care Without a Battle demonstrate attention to the areas necessary to establish the evidence-base for culture change, to ultimately empower and support staff to provide care to achieve quality outcomes. As illustrated in this paper, it is beneficial to build the evidence base for culture change by attending to care processes and outcomes benefiting all residents, ability to implement culture change, and costs of implementation.

  2. Extraction of structural and chemical information from high angle annular dark-field image by an improved peaks finding method.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenhao; Huang, Rong; Qi, Ruijuan; Duan, Chungang

    2016-09-01

    With the development of spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high angle annular dark filed (HAADF) imaging technique has been widely applied in the microstructure characterization of various advanced materials with atomic resolution. However, current qualitative interpretation of the HAADF image is not enough to extract all the useful information. Here a modified peaks finding method was proposed to quantify the HAADF-STEM image to extract structural and chemical information. Firstly, an automatic segmentation technique including numerical filters and watershed algorithm was used to define the sub-areas for each atomic column. Then a 2D Gaussian fitting was carried out to determine the atomic column positions precisely, which provides the geometric information at the unit-cell scale. Furthermore, a self-adaptive integration based on the column position and the covariance of statistical Gaussian distribution were performed. The integrated intensities show very high sensitivity on the mean atomic number with improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Consequently, the polarization map and strain distributions were rebuilt from a HAADF-STEM image of the rhombohedral and tetragonal BiFeO3 interface and a MnO2 monolayer in LaAlO3 /SrMnO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructure was discerned from its neighbor TiO2 layers. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:820-826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Burning Mouth Syndrome: update.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José

    2014-06-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  5. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome.

  6. In vivo-in vitro comparison of deposition in three mouth-throat models with Qvar and Turbuhaler inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gilbertson, Kyle; Finlay, Warren H

    2007-01-01

    In vitro polydisperse aerosol deposition in three mouth-throat models, namely, the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) mouth-throat (induction port), idealized mouth-throat, and highly idealized mouth-throat, was investigated experimentally. Aerosol particles emitted from two commercial inhalers, Qvar (pMDI) and Turbuhaler (DPI), were used. The in vitro deposition results in these three mouth-throat models were compared with in vivo data available from the literature. For the DPI, mouth-throat deposition was 57.3 +/- 4.5% for the USP mouth-throat, 67.8 +/- 2.2% for the idealized mouth-throat, and 69.3 +/- 1.1% for the highly idealized mouth-throat, which are all relatively close to the in vivo value of 65.8 +/- 10.1%. In contrast, for the pMDI, aerosol deposition in the idealized mouth-throat (25.8 +/- 4.2%) and the highly idealized mouth-throat (24.9 +/- 2.8%) agrees with the in vivo data (29.0 +/- 18.0%) reported in the literature better than that for the USP mouth-throat (12.2 +/- 2.7%). In both cases, the USP mouth-throat gives the lowest deposition among the three mouth-throat models studied. In summary, both the idealized mouth-throat and highly idealized mouth-throat improve the accuracy of predicted mean in vivo deposition in the mouth-throat region. This result hints at the potential applicability of either the idealized mouth-throat or highly idealized mouth-throat as a future USP mouth-throat standard to provide mean value prediction of in vivo mouth-throat deposition.

  7. Structuring the passive surveillance network improves epizootic detection and control efficacy: a simulation study on foot-and-mouth disease in France.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, S; Dufour, B; Durand, B

    2012-08-01

    Rapid detection of infection is critical to the containment and control of contagious pathogens. Passive surveillance, based on the detection of clinical signs through farmers' observations and subsequent veterinarian notification, is the primary means of initially detecting an epizootic and for implementing control measures. The objective of this study was to analyse how the composition and structure of passive surveillance networks may impact epizootic spread and control. Three compositions of passive surveillance network were considered: (i) A veterinarian-based surveillance network composed of farmers and veterinarians (the common passive surveillance network where each veterinarian follows up a group of holdings), (ii) a farmer-based surveillance network composed of farmers only (the farmer plays the same role as in the preceding network as well as that of the veterinarian but his point of view is limited to his animals) and (iii) a hierarchical surveillance network composed of farmers, veterinarians and district-level veterinarian specialists (in case of doubt, the local veterinarian calls the specialist veterinarian). We compared the efficacy of these different network types where actors have successively a structurally wider perspective than the preceding ones using a specific stochastic model for the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The model was forced by actual data to generate realistic simulated FMD epizootics in France. Our results show that maintaining the presence of field veterinarians following-up several holdings in breeding areas is fundamental and adding veterinarian specialists to passive surveillance networks could greatly enhance surveillance network efficacy.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  9. Indirect assessment of stifle angle for improved accuracy of preoperative planning of tibial osteotomy procedures in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D C; Owen, M R

    2015-07-25

    To assess reliability of the mechanical axes stifle angle in dogs positioned for radiography with a neutral stifle (neutral stifle angle (nSA)). To investigate radiographic landmarks for assessment of nSA from a collimated radiographic view. One hundred radiographs were taken of normal stifles belonging to 55 skeletally mature medium and large breed dogs, positioned using a repeatable protocol. Radiographs were widely collimated to include the femoral head and the talus. The angle of Blumensaat's line through the intercondylar fossa relative to the Mechanical Axis of the femur (intercondylar fossa angle, IFA), the angle of inclination of a tibial crest tangent line relative to the Mechanical Axis of the tibia (tibial crest angle, TCA) and the tibial plateau angle (TPA) were recorded. Mean nSA was 133.5°. Mean IFA was 155.5°. TCA had a mean of 6.7°. Estimates for nSA were calculated using mean IFA combined with mean TCA (enSA1), mean TPA (enSA2) and the mechanical axis of the tibia (enSA3). Mean percentage error relative was 2.99 per cent for enSA1, 2.82 per cent for enSA2, 1.67 per cent for enSA3. Blumensaat's line provides a consistent radiological feature for assessment of nSA. Assessment of nSA and correction for values varying from 135° may allow more consistent and accurate measurement of patellar tendon angle for presurgical planning. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Computed tomographic evaluation of mouth breathers among paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Farid, MM; Metwalli, N

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Mouth breathing causes many serious problems in the paediatric population. It has been maintained that enlarged adenoids are principally responsible for mouth breathing. This study was designed to evaluate whether other mechanical obstacles might predispose the child to mouth breathing. Methods 67 children with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years were studied and grouped into mouth-breathers and nose-breathers. The children first underwent axial CT scans of the brain for which they were originally referred. In addition, they were subjected to a limited coronal CT examination of the paranasal sinuses. Congenital anatomical variations as well as inflammatory changes were assessed. Results 87% of mouth-breathing children had hypertrophied adenoids, 77% had maxillary sinusitis, 74% had pneumatized middle concha, 55% had a deviated nasal septum, 55% had hypertrophied inferior conchae, 45% had ethmoidal sinusitis and 23% showed frontal sinusitis. Such changes were significantly less prevalent in nose-breathers. 12.9% of mouth-breathing children did not have adenoids. Of these children, only 3.3% had one or more congenital or inflammatory change whereas the other 9.6% showed a completely normal CT scan signifying the incidence of habitual non-obstructive mouth breathing. Conclusions It is clear that adenoids have a dominant role in causing mouth breathing. Yet, we recommend that paediatricians should assess other mechanical obstacles if mouth breathing was not corrected after adenoidectomy. Further research should be performed to test the validity of correction of such factors in improving the quality of life of mouth-breathing children. PMID:20089737

  11. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or at the corners of your mouth Your dentures may no longer fit well, causing sores on the gums Thirstiness Difficulty swallowing or talking Loss of your sense of taste Soreness or pain in the tongue and mouth Cavities (dental caries) Gum disease

  12. The lancelet and ammocoete mouths.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kinya; Kaji, Takao

    2008-10-01

    The evolutionary history of the vertebrate mouth has long been an intriguing issue in comparative zoology. When the prevertebrate state was considered, the oral structure in adult lancelets (amphioxus) was traditionally referred to because of its general similarity to that of the ammocoete larva of lampreys. The larval mouth in lancelets, however, shows a peculiar developmental mode. Reflecting this, the affinity of the lancelet mouth has long been argued, but is still far from a consensus. The increase in available data from molecular biology, comparative developmental biology, paleontology, and other related fields makes it prudent to discuss morphological homology and homoplasy. Here, we review how the lancelet mouth has been interpreted in the study of evolution of the vertebrate mouth, as well as recent advances in chordate studies. With this background of increased knowledge, our innervation analysis supports the interpretation that the morphological similarity in the oral apparatus between ammocoetes and lancelets is a homoplasy caused by their similar food habits.

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  14. [Materials for mouth protectors].

    PubMed

    Kloeg, E F; Collys, K

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account the number of teeth which are yearly irreversible traumatised during sport activities, the general use of mouthguards would contribute positively to the prevention of dental injuries. Custom-made mouthguards are more comfortable to wear and offer better retention and protection than stock and mouth-formed mouthguards. Different kinds of materials are available on the market for the construction of mouthguards. A polyethylene-polyvinylacetate copolymer (EVA) is the most suitable material. EVA allows the inclusion of hard or soft layers within the mouthguard. The thickness of a mouthguard is important for the reduction of applied forces to teeth: energy absorption capacity increases with material thickness. Increased thickness however, is associated with a reduction of comfort. Therefore, it is important that dentists take the patients' wishes and demands on both comfort and protection into consideration. A description of the clinical and technical method for the construction of a custom made mouthguard is given.

  15. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain, burning mouth Syndrome (BMS) is defined as a burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membrane in the absence of clinical signs or laboratory findings. The etiology is unknown and presents a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. The management of BMS is still not satisfactory. The prognosis is poor and the burning sensation can last for many years causing a dramatic impact on the patient's quality of life. It is important to distinguish between true BMS and symptomatic burning sensation which occurs when the burning sensation is secondary to a local or systemic pathologic condition. Currently, there are no defined diagnostic criteria for BMS. A diagnosis is usually reached by exclusion of other diseases. This may lead to misdiagnoses, presenting an obstacle to successful treatment.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients.

  18. Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Hao; Wu, YewChung Sermon; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Bo-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Periodic triangle pyramidal array patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with various slanted angles were fabricated by wet etching. It was found beside normal wurtzite GaN, zinc blende GaN was found on the sidewall surfaces of PSS. The crystal quality and performance of PSS-LEDs improved with decrease in slanted angle from 57.4° to 31.6°. This is because most of the growth of GaN was initiated from c-planes. As the growth time increased, GaN epilayers on the bottom c-plane covered these pyramids by lateral growth causing the threading dislocation to bend toward the pyramids.

  19. Usefulness of the QRS-T angle to improve long-term risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; López-López, Andrea; Castiñeira-Busto, María; Fernández-Garda, Rita; García-Castelo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; García-Acuña, José María; Abu-Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-04-15

    In light of the low cost, the widespread availability of the electrocardiogram, and the increasing economic burden of the health-related problems, we aimed to analyze the prognostic value of automatic frontal QRS-T angle to predict mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). About 467 consecutive patients discharged with diagnosis of AMI and with LV ejection fraction ≤40% were followed during 3.9 years (2.1 to 5.9). From them, 217 patients (47.5%) died. The frontal QRS-T angle was higher in patients who died (116.6±52.8 vs 77.9±55.1, respectively, p<0.001). The QRS-T angle value of 90° was the most accurate to predict all-cause cardiac death. After multivariate analysis, frontal QRS-T angle remained as an excellent predictor of all-cause and cardiac deaths, increasing the mortality 6% per each 10°. For the global mortality, the hazard ratio for a QRS-T angle>90° was 2.180 (1.558 to 3.050), and for the combined end point of cardiac death and appropriate implantable cardioverter defribrillator therapy, it was 2.385 (1.570 to 3.623). This independent predictive value was maintained even after adjusting by bundle brunch block, ST-elevation AMI, and its localization. In conclusion, a wide automatic frontal QRS-T angle (>90°) is a good discriminator of long-term mortality in patients with LV systolic dysfunction after an AMI. The ability to easily measure it from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram together with its prognostic value makes the frontal QRS-T angle an attractive tool to help clinicians to improve risk stratification of those patients.

  20. Aloe vera for Dry Mouth Denture Patients – Palliative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Samee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Xerostomia (dry mouth) is dryness of the mouth which is due to reduced salivary flow. Lack of adequate saliva causes discomfort in denture wearing patients and decreases retention of dentures. The ability of saliva to wet the tissue surface is one of the most important properties for oral comfort and retention of complete denture in dry mouth patients. Aim This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the wetting ability of therapeutic Aloe vera saliva substitute and commercially available Aqwet saliva substitute on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of liquid saliva substitute was considered as an indicator of wettability. Materials and Methods Aloe vera liquid (Aloe vera – Group I) and Aqwet saliva substitute (Aqwet – Group II) were compared in terms of their wetting ability. Forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated and divided into two groups with 20 samples in each. Advancing, receding contact angles and angle of hysteresis were measured using contact angle goniometer and DSA4 software analysis. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for statistical analysis of the study. Results The mean advancing angle and receding angle of Group I (Aloe vera) was smaller than Group II (Aqwet). Mean angle of hysteresis of Group I (Aloe vera) was higher than Group II (Aqwet). Mann-Whitney U test revealed that there is no significant difference in contact angles between the two groups. Conclusion Wetting ability of Group I (Aloe vera) saliva substitute was found to be better compared to Group II (Aqwet) on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. PMID:28764287

  1. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  2. Factors associated with dry mouth in dependent Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Kakudate, Naoki; Muramatsu, Tsukasa; Endoh, Mami; Satomura, Kazuhito; Koseki, Takeyoshi; Sato, Yuji; Ito, Kayoko; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Nakamura, Seiji; Kishimoto, Etsuo; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Uchiyama, Kimio; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kakinoki, Yasuaki

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors associated with dry mouth. Dry mouth adversely affects oropharyngeal health, particularly in elderly, and can lead to pneumonia. A better understanding of the epidemiology of dry mouth is therefore important in improving treatment strategies and oral health in high-risk elderly patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 383 dependent Japanese elderly individuals (65-84 [n = 167] and ≥85 [n = 216] years) at eight long-term care facilities and hospitals. Thirty-four potential factors associated with dry mouth were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The primary outcome was dry mouth, as diagnosed by tongue dorsum moisture. We identified that body mass index and severity of physical disability were identified as a potential factors associated with dry mouth in the super-elderly (≥85 years) group, whereas severity of physical disability, outcome measurement time, high daily water consumption, mouth breathing, use of antidepressants and diuretics, and high frequency of daily brushing (≥2 times per day; Odds ratio: 5.56; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.52-20.00) were associated with dry mouth in the 65- to 84-year-old group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a link between frequency of daily brushing and dry mouth and suggests that tooth brushing should be encouraged in high-risk dependent Japanese elderly (65-84 years), particularly those taking antidepressants and/or diuretics. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mouth breathing, "nasal disuse," and pediatric sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seo-Young; Guilleminault, Christian; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Sullivan, Shannon S

    2015-12-01

    Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) may not completely eliminate sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and residual SDB can result in progressive worsening of abnormal breathing during sleep. Persistence of mouth breathing post-T&As plays a role in progressive worsening through an increase of upper airway resistance during sleep with secondary impact on orofacial growth. Retrospective study on non-overweight and non-syndromic prepubertal children with SDB treated by T&A with pre- and post-surgery clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) evaluations including systematic monitoring of mouth breathing (initial cohort). All children with mouth breathing were then referred for myofunctional treatment (MFT), with clinical follow-up 6 months later and PSG 1 year post-surgery. Only a limited subgroup followed the recommendations to undergo MFT with subsequent PSG (follow-up subgroup). Sixty-four prepubertal children meeting inclusion criteria for the initial cohort were investigated. There was significant symptomatic improvement in all children post-T&A, but 26 children had residual SDB with an AHI > 1.5 events/hour and 35 children (including the previous 26) had evidence of "mouth breathing" during sleep as defined [minimum of 44 % and a maximum of 100 % of total sleep time, mean 69 ± 11 % "mouth breather" subgroup and mean 4 ± 3.9 %, range 0 and 10.3 % "non-mouth breathers"]. Eighteen children (follow-up cohort), all in the "mouth breathing" group, were investigated at 1 year follow-up with only nine having undergone 6 months of MFT. The non- MFT subjects were significantly worse than the MFT-treated cohort. MFT led to normalization of clinical and PSG findings. Assessment of mouth breathing during sleep should be systematically performed post-T&A and the persistence of mouth breathing should be treated with MFT.

  4. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection, a dentist might need to remove them. Human teeth are made up of four different types of ... previous continue Normal Development of the Mouth and Teeth Humans are diphyodont, meaning that they develop two sets ...

  5. Development of the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera for Improved Hydrometeor Habit-Diameter-Mass-Fallspeed Parameterizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-20

    storms. Completion of the Multi-angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) will provide for the first time auto - mated measurement of these properties. The...data that can be collected for hydrometeors at the point that MASC development is completed. • Stereoscopic polarized color images – Color and...10 µm at 1/100,000th second shutter speed. • Volume and mass – Calculated through stereoscopic reconstruction. • Fall speed – Vertically stacked

  6. Efficient approach to Chinese phoneme mouth-shape recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao; Ma, Shaoping; Zhang, Bo

    2001-09-01

    Recent research results show the recognition rates of all kinds mouth-shape recognition systems are not high enough because of the improper feature selection and extraction for mouth-shape images and the false classification for those features on the boundary of different categories. This paper presents a statistical approach, called CPMSR, for mouth-shape recognition at the phoneme level. The feature-extracting module for this approach is based on research results of phonetics and personal investigation at a deaf school. The analyzing module employs Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, which is a useful tool dealing with boundary points problem. With these improvements our experiment achieved the satisfactory recognition rate of over 90% for 5 vowels and 24 consonants' mouth-shapes.

  7. Factors affecting institutionalized older peoples' self-perceived dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Chen, Wen-Yi; Liang, Yia-Wung; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting institutionalized older peoples' self-perceived dry mouth. This cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly residents at 22 long-term care facilities. A total of 165 questionnaires were returned from 13 senior citizen welfare institutions (SCWIs) and nine nursing homes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data obtained. The results showed that the type of long-term care (LTC) facility, regular oral examinations, wearing dentures, and the ability to chew sticky foods affected self-perceived dry mouth. This study determined an association between the type of LTC facility where the participants lived and self-perceived dry mouth. The results indicated the importance of providing oral care in order to improve and prevent dry mouth among institutionalized older people living in SCWIs who do not undergo regular oral examinations, wear dentures, and have difficulty chewing sticky foods.

  8. Novel mouth-exercising device for oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2012-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues and can cause increasing difficulty in mastication, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. The treatment of severe trismus requires a combination of surgical release and physiotherapy. Often physiotherapy alone can modify tissue remodeling in OSMF to increase oral opening. This article describes the fabrication and use of a new mouth-exercising device that helps the patient to squeeze/stretch the cheek mucosa to increase elasticity. The device can be used as a sole treatment modality or can be used in association with pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities for OSMF. Improvement in mouth opening was observed in four OSMF patients treated with a mouth-exercising device for 6 months as a sole treatment modality. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Dynamics of river mouth deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, Sergio; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Nardin, William; Leonardi, Nicoletta; Canestrelli, Alberto; Falcini, Federico; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Mariotti, Giulio; Rowland, Joel C.; Slingerland, Rudy L.

    2015-09-01

    Bars and subaqueous levees often form at river mouths due to high sediment availability. Once these deposits emerge and develop into islands, they become important elements of the coastal landscape, hosting rich ecosystems. Sea level rise and sediment starvation are jeopardizing these landforms, motivating a thorough analysis of the mechanisms responsible for their formation and evolution. Here we present recent studies on the dynamics of mouth bars and subaqueous levees. The review encompasses both hydrodynamic and morphological results. We first analyze the hydrodynamics of the water jet exiting a river mouth. We then show how this dynamics coupled to sediment transport leads to the formation of mouth bars and levees. Specifically, we discuss the role of sediment eddy diffusivity and potential vorticity on sediment redistribution and related deposits. The effect of waves, tides, sediment characteristics, and vegetation on river mouth deposits is included in our analysis, thus accounting for the inherent complexity of the coastal environment where these landforms are common. Based on the results presented herein, we discuss in detail how river mouth deposits can be used to build new land or restore deltaic shorelines threatened by erosion.

  10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, FMD virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle, including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis, is discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of the virus and host factors involved. PMID:15084510

  11. Improvement in B1+ Homogeneity and Average Flip Angle Using Dual-Source Parallel RF Excitation for Cardiac MRI in Swine Hearts.

    PubMed

    Schär, Michael; Ding, Haiyan; Herzka, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac MRI may benefit from increased polarization at high magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla but is challenged by increased field inhomogeneity. Initial human studies have shown that the radiofrequency (RF) excitation field (B1+) used for signal excitation in the heart is both inhomogeneous and significantly lower than desired, potentially leading to image artifacts and biased quantitative measures. Recently, multi-channel transmit systems have been introduced allowing localized patient specific RF shimming based on acquired calibration B1+ maps. Some prior human studies have shown lower than desired mean flip angles in the hearts of large patients even after RF shimming. Here, 100 cardiac B1+ map pairs before and after RF shimming were acquired in 55 swine. The mean flip angle and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the flip angle in the heart were determined before and after RF shimming. Mean flip angle, CV, and RF shim values (power ratio and phase difference between the two transmit channels) were tested for correlation with cross sectional body area and the Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio. RF shimming significantly increased the mean flip angle in swine heart from 74.4±6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) to 94.7±4.8% of the desired flip angle and significantly reduced CV from 0.11±0.03 to 0.07±0.02 (p<1e-10 for both). These results compare well with several previous human studies, except that the mean flip angle in the human heart only improved to 89% with RF shimming, possibly because the RF shimming routine does not consider safety constraints in very large patients. Additionally, mean flip angle decreased and CV increased with larger cross sectional body area, however, the RF shimming parameters did not correlate with cross sectional body area. RF shim power ratio correlated weakly with Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio but phase difference did not, further substantiating the need for subject specific cardiac RF shimming.

  12. Improvement in B1+ Homogeneity and Average Flip Angle Using Dual-Source Parallel RF Excitation for Cardiac MRI in Swine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Michael; Ding, Haiyan; Herzka, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac MRI may benefit from increased polarization at high magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla but is challenged by increased field inhomogeneity. Initial human studies have shown that the radiofrequency (RF) excitation field (B1+) used for signal excitation in the heart is both inhomogeneous and significantly lower than desired, potentially leading to image artifacts and biased quantitative measures. Recently, multi-channel transmit systems have been introduced allowing localized patient specific RF shimming based on acquired calibration B1+ maps. Some prior human studies have shown lower than desired mean flip angles in the hearts of large patients even after RF shimming. Here, 100 cardiac B1+ map pairs before and after RF shimming were acquired in 55 swine. The mean flip angle and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the flip angle in the heart were determined before and after RF shimming. Mean flip angle, CV, and RF shim values (power ratio and phase difference between the two transmit channels) were tested for correlation with cross sectional body area and the Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio. RF shimming significantly increased the mean flip angle in swine heart from 74.4±6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) to 94.7±4.8% of the desired flip angle and significantly reduced CV from 0.11±0.03 to 0.07±0.02 (p<<1e-10 for both). These results compare well with several previous human studies, except that the mean flip angle in the human heart only improved to 89% with RF shimming, possibly because the RF shimming routine does not consider safety constraints in very large patients. Additionally, mean flip angle decreased and CV increased with larger cross sectional body area, however, the RF shimming parameters did not correlate with cross sectional body area. RF shim power ratio correlated weakly with Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio but phase difference did not, further substantiating the need for subject specific cardiac RF shimming. PMID:26436658

  13. Both improvements of the light extraction efficiency and scattered angle of GaN-LED using sub-micron Fresnel lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyu; Chen, Linsen; Shen, Su; Wan, Wenqiang

    2015-11-01

    With the demanding requirements for light source, light emitting diodes (LED) attracts more and more attention because of its inherent advantages such as low power consumption, high reliability and longevity. However, there are two disadvantages for LED, one is the low light extraction efficiency resulting from the total internal reflection, and the other is the relative large scattered angle. In order to improve the light extraction efficiency and collimate the out-coupling light, a sub-micron Fresnel lens array is introduced and investigated in this paper. The focal length of the proposed Fresnel lens is 3μm and the minimum width of the outmost ring is about 150nm. To calculate and analyze the light extraction efficiency and the scattered angle of LED with such Fresnel lens array structure, we optimize the parameters of the Fresnel lens, such as the depth of the Fresnel lens array structure and the thickness of the p-type gallium nitride layer by using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). By comparing the discussed patterned GaN-based LED with that traditional flat LEDs, it can be found that significant enhancement factor of the light extraction efficiency, which is improved by 3.5 times, can be obtained and the scattered angle at half maximum can be decreased 50° from 60° with this novel Fresnel lens structure. It will be expected that the proposed sub-micron structure can find wide applications in LEDs industry.

  14. Improving the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins by guided-learning through a two-layer neural network.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2009-03-01

    This article attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins through improved learning. Most methods developed for improving the backpropagation algorithm of artificial neural networks are limited to small neural networks. Here, we introduce a guided-learning method suitable for networks of any size. The method employs a part of the weights for guiding and the other part for training and optimization. We demonstrate this technique by predicting residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins. In this application, the guiding factor is designed to satisfy the intuitive condition that for most residues, the contribution of a residue to the structural properties of another residue is smaller for greater separation in the protein-sequence distance between the two residues. We show that the guided-learning method makes a 2-4% reduction in 10-fold cross-validated mean absolute errors (MAE) for predicting residue solvent accessibility and backbone torsion angles, regardless of the size of database, the number of hidden layers and the size of input windows. This together with introduction of two-layer neural network with a bipolar activation function leads to a new method that has a MAE of 0.11 for residue solvent accessibility, 36 degrees for psi, and 22 degrees for phi. The method is available as a Real-SPINE 3.0 server in http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

  15. Smooth statistical torsion angle potential derived from a large conformational database via adaptive kernel density estimation improves the quality of NMR protein structures.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Guillermo A; Clore, G Marius; Schwieters, Charles D

    2012-12-01

    Statistical potentials that embody torsion angle probability densities in databases of high-quality X-ray protein structures supplement the incomplete structural information of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) datasets. By biasing the conformational search during the course of structure calculation toward highly populated regions in the database, the resulting protein structures display better validation criteria and accuracy. Here, a new statistical torsion angle potential is developed using adaptive kernel density estimation to extract probability densities from a large database of more than 10⁶ quality-filtered amino acid residues. Incorporated into the Xplor-NIH software package, the new implementation clearly outperforms an older potential, widely used in NMR structure elucidation, in that it exhibits simultaneously smoother and sharper energy surfaces, and results in protein structures with improved conformation, nonbonded atomic interactions, and accuracy. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  16. Incident-angle-controlled semitransparent colored perovskite solar cells with improved efficiency exploiting a multilayer dielectric mirror.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Jang, Ji-Yun; Park, Sang Jin; Ok, Song Ah; Park, Hui Joon

    2017-09-28

    See-through perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and iridescent colors are demonstrated by employing a multilayer dielectric mirror. A certain amount of visible light is used for wide color gamut semitransparent color generation, which can be easily tuned by changing an angle of incidence, and a wide range of visible light is efficiently reflected back toward a photoactive layer of the perovskite solar cells by the dielectric mirror for highly efficient light-harvesting performance, thus achieving 10.12% power conversion efficiency. We also rigorously examine how the number of pairs in the multilayer dielectric mirror affects optical properties of the colored semitransparent perovskite solar cells. The described approach can open the door to a large number of applications such as building-integrated photovoltaics, self-powered wearable electronics and power-generating color filters for energy-efficient display systems.

  17. Opposition of carbohydrate in a mouth-rinse solution to the detrimental effect of mouth rinsing during cycling time trials.

    PubMed

    Gam, Sharon; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2013-02-01

    Studies have reported that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution improves cycling time-trial performance compared with rinsing with a placebo solution. However, no studies have compared the effect of mouth rinsing with a no-mouth-rinse control condition. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a CHO mouth rinse with those of a placebo rinse and a no-rinse condition. Ten male cyclists completed three 1,000-kJ cycling time trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. At every 12.5% of the time trial completed, participants were required to rinse their mouths for 5 s with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution (CHO), water (WA), or no solution (CON). Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 25% of the time trial completed. Time to completion was faster in both CHO (65.7 ± 11.07 min) and CON (67.6 ± 12.68 min) than in WA (69.4 ± 13.81 min; p = .013 and p = .042, respectively). The difference between CHO and CON approached significance (p = .086). There were no differences in heart rate or RPE between any conditions. In summary, repeated mouth rinsing with water results in decreased performance relative to not rinsing at all. Adding CHO to the rinse solution appears to oppose this fall in performance, possibly providing additional benefits to performance compared with not rinsing the mouth at all. This brings into question the magnitude of the effect of CHO mouth rinsing reported in previous studies that did not include a no-rinse condition.

  18. A Wide-Angle Lens: How To Increase the Variety, Collection, and Use of Data for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Emily F.

    The progress made by 24 League of Professional Schools in increasing the variety, collection, and use of data during 1990-91 is examined in this paper. Three goals of the league are to involve schools in action research for school improvement, increase teacher participation through shared governance, and develop school improvement initiatives.…

  19. [Radiance Simulation of BUV Hyperspectral Sensor on Multi Angle Observation, and Improvement to Initial Total Ozone Estimating Model of TOMS V8 Total Ozone Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chun-guang; Wang, Wei-he; Yang, Wen-bo; Tian, Qing-iju; Lu, Shan; Chen, Yun

    2015-11-01

    New hyperspectral sensor to detect total ozone is considered to be carried on geostationary orbit platform in the future, because local troposphere ozone pollution and diurnal variation of ozone receive more and more attention. Sensors carried on geostationary satellites frequently obtain images on the condition of larger observation angles so that it has higher requirements of total ozone retrieval on these observation geometries. TOMS V8 algorithm is developing and widely used in low orbit ozone detecting sensors, but it still lack of accuracy on big observation geometry, therefore, how to improve the accuracy of total ozone retrieval is still an urgent problem that demands immediate solution. Using moderate resolution atmospheric transmission, MODT-RAN, synthetic UV backscatter radiance in the spectra region from 305 to 360 nm is simulated, which refers to clear sky, multi angles (12 solar zenith angles and view zenith angles) and 26 standard profiles, moreover, the correlation and trends between atmospheric total ozone and backward scattering of the earth UV radiation are analyzed based on the result data. According to these result data, a new modified initial total ozone estimation model in TOMS V8 algorithm is considered to be constructed in order to improve the initial total ozone estimating accuracy on big observation geometries. The analysis results about total ozone and simulated UV backscatter radiance shows: Radiance in 317.5 nm (R₃₁₇.₅) decreased as the total ozone rise. Under the small solar zenith Angle (SZA) and the same total ozone, R₃₁₇.₅ decreased with the increase of view zenith Angle (VZA) but increased on the large SZA. Comparison of two fit models shows: without the condition that both SZA and VZA are large (> 80°), exponential fitting model and logarithm fitting model all show high fitting precision (R² > 0.90), and precision of the two decreased as the SZA and VZA rise. In most cases, the precision of logarithm fitting

  20. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of baking soda in 4 cups (1 liter) of water DO NOT use rinses that have alcohol in them. You may use an antibacterial rinse 2 to 4 times a day for gum disease. To further take care of your mouth: DO NOT eat foods or drink beverages that ...

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  2. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  3. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don' ... or neck cancer. back to top Advice for Consumers If you have persistent dry mouth: Talk to ...

  4. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  5. Improved high order grating method to realize wide angle beam steering on liquid crystal optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Wang, Xiangru; Xiong, Caidong; Huang, Ziqiang; Du, Jing; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi

    2015-11-01

    To achieve a wider scanning range of liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA), in this paper, a novel method of improved high order grating (i-HOG) is proposed in one device without introducing any other devices. The method of i-HOG breaks through the traditional ideas of modulo 𝟐𝛑 phase and takes the fringe effect into account to have a multi order extension. Subsequently, the method is verified by numerical simulation showing that it realizes a scanning range of wider than 20 degrees and even wider.

  6. The Impact of Dry Mouth on Fluid Intake and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Women taking Fesoterodine

    PubMed Central

    Weissbart, Steven J.; Lewis, Rusell; Smith, Ariana L; Harvie, Heidi H; Miller, Janis M; Arya, Lily A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the long-term relationships between dry mouth, fluid intake and overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing treatment with fesoterodine. We hypothesize that women who experience dry mouth will increase their fluid intake and worsen their urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective ancillary study to a 9 month open-label trial of fesoterodine for women with urgency urinary incontinence. Fluid intake was measured and compared according to reported dry mouth. Multivariable analysis was used to study the interaction between dry mouth, fluid intake and urinary symptoms. Results During the study, women without dry mouth (n=407) significantly reduced their fluid intake (mean decrease of 172.1 mL, median decrease of 118.3 mL, p= 0.02), while women with dry mouth (n=91) did not (mean decrease of 95.8 mL, median decrease of 118.3 mL, p=0.54). On univariable analysis, a greater proportion of women who experienced dry mouth reported improvement in their urinary symptoms compared to women without dry mouth (60.5% versus 47.2%, p=0.03). On multivariable analysis, Black/ African American women were less likely to report dry mouth (OR 0.4 95%CI 0.2–0.9, p=0.03) and older women were less likely to report improvement in urinary symptoms (OR 0.98 95%CI 0.96–0.99, p= 0.003). Factors not associated with improvement in urinary symptoms on multiple regression were dry mouth, baseline fluid intake volume, change in fluid intake volume, and caffeine intake volume. Conclusions In women with overactive bladder receiving fesoterodine, dry mouth may prevent women from restricting fluid intake, but does not diminish treatment efficacy. PMID:26682757

  7. Impact of Dry Mouth on Fluid Intake and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Women taking Fesoterodine.

    PubMed

    Weissbart, Steven J; Lewis, Rusell; Smith, Ariana L; Harvie, Heidi S; Miller, Janis M; Arya, Lily A

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the long-term relationships between dry mouth, fluid intake and overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing treatment with fesoterodine. We hypothesized that women who experienced dry mouth would increase their fluid intake and worsen their urinary symptoms. We conducted a prospective ancillary study to a 9-month open-label trial of fesoterodine for women with urgency urinary incontinence. Fluid intake was measured and compared according to reported dry mouth. Multivariable analysis was used to study the interaction between dry mouth, fluid intake and urinary symptoms. During the study 407 women without dry mouth significantly reduced their fluid intake (mean decrease 172.1 ml, median 118.3 ml, p = 0.02), while 91 women with dry mouth did not (mean decrease 95.8 ml, median 118.3 ml, p = 0.54). On univariable analysis a greater proportion of women who experienced dry mouth reported improvement in their urinary symptoms compared to women without dry mouth (60.5% vs 47.2%, p = 0.03). On multivariable analysis black women were less likely to report dry mouth (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03) and older women were less likely to report improvement in urinary symptoms (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p = 0.003). Factors not associated with improvement in urinary symptoms on multiple regression were dry mouth, baseline fluid intake volume, change in fluid intake volume and caffeine intake volume. In women with overactive bladder receiving fesoterodine dry mouth may prevent restriction of fluid intake but does not diminish treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the efficiency of configurational-bias Monte Carlo: A density-guided method for generating bending angle trials for linear and branched molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri, Aliasghar; Loeffler, Troy D.; Chen, Bin

    2014-08-21

    A new method has been developed to generate bending angle trials to improve the acceptance rate and the speed of configurational-bias Monte Carlo. Whereas traditionally the trial geometries are generated from a uniform distribution, in this method we attempt to use the exact probability density function so that each geometry generated is likely to be accepted. In actual practice, due to the complexity of this probability density function, a numerical representation of this distribution function would be required. This numerical table can be generated a priori from the distribution function. This method has been tested on a united-atom model of alkanes including propane, 2-methylpropane, and 2,2-dimethylpropane, that are good representatives of both linear and branched molecules. It has been shown from these test cases that reasonable approximations can be made especially for the highly branched molecules to reduce drastically the dimensionality and correspondingly the amount of the tabulated data that is needed to be stored. Despite these approximations, the dependencies between the various geometrical variables can be still well considered, as evident from a nearly perfect acceptance rate achieved. For all cases, the bending angles were shown to be sampled correctly by this method with an acceptance rate of at least 96% for 2,2-dimethylpropane to more than 99% for propane. Since only one trial is required to be generated for each bending angle (instead of thousands of trials required by the conventional algorithm), this method can dramatically reduce the simulation time. The profiling results of our Monte Carlo simulation code show that trial generation, which used to be the most time consuming process, is no longer the time dominating component of the simulation.

  9. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    PubMed

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness.

  10. Deeper Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion Angle Improves Detection of Musical Sound Quality Deterioration Related to Bass Frequency Removal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alexis T; Penninger, Richard T; Pearl, Monica S; Wuerfel, Waldemar; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Buechner, Andreas; Limb, Charles J

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) electrode arrays typically do not reach the most apical regions of the cochlea that intrinsically encode low frequencies. This may contribute to diminished implant-mediated musical sound quality perception. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of varying degrees of apical cochlear stimulation (measured by angular insertion depth) on musical sound quality discrimination. Increased apical cochlear stimulation will improve low-frequency perception and musical sound quality discrimination. Standard (31.5 mm, n = 17) and medium (24 mm, n = 8) array Med-EL CI users, and normal hearing (NH) listeners (n = 16) participated. Imaging confirmed angular insertion depth. Participants completed a musical discrimination task in which they listened to a real-world musical stimulus (labeled reference) and provided sound quality ratings to versions of the reference, which included a hidden reference and test stimuli with increasing amounts of low-frequency removal. Scores for each CI users were calculated on the basis of how much their ratings differed from NH listeners for each stimulus version. Medium array and standard users had significantly different insertion depths (389.4 ± 64.5 and 583.9 ± 78.5 degrees, respectively; p <  .001). A significant Pearson's correlation was observed between angular insertion depth and the hidden reference scores (p < 0.05). CI users with greater apical stimulation made sound quality discriminations that more closely resembled those of NH controls for stimuli that contained low frequencies (< 200 Hz of information). These findings suggest that increased apical cochlear stimulation improves musical low-frequency perception, which may provide a more satisfactory music listening experience for CI users.

  11. [Severe limitation of mouth opening].

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Winocur, E; Gavish, A; Eli, I

    2004-10-01

    Limitation of mouth opening is a common source of referral to an orofacial pain clinic with a proposed diagnosis of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (TMD). The word "trismus" is defined by the American academy of orofacial pain as: "Myospasm of masticatory muscles specifically causing limited jaw opening; early symptom of tetanus". Therefore, once trismus is suspected, TMD should be ruled out. However, it is not uncommon to find the usage of this term to describe severe limitation of opening by causes other than myospasm, therefore posing the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of this article is to describe the differential diagnosis of hard end limitation of opening with emphasis on the clinical tools used to differentiate between muscle source of hard end limitation and other sources of hard end limitation. Several cases of hard end limitation of mouth opening are presented and through them major principles of orofacial diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-09-13

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction.

  13. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-01-01

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction. PMID:27619067

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  15. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride in BMS treatment. Methods The subjects were treated with amisulpride (50 mg/day) for 24 weeks. Efficacy assessment included a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HASM-A), and the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Efficacy Index (CGI-EI). Results The treatment regimens resulted in a significant improvement in burning mouth symptoms from baseline at week 24, as indicated by the quantitative mean illness duration VAS score, HAM-D, and HAM-A. Amisulpride appears to be effective and patients show a rapid response to treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered in these patients. Conclusions Amisulpride is effective and well tolerated as a short-term treatment. It is particularly efficacious at the start of treatment and has shorter response latency. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed for further assessment of the efficacy of amisulpride in BMS treatment. PMID:22719802

  16. Computed tomography of the pharynx in a closed vs. open mouth position.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Michele P; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Cissell, Derek D; Johnson, Lynelle R; McPeters, Matie J; Spriet, Mathieu P; Taylor, Sandra L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2011-01-01

    The pharynx is anatomically complex and evaluation can be difficult even with cross-sectional imaging. Eight animals had computed tomography (CT) studies of the head performed with the mouth open and closed. The studies were anonymized and evaluated by four radiologists for visibility of six anatomic regions (dorsal wall of nasopharynx, lumen of nasopharynx, dorsal margin of the soft palate, ventral margin of the soft palate, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx) and for certainty of a normal or abnormal diagnosis of four different anatomic regions (nasopharynx, soft palate, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx). Mean visual scores differed significantly between mouth positions and were improved when the mouth was open. The ability of radiologists to classify anatomic regions as normal or abnormal vs. unsure also varied between mouth positions, and there was greater uncertainty when the mouth was closed. In addition, estimated volume of the air-filled nasopharynx differed significantly as a function of mouth position and was greater when the mouth was open (mean=1.187 cm(3) , SE=0.177) vs. closed (mean=0.584 cm(3) , SE=0.116). Computed tomographic evaluation of the pharynx can be improved with the mouth open. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  17. Eliminating Unwanted Far-Field Excitation in Objective-Type TIRF. Part II. Combined Evanescent-Wave Excitation and Supercritical-Angle Fluorescence Detection Improves Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, Maia; Hérault, Karine; Oheim, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Azimuthal beam scanning makes evanescent-wave (EW) excitation isotropic, thereby producing total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images that are evenly lit. However, beam spinning does not fundamentally address the problem of propagating excitation light that is contaminating objective-type TIRF. Far-field excitation depends more on the specific objective than on cell scattering. As a consequence, the excitation impurities in objective-type TIRF are only weakly affected by changes of azimuthal or polar beam angle. These are the main results of the first part of this study (Eliminating unwanted far-field excitation in objective-type TIRF. Pt.1. Identifying sources of nonevanescent excitation light). This second part focuses on exactly where up beam in the illumination system stray light is generated that gives rise to nonevanescent components in TIRF. Using dark-field imaging of scattered excitation light we pinpoint the objective, intermediate lenses and, particularly, the beam scanner as the major sources of stray excitation. We study how adhesion-molecule coating and astrocytes or BON cells grown on the coverslip surface modify the dark-field signal. On flat and weakly scattering cells, most background comes from stray reflections produced far from the sample plane, in the beam scanner and the objective lens. On thick, optically dense cells roughly half of the scatter is generated by the sample itself. We finally show that combining objective-type EW excitation with supercritical-angle fluorescence (SAF) detection efficiently rejects the fluorescence originating from deeper sample regions. We demonstrate that SAF improves the surface selectivity of TIRF, even at shallow penetration depths. The coplanar microscopy scheme presented here merges the benefits of beam spinning EW excitation and SAF detection and provides the conditions for quantitative wide-field imaging of fluorophore dynamics at or near the plasma membrane. PMID:24606929

  18. [Hand, foot and mouth disease].

    PubMed

    Barriere, H; Berger, M; Billaudel, S

    1976-11-16

    Two characteristic cases encountered in young adults led the authors to present the hand foot and mouth syndrome. They report the characteristic distribution and vesicular appearance of the lesions. The course was benign. The viral origin of the disease was more or less easily confirmed by cell culture, inoculation in new born mice and demonstration of antibodies. Usually the virus was a Coxackie A 16. However in one of the authors cases, an Echo 11 was demonstrated. The apparent rareness of the disease may be explained by lack of recognition.

  19. Comparison of mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-face-shield ventilation by lay persons.

    PubMed

    Paal, Peter; Falk, Markus; Sumann, Günther; Demetz, Florian; Beikircher, Werner; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann

    2006-07-01

    A prospective randomised study on 70 volunteers without previous first aid education (42 males, 28 females, mean age 17) was performed to compare mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV, n = 24) versus mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (MPV, n = 25) and mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (MFV, n =21), and to evaluate if an instruction period of 10 min would be sufficient to teach lay persons artificial ventilation. Every volunteer performed three ventilation series using a bench model of an unprotected airway. MMV and MPV show higher mean tidal volume (TV) than MFV (values of series 3: 976 +/- 454 and 868 +/- 459 versus 604 +/- 328 ml, P = 0.002 and P = 0.025, respectively). We found a higher inter-individual variation in TV than in previous studies (P = 0.031). The recommended TV of 700-1000 ml was reached in only 23%, most frequently with MPV (MMV 16.7%, MPV 32%, MFV 19%) but the difference was not significant (P = 0.391). However, we found a significantly higher percentage with a TV below 700 ml with MFV (MMV 33.3%, MPV 36%, MFV 66.7% P = 0.047) and a significantly higher percentage of TV exceeding 1000 ml with MMV (MMV 50%, MPV 32%, MFV 14.3%) (P = 0.039). "Stomach" inflation was highest with MMV (79.2%) followed by MPV (52%) and MFV (42.9%) (P = 0.034). We found further differences between the sexes; males produced a higher TV (P = 0.003) and a higher percentage of stomach inflation (P = 0.029). MPV showed the best ventilation quality. It resulted in a more adequate TV than MMV and MFV and lower stomach inflation than MMV. Only a relatively low percentage of ventilations were within the recommended range for TV and this may be related to the short training duration. We found different performances between the sexes, a high inter-individual variation and mainly a low ventilation quality. Therefore, further studies have to focus more on teaching duration, sex differences and ventilation quality.

  20. [Relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-wu; Li, Hong-fa; Wang, Qiu-rui; Xu, Hao; He, Jing-nan

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing. Thirty-eight patients with abnormal swallowing and 38 patients with normal swallowing were selected. All patients presented with no airway constriction. The age range of the patients was 11-14 years old. The number of patients with mouth breathing was calculated. Statistical analysis (χ(2) test) was performed. The number of patients with mouth breathing in the abnormal swallowing group (17, 45%) was significantly higher than that in the normal swallowing group (5, 13%) (χ(2) = 9.212, P = 0.002). Abnormal swallowing was related to mouth breathing.

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  2. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  3. Translation and rotation movements of the mandible during mouth opening and closing.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Andrea; Galante, Domenico; Lovecchio, Nicola; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-04-01

    To assess the relative contribution of rotation and translation of the temporomandibular condyle-disc assembly during opening and closing movements, free movements of maximum mouth opening and closing were recorded in healthy subjects (12 men, 14 women) using an optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analyzer. For each subject, the displacement of the lower interincisal point, the path of the condylar reference point, the degree of rotation around the three orthogonal rotational axes, and the relative contribution of translation and rotation were calculated during all movement of mouth opening and closing. The distance covered by the interincisor point and the rotational angle about the transverse axis at maximum mouth opening were larger in men than in women, but the difference cancelled after correcting for mandibular radius in the sagittal plane; mandibular rotation was always larger than translation, but never approaching 100%; opening and closing translations were similar within sex, but their paths were longer in men than in women (P < 0.05); rotational angles around vertical and sagittal axes were negligible; the linear correlation between maximum mandibular opening and condylar translation was minor and not significant. In normal subjects, mouth opening and closing as modeled at the interincisor point was determined more by mandibular rotation than by translation, but in no occasion a pure rotation was found. The percentage rotation was not identical during mouth opening and closing; female and male paths were not totally coincident; no correlation between maximum mandibular opening and condylar translation was found.

  4. Carbohydrate mouth rinse enhances time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Cindy; Velasques, Bruna; Koch, Alexander J; Machado, Marco; Paulucio, Dailson; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia

    2017-01-01

    Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded. Blood samples were taken to assess glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac), as well as the perceived exertion (RPE). Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were collected during all trials. Subjects ran longer (P = 0·038) in both the MR (2583 ± 686 s) and ING (2625 ± 804 s) trials, compared to PLA (1935 ± 809 s), covering a greater distance (MR 9685 ± 3511·62 m; ING 9855 ± 4118·62; PLA 7295 ± 3727 m). RER was significantly higher in both ING and MR versus PLA. No difference among trials was observed for other metabolic or cardiovascular variables (VO2 , Lac, Glu, HR), nor for RPE. Endurance capacity, based on time to exhaustion on a treadmill, was improved when either mouth rinsing or ingesting a CHO solution, compared to PLA.

  5. SU-E-T-100: How to Improve the Dose Accuracy for Gantry Angle Dependent Patient Specific IMRT QA Using 2D Ion Chamber Array with Octavius Phantom.

    PubMed

    Choi, D; Nookala, P; Patyal, B

    2012-06-01

    To determine the cross calibration factors which can predict more accurate dose distribution for fixed beam IMRT QA using Octavius phantom. The ion chamber based Octavius 2D-array detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) is a step in the right direction to measure the absolute dose and dose distribution for patient specific IMRT QA. However, the directional dependency of this detector made it less than desirable for angle dependent IMRT QA. We evaluated the new Octavius system (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for angle dependent IMRT QA which compensates the response due to directional dependency. The system is designed for full arc VMAT QA, but does not always work for the discrete angle IMRT QA due to non-averaging of errors caused by directional dependence of detectors. The proposed method uses correction factors for each gantry angle. The dose for a 10cm × 10cm open field for each gantry angle was calculated by treatment planning system and measured using the Octavius phantom. The correction factors were determined at each gantry angle and the dose distribution was renormalized at each angle using correction factors. The discrepancy between measured and planned dose per monitor unit depended on the gantry angle and were in the range of +-4% using the PTW method. Using our method, uncertainty due to the detector angle dependency was eliminated. The new method removes the angle dependency of ion chamber based 2D array detector for the fixed beam IMRT QA. It provides fast, accurate and more realistic results for angle dependent IMRT QA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Magic angle Lee-Goldburg frequency offset irradiation improves the efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP in triple-resonance MAS solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin H.; De Angelis, Anna A.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP, a widely used method for selective double cross-polarization in triple-resonance magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, is improved by performing the tangential-shaped 13C irradiation at an offset frequency that meets the Lee-Goldburg condition (LG-SPECIFIC-CP). This is demonstrated on polycrystalline samples of uniformly 13C, 15N labeled N-acetyl-leucine and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF) at 700 MHz and 900 MHz 1H resonance frequencies, respectively. For the single 13Cα of N-acetyl-leucine, relative to conventional broad band cross-polarization, the SPECIFIC-CP signal has 47% of the intensity. Notably, the LG-SPECIFIC-CP signal has 72% of the intensity, essentially the theoretical maximum. There were no other changes in the experimental parameters. The three 13Cα signals in MLF show some variation in intensities, reflecting the relatively narrow bandwidth of a frequency-offset procedure, and pointing to future developments for this class of experiment.

  7. Magic angle Lee-Goldburg frequency offset irradiation improves the efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP in triple-resonance MAS solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C.H.; De Angelis, Anna A.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP, a widely used method for selective double cross-polarization in triple-resonance magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, is improved by performing the tangential-shaped 13C irradiation at an offset frequency that meets the Lee-Goldburg condition (LG-SPECIFIC-CP). This is demonstrated on polycrystalline samples of uniformly 13C, 15N labeled N-acetyl-leucine and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF) at 700 MHz and 900 MHz 1H resonance frequencies, respectively. For the single 13Cα of N-acetyl-leucine, relative to conventional broad band cross-polarization, the SPECIFIC-CP signal has 47% of the intensity. Notably, the LG-SPECIFIC-CP signal has 72% of the intensity, essentially the theoretical maximum. There were no other changes in the experimental parameters. The three 13Cα signals in MLF show some variation in intensities, reflecting the relatively narrow bandwidth of a frequency-offset procedure, and pointing to future developments for this class of experiment. PMID:25051542

  8. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  9. Magic angle Lee-Goldburg frequency offset irradiation improves the efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP in triple-resonance MAS solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin H; De Angelis, Anna A; Opella, Stanley J

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency and selectivity of SPECIFIC-CP, a widely used method for selective double cross-polarization in triple-resonance magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, is improved by performing the tangential-shaped (13)C irradiation at an offset frequency that meets the Lee-Goldburg condition (LG-SPECIFIC-CP). This is demonstrated on polycrystalline samples of uniformly (13)C, (15)N labeled N-acetyl-leucine and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF) at 700MHz and 900MHz (1)H resonance frequencies, respectively. For the single (13)Cα of N-acetyl-leucine, relative to conventional broad band cross-polarization, the SPECIFIC-CP signal has 47% of the intensity. Notably, the LG-SPECIFIC-CP signal has 72% of the intensity, essentially the theoretical maximum. There were no other changes in the experimental parameters. The three (13)Cα signals in MLF show some variation in intensities, reflecting the relatively narrow bandwidth of a frequency-offset procedure, and pointing to future developments for this class of experiment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Candida in mouth or on dummy?

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D J; Coughlin, R P; Poskitt, E M

    1985-01-01

    Mouth and dummy swabs for Candida spp. were obtained from 100 children under 18 months old admitted with acute medical conditions. Forty four per cent of dummies were colonised by Candida spp. Children who sucked dummies had clinical thrush and positive mouth swabs for candida more frequently than those who did not. PMID:4004318

  11. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  12. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  13. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  14. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  15. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    PubMed

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  16. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key Points​ ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  17. Willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation in a first response program in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mecrow, Tom Stefan; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Rahman, Fazlur; Nusrat, Nahida; Scarr, Justin; Linnan, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Timely mouth-to-mouth ventilation is critical to resuscitate drowning victims. While drowning is frequent, there are no lay persons trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rural Bangladesh. As part of a feasibility study to create a first response system in a conservative Islamic village environment, a pilot was undertaken to examine willingness to provide mouth-to-mouth ventilation for drowning resuscitation. A questionnaire was administered to 721 participants at the beginning of a village-based CPR training course. Trainees were asked regarding willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation on a variety of hypothetical victims. Responses were tabulated according to the age, sex and relationship of the trainee to the postulated victim. Willingness to deliver mouth-to-mouth ventilation was influenced by sex of a potential recipient and relationship to the trainee. Adolescent participants were significantly more willing to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation on someone of the same sex. Willingness increased for both sexes when the postulated victim was an immediate family member. Willingness was lower with extended family members and lowest with strangers. Adult trainees were more likely to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation than adolescent trainees in any scenario. Adults express more willingness to resuscitate a broader range of drowning victims than adolescents. However in rural Bangladesh, adolescents are more likely to be in close proximity to a drowning in progress. Further efforts are needed to increase willingness of adolescents to provide resuscitation to drowning victims. However, despite potential cultural limitations, trained responders appear to be willing to give mouth-to-mouth ventilation to various recipients. Final determination will require evidence on response outcomes which is being collected.

  18. Intralesional injection versus mouth rinse of triamcinolone acetonide in oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Chan; Shin, Seung Youp; Kim, Sung Wan; Eun, Young Gyu

    2013-03-01

    To compare the efficacy, relapse, and adverse effects between intralesional injection and mouth rinse of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). A randomized controlled study. College medical center. Forty consecutive patients, who had been diagnosed with OLP, were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups using intralesional injection or mouth rinse of TA. The severity of pain and burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. The signs of OLP were quantified using a special scoring system for OLP. The rate of relapse and the adverse effects were compared between both groups. The VAS scores for pain and burning mouth sensation and objective scoring for OLP were significantly improved at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks in both groups. The changes in the VAS for burning mouth sensation, OHIP-14, and objective scoring for OLP were similar between both groups. The change in the VAS for pain from baseline to week 1 in the intralesional injection group was significantly higher than in the mouth rinse group. The rate of adverse effects was significantly higher in the mouth rinse group than in the intralesional injection group (44.4% vs 5.0%). The efficacies of both treatments were similar. The rate of adverse effects was significantly lower for intralesional injection of TA than mouth rinse of TA.

  19. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  20. Antiseptic mouth rinses: an update on comparative effectiveness, risks and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Osso, Diane; Kanani, Nehal

    2013-02-01

    Antiseptic mouth rinses are widely recommended and marketed to improve oral health. This article summarizes current studies on the comparative effectiveness of selected antiseptic mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily exposure, including salivary flow rate, oral cancer and wear of composite restorations. Electronic database searches were conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to identify articles comparing the effectiveness of 4 commercially marketed antiseptic mouth rinses differing in active ingredients (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils (menthol, thymol and eucalyptol) and methyl salicylate, 0.7% cetylpyridinium chloride and 20% aloe vera gel) for controlling plaque and gingivitis. Criteria for inclusion included controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews appearing in English language publications evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily usage. The majority of studies have shown mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate or essential oils and methyl salicylate provide clinically significant anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits. Cetylpyridinium chloride has been found to provide only limited clinical benefits compared to inactive control mouth rinse. Inadequate evidence is available to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera gel. Chlorhexidine, essential oils and cetylpyridinium have been found to be safe. However, limited data are available on the effects of the mouth rinse on wear patterns of dental restorations. Studies reviewed reported no significant difference in salivary flow rate related to alcohol based mouth rinse. Research supports the effectiveness of antiseptic mouth rinses in reducing plaque and gingivitis as an adjunct to home care. Insufficient evidence is available to support the claim that oral antiseptics can reduce the risk of developing periodontitis or the

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  2. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as “an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions.” BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  3. Coastal Processes Study of San Bernard River Mouth, Texas: Stability and Maintenance of Mouth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    This report documents an investigation of the coastal and inlet physical processes acting at the San Bernard River mouth, Texas. The U.S. Army...Brazos River and the San Bernard River and vicinity. In recent years, a spit has grown from northeast to southwest across the San Bernard River mouth...for maintaining the San Bernard River mouth. The San Bernard River is located in north-central Texas and flows through the alluvial valleys of the

  4. Hookworm - mouth of the organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This photograph shows the front section of the hookworm, and the mouth parts which it uses to ... blood for nourishment, are visible. Three species of hookworm cause infection in the United States, including this ...

  5. Precision attachments for the partially dentate mouth

    PubMed Central

    Preiskel, H W

    1974-01-01

    Some uses of precision attachments in restoring the partially dentate mouth are considered. These devices are indicated where neither the clasp-retained denture nor the fixed bridge is entirely suitable. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4614689

  6. The effect of mouth breathing versus nasal breathing on dentofacial and craniofacial development in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Harari, Doron; Redlich, Meir; Miri, Shalish; Hamud, Tachsin; Gross, Menachem

    2010-10-01

    To determine the effect of mouth breathing during childhood on craniofacial and dentofacial development compared to nasal breathing in malocclusion patients treated in the orthodontic clinic. Retrospective study in a tertiary medical center. Clinical variables and cephalometric parameters of 116 pediatric patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment were reviewed. The study group included 55 pediatric patients who suffered from symptoms and signs of nasal obstruction, and the control group included 61 patients who were normal nasal breathers. Mouth breathers demonstrated considerable backward and downward rotation of the mandible, increased overjet, increase in the mandible plane angle, a higher palatal plane, and narrowing of both upper and lower arches at the level of canines and first molars compared to the nasal breathers group. The prevalence of a posterior cross bite was significantly more frequent in the mouth breathers group (49%) than nose breathers (26%), (P = .006). Abnormal lip-to-tongue anterior oral seal was significantly more frequent in the mouth breathers group (56%) than in the nose breathers group (30%) (P = .05). Naso-respiratory obstruction with mouth breathing during critical growth periods in children has a higher tendency for clockwise rotation of the growing mandible, with a disproportionate increase in anterior lower vertical face height and decreased posterior facial height.

  7. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  8. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jason A.; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. PMID:26958895

  9. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-08

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The efficacy of antimicrobial mouth rinses in oral health care.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K; Adachi, M; Iijima, K

    1998-02-01

    mechanical control of plaque, since they tend to have difficulty in brushing teeth by themselves. Indeed, the use of antimicrobial mouth rinse in these elderly people proved useful not only in preventing bacterial pneumonia, but also in improving their quality of life by preserving their oral health.

  11. Association between mouth opening and upper body movement with intake of different-size food pieces during eating.

    PubMed

    Inada, E; Saitoh, I; Nakakura-Ohshima, K; Maruyama, T; Iwasaki, T; Murakami, D; Tanaka, M; Hayasaki, H; Yamasaki, Y

    2012-03-01

    Head rotation is coordinated with mandibular movement during mouth opening, and the range of head rotation and mouth opening change with food size. However, past research did not include upper body movement, and no reports have related head and mandibular movement during realistic eating. The purpose of this study was to analyse head and mandibular movements with intake of different-sized food pieces during realistic eating. The test food consisted of apple cut into two different cube sizes (10mm and 20mm). Head and mandibular movements of 20 healthy young adults eating the apple pieces were simultaneously recorded in three dimensions by a wireless opto-electronic system. Reflective markers were attached to the upper lip and chin to measure the mouth opening range. Five markers were attached to eyeglasses frames to measure linear motion and rotation of the head. One marker was attached to the jugular notch of the sternum to measure linear motion of the upper body. Linear motion, and the inclination angle of the head and upper body, and mouth opening range were compared during intake of different-sized apple pieces. Mouth opening, head-neck rotation angle and the amount of upper body forward translation and inclination increased with larger apple pieces. However, isolated relative head motion was stabilized. We conclude that upper body forward motion and head-neck rotation assist mouth opening whilst stabilizing head orientation, and that the range of head-neck rotation angle, upper body translation and range of mouth opening change with food size during realistic eating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Sun, Andy; Wu, Kai-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2013-10-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the presence of burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically apparent mucosal alterations. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palate. In addition to a burning sensation, the patients with BMS may also complain unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms: primary and secondary BMS. The primary BMS is essential or idiopathic, in which the organic local/systemic causes cannot be identified and a neuropathological cause is likely. The diagnosis of primary BMS depends mainly on exclusion of etiological factors. The secondary BMS is caused by local, systemic, and/or psychological factors; thus, its diagnosis depends on identification of the exact causative factor. When local, systemic or psychological factors are present, treatment or elimination of these factors usually results in a significant clinical improvement of BMS symptoms. Vitamin, zinc, or hormone replacement therapy has been found to be effective for reducing the oral burning or pain symptom in some BMS patients with deficiency of the corresponding factor. If patients still have the symptoms after the removal of potential causes, drug therapy should be instituted. Previous randomized controlled clinical trials found that drug therapy with capsaicin, alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and antidepressants may provide relief of oral burning or pain symptom. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  13. Improved neutralising antibody response against foot-and-mouth-disease virus in mice inoculated with a multi-epitope peptide vaccine using polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid as an adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Fu, Yuanfang; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Chen, Yingli; Li, Dong; Liu, Zaixin

    2012-10-01

    A peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was designed. The peptide immunogen had a G-H loop domain optimised for immunogenicity and broad-spectrum antigenicity to different lineages of serotype-O FMD viruses (FMDVs). Polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] was used as the adjuvant to overcome the low humoral antibody levels often observed in association with peptide-based vaccines. The multi-epitope peptide alone induced the secretion of a certain level of neutralising antibodies in mice. In contrast, co-administration of the multi-epitope peptide with poly (I:C) induced the secretion of a significantly higher level of neutralising antibodies (P<0.005). Indeed, the resultant level was slightly higher even than that induced by the inactivated vaccine (P>0.05). These initial results indicate that poly (I:C) is highly effective as an adjuvant for use with the FMDV multi-epitope peptide vaccine. This combination could yield a promising vaccine for the prevention and control of FMD. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficiency of this combination on animals susceptible naturally to FMDV.

  14. An audit of CO2 laser surgery in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A B; Frame, J W

    1994-01-01

    The use of the carbon dioxide laser to perform surgical procedures in the oral cavity has been described the last few years. This study involved the clinical audit of 83 patients who had undergone laser surgery in the oral cavity during 1985 to 1990 in Birmingham, England. The diagnosis of the 83 lesions treated were benign, premalignant or malignant. The most common sites of the lesions were the floor of the mouth/ventral surface of the tongue and other parts of the tongue, followed by upper alveolus and/or palate, angle of the mouth and/or cheeks, lower alveolus, and lips. The results showed that the use of the carbon dioxide laser in treating oral soft-tissue pathology presented advantages over conventional techniques. Although trismus, numbness and early signs of infection were observed after surgery, local discomfort and pain were the most common complaints after laser surgery. The carbon dioxide laser does not offer any enhanced cure-rate for oral pathology, but rather it is a precise means of removing soft tissue lesions in selected patients with little upset afterwards.

  15. A new angle on the Euler angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  16. The evaluation of maximum bite force in the occlusal rehabilitation of patient with Angle Class III malocclusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Dilek; Dogan, Arife

    2013-01-01

    The case report describes the occlusal rehabilitation of a male patient with Angle Class III malocclusion and its effect on maximum bite force. The main complaints of patient were masticatory difficulty and poor esthetic. The patient's expectations from the treatment were a good esthetic and function with a less invasive and relatively promptly way. Therefore, increasing of the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and then restoring the maxillary and mandibular teeth was chosen by the patient among the treatment options. At the beginning of treatment maximum bite force of patient was measured. Then an occlusal splint was provided to evaluate the adaptation of the patient to the altered OVD. Full mouth rehabilitation with metal ceramic restorations was made. After the completion of full mouth restoration, bite force measurement was repeated and patient exhibited increased maximum bite force. Full mouth restorative treatment in a patient with Class III malocclusion could be an effective treatment approach to resolve esthetic concern and to improve masticatory function related to maximum bite force. PMID:24049580

  17. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society.

  18. Mouth sticks: their past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Toor nee Bachoo, I K; Tabiat-Pour, S; Critchlow, S B

    2015-09-11

    Patients with physical disabilities precluding functional use of their limbs can benefit enormously from the expertise of the dental profession. The dental clinician is able to not only meet the routine oral health needs of these patients, but possesses the unique skills and knowledge to provide specialised oral prosthetic appliances which can facilitate a range of independent activities. Mouth sticks, as they are commonly known, are dental prostheses that are held intra-orally by the patient and manipulated to perform numerous actions such as drawing, writing and painting. They have been well documented within dental and occupational therapy literature and reports of their fabrication date back over 150 years, albeit in a very rudimentary form. The enduring value of mouth sticks to the physically disabled population is that they can provide a degree of self-reliance which would otherwise not be afforded to them. This article discusses the evolution of mouth sticks, principles of mouth stick design, patient selection criteria and treatment planning considerations. We present two recent clinical cases where mouth sticks have been indicated and have been indispensable to the user, detailing the clinical and laboratory stages involved.

  19. Statement on mouth cancer diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Kirby, J

    2014-01-01

    The number of people being diagnosed with mouth cancer (oral cancer) is increasing, with notable rises in incidence in younger people and in females. There are certain lifestyle habits that can increase the risk of mouth cancer, such as smoking or chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol above recommended levels (especially in those who also smoke), and chewing betel nut (areca nut). Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of some types of mouth cancer, and too much sun exposure may also raise the risk of lip cancers. The signs and symptoms of mouth cancer can often be seen or felt, and any red or white patch, ulcer or lump can be an early sign if it lasts for three or more weeks. If people notice any of these changes, they should seek help from their dentist, doctor, or another healthcare professional without delay, because if mouth cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, when the lesions are small, treatment is generally less complicated and more effective.

  20. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  1. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shaun M.; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key points The paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint. The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors. The significant increase in peak power

  2. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  3. A dynamic model of mouth closing movements in clariid catfishes: the role of enlarged jaw adductors.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Adriaens, Dominique; Herrel, Anthony

    2005-05-07

    Some species of Clariidae (air breathing catfishes) have extremely large (hypertrophied) jaw closure muscles. Besides producing higher bite forces, the enlarged muscles may also cause higher accelerations of the lower jaw during rapid mouth closure. Thus, jaw adductor hypertrophy could potentially also enable faster mouth closure. In this study, a forward dynamic model of jaw closing is developed to evaluate the importance of jaw adductor hypertrophy on the speed of mouth closure. The model includes inertia, pressure, tissue resistance and hydrodynamic drag forces on the lower jaw, which is modelled as a rotating half-ellipse. Simulations are run for four clariid species showing a gradual increase in jaw adductor hypertrophy (Clarias gariepinus, Clariallabes longicauda, Gymnallabes typus and Channallabes apus). The model was validated using data from high-speed videos of prey captures in these species. In general, the kinematic profiles of the fastest mouth closure from each species are reasonably well predicted by the model. The model was also used to compare the four species during standardized mouth closures (same initial gape angle, travel distance and cranial size). These simulations suggest that the species with enlarged jaw adductors have an increased speed of jaw closure (in comparison with the non-hypertrophied C. gariepinus) for short lower jaw rotations and when feeding at high gape angles. Consequently, the jaw system in these species seems well equipped to capture relatively large, evasive prey. For prey captures during which the lower jaw rotates freely over a larger distance before impacting the prey, the higher kinematic efficiency of the C. gariepinus jaw system results in the fastest jaw closures. In all cases, the model predicts that an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area of the jaw muscles does indeed contribute to the speed of jaw closure in clariid fish.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Javali, M A

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients.

  5. An Improved Instrument for Angular Scattering Measurements of Candidate Planetary Surface Regolith Materials at Extremely Small Phase Angles: Relevance to the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Boryta, M. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Manatt, K.; Kroner, D. O.; Smythe, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    The reflection variation and the polarization change with phase angle of radiation scattered from particulate materials has been studied for a century in efforts to understand the nature of clouds, aerosols, planetary ring systems and planetary regolith materials. The increase in reflectance as phase angle decreases, the 'Opposition Effect', has been well documented in astronomical observations and laboratory studies. Variations in linear polarization near small phase angles have also been well studied (e.g. Shkuratov et al.,2002, Rosenbush et al. 2015). While the phenomena have been well documented, a generally accepted physical explanation is still lacking despite many excellent theoretical modeling efforts. We have undertaken a reductionist approach in deconstructing the process. We have fabricated a goniometer which permits us to present samples with discrete wavelengths of monochromatic light that is linearly polarized in and perpendicular to the scattering plane. We also can illuminate our samples with both right handed and left handed circular polarization senses. Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes record the reflected radiation from the sample after it has passed through linear and circular polarizing analyzers(Kroner et al.). This reductionist approach permits us to measure the reflectance and polarization phase curves and the change in linear and circular polarization ratio (LPR and CPR) with phase angle between 0.056 and 17 degrees. LPR and CPR are found to be important indicators of the amount of multiple scattering in the medium (Hapke, 1990, Nelson et al, 1998, 2000;Hapke, 2012). This approach provides a way to distinguish between suggested models and to gain greater insight into the process of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation in a variety of media. This work was supported by NASA's Cassini Science Program Hapke, B. (1990), Icarus, 88, 407-217. Hapke, B. (2012). Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, Cambridge U. Press, New York

  6. Cryotherapy for Treatment of Mouth Mucocele

    PubMed Central

    Aulakh, Kamaldeep K; Brar, Ramandeep S; Azad, Anurag; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Jyoti, Bhuvan

    2016-01-01

    A mucocele is a common salivary gland disorder that most commonly affects young adults. A 35-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of floor of mouth. The aim of this case report is to present the management of mucocele present in floor of the mouth in a young female patient using liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. The present case report has also discussed mechanism of action, current protocol of cryosurgery with emphasis on clinical pros and cons along with the clinical outcomes. PMID:27843280

  7. Cryotherapy for Treatment of Mouth Mucocele.

    PubMed

    Aulakh, Kamaldeep K; Brar, Ramandeep S; Azad, Anurag; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Jyoti, Bhuvan

    2016-01-01

    A mucocele is a common salivary gland disorder that most commonly affects young adults. A 35-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of floor of mouth. The aim of this case report is to present the management of mucocele present in floor of the mouth in a young female patient using liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. The present case report has also discussed mechanism of action, current protocol of cryosurgery with emphasis on clinical pros and cons along with the clinical outcomes.

  8. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  9. Full-Mouth Rehabilitation Using All-Ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Luvizuto, Eloá R; Queiroz, Thallita P; Betoni-Júnior, Walter; Sonoda, Celso K; Panzarini, Sônia R; de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Boeck, Eloisa M

    2015-09-01

    The scientific and technological advancement of cosmetic dentistry has improved metal-free ceramic systems for fixed prosthodontics as well as porcelain veneers, making them an excellent treatment option for delivering superior cosmetic results. The authors present a clinical case of full-mouth rehabilitation using all-ceramic restorations with porcelain metal-free unit crowns in the maxilla, and porcelain veneers from the left inferior premolar to the right inferior premolar. Using this approach, they were able to achieve an excellent esthetic and functional result for the patient.

  10. Dual-view angle backlight module design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Tsuen; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2015-10-01

    We propose a bilayer light guide plate (BLGP) with specially designed microstructures and two light source modules to achieve an adjustable viewing angle backlight for ecofriendly displays. The dual viewing angle backlight module has a thin, simple structure and a high optical efficiency. Comparison with the conventional edge-lit backlight module shows an improvement in the on-axis luminance of the narrow viewing angle mode of 4.3 times and a decrease in the half-luminance angle of 7° in the horizontal direction. When using the wide viewing angle mode, there is an improvement in the on-axis luminance of 1.8 times and an improvement in the half-luminance angle of 54° in the horizontal direction. The uniformity of illuminance can reach 80% in each mode. The backlight optical sheet number is reduced from 5 to 1.

  11. The benefits of planar circular mouths on suction feeding performance.

    PubMed

    Skorczewski, Tyler; Cheer, Angela; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-08-07

    Suction feeding is the most common form of prey capture across aquatic feeding vertebrates and many adaptations that enhance efficiency and performance are expected. Many suction feeders have mechanisms that allow the mouth to form a planar and near-circular opening that is believed to have beneficial hydrodynamic effects. We explore the effects of the flattened and circular mouth opening through computational fluid dynamics simulations that allow comparisons with other mouth profiles. Compared to mouths with lateral notches, we find that the planar mouth opening results in higher flow rates into the mouth and a region of highest flow that is positioned at the centre of the mouth aperture. Planar mouths provide not only for better total fluid flow rates through the mouth but also through the centre of the mouth near where suction feeders position their prey. Circular mouths are shown to provide the quickest capture times for spherical and elliptical prey because they expose the prey item to a large region of high flow. Planar and circular mouths result in higher flow velocities with peak flow located at the centre of the mouth opening and they maximize the capacity of the suction feeders to exert hydrodynamic forces on the prey.

  12. The benefits of planar circular mouths on suction feeding performance

    PubMed Central

    Skorczewski, Tyler; Cheer, Angela; Wainwright, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Suction feeding is the most common form of prey capture across aquatic feeding vertebrates and many adaptations that enhance efficiency and performance are expected. Many suction feeders have mechanisms that allow the mouth to form a planar and near-circular opening that is believed to have beneficial hydrodynamic effects. We explore the effects of the flattened and circular mouth opening through computational fluid dynamics simulations that allow comparisons with other mouth profiles. Compared to mouths with lateral notches, we find that the planar mouth opening results in higher flow rates into the mouth and a region of highest flow that is positioned at the centre of the mouth aperture. Planar mouths provide not only for better total fluid flow rates through the mouth but also through the centre of the mouth near where suction feeders position their prey. Circular mouths are shown to provide the quickest capture times for spherical and elliptical prey because they expose the prey item to a large region of high flow. Planar and circular mouths result in higher flow velocities with peak flow located at the centre of the mouth opening and they maximize the capacity of the suction feeders to exert hydrodynamic forces on the prey. PMID:22319101

  13. [Motor activity of the mouth and mouth therapy in cerebral palsy. Preliminary results in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders of the mouth in children with cerebral palsy using the Castillo-Morales concept].

    PubMed

    Avalle, C; Fischer-Brandies, H; Schmid, R G

    1986-01-01

    56 patients suffering from connatal cerebral palsy were treated with removable orthodontic appliances possessing stimulation areas according to Castillo-Morales. The intention was to improve the well-known orofacial dysfunctions of these patients. The evaluation of a standard treatment schedule leads to the following statements: The tongue and lip control can be improved in many patients, as well as the chewing and swallowing pattern, the speech and the problem of saliva running out of the mouth. The resting-position of the tongue is normalized in some of the cases. The habit of an open mouth can hardly ever be improved. In a small number of patients some parameters of orofacial function worsened during treatment; in most of these cases, however, a general improvement of orofacial function justified further treatment with palatal plates.

  14. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Treesearch

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  15. Effect of granule properties on rough mouth feel and palatability of orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kanada, Ken; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we evaluated the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing core granules with different particle sizes, coating, and types of materials using visual analog scales (VAS). Tableting the core granules into ODTs reduced rough mouth feel and improved overall palatability compared to the ingestion of core granules alone. Moreover, the evaluation performed immediately after spitting out ODTs demonstrated differences in rough mouth feel between ODTs containing placebo and core granules. Rough mouth feel was found to be significantly more intense with core granules with particle sizes ≥ 200 μm. Since ODTs may contain taste-masked particles, palatability of ODTs containing coated core granules was also evaluated. Although coating with polymers impairs palatability, it was improved by coating the outer layer with d-mannitol. The effects on palatability of materials constituting core granules were also evaluated, with reduced rough mouth feel observed with core granules composed of water-soluble additives. Based on these data, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the threshold VAS scores at which the subjects felt roughness and discomfort. In addition, the threshold particle size of the core granule contained within the ODT required for feeling roughness was determined to be 244 μm. This study elucidated the effect of the properties of masking particles on the rough mouth feel and palatability of ODTs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zoology: A New Mouth for Amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimir; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2016-05-09

    Deuterostomes - a key subdivision of animals - are characterized by the mouth developing anteriorly as a rupture between the outer epithelium and the foregut wall. A new study of amphioxus challenges this view and proposes separate evolutionary origins of deuterostome oral openings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  18. Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Hmong (Hmoob) ...

  19. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  1. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth KEY POINTS n Have a dental checkup before your transplant procedure. n See your ... problems . SEE YOUR DENTIST Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth BEFORE ...

  2. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Radiation for Cancer in Your Head or Neck? If ...

  3. CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTHLINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTH-LINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH OF PLATTE RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST - High Line Canal, Mouth of South Platte River to confluence with Second Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  4. Mouthwash Helps Kill Gonorrhea Germs in Mouth, Throat: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162649.html Mouthwash Helps Kill Gonorrhea Germs in Mouth, Throat: Study Listerine's maker has ... A commercial brand of mouthwash can help control gonorrhea bacteria in the mouth, and daily use may ...

  5. A new variable angled locking volar plate system for Colles' fracture: outcome study and time-course improvement of objective clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masataka; Ando, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Our purposes were to report the radiographic outcomes and complications of patients with Colles' fracture treated with the Nakashima locking volar plate system (variable angled distal screw locking mechanism) prospectively and to report the results of objective clinical variables such as grip strength and range of motion of the wrist prospectively at up to one year. This study consisted of eight men and 32 women for analysis of radiographic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination and radial length) and complications. Radiographic parameters were measured pre-operatively, immediately post-operatively and at final follow-up visit. The average age at operation was 60.3 years old. Among them, we selected 25 cases (6 men and 19 women) whom we followed up at six weeks, three months, six months and one year post-operatively. The average age at operation in this group was 62 years old. We measured objective clinical variables (grip strength, forearm rotation, wrist extension/flexion) at each visit. Except for volar tilt, radiographic parameters revealed no significant changes between immediately post-operative radiographs and radiographs at final follow-up visit. Complications included loss of reduction in two cases. Objective clinical variables other than pronation measurement showed significant increase at each visit up to one year post-operatively. Satisfactory clinical and radiographic results were obtained by using this system. The variable angled distal fragment plating system appears to be a reliable construct for rigid fixation of Colles' fractures; however, technical errors can occur, as with other fixation systems. We demonstrated that the follow-up of Colles' fracture treated by our volar locking plate less than one year post-operative may be insufficient.

  6. Maximal and submaximal mouth opening with mouth gags in cats: implications for maxillary artery blood flow.

    PubMed

    Martin-Flores, M; Scrivani, P V; Loew, E; Gleed, C A; Ludders, J W

    2014-04-01

    The use of spring-loaded mouth gags in cats can be associated with the development of central neurological deficits, including blindness. In this species, the maxillary arteries are the main source of blood supply to the retinae and brain. Spring-loaded gags generate constant force after placement that could contribute to bulging of the soft tissues between the mandible and the tympanic bulla. Under these circumstances, the maxillary arteries can become compressed as they course between these osseous structures. Smaller gags that might apply less force to the mouth were investigated to determine if they preserved maxillary artery blood flow. Six healthy adult cats were anesthetized. Electroretinography (ERG) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed without the use of a mouth gag and during submaximal (plastic mouth gags of 20, 30 and 42 mm in length between canine teeth) and maximal mouth opening. Maximal mouth opening produced alterations in ERG waveforms consistent with circulatory compromise in 1/6 cats and reductions in signal intensity during MRA in 4/6 cats. Placement of a 42 mm plastic gag produced a reduction in MRA signal in 1/6 cats. No changes were observed with smaller gags. The force applied against the mouth was significantly higher with the spring-loaded gag than with any other gags. The use of a smaller mouth gags was associated with fewer alterations of indicators of maxillary artery blood flow. Nevertheless, a 42 mm plastic gag, equivalent to the size of a needle cap, resulted in an abnormal MRA in one cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simplified models of flue instruments: influence of mouth geometry on the sound source.

    PubMed

    Dequand, S; Willems, J F H; Leroux, M; Vullings, R; van Weert, M; Thieulot, C; Hirschberg, A

    2003-03-01

    Flue instruments such as the recorder flute and the transverse flute have different mouth geometries and acoustical response. The effect of the mouth geometry is studied by considering the aeroacoustical response of a simple whistle. The labium of a transverse flute has a large edge angle (60 degrees) compared to that of a recorder flute (15 degrees). Furthermore, the ratio W/h of the mouth width W to the jet thickness h can be varied in the transverse flute (lips of the musician) while it is fixed to a value W/h approximately 4 in a recorder flute. A systematic experimental study of the steady oscillation behavior has been carried out. Results of acoustical pressure measurements and flow visualization are presented. The sharp edge of the recorder provides a sound source which is rich in harmonics at the cost of stability. The larger angle of the labium of the flute seems to be motivated by a better stability of the oscillations for thick jets but could also be motivated by a reduction of broadband turbulence noise. We propose two simplified sound source models which could be used for sound synthesis: a jet-drive model for W/h>2 and a discrete-vortex model for W/h<2.

  8. The effect of mouth breathing on dentofacial morphology of growing child.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Pandey, R K; Nagar, A; Agarwal, S P; Gupta, V K

    2012-01-01

    The oral mode of respiration cause postural adaptations of structures in the head and neck region producing the effect on the positional relationship of the jaws. The aim of this study is to verify the skeletal relationship of mouth and nose breathing child. A cross sectional study was performed to assess the association of changed mode of respiration with dentofacial growth. One hundred children among which 54 were mouth breathers and 46 were nasal breathers of 6-12 years of age were submitted to clinical examination and cephalometric radiographical analysis. Statistical analysis : Chi-square test for proportions and independent sample's "t" test for parametric data is used. The mean values of N-Me (P<0.001) ANS-Me (P<0.001) and SN-GoGn (P<0.001) for mouth breathers is significantly higher. ArGo-GoMe (P=0.003) and (P<0.011) for 6-9 and 9-12 years age group, respectively, were significantly low in nasal breathers group. Changed mode of respiration was associated with increased facial height, mandibular plane angle and gonial angle.

  9. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  10. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  11. Mouth breathing children and cephalometric pattern: does the stage of dental development matter?

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Lopes, Petrus B; Pereira, Tatiana B J; Franco, Leticia P; Becker, Helena M G; Oliveira, Dauro D

    2012-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the cephalometric pattern between mouth breathing children with primary dentition and mixed dentition. Cephalometric measurements of 126 mouth breathing children (MB) were compared to 126 nasal breathing controls (NB). Both groups were divided into deciduous dentition (mean age 4 years, 8 months) and mixed dentition (mean age 7 years, 9 months) groups. A statistically significant difference was observed in the dentofacial patterns of MB children compared to NB children. The total length of the mandible was smaller in MB compared to NB children. However, this difference was found only in subjects with mixed dentition. The length of the mandibular corpus is similar in MB and NB children, although older MB children with mixed dentition had significantly smaller measurements. The lower anterior facial height was higher in MB compared to NB children, but this difference was evident only in younger children with primary dentition. Mandibular plane angle, Y-axis angle and lower anterior facial height to total anterior facial height ratio were greater, and posterior facial height to total anterior facial height ratio was smaller in MB than NB children, indicating that mouth breathers had a more vertical facial growth pattern. However, no differences were found in the vertical growth pattern associated with the stage of dental development. The ANB angle was not associated with the maturational status of occlusion. Linear measurements and the gonial angle were significantly different between children with primary and mixed dentition, but such differences were associated with normal vertical growth. The present investigation rejected the null hypothesis and showed significant cephalometric differences between primary and mixed dentition MB children. Mouth breathing children in the mixed dentition have a smaller mandible (in terms of total length and corpus length) than nasal breathers. In children with primary dentition

  12. [Study of condyle movement in Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion with temporomandibular dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Fu; Chen, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Subjects with normal occlusion, Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion and Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion with temporomandibular dysfunctions(TMD) were included, and their protraction and retraction, opening and closing mouth were recorded and compared to determine the condyle movement characteristics of Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion patients with TMD. Thirty cases of Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion with TMD (experimental group), 30 cases of simple Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion (control group 1) and 30 cases of normal occlusion (control group 2) were chosen, the condyle movement of mouth opening and closing, protraction and retraction were recorded and analyzed by computer aided axiography (CADIAX Ⅲ) , the measurements were compared and qualitative analysis was performed. SPSS 10.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The indexes of opening and closing mouth, forward, backward and lateral movement were higher in experimental group and control group 1 than in the control group 2, especially in the vertical direction. The maximum variation was on the Y axis between the experimental group and the control group 2, the lateral movement of working side was significantly higher than that of the normal group, while the movement ranges at other directions were significantly smaller than that of control group 2, especially in opening and closing mouth horizontally upward and the maximum space displacement at right, upward direction (P<0.01). The tracking of condyle movements has its own characteristics in three dimensions in the experimental group ,compared with control group 1 and 2.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-04-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes.

  14. Glass, rubber, and nylon: how to make a mouth aspirator on a budget for handling adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Condon, George C; Campbell, Ernest E; McCuiston, Linda

    2011-12-01

    A mouth aspirator with a bent glass tip was designed for adult mosquito collection and transportation. This aspirator has been utilized for mosquito laboratory and operational research in New Jersey for >60 years. We provide schematics and instruction for construction of this inexpensive and simple mouth aspirator, which offers improved maneuverability of handling adult mosquitoes from rearing cages in the laboratory and field application cages.

  15. The structure of vocal sounds produced with the mouth closed or with the mouth open in treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2008-05-01

    Frogs and toads mostly call with their mouths shut, unlike many other vertebrates. Sound is generated when air crosses the larynx, but there is no direct airflow to the external environment and radiation occurs at the skin. This study directly compares the acoustic output obtained from euthanized frogs with the mouth open against the output obtained with the mouth closed during activation of the larynx by airflow. With the mouth closed, the vocal sac was inflated and the acoustic energy was concentrated in the same harmonics as in the advertisement call, whereas with the mouth open, energy was spread in a wide range of harmonics. The acoustic output at the dominant frequency was more intense with the mouth closed than with the mouth open. More sound was radiated through the vocal sac and head than through the rest of the body. The spectral differences between open and closed mouth treatments matched the differences observed between natural advertisement calls, produced with the mouth closed, and distress calls, produced with the mouth open. By calling with the mouth closed, treefrogs can potentially produce advertisement calls with the energy concentrated in a narrower frequency range than with the mouth open.

  16. A new way to estimate disease prevalence from random partial-mouth samples.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Marks, Sarah J; Sanders, Anne E; Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Beck, James D

    2017-03-01

    Standard partial-mouth estimators of chronic periodontitis (CP) that define an individual's disease status solely in terms of selected sites underestimate prevalence. This study proposes an improved prevalence estimator based on randomly sampled sites and evaluates its accuracy in a well-characterized population cohort. Importantly, this method does not require determination of disease status at the individual level. Instead, it uses a statistical distributional approach to derive a prevalence formula from randomly selected periodontal sites. The approach applies the conditional linear family of distributions for correlated binary data (i.e. the presence or absence of disease at sites within a mouth) with two simple working assumptions: (i) the probability of having disease is the same across all sites; and (ii) the correlation of disease status is the same for all pairs of sites within the mouth. Using oral examination data from 6793 participants in the Arteriolosclerosis Risk in Communities study, the new formula yields CP prevalence estimates that are much closer than standard partial mouth estimates to full mouth estimates. Resampling of the cohort shows that the proposed estimators give good precision and accuracy for as few as six tooth sites sampled per individual. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Application of three-dimensional printing technique in artificial bone fabrication for bone defect after mandibular angle ostectomy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng; Zhu, Ming; Hou, Yikang; Qu, Miao; Xu, Yourong; Chai, Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the application of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique combining with 3-D CT and computer aided-design technique in customized artificial bone fabrication, correcting mandibular asymmetry deformity after mandibular angle ostectomy. Between April 2011 and June 2013, 23 female patients with mandibular asymmetry deformity after mandibular angle ostectomy were treated. The mean age was 27 years (range, 22-34 years). The disease duration of mandibular asymmetry deformity was 6-16 months (mean, 12 months). According to the CT data and individualized mandibular angle was simulated based on mirror theory, 3-D printed implants were fabricated as the standard reference for manufacturers to fabricated artificial bone graft, and then mandible repair operation was performed utilizing the customized artificial bone to improve mandibular asymmetry. The operation time varied from 40 to 60 minutes (mean, 50 minutes). Primary healing of incisions was obtained in all patients; no infection, hematoma, and difficulty in opening mouth occurred. All 23 patients were followed up 3-10 months (mean, 6.7 months). After operation, all patients obtained satisfactory facial and mandibular symmetry. 3-D CT reconstructive examination results after 3 months of operation showed good integration of the artificial bone. 3-D printing technique combined with 3-D CT and computer aided design technique can be a viable alternative to the approach of maxillofacial defects repair after mandibular angle ostectomy, which provides a accurate and easy way.

  18. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Korkong, Sumeth; Thongkomplew, Siwanat; Vichaiwattana, Preyaporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2013-04-01

    In Thailand, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by enterovirus 71 or coxsackievirus A16. To determine the cause of a large outbreak of HFMD in Thailand during June-August 2012, we examined patient specimens. Coxsackievirus A6 was the causative agent. To improve prevention and control, causes of HFMD should be monitored.

  19. A new medication for treatment of dry mouth in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    al-Hashimi, I; Taylor, S E

    2001-04-01

    Traditionally, treatment of dry mouth in SS is focused on palliative measures (using salivary substitutes). However, due to the dynamic nature of the oral cavity, the salivary substitute is removed from the mouth during swallowing. Therefore, the duration of effect of salivary substitutes is short. Another drawback is that salivary substitutes do not provide the protective roles of saliva. Effective treatment of dry mouth requires increasing salivary output. Gustatory stimulation of the salivary glands with sugar free gum and sugar free candies may be effective in inducing salivary output, however, they impose significant inconvenience on the patient which can compromise compliance. Pharmacological stimulants provide an alternative effective measure and improve compliance. Both Salagen and Evoxac are FDA approved salivary stimulants. They are effective, and safe given awareness of their indications, contraindications, potential adverse effects, and patient's tolerance.

  20. [Lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--controversies in emergency medicine: lay-rescuer CPR with or without mouth-to-mouth ventilation].

    PubMed

    Wolcke, Benno

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of literature results reveals differences concerning the need for rescue breathing in lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR). Observational studies on large registries have shown improved survival rates with standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) compared to continuous chest compressions (CCC). This applies especially for cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin or prolonged EMS-arrival times. In contrast a public program for lay-rescuers focusing on CCC lead to improved success rates of bystander-CPR, followed by improved survival rates. The 2010 ERC guidelines have resolved this controversy by integrating both aspects. CCC is recommended for everyone. Trained bystanders should use standard-CPR as method of choice. For dispatcher-assisted CPR the results are clear. Giving instructions for mouth-to-mouth ventilation is too complicated and time consuming, thus impairing survival rates. Therefore CCC is recommended for dispatcher-assisted CPR. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Caries prevention for patients with dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan; Marek, Cindy L; Ching, Victor; Grushka, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Patients with xerostomia, or dry mouth, resulting from various causes, are at higher risk for developing caries because of a loss of saliva and its benefits. A loss of saliva increases the acidity of the mouth, which affects many factors that contribute to the development of caries, such as proliferation of acid-producing bacteria, inability to buffer the acid produced by bacteria or from ingested foods, loss of minerals from tooth surfaces and inability to replenish the lost minerals, and loss of lubrication. Currently, a number of new products that can substitute for these functions of saliva or induce production of saliva are available in Canada. Some of these products are reviewed and a protocol for caries prevention in this high-risk population is proposed.

  2. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.

  3. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  4. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians. Part 8: Referral.

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2016-03-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of referral procedures; oral diagnosis is not always simple and a second opinion can be valuable to all concerned in cases of doubt.

  5. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians. Part 1: Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-04-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team a simplified overview of carcinogenesis, and a review of cancers that affect the oral region.

  6. Imaging of pediatric floor of mouth lesions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rachael M; Chapman, Teresa; Horn, David L; Paladin, Angelisa M; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-03-01

    There is a vast spectrum of pathology that afflicts the floor of mouth in children. These span inflammatory conditions, vascular malformations, developmental anomalies, benign tumors and malignancies. While this area is readily evaluated on clinical exam, imaging is often performed to better characterize the disorder prior to management. The imaging modalities most frequently utilized are US, CT and MR. The purpose of this article is to describe the primary conditions that occur in this location in children so that radiologists may provide an appropriate differential diagnosis. These include ranula, venolymphatic malformation, dermoid, teratoma, foregut duplication cyst, hairy polyp, thyroglossal duct cyst and rhabdomyosarcoma. For each pathological condition, there will be a focus on describing its imaging manifestation. Floor of mouth anatomy, imaging approach during both prenatal and postnatal life and etiologies will be discussed. Surgical considerations and operative photographs will also be presented.

  7. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    PubMed

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation.

  8. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth" in Europe.

    PubMed

    De-Carolis, Carlo; Boyd, Geraldine-A; Mancinelli, Luca; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    With easy chemical synthesis from its precursor, methamphetamine (MA) is now widespread in many countries. The abuse of methamphetamine is associated with several negative effects on health, because MA is a neurotoxin and a dangerous central nervous system stimulant. It changes levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, releasing dopamine and inhibiting nor epinephrine uptake which increases sympathetic nervous system activity and can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension and tachypnea. The consequences of MA abuse are clearly manifested in oral diseases (like "meth mouth") which is characterised by extensive caries, teeth grinding with ensuing dental wear and trismus. The present review was designed to fill the gap in knowledge about methamphetamine abuse in the European Union (EU) and to illustrate the main clinical effects of prolonged use. After describing the pharmacology and systemic effects of methamphetamine and concentrating on its effects on the mouth, the present review compares the epidemiology and incidence of abuse in the world, particularly the USA and the EU.

  9. Psychological profile in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Quran, Firas A M

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-two patients with burning mouth syndrome and 32 matched control subjects were evaluated for their personality profile using a comprehensive, reliable, and validated inventory. All subjects were requested to complete the Neo PI-R questionnaire that measures the 5 dimensions of personality and their facets. A t-test and univariate correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient) were used to compare the 2 groups. Results show high significant differences in some personality factors. Neuroticism and all its facets, which include anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness and vulnerability, were significant at P<.001. Other domains like extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness showed significant differences also (P<.05). Many personality characteristics differentiate burning mouth syndrome patients from controllers according to the Neo PI-R and this should affect the treatment plan according to the identified characteristics.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed

    Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described.

  11. Connective tissue disorders and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; Scully, Crispian

    2008-06-01

    The connective tissue disorders frequently give rise to orofacial manifestations, especially dry mouth because of Sjögren's syndrome. In addition, the systemic complications of such diseases may impact upon the provision of oral health care. The present article reviews the consequences of connective tissue disorders of relevance to oral health care providers. Connective tissue disorders can give rise to oral manifestations and systemic complications that may occasionally compromise primary oral health care.

  12. The effect of a caffeinated mouth-rinse on endurance cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Doering, Thomas M; Fell, James W; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Shing, Cecilia M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute caffeine exposure via mouth-rinse improved endurance cycling time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists. It was hypothesized that caffeine exposure at the mouth would enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 7.5 years, 74.7 ± 5.3 kg, 176.8 ± 5.1cm, VO₂peak = 59.8 ± 3.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two experimental time-trials following 24 hr of dietary and exercise standardization. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed whereby cyclists completed a time-trial in the fastest time possible, which was equivalent work to cycling at 75% of peak aerobic power output for 60 min. Cyclists were administered 25 ml mouth-rinses for 10 s containing either placebo or 35 mg of anhydrous caffeine eight times throughout the time-trial. Perceptual and physiological variables were recorded throughout. No significant improvement in time-trial performance was observed with caffeine (3918 ± 243 s) compared with placebo mouth-rinse (3940 ± 227 s). No elevation in plasma caffeine was detected due to the mouth-rinse conditions. Caffeine mouth-rinse had no significant effect on rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, rate of oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. Eight exposures of a 35 mg dose of caffeine at the buccal cavity for 10s does not significantly enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance, nor does it elevate plasma caffeine concentration.

  13. Feasibility of Providing Safe Mouth Care and Collecting Oral and Fecal Microbiome Samples from Nursing Home Residents with Dysphagia: Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Rita A; Winstead, Vicki; Azuero, Andres; Ptacek, Travis; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Byrd, Elizabeth; Geisinger, Maria L; Morrow, Casey

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with dysphagia who reside in nursing homes often receive inadequate mouth care and experience poor oral health. From a policy perspective, the combination of absent evidence-based mouth care protocols coupled with insufficient dental coverage create a pool of individuals at great risk for preventable infectious illnesses that contribute to high health care costs. The purpose of the current study was to determine (a) the safety of a mouth care protocol tailored for individuals with dysphagia residing in nursing homes without access to suction equipment, and (b) the feasibility of collecting oral and fecal samples for microbiota analyses. The mouth care protocol resulted in improved oral hygiene without aspiration, and oral and fecal samples were safely collected from participants. Policies supporting ongoing testing of evidence-based mouth care protocols for individuals with dysphagia are important to improve quality, demonstrate efficacy, and save health care costs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(9), 9-15.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  15. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient’s habitual breathing route than a patient interview. PMID:24169579

  16. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-12-04

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  17. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  18. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Effects on Exercise Capacity in Pre- and Postprandial States

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Elie-J. M.; Kayser, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Background. Oropharyngeal receptors signal presence of carbohydrate to the brain. Mouth rinses with a carbohydrate solution facilitate corticomotor output and improve time-trial performance in well-trained subjects in a fasted state. We tested for this effect in nonathletic subjects in fasted and nonfasted state. Methods. 13 healthy non-athletic males performed 5 tests on a cycle ergometer. After measuring maximum power output (Wmax), the subjects cycled four times at 60% Wmax until exhaustion while rinsing their mouth every 5 minutes with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution or water, one time after an overnight fast and another after a carbohydrate rich breakfast. Results. Mouth rinsing with maltodextrin improved time-to-exhaustion in pre- and postprandial states. This was accompanied by reductions in the average and maximal rates of perceived exertion but no change in average or maximal heart rate was observed. Conclusions. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves endurance capacity in both fed and fasted states in non-athletic subjects. PMID:22013515

  19. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  20. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  1. Improvement of light extraction for a target wavelength in InGaN/GaN LEDs with an indium tin oxide dual layer by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Ju; Lee, Dong-Seon

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based blue LEDs were fabricated and studied with porous, dense, and dual-layer indium tin oxide (ITO) structures as transparent top electrodes to enhance light extraction. The electroluminescence intensity of the LED with a thickness-optimized and refractive-index-tuned ITO dual layer at I = 20 mA was higher by 19.7% than that of the conventional LED with a 200 nm planar ITO. This study confirmed that an ITO dual layer can be made with a single material by optimizing the thickness and tuning the refractive index, which improves the power output without any electrical property degradation.

  2. A Distance and Angle Similarity Measure Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Korfhage, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses similarity measures that are used in information retrieval to improve precision and recall ratios and presents a combined vector-based distance and angle measure to make similarity measurement more scientific and accurate. Suggests directions for future research. (LRW)

  3. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior.

    PubMed

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.

  4. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both. PMID:28790950

  5. A novel mask-based approach to improve low-k1 corner and angle definition in alternating-aperture phase-shift mask structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Kent H.; Siefers, David; MacDonald, Susan; Buck, Peter D.

    2005-05-01

    A novel approach to improve the imaging of the critical magnetic pole structure in the disk drive read head is introduced. A 90-degree sub-resolution opening is added to an alternating aperture phase shift mask to reduce a strong proximity effect in the non-Manhattan tapered section, while maintaining the enhanced printability of the linear segment of the pole region.. Simulation indicates that this opening provides a method to correct the observed distortion in the printed edge without reducing the effectiveness of the altPSM character of the pole itself. We have designed test patterns with this concept and built photomasks to evaluate mask manufacturability and to empirically test the impact of the 90-degree window on final pattern fidelity on wafer. Preliminary results indicate positive correction effects, as well as some potential issues which may be resolved using additional, established correction approaches.

  6. Viewing angle changeable display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

    2010-10-01

    Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

  7. The ascidian mouth opening is derived from the anterior neuropore: reassessing the mouth/neural tube relationship in chordate evolution.

    PubMed

    Veeman, Michael T; Newman-Smith, Erin; El-Nachef, Danny; Smith, William C

    2010-08-01

    The relative positions of the brain and mouth are of central importance for models of chordate evolution. The dorsal hollow neural tube and the mouth have often been thought of as developmentally distinct structures that may have followed independent evolutionary paths. In most chordates however, including vertebrates and ascidians, the mouth primordia have been shown to fate to the anterior neural boundary. In ascidians such as Ciona there is a particularly intimate relationship between brain and mouth development, with a thin canal connecting the neural tube lumen to the mouth primordium at larval stages. This so-called neurohypophyseal canal was previously thought to be a secondary connection that formed relatively late, after the independent formation of the mouth primordium and the neural tube. Here we show that the Ciona neurohypophyseal canal is present from the end of neurulation and represents the anteriormost neural tube, and that the future mouth opening is actually derived from the anterior neuropore. The mouth thus forms at the anterior midline transition between neural tube and surface ectoderm. In the vertebrate Xenopus, we find that although the mouth primordium is not topologically continuous with the neural tube lumen, it nonetheless forms at this same transition point. This close association between the mouth primordium and the anterior neural tube in both ascidians and amphibians suggests that the evolution of these two structures may be more closely linked than previously appreciated. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of Bacillus subtilis mouth rinsing in patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tsubura, S; Mizunuma, H; Ishikawa, S; Oyake, I; Okabayashi, M; Katoh, K; Shibata, M; Iizuka, T; Toda, T; Iizuka, T

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an effective probiotic product for prevention of enteric infections both in humans and animals. We hypothesized that a mouth rinse containing Bacillus subtilis should adhere to and colonize part of the oral bacteria on periodontal tissue. The rinsing ability of Extraction 300E (containing Bacillus subtilis: E-300) was compared with that of a mouth wash liquid , Neosteline Green (benzethonium chloride; NG) that is commonly used in Japan. Compared with NG rinsing, E-300 rinsing resulted in a marked change in the BANA-score. The mean BANA values (score +/- SD) over the course of the study from 0 to 30 days were 1.52 +/- 0.51 (p < or = 0.1) and 0.30 +/- 0.47 (p < or = 0.01) for E-300, and 1.56 +/- 0.51 and 0.93 +/- 0.68 for NG, respectively. Gingival Index also had improvement, while probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing showed small improvements. Mouth rinsing with E-300 significantly reduced periodontal pathogens compared with NG. These results suggest that Bacillus subtilis is an appropriate mouth rinse for patients with periodontitis.

  9. Intralesional corticosteroids as a treatment for restricted mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tilakaratne, Wanninayake M; Ekanayaka, Rasika P; Herath, Manjula; Jayasinghe, Ruwan D; Sitheeque, Mohaideen; Amarasinghe, Hemantha

    2016-08-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating disease of the oral mucosa, associated with an increased risk of malignancy. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intralesional corticosteroid injection as a treatment modality for OSF. We also studied the correlation between the treatment outcome and a number of individual variables. A total of 230 histologically confirmed patients with OSF were included in the study, of which 116 patients with a 30 mm or less interincisal mouth opening were subjected to intralesional injections of 40 mg methylprednisolone at monthly intervals for 6 consecutive months. The effect of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the degree of improvement in mouth opening. All patients included in the study had a history of chewing areca nut. In paired comparison, statistically significant difference (t = -8.78; df = 115; P < .001) was observed in mouth opening over a period of 12 months in the patients who had corticosteroid injections. Intralesional corticosteroid injection is one of the most widely implemented interventions for OSF at present, particularly for those patients with palpable fibrous bands. The present study provides justification for the use of corticosteroids in improving mouth opening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoelectric angle converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  11. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  12. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  13. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.

    PubMed

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing.

  14. The Effect of a Radiation Positioning Stent (RPS) in the Reduction of Radiation Dosage to the Opposing Jaw and Maintenance of Mouth opening after Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Suresh; Brett, Rachel; Clayton, Naomi; Marsden, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a radiation positioning stent (RPS) in radiation dosage reduction to the opposing jaw and maintenance of mouth opening was audited. 55 Head and Neck cancer patients who received radiotherapy were reviewed. Radiation dosages at similar points in the primary/opposing jaws were measured along with the mouth opening. Results showed a significant reduction in the radiation dosage to the opposing jaw in patients given the RPS. Mouth opening was generally maintained in patients given the RPS (77.7% improvement in mouth opening) compared to patients without RPS. Patients undergoing radiotherapy who had an RPS showed a significant reduction in radiation dosage to the opposing jaw and maintained their mouth opening in the short-term.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-07-05

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents.

  16. Novel sensors for the Artificial Mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghlaf, Lyes; Mielle, Patrick; Maratray, Jacques; Launay, Jérôme; Temple-Boyer, Pierre; Salles, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Similarly to human chewing, tasty compounds are released in saliva during the food piece mastication in the `Artificial Mouth', and so, are available continuously. Glutamate is present in numerous food, as taste enhancer, has a nice and sought "umami" taste, specific receptors and different inter individual sensitivities, and is a fair marker of the release of tasty compounds. The three sensors (for pH, salt, or glutamate concentration) have the same size, so they are easily interchangeable. Up to now, only one kind of parameter may be analysed at a time by the different sensors. Nevertheless, combined electrodes may be developed in the future.

  17. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature. PMID:26113591

  18. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-06-25

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach].

    PubMed

    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-02-10

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients.

  20. A flipped spoon and chin prompt to increase mouth clean.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C; Groff, Rebecca A; Kozisek, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped spoon alone. The greatest increases in mouth clean resulted from the combination of the 2 manipulations.

  1. Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asthma: the Nagahama Study.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nagasaki, T; Kanemitsu, Y; Murase, K; Ito, I; Oguma, T; Muro, S; Asai, K; Tabara, Y; Takahashi, K; Bessho, K; Sekine, A; Kosugi, S; Yamada, R; Nakayama, T; Matsuda, F; Niimi, A; Chin, K; Mishima, M

    2016-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a known risk factor for asthma onset, often accompanies mouth breathing. Mouth breathing may bypass the protective function of the nose and is anecdotally considered to increase asthma morbidity. However, there is no epidemiological evidence that mouth breathing is independently associated with asthma morbidity and sensitization to allergens. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between mouth breathing and asthma morbidity and allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, while considering the effect of allergic rhinitis. This community-based cohort study, the Nagahama Study, contained a self-reporting questionnaire on mouth breathing and medical history, blood tests, and pulmonary function testing. We enrolled 9804 general citizens of Nagahama City in the Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Mouth breathing was reported by 17% of the population and was independently associated with asthma morbidity. The odds ratio for asthma morbidity was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.27-2.62) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.72-2.80) in subjects with mouth breathing alone and allergic rhinitis alone, which additively increased to 4.09 (95% CI, 3.01-5.52) when mouth breathing and allergic rhinitis coexisted. Mouth breathing in nonasthmatics was a risk for house dust mite sensitization, higher blood eosinophil counts, and lower pulmonary function after adjusting for allergic rhinitis. Mouth breathing may increase asthma morbidity, potentially through increased sensitization to inhaled allergens, which highlights the risk of mouth-bypass breathing in the 'one airway, one disease' concept. The risk of mouth breathing should be well recognized in subjects with allergic rhinitis and in the general population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths ...study wave-current interaction, and contribute to a comprehensive community data set of coastal inlet and river mouth processes, 2) better understand...Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  3. Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    unlimited. Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths Tim T. Janssen Theiss Research, El Granada, CA 94018 t: 415 609 5359 ; e...river mouth processes, 2) better understand the role of current shear, wave inhomogeneity and nonlinearity in wave-current interaction through...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wave-Current Interaction in Coastal Inlets and River Mouths 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Extreme Wave Statistics within the Mouth of the Columbia River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS EXTREME WAVE STATISTICS WITIDN THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER Thesis Advisor: Co...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS EXTREME WAVE STATISTICS WITHIN THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER 6. AUTHOR: Calter L. Johnston 7...in the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) dming the peak of ebb tide in May and June of2013. Over three separate collection days, effects of opposing

  5. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  6. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P < .05) longer while breathing through the mouth. There was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P < .05) lower while breathing through the mouth. However, there was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  7. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  8. [A study of urease activity of mouth cavity microflora].

    PubMed

    Bykov, S É; Bykov, A S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the prevalence of mouth cavity urealytic microflora and determination of the level of its enzymatic activity depending on concentration and amount of urea solution taken as a substrate. 62 randomly chosen patients at the age of 5-64 took part in the study. Each of them rinsed the mouth with 50 ml of 1% urea solution. Before and after rinsing the concentration of ammonia in the mouth cavity air was measured. In patients with highest and lowest activity of mouth cavity urealytic microflora a series of tests was carried out including mouth rinsing with urea solution in various concentrations and amounts and measuring ammonia concentration before and after rinsing. Obtained results were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. It was found that in 91% ± 1.8% of randomly chosen patients (p < 0.05) mouth cavity microflora showed apparent urease activity. The lowest concentration (0.0625% in 50 ml) and volume (0.5 ml of 1% solution) levels of urea solution were obtained that can exert negative influence on the results of helicobacteriosis diagnosis by means of mouth cavity air analysis. Urealytic microflora in the mouth cavity is very common and may constitute a factor that decreases the specificity of helicobacteriosis diagnosis by means of the methods based on detection of indicators of gas metabolites resulting from the enzymatic reaction in air samples taken from the mouth cavity after oral administration of urea.

  9. Full mouth versus quadrant treatment in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Anjana

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence for the management of chronic periodontitis, including methods of non-surgical therapy such as full mouth disinfection, full mouth debridement and conventional quadrant-by-quadrant therapy. Manual searches of Medline and Embase databases provided the relevant studies. Multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) selected for the paper failed to show any significant differences between the quadrant-wise treatment and full mouth debridement and modalities. This review demonstrates that there is no known difference in treatment outcomes between full mouth debridement and traditional quadrant therapy. Further RCTs are necessary to assess clinical effectiveness of chemical adjunct use.

  10. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  11. Nonsyndromic palate Synechia with floor of mouth

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Sharan; Bütow, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the embryological basis, sequela and management of intraoral synechia, and to report on the incidence of this condition at a facial cleft deformity clinic (FCDC), with specific attention to two rare cases of mucosal bands involving the floor of the mouth and palate. Review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of FCDC and case report of two cases. During the period of 30 years (1983–2013), the FCDC - University of Pretoria has managed in excess of 4000 cases. A review of the clinic statistics revealed only six cases in which intraoral synechiae occurred. The rarity of this condition at the FCDC is in keeping with the rare incidence in the international literature. Four syndromic cases were identified. Three cases were cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome, and one was an orofacial digital syndrome. Two nonsyndromic cases were identified, and both cases involved the floor of the mouth and palate. The attending physicians and surgeons should be aware of the most appropriate timing for management of this condition, in order to avoid unwanted sequelae. Supportive care should be provided, and emergency airway protocol should be available for all cases. A differential diagnosis should be considered which includes syndromic conditions. PMID:26389045

  12. Assessment and treatment of chronic hand mouthing.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Iwata, Brian A; Zhou, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Hand mouthing (HM) is a chronic problem in many individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although the prevalence of mouthing has been estimated, data on the frequency, severity, or functions of the behavior were not included. In Study 1, we examined the prevalence and risk of HM. Results obtained from interviews showed that the prevalence of HM in two institutional samples (N = 802) was 12.7%, whereas direct observation yielded a lower estimate of prevalence (8%). Moreover, a large proportion of observed HM (39.1%) was self-injurious in nature. In Study 2, we used modified functional analyses (FAs) to examine the HM of 64 individuals. Results indicated that maintenance by automatic reinforcement accounted for 98.4% of the cases (all but one case). In Study 3, we implemented a progressive series of interventions for HM exhibited by 14 individuals. The following interventions were implemented in sequential order: (a) noncontingent reinforcement (NCR, effective with 6 subjects), (b) either NCR plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus response blocking (effective with 5 subjects) or NCR plus response blocking only (effective with 2 subjects), and (c) NCR plus brief manual restraint (effective with 1 subject). © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Navigation Improvements, Mouth of the Colorado River, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Processes Modeling For local-scale circulation modeling, M2D (Militello et al. 2004) was applied with wave forcing from WABED (Lin et al. 2006) to...calculate tide, wind, river, and wave-forced currents and water level at the study site. Figure 6 shows the M2D and WABED grid coverage. The circulation...Center. Militello, A., Reed, C. W., Zundel, A. K., and Kraus, N. C. (2004). “Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model M2D : Version 2.0

  14. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    PubMed

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  15. YouTube as a source of information on mouth (oral) cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Taimeh, D; Marahleh, A; Scully, C

    2016-04-01

    We examined the content of YouTube(™) videos on mouth (oral) cancer and evaluated their usefulness in promoting early detection of oral cancer. A systematic search of YouTube(™) for videos containing information on mouth cancer was conducted using the keywords 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer'. Demographics of videos, including type, source, length, and viewers' interaction, were evaluated, and three researchers independently assessed the videos for usefulness in promoting early detection of oral cancer. A total of 188 YouTube(™) videos (152 patient-oriented educational videos and 36 testimonial videos) were analyzed. The overall usefulness score ranged from 0 to 10 (mean = 3.56 ± 2.44). The most useful videos ranked late on the viewing list, and there was no significant correlation between video usefulness and viewing rate, viewers' interaction, and video length. Videos uploaded by individual users were less useful compared with videos uploaded by professional organizations or by healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals, academic institutions, and professional organizations have a responsibility for improving the content of YouTube(™) about mouth cancer by uploading useful videos, and directing patients to reliable information sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial effects of commercially available mouth-wetting agents.

    PubMed

    Güneri, Pelin; Alpöz, Esin; Epstein, Joel B; Çankaya, Hülya; Ateş, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Products have been developed to provide palliation for persons with dry mouth. In addition to mouth-wetting agents, some products incorporate antimicrobial constituents with the goal of improving oral microbial defenses. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the potential antimicrobial and antifungal effects of two commercially available saliva substitutes on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans by using the agar-well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity as measured by the size of the inhibition zone growth for S. mutans and L. acidophilus was observed only with Biotene Dry Mouth Oral Rinse® and BioXtra® gel. The zone of inhibition of Biotene Dry Mouth Oral Rinse was larger than that of BioXtra gel (p= 0.00, p < 0.01). No anticandidal effect was seen with any of the test products. The pH of the preparations, the variations between the amount of active ingredients within the products, and the potential antimicrobial effects of inactive ingredients should be investigated to determine the factors that impacted microbial inhibition. © 2011 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Wave-angle control of delta evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Wave-influenced deltas, with large-scale arcuate shapes and demarcated beach ridge complexes, often display an asymmetrical form about their river channel. Here, we use a numerical model to demonstrate that the angles from which waves approach a delta can have a first-order influence upon its plan-view morphologic evolution and sedimentary architecture. The directional spread of incoming waves plays a dominant role over fluvial sediment discharge in controlling the width of an active delta lobe, which in turn affects the characteristic rates of delta progradation. Oblique wave approach (and a consequent net alongshore sediment transport) can lead to the development of morphologic asymmetry about the river in a delta's plan-view form. This plan-form asymmetry can include the development of discrete breaks in shoreline orientation and the appearance of self-organized features arising from shoreline instability along the downdrift delta flank, such as spits and migrating shoreline sand waves—features observed on natural deltas. Somewhat surprisingly, waves approaching preferentially from one direction tend to increase sediment deposition updrift of the river. This ‘morphodynamic groin effect’ occurs when the delta's plan-form aspect ratio is sufficiently large such that the orientation of the shoreline on the downdrift flank is rotated past the angle of maximum alongshore sediment transport, resulting in preferential redirection of fluvial sediment updrift of the river mouth.

  18. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stephen C; Bird, Stephen R; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2013-02-01

    It is presently unclear whether the reported ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on cycling time-trial performance is affected by the acute nutritional status of an individual. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth rinse on a 60-min simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state. Twelve competitive male cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials using a double-blinded Latin square design. Two trials were commenced 2 h after a meal that contained 2.5 g·kg(-1) body mass of CHO (FED) and 2 after an overnight fast (FST). Prior to and after every 12.5% of total time during a performance ride, either a 10% maltodextrin (CHO) or a taste-matched placebo (PLB) solution was mouth rinsed for 10 s then immediately expectorated. There were significant main effects for both pre-ride nutritional status (FED vs. FST; p < 0.01) and CHO mouth rinse (CHO vs. PLB; p < 0.01) on power output with an interaction evident between the interventions (p < 0.05). The CHO mouth rinse improved mean power to a greater extent after an overnight fast (282 vs. 273 W, 3.4%; p < 0.01) compared with a fed state (286 vs. 281 W, 1.8%; p < 0.05). We concluded that a CHO mouth rinse improved performance to a greater extent in a fasted compared with a fed state; however, optimal performance was achieved in a fed state with the addition of a CHO mouth rinse.

  19. Mouth cancer awareness and beliefs among dental patients.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Abu Ghosh, Mais; Khoury, Zaid; Jarrar, Shadi; Sawair, Faleh

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness, knowledge about signs and risk factors of mouth (oral) cancer, and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment among dental outpatients. A total of 1,200 adult outpatients attending dental clinics at the University of Jordan Hospital for dental examination and treatment were randomly selected to participate in the study. An 18-item pretested close-ended questionnaire was used for the study. Descriptive statistics were generated and chi-square tests, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Spearman's rho test were used to examine differences between groups. Only 45.6% of the subjects had heard about oral cancer. Some 66.9% and 33.8%, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. Some 24.1% had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Male subjects, smokers, alcohol drinkers, older participants (>40 years), and participants with less than a university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer (P<0.05). Awareness about oral cancer among Jordanian dental outpatients is low. These dental patients, especially those in high-risk groups for mouth cancer and those of lower socio-economic status (SES), are less well informed about the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Bayesian AVO inversion with consistent angle parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinmiao; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2017-04-01

    Amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion has been extensively used in seismic exploration. Many different elastic parameters can be inverted by incorporating corresponding reflection coefficient approximations. Although efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of AVO inversions for years, there is still one problem that has long been ignored. In most methods, the angle in the approximation and the angle used in seismic angle gather extractions are not the same one. This inconsistency leads to inaccurate inversion results. In this paper, a Bayesian AVO inversion method with consistent angles is proposed to solve the problem and improve inversion accuracy. Firstly, a linearized P-wave reflection coefficient approximation with consistent angles is derived based on angle replacements. The equivalent form of the approximation in terms moduli and density is derived so that moduli can be inverted for reservoir characterization. Then, by convoluting it with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a probabilistic prestack seismic inversion method with consistent angles is presented in a Bayesian scheme. The synthetic test proves that the accuracy of this method is higher than the traditional one. The real data example shows that the inversion result fits better with well log interpretation data, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Mouth and Teeth: How To Keep Them Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for regular check-ups and cleanings.AdultsContinuing good mouth and tooth care as an adult can help you avoid tooth ... to considerWhen you do not regularly take good care of you teeth and mouth, you could experience these problems:Cavities. Cavities are ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cold foods Take these steps: Clean your mouth with care. ● ● Brush your teeth and tongue after each meal and before you go to bed. Use a very soft toothbrush or cotton swabs. ● ● Use toothpaste or gel that has fluoride in it. ● ● Rinse your mouth with the baking soda, salt, and water mix ...

  3. A Coat Reduces Mouthing: It Worked in My Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Annette M.

    1988-01-01

    A coat was adapted for a 20-year-old severely handicapped woman to control her practice of "mouthing" her hands and clothing. Velcro strips attached to the coat held the student's arms down long enough to allow for differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, which successfully reduced the rate of mouthing. (JDD)

  4. A Coat Reduces Mouthing: It Worked in My Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Annette M.

    1988-01-01

    A coat was adapted for a 20-year-old severely handicapped woman to control her practice of "mouthing" her hands and clothing. Velcro strips attached to the coat held the student's arms down long enough to allow for differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, which successfully reduced the rate of mouthing. (JDD)

  5. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  6. 4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WATER TOWARD THE BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION, ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Homogeneity improvement of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by using c-plane sapphire substrate with off-cut-angle toward a-sapphire plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojiki, Kanako; Hanada, Takashi; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Nonoda, Ryohei; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    To improve the homogeneity of the N-polar (000\\bar{1}) (-c-plane) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), the growth of GaN and MQW on two c-plane sapphire substrates with an off-cut angle of 0.8° toward the a-plane (sub-A) and the m-plane (sub-M) was performed. The effects of the off-cut direction on the structural properties and surface morphologies of -c-plane GaN films were elucidated. It was found that the step bunching and meandering of -c-plane GaN were significantly suppressed on sub-A. The spatial homogeneity of the -c-plane InGaN/GaN MQWs along the off-cut direction was observed in the submicrometer scale using microbeam X-ray diffraction. By inhibiting the step bunching of the GaN template using sub-A, the thickness homogeneity of the MQWs on sub-A has been significantly improved in comparison with that on sub-M.

  8. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Andrade da Cunha, Renata; Andrade da Cunha, Daniele; Assis, Roberta Borba; Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique. PMID:25992108

  9. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder.

  10. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies.

  11. Full mouth rehabilitation of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Prasad, Maruthi; Haldal, Sindhu

    2014-07-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder expressing a group of conditions which cause developmental alterations in the structure of enamel. This disorder has an adverse impact on oral health and also hampers the quality of life of the individual causing physiologic problems. The treatment of such patients would not only upgrade their quality-of-life, but also improve their self-esteem. The correction of such severely worn out dentition may require extensive restorative treatment to achieve appropriate results. It is important to identify the factors that contribute to the excessive wear and loss of vertical dimension. The correction of the defects has to be done without violating the biologic or mechanical principles. Full mouth rehabilitation in such patients improves esthetics, function and comfort. The following case report presents a systematic approach in rehabilitating a case of AI hypoplastic type using full mouth metal reinforced porcelain restorations.

  12. Full Mouth Rehabilitation of a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, P; Prasad, Maruthi; Haldal, Sindhu

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder expressing a group of conditions which cause developmental alterations in the structure of enamel. This disorder has an adverse impact on oral health and also hampers the quality of life of the individual causing physiologic problems. The treatment of such patients would not only upgrade their quality-of-life, but also improve their self-esteem. The correction of such severely worn out dentition may require extensive restorative treatment to achieve appropriate results. It is important to identify the factors that contribute to the excessive wear and loss of vertical dimension. The correction of the defects has to be done without violating the biologic or mechanical principles. Full mouth rehabilitation in such patients improves esthetics, function and comfort. The following case report presents a systematic approach in rehabilitating a case of AI hypoplastic type using full mouth metal reinforced porcelain restorations. PMID:25214738

  13. Foot and mouth disease: a look from the wild side.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Genevieve V; Domenech, Joseph; Thiermann, Alex R; Karesh, William B

    2013-10-01

    We review the literature and discuss control options regarding foot and mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife around the world. There are more than 100 species of wild, feral, laboratory, or domesticated animals that have been infected naturally or experimentally with FMD virus. Apart from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in sub-Saharan Africa, wildlife has not been demonstrated to play a significant role in the maintenance of FMD. More often, wildlife are passively infected when outbreaks of FMD occur in domestic livestock, and, in some wild ungulates, infection results in severe disease. Efforts to control FMD in wildlife may not be successful when the disease is endemic in livestock and may cause more harm to wildlife, human livelihoods, and domestic animals. Currently in sub-Saharan Africa, the complete eradication of FMD on a subcontinental scale in the near term is not possible, given the presence of FMD-infected African buffalo and the existence of weak veterinary infrastructures in some FMD-endemic countries. Therefore efforts to control the disease should be aimed at improved vaccines and improved use of vaccines, improved livestock management practices, and utilization of programs that can help in disease control such as the FMD Progressive Control Program and regulatory frameworks that facilitate trade such zonation, compartmentalization, and commodity-based trade. Though not meeting the definition of wildlife used in this review, feral domestic animals warrant a special concern with regard to FMD control.

  14. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  15. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans mouth isolates to antifungal agents, essentials oils and mouth rinses.

    PubMed

    Carvalhinho, Sara; Costa, Ana Margarida; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Martins, Eugénio; Sampaio, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient's mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P < 0.05). The profile activity was: cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P < 0.05). The susceptibility of econazole-SDD isolates to cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0.05).

  16. Interventions for treating burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Roddy; Forssell, Heli; Buchanan, John Ag; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Weldon, Jo C; Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a term used for oral mucosal pain (burning pain or discomfort in the tongue, lips or entire oral cavity) without identifiable cause. General population prevalence varies from 0.1% to 3.9%. Many BMS patients indicate anxiety, depression, personality disorders and impaired quality of life (QoL). This review updates the previous versions published in 2000 and 2005. To determine the effectiveness and safety of any intervention versus placebo for symptom relief and changes in QoL, taste, and feeling of dryness in people with BMS. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 31 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 31 December 2015), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 31 December 2015), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 31 December 2015). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any treatment against placebo in people with BMS. The primary outcomes were symptom relief (pain/burning) and change in QoL. Secondary outcomes included change in taste, feeling of dryness, and adverse effects. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Outcome data were analysed as short-term (up to three months) or long-term (three to six months). We included 23 RCTs (1121 analysed participants; 83% female). Interventions were categorised as: antidepressants and antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, cholinergics, dietary supplements, electromagnetic radiation, physical barriers, psychological therapies, and topical treatments.Only one RCT was assessed at low risk of bias overall, four RCTs' risk of bias was unclear, and 18

  17. One-leg standing time with eyes open: comparison between the mouth-opened and mouth-closed conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Kanehisa, Yayoi; Ozaki, Yoshie; Iwasa, Yasuyuki; Fukuizumi, Takaki; Kikutani, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies report a significant relationship between the one-leg standing time with the eyes open and the occlusal relationship. To determine the association between proprioception (the periodontal membrane vs muscle spindle) to the one-leg standing time, the authors compared the one-leg standing time with eyes open between mouth-opened and mouth-closed conditions. The study participants were 107 healthy, elderly patients. The authors measured the one-leg standing time with eyes open between mouth-opened and mouth-closed conditions. The one-leg standing time was significantly shorter with the mouth opened (21·1±19·1 seconds) than with the mouth closed (25·1±21·4 seconds). Patients whose one-leg standing time was equal or shorter with the mouth opened than with the mouth closed were not different from the other patients with regard to age, handgrip strength, BMI, and the number of remaining teeth. The vertical mandibular position may affect body balance.

  18. An Iterative Angle Trisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of angle trisection continues to fascinate people even though it has long been known that it can't be done with straightedge and compass alone. However, for practical purposes, a good iterative procedure can get you as close as you want. In this note, we present such a procedure. Using only straightedge and compass, our procedure…

  19. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  20. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  1. The Rainbow Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, B.

    1978-01-01

    Two articles in the "Scientific American" form the background of this note. The rainbow angle for the primary bow of a monochromatic Cartesian rainbow is calculated. Special projects for senior high school students could be patterned after this quantitative study. (MP)

  2. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  3. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Facial nerve function index evaluation on deviation of the mouth in intractable facial palsy treated with sticking needle and traction method on three points of the mouth].

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua; Ding, Min; Jiang, Ya-Qiu; Jin, Chang-Xu; Lin, Tian-Yun

    2010-09-01

    To probe into the effective acupuncture technique for deviation of the mouth in intractable facial palsy. One hundred and one cases of intractable facial palsy were randomly divided into an observation group (48 cases) and a control group (53 cases). Cuanzhu (BL 2), Sibai (ST 2), Jiache (ST 6) and Qianzheng (Extra) on the affected side were punctured in two groups. Additionally, three acupoints of the mouth were supplemented, named Dicang (ST 4), Kouheliao (LI 19) and Jiachengjiang (Extra) were added, and the sticking needle and traction method was adopted on them in observation group. the routine needling technique was applied in control group. The treatment was given once a day and 10-day treatment made one session. The changes in facial nerve function index (FNFI) were observed in 2 sessions of treatment. After treatment, FNFI in two groups increased significantly (both P < 0.01), but the improvement in observation group was better than that in control group (P < 0.01). In observation group, the basic recovery rate of FNFI was 87.5% (42/48), which was higher than that (67.9%, 36/53) in control group (P < 0.05). The sticking needle and traction method o three points is the quite effective approach in the treatment of deviation of the mouth in intractable facial palsy.

  5. Complex oncologic reconstruction of a mandibular and floor of mouth defect with a fibula free flap in an achondroplastic patient.

    PubMed

    García-Rozado, Alvaro; Martín Sastre, Roberto J; López Cedrún, José L

    2003-01-01

    The fibular free flap is seen as one of the foremost technical options in mandibular reconstruction, especially in those defects where long bone is required. Cases with squamous-cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth with mandibular spread and subsequent segmentary mandibular removal are the cornerstone examples. A case of squamous-cell carcinoma of the whole floor of the mouth with mandibular invasion is reported. Radical resection of the floor of the mouth and bilateral mandibular horizontal ramus was performed, with a bony defect extending from angle to angle. The patient revealed an achondroplastic condition, with remarkable dwarfism and long-bone morphological alterations, that minimized the potential fibular length to transfer. A microsurgical reconstruction with an osteocutaneous fibular free flap was undertaken. The flap design was technically compromised by the forward bowing of the fibula and the ossification of the interosseous membrane. Specific intraoperative strategies for dealing with anatomic variations are discussed. The fibular free flap is an excellent technique for mandibular reconstruction. Morphological deviations can modify the design of the flap. Achondroplasia is not a deterrent in successful use of the free fibula flap for reconstruction of the head and neck in adequately selected cases.

  6. Potential sources of mouth drying in beverages fortified with dairy proteins: A comparison of casein- and whey-rich ingredients.

    PubMed

    Withers, C A; Lewis, M J; Gosney, M A; Methven, L

    2014-03-01

    Oral nutritional supplement drinks (ONS) are beverages high in dairy proteins that are prescribed to individuals at risk of malnutrition. Consumption of ONS is poor in elderly care facilities, with patients commenting that the sensory attributes of these drinks reduce their enjoyment and willingness to consume. Mouth drying is an attribute of ONS found to build with repeated consumption, which may further limit liking of these products. This study investigated the sources of drying sensations by sequential profiling, with a trained sensory panel rating a range of model milk systems and ONS over repeated sips and during after-effects. Sequential profiling found that fortification of milk with both caseinate and whey protein concentrate significantly increased the perception of mouth drying over repeated consumption, increasing by between 35 and 85% over consumption of 40mL. Enrichment of ONS with either whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate to a total protein content of 8.7% (wt/wt) resulted in whey and casein levels of 4.3:4.4% and 1.7:7.0% respectively. The product higher in whey protein was substantially more mouth drying, implying that whey proteins may be the most important contributor to mouth drying in ONS. However, efforts to mask mouth drying of protein-fortified milk by increasing sweetness or fat level were unsuccessful at the levels tested. Increasing the viscosity of protein-fortified milk led to a small but significant reduction in mouth drying. However, this approach was not successful when tested within complete ONS. Further analysis is required into the mechanism of protein-derived mouth drying to mask negative sensations and improve the enjoyment and consumption of protein-rich ONS. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  8. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  9. Respiratory volume perception through the nose and mouth determined noninvasively.

    PubMed

    Fox, J; Kreisman, H; Colacone, A; Wolkove, N

    1986-08-01

    The relative importance of the nose vs. the mouth in the perception of respiratory volumes has never been assessed, nor have previous respiratory perception studies been performed noninvasively. Using respiratory inductive plethysmography, we monitored 12 normal subjects noninvasively when breathing either exclusively through the nose or mouth. The sensation of inspired volume mouth breathing was compared with that of nose breathing over a wide range of the inspiratory capacity. The psychophysical techniques of tidal volume duplication, tidal volume doubling, and magnitude estimation were utilized. A just noticeable difference was calculated from the constant error of the tidal volume duplication trials. The exponents for magnitude estimation were 1.06 and 1.07 for nose and mouth breathing, respectively. The other psychophysical techniques also revealed no differences in nose and mouth volume perception. These results suggest that tidal volume changes are perceived equally well through the nose and mouth. Furthermore, the location of the receptors, important in volume perception, is probably at a distal point common to the nose and mouth.

  10. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate.

  11. Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Tabler, Jacqueline M; Bolger, Trióna G; Wallingford, John; Liu, Karen J

    2014-12-01

    To feed or breathe, the oral opening must connect with the gut. The foregut and oral tissues converge at the primary mouth, forming the buccopharyngeal membrane (BPM), a bilayer epithelium. Failure to form the opening between gut and mouth has significant ramifications, and many craniofacial disorders have been associated with defects in this process. Oral perforation is characterized by dissolution of the BPM, but little is known about this process. In humans, failure to form a continuous mouth opening is associated with mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) pathway members; however, the role of Hh in primary mouth development is untested. Here, we show, using Xenopus, that Hh signaling is necessary and sufficient to initiate mouth formation, and that Hh activation is required in a dose-dependent fashion to determine the size of the mouth. This activity lies upstream of the previously demonstrated role for Wnt signal inhibition in oral perforation. We then turn to mouse mutants to establish that SHH and Gli3 are indeed necessary for mammalian mouth development. Our data suggest that Hh-mediated BPM persistence may underlie oral defects in human craniofacial syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Tabler, Jacqueline M.; Bolger, Trióna G.; Wallingford, John; Liu, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    To feed or breathe, the oral opening must connect with the gut. The foregut and oral tissues converge at the primary mouth, forming the buccopharyngeal membrane (BPM), a bilayer epithelium. Failure to form the opening between gut and mouth has significant ramifications, and many craniofacial disorders have been associated with defects in this process. Oral perforation is characterized by dissolution of the BPM, but little is known about this process. In humans, failure to form a continuous mouth opening is associated with mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) pathway members; however, the role of Hh in primary mouth development is untested. Here, we show, using Xenopus, that Hh signaling is necessary and sufficient to initiate mouth formation, and that Hh activation is required in a dose-dependent fashion to determine the size of the mouth. This activity lies upstream of the previously demonstrated role for Wnt signal inhibition in oral perforation. We then turn to mouse mutants to establish that SHH and Gli3 are indeed necessary for mammalian mouth development. Our data suggest that Hh-mediated BPM persistence may underlie oral defects in human craniofacial syndromes. PMID:25300580

  13. Primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Robert N; Khaw, Peng Tee

    2004-05-22

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and, perhaps, the most common form of glaucoma. Because the disease is treatable, and because the visual impairment caused by glaucoma is irreversible, early detection is essential. Early diagnosis depends on examination of the optic disc, retinal nerve fibre layer, and visual field. New imaging and psychophysical tests can improve both detection and monitoring of the progression of the disease. Recently completed long-term clinical trials provide convincing evidence that lowering intraocular pressure prevents progression at both the early and late stages of the disease. The degree of protection is related to the degree to which intraocular pressure is lowered. Improvements in therapy consist of more effective and better-tolerated drugs to lower intraocular pressure, and more effective surgical procedures. New treatments to directly treat and protect the retinal ganglion cells that are damaged in glaucoma are also in development.

  14. Harmonic phase angles used for nanoparticle sensing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yipeng; Khurshid, Hafsa; Ness, Dylan B; Weaver, John B

    2017-10-04

    A series of techniques have been developed to use magnetic nanoparticles as biosensors to characterize their local microenvironment. Two approaches have been used to obtain quantitative information: model based approaches and scaling based approaches. We have favored scaling based approaches, because approximations made in models can lead to limitations in the accuracy. Currently all the scaling approaches use harmonic ratios to retrieve physical parameters like temperature, viscosity and relaxation time. In this work, we showed that the phase angle of the signal at a single harmonic frequency is an alternative to the ratio. The phase angle is nanoparticle density-independent, and can be used to improve sensitivity, enabling us to measure smaller biomedical effects. With the phase angle as an example, we showed that scaling methods are general and do not depend on specific approximations. We showed that the same scaling techniques can be used with both the phase angle and harmonic ratio because they both depend on the same combinations of physical parameters. Using the phase angle improves the precision and using the combination of phase angles and harmonic ratio provides the best precision.

  15. Modelling PTB's spatial angle autocollimator calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Oliver; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The accurate and traceable form measurement of optical surfaces has been greatly advanced by a new generation of surface profilometers which are based on the reflection of light at the surface and the measurement of the reflection angle. For this application, high-resolution electronic autocollimators provide accurate and traceable angle metrology. In recent years, great progress has been made at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in autocollimator calibration. For an advanced autocollimator characterisation, a novel calibration device has been built up at PTB: the Spatial Angle Autocollimator Calibrator (SAAC). The system makes use of an innovative Cartesian arrangement of three autocollimators (two reference autocollimators and the autocollimator to be calibrated), which allows a precise measurement of the angular orientation of a reflector cube. Each reference autocollimator is sensitive primarily to changes in one of the two relevant tilt angles, whereas the autocollimator to be calibrated is sensitive to both. The distance between the reflector cube and the autocollimator to be calibrated can be varied flexibly. In this contribution, we present the SAAC and aspects of the mathematical modelling of the system for deriving analytical expressions for the autocollimators' angle responses. These efforts will allow advancing the form measurement substantially with autocollimator-based profilometers and approaching fundamental measurement limits. Additionally, they will help manufacturers of autocollimators to improve their instruments and will provide improved angle measurement methods for precision engineering.

  16. Dry mouth: a critical topic for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Phuu; Suarez-Durall, Piedad; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-01-01

    Diminished salivary flow, or dry mouth impacts the oral health of many older adults, dentate and edentulous. As a result typical oral conditions can prove more challenging to both the patient's comfort and home care and the treatment selected by the clinician. This paper will review issues of dry mouth from a clinical and symptomatic perspective and will include the condition's causes, treatment and prevention. We performed a review of PubMed using the words: older adults, dry mouth, xerostomia, radiation-induced xerostomia, and salivary gland hypofunction. We selected 90 articles with a clinical application perspective. When it comes to treatment of dry mouth conditions, either objective or subjective, there are no easy answers as to the best course of action for a specific individual. While most of the cited studies have examined the most difficult cases of dry mouth (e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, and that seen during and post head and neck cancer treatments), there are many older adults who demonstrate dry mouth from the use of multiple medications. This paper presents a summary of the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of dry mouth (salivary hypofunction and xerostomia in older adults). It is important to understand the causes of dry mouth and to educate our patients. Starting a prevention program as early as possible considering the most practical, cost effective and efficient treatments with the best risk-benefit ratio will help to diminish dry mouth symptoms and sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of mouth opening exercises in treating trismus after maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei-hong; Ao, Hong-wei; Lin, Qing; Xu, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Bin

    2013-07-01

    Patients with maxillary tumor often suffer from trismus after maxillectomy, which could turn out to be a permanent sequela without proper intervention. In this study, the efficacy of mouth opening exercises in preventing and treating trismus was observed in patients with maxillary tumor early after their operations. At the same time, radiotherapy as an influencing factor for the mouth opening exercises was evaluated. In this study, 22 patients with maxillary oncology began their mouth opening exercises at an early stage (1-2 weeks) after maxillectomy. They were divided into two groups based on the principle of voluntariness: 11 patients in group 1 chose TheraBites as their instruments of mouth opening exercises, and the other 11 in group 2 chose stacked tongue depressors to help their exercises. All participants were trained to exercise 3-5 times a day, 30-40 oscillations at one time, with a 2-second pause at their maximum possible mouth open position. The maximal interincisor distances (MID) of patients were measured and recorded by a single investigator every week after the beginning of the mouth opening exercises. Medical information and the responses of patients were also recorded. Initial and final MIDs were calculated by SPSS 13.0. The changes of the mouth aperture every week during exercises in both groups were described in figures, and there were statistical increases in the final MIDs compared with the initial ones. However, no significant differences were achieved between groups 1 and 2 (P > 0.05). Radiotherapy seemed to have no negative impact on the mouth opening results during the exercises. Physical mouth opening exercises should be executed early after maxillectomy for the prevention and treatment of trismus, especially for those who had radiotherapy as part of antitumor treatments.

  18. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; p<0.001). No gender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Angles in the Sky?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

  20. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  1. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  2. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  3. Effect of Stomatognathic Alignment Exercise on Temporomandibular Joint Function and Swallowing Function of Stroke Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Duck-Won; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients presenting limited mouth opening. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis presenting limited mouth opening were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 7 subjects in each group. [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in a stomatognathic alignment exercise program that consisted of mobility exercises of the TMJ and neck and postural correction. Main outcome measures were neck mobility, the active maximum range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index (CMI), and the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA) score. [Results] The changes in the values of the range of mouth opening, CMI, MASA, and all the parameters of neck mobility were significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, post-test values appeared to be significantly different for the range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index, and the MASA scores between the groups (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Stomatognathic alignment exercise may improve TMJ function and swallowing function of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. PMID:24259786

  4. Effect of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients with limited mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Oh, Duck-Won; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients presenting limited mouth opening. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis presenting limited mouth opening were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 7 subjects in each group. [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in a stomatognathic alignment exercise program that consisted of mobility exercises of the TMJ and neck and postural correction. Main outcome measures were neck mobility, the active maximum range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index (CMI), and the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA) score. [Results] The changes in the values of the range of mouth opening, CMI, MASA, and all the parameters of neck mobility were significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, post-test values appeared to be significantly different for the range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index, and the MASA scores between the groups (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Stomatognathic alignment exercise may improve TMJ function and swallowing function of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.

  5. Phonological similarity effect is abolished by a silent mouthing task.

    PubMed

    Saito, S

    1993-04-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effect of silent mouthing on the phonological similarity effect. 16 undergraduates were tested for serial recall of visually presented letter sequences that were either phonologically similar or dissimilar. The letter sequences had to be remembered under two conditions, a control condition and a silent mouthing condition in which subjects had to articulate irrelevant words silently during the study period. Analysis showed the clear advantage of the dissimilar sequence over the similar one in the control condition. In contrast, this phonological similarity effect disappeared in the silent mouthing condition. This result is consistent with the working memory model.

  6. Sensitivity to Spacing Information Increases More for the Eye Region than for the Mouth Region during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to spacing information within faces improves with age and reaches maturity only at adolescence. In this study, we tested 6-16-year-old children's sensitivity to vertical spacing when the eyes or the mouth is the facial feature selectively manipulated. Despite the similar discriminability of these manipulations when they are embedded in…

  7. Sensitivity to Spacing Information Increases More for the Eye Region than for the Mouth Region during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to spacing information within faces improves with age and reaches maturity only at adolescence. In this study, we tested 6-16-year-old children's sensitivity to vertical spacing when the eyes or the mouth is the facial feature selectively manipulated. Despite the similar discriminability of these manipulations when they are embedded in…

  8. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  9. Management of lacerated and swollen tongue after convulsive seizure with a mouth protector: interprofessional collaboration including dentists in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Reiko; Soga, Yoshihiko; Moriya, Yoshie; Okui, Akemi; Takeuchi, Tetsuo; Sato, Kenji; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    We encountered a 74-year-old male patient with tongue laceration after convulsive seizures under intensive care. The tongue showed severe swelling, and the right ventral surface had been lacerated by his isolated and pointed right lower canine. Our university hospital has established a perioperative management center, and is promoting interprofessional collaboration, including dentists, in perioperative management. Dentists collaborating in the perioperative management center took dental impressions, with the support of anesthesiologists who opened the patient's jaw under propofol sedation, to produce a mouth protector. By raising the patient's bite, the completed mouth protector prevented the isolated tooth from contacting the tongue and protected the lacerated wound. Use of the mouth protector prevented the lacerated tongue from coming into contact with the pointed tooth, and the tongue healed gradually. These findings underscore that interprofessional collaboration including dentists can improve the quality of medical care.

  10. Fabrication of customized sectional impression trays in management of patients with limited mouth opening: a simple and unique approach.

    PubMed

    Krishna Ch, Vamsi; Mahendranadh Reddy, K; Gupta, Nidhi; Mahadev Shastry, Y; Chandra Sekhar, N; Aditya, Venkat; Reddy, G V K Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Impression making is not only important but is also the most significant step in the fabrication of any fixed or removable prosthesis. Proper impression making may be hindered by certain pathologic conditions. Reduced mouth opening is one of the common mechanical obstructions for proper orientation of the impression tray in the patient's mouth. In patients with trismus induced by submucous fibrosis, the procedure may be even more difficult to carry out because of reduced tissue resiliency and obliteration of vestibular spaces. Use of sectional trays offers one of the alternatives to overcome the problem of restricted mouth opening. Fabrication of customized impression trays according to the patient dentition improves the accuracy of impression making. The present case reports describe the fabrication of sectional custom trays designed for dentulous patients with chronic tobacco-induced submucous fibrosis.

  11. The Asian free-reed mouth organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, James P.

    2002-11-01

    Mouth-blown instruments employing a free reed coupled to a pipe resonator have long been known and used throughout East and Southeast Asia. Details of the origin and development of these instruments are not known, but are closely connected with the history and prehistory of a multitude of ethnic groups. These instruments exemplify a pipe-resonator coupling significantly different from the standard wind instruments of European origin. The free reed used is approximately symmetric, often operating on both directions of air flow. In some cases the reed is at or near one end of a closed pipe, but in other examples the reed is mounted in the side of a resonator open at both ends. The instruments can be either multiple pipe instruments with one pipe per note, or a pipe with a single reed and tone holes. A number of experimental studies have been conducted on examples of Asian free-reed instruments, primarily the khaen, bawu, and sheng. These include studies of reed vibration, measurements of sound spectra, and impedance measurements of the pipes. Comparisons have been made between experimental results and theoretical work on the coupling of reed vibration with the pipe resonator.

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  13. No Dose Response Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time-Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    James, Ruth M; Ritchie, Sarah; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of mouth rinsing carbohydrate at increasing concentrations on ~1 hr cycle time trial performance. Eleven male cyclists completed three experimental trials, following an overnight fast. Cyclists performed a ~1 hr time trial on a cycle ergometer, while rinsing their mouth for 5 s with either a 7% maltodextrin solution (CHO), 14% CHO or a taste-matched placebo (PLA) after every 12.5% of the set amount of work. Heart rate was recorded every 12.5% of the time trial, while RPE and GI comfort were determined every 25% of the time trial. The mouth rinse protocol influenced the time to complete the time trial (p < .001), with cyclists completing the time trial faster during 7% CHO (57.3 ± 4.5 min; p = .004) and 14% CHO (57.4 ± 4.1 min; p = .007), compared with PLA (59.5 ± 4.9 min). There was no difference between the two carbohydrate trials (p = .737). There was a main effect of time (P<0.001) for both heart rate and RPE, but no main effect of trial (p = .107 and p = .849, respectively). Scores for GI comfort ranged from 0-2 during trials, indicating very little GI discomfort during exercise. In conclusion, mouth rinsing and expectorating a 7% maltodextrin solution, for 5 s routinely during exercise was associated with improved cycle time trial performance approximately 1 h in duration. Increasing the carbohydrate concentration of the rinsed solution from 7% to 14% resulted in no further performance improvement.

  14. Oropharyngeal Control of Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identifies a coordinative structure of action that integrates hand and mouth activities within hours after birth. Found that presenting neonates with a sucrose solution focused gross motor patterns of hand movement on the oral and perioral regions. (SKC)

  15. Hardness and shock absorption of silicone rubber for mouth guards.

    PubMed

    Auroy, P; Duchatelard, P; Zmantar, N E; Hennequin, M

    1996-04-01

    Silicone rubbers have general properties that make them suitable for the fabrication of custom-made mouth guards. This study evaluated the shock absorption properties and Shore A hardness of several silicone rubbers and derived products, compared their values with those of materials commonly used for the manufacture of mouth guards, and correlated the shock absorption and transmission abilities of these different materials with their Shore hardness. Silicone rubbers absorb shock better than the materials currently used for custom-made mouth guards. In addition, to adapt mouth guards to particular sports, the properties of the silicone rubbers can be appropriately modified by the addition of oils or glass fiber reinforcement. Statistical analysis of hardness values and transmitted forces for the 27 materials tested indicates that the maximum transmitted force increases with hardness. However, this relationship is not linear, and departure from linearity is greatest for minimal and maximal hardness values.

  16. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ROCK OUTCROPPING, SHOWING NATURAL CARVED ROCK POOLS, UPPER PORTION OF FISH LADDER VISIBLE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  17. 10. General oblique view of steel pedestrian bridge spanning mouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. General oblique view of steel pedestrian bridge spanning mouth of raceway; view to northwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  18. Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... issue of AGD Impact , the Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) monthly newsmagazine. Dry mouth, also known as ...

  19. 21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS WITH ROLLERS FOR MOVING TRAYS IN AND OUT OF THE OVENS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  1. 2. Photocopy of 1827 map of mouth of Cuyahoga River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of 1827 map of mouth of Cuyahoga River from Corps of Engineers files, Buffalo District. This is the earliest map of the Cleveland Harbor in the Corps' files. - Cleveland Breakwater at Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  3. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary-developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  4. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later.

  6. Occlusal concepts in full mouth rehabilitation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhawana; Ladha, Komal; Lalit, Aaruti; Dwarakananda Naik, B

    2014-12-01

    Restoration of occlusion in patients with severely worn dentition is a challenging situation as every case is unique in itself. There is great apprehension involved in reconstructing debilitated dentition due to widely divergent views concerning the choice of an appropriate occlusal scheme for successful full mouth rehabilitation. This article is an overview of the various occlusal concepts/philosophies in full mouth rehabilitation which will help the clinician select an appropriate occlusal scheme for an individual case.

  7. Management of antithrombotic therapy before full-mouth extraction.

    PubMed

    Powless, R Andrew; Omar, Hesham R; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2013-06-01

    The management of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy before full-mouth extraction is a major concern for dentists. Approach should vary depending on the risk of bleeding and adverse cardiac events. We have adapted a more conservative approach with continuation of antiplatelet therapy in the majority of patients while implementing local hemostatic measures with good outcomes. Specific recommendations are provided for antiplatelet therapy before mouth extraction.

  8. 33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, LOOKING TO THE NORTHWEST. NEITHER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION NOR OAKLAND NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER HAVE BEEN BUILT. No date, probably mid-1930's. U.S. Navy photograph. Original print on file at the National Archives, San Bruno, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  11. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    Painelli, Vitor S; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Del-Favero, Serena; Benatti, Fabiana B; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Lancha, Antonio H

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously reported that carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse can improve exercise performance. The proposed mechanism involves increased activation of brain regions believed to be responsible for reward/motivation and motor control. Since strength-related performance is affected by central drive to the muscles, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that the positive CNS response to oral CHO sensing may counteract the inhibitory input from the muscle afferent pathways minimizing the drop in the central drive. The purpose of the current study was to test if CHO mouth rinse affects maximum strength and strength endurance performance. Twelve recreationally strength-trained healthy males (age 24.08 ± 2.99 years; height 178.09 ± 6.70 cm; weight 78.67 ± 8.17 kg) took part in the study. All of the tests were performed in the morning, after an 8 h overnight fasting. Subjects were submitted to a maximum strength test (1-RM) and a strength endurance test (six sets until failure at 70% of 1-RM), in separate days under three different experimental conditions (CHO mouth rinse, placebo-PLA mouth rinse and control-CON) in a randomized crossover design. The CHO mouth rinse (25 ml) occurred before every attempt in the 1-RM test, and before every set in the endurance strength test. Blood glucose and lactate were measured immediately before and 5 min post-tests. There were no significant differences in 1-RM between experimental conditions (CHO 101 ± 7.2 kg; PLA 101 ± 7.4 kg; CON 101 ± 7.2 kg; p = 0.98). Furthermore, there were no significance between trial differences in the number of repetitions performed in each set (p = 0.99) or the total exercise volume (number of repetitions × load lifted [kg]) (p = 0.98). A main effect for time (p < 0.0001) in blood lactate concentration was observed in both tests (1-RM and strength endurance). Blood glucose concentration did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, CHO mouth rinse does not affect maximum strength or strength

  12. Cough gastric pressure and maximum expiratory mouth pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Man, William D-C; Kyroussis, Dimitris; Fleming, Tracey A; Chetta, Alfredo; Harraf, Farzaneh; Mustfa, Naveed; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2003-09-15

    Maximal expiratory mouth pressure is a well established test that is used to assess expiratory muscle strength. However, low values are difficult to interpret, as they may result from technical difficulties in performing the test, particularly in patients with facial muscle weakness or bulbar dysfunction. We hypothesized that measuring the gastric pressure during a cough, a natural maneuver recruiting the expiratory muscles, might prove to be a useful additional test in the assessment of expiratory muscle function. Mouth expiratory and cough gastric pressures were measured in 99 healthy volunteers to obtain normal values and in 293 patients referred for respiratory muscle assessment to compare the two measurements. Between-occasion within-subject coefficient of variation, assessed in 24 healthy volunteers, was 10.3% for mouth pressure and 6.9% for cough. Mean +/- SD cough gastric pressure for normal males was 214.4 +/- 42.2 and 165.1 +/- 34.8 cm H2O for females. In 171 patients deemed weak by a low mouth expiratory pressure, 42% had a normal cough gastric pressure. In 105 patients deemed weak by a low cough gastric pressure, 5.7% had a normal expiratory mouth pressure. Low maximal expiratory mouth pressures do not always indicate expiratory muscle weakness. Cough gastric pressure provides a useful complementary test for the assessment of expiratory muscle strength.

  13. Postural alterations and pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Waleska da; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Menezes, Sara Lucia Siveira de

    2010-01-01

    Mouth-breathing children have changes in their stomatognathic system, which result in head projection, stress increase in the scapular belt muscles and postural adaptations. Although thoracic shape and posture can influence ventilatory dynamics, we didn't find studies addressing pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children. this study aimed at analyzing the posture of mouth-breathing children, and studying the existence of correlations between posture and pulmonary volumes. prospective, observational and cross-sectional study, where the posture and pulmonary function of 17 mouth-breathing children and of 17 nasal-breathing children were evaluated by means of photogrammetry and forced spirometry. when compared to nasal-breathing, mouth-breathing subjects presented an increment in head projection and cervical lordosis, forwarded gravity center and reduced pulmonary volumes. There was an association between head projection and forced vital capacity, and between postural alterations and age. mouth-breathing children have postural alterations which increases with age and also reduced spirometry values. The vital capacity reduction correlates negatively with head projection.

  14. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    PubMed

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  15. Water surface slope spectra in nearshore and river mouth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxague, N. J. M.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    With the ever-growing interest in satellite remote sensing, direct observations of short wave characteristics are needed along coastal margins. These zones are characterized by a diversity of physical processes that can affect sea surface topography. Here we present connections made between ocean wave spectral shape and wind forcing in coastal waters using polarimetric slope sensing and eddy covariance methods; this is based on data collected in the vicinity of the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) on the Oregon-Washington border. These results provide insights into the behavior of short waves in coastal environments under variable wind forcing; this characterization of wave spectra is an important step towards improving the use of radar remote sensing to sample these dynamic coastal waters. High wavenumber spectral peaks are found to appear for U 10 > 6 m/s but vanish for τ > 0.1 N/m2, indicating a stark difference between how wind speed and wind stress are related to the short-scale structure of the ocean surface. Near-capillary regime spectral shape is found to be less steep than in past observations and to show no discernable sensitivity to wind forcing.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Kim, Y; Yoo, T; Han, P; Inman, J C

    2017-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized controlled trials. Eight studies examined alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), three clonazepam, three psychotherapy, and two capsaicin, which all showed modest evidence of potentially decreasing pain/burning. Gabapentin was seen in one study to work alone and synergistically with ALA. Other treatments included vitamins, benzydamine hydrochloride, bupivacaine, Catuama, olive oil, trazodone, urea, and Hypericum perforatum. Of these other treatments, Catuama and bupivacaine were the only ones with significant positive results in symptom improvement. ALA, topical clonazepam, gabapentin, and psychotherapy may provide modest relief of pain in BMS. Gabapentin may also boost the effect of ALA. Capsaicin is limited by its side effects. Catuama showed potential for benefit. Future studies with standardized methodology and outcomes containing more patients are needed.

  17. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis. PMID:28638895

  18. Willingness to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation by health care providers: a survey.

    PubMed

    Boucek, Charles D; Phrampus, Paul; Lutz, John; Dongilli, Thomas; Bircher, Nicholas G

    2009-08-01

    During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTM) is only effective if rescuers are willing to perform it. To assess the degree of willingness or reluctance in performing MTM, a survey including 17 hypothetical scenarios was created. In each scenario health hazards for the rescuer needed to be balanced against the patient's need for MTM. Respondents were recruited from health care workers attending courses at a medical simulation center. Respondents reported their willingness or reluctance to perform MTM for each scenario using a 4 point scale. The questionnaire had responses by 560 health care workers. Reluctance to perform MTM varied with the scenario. Some health care workers refused to ventilate patients who could benefit from MTM. In all scenarios even when resuscitation was both futile and potentially hazardous, some health care workers were willing to perform MTM. Age and level of experience tend to reduce the propensity to engage in MTM. Parental propensity to ventilate one's own child was stronger than any other motivator. HIV infection is not the only condition for which rescuers hesitate to perform MTM. Bag-valve-mask devices for mechanical ventilation should be available in all locations where health care workers may be called upon to resuscitate apneic patients making the decision to perform MTM moot.

  19. Measures on mixing angles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1){sup 2}/SU(3)/U(1){sup 2}. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3x3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine-tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.

  20. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Kyo

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  1. Probiotics: health benefits in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, Iva; Meurman, Jukka H

    2009-12-01

    Probiotics or health-beneficial bacteria have only recently been introduced in dentistry and oral medicine after years of successful use in mainly gastro-intestinal disorders. The concept of bacteriotherapy and use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20th century. Later the concept lead to the development of modem dairy industry and even today most probiotic strains are lactobacilli or bifidobacteria used in milk fermentation. The mechanisms of probiotic action are mainly unknown but the inter-microbial species interactions are supposed to play a key role in this together with their immuno-stimulatory effects. The introduction of probiotic bacteria in the mouth calls for ascertainment of their particular safety. Since acid production from sugar is detrimental to teeth, care must be taken not to select strains with high fermentation capacity. The first randomized controlled trials have nevertheless shown that probiotics may control dental caries in children due to their inhibitory action against cariogenic streptococci. Less evidence exists on their role in periodontal disease or oral yeast infections. Furthermore the best vehicles for oral probiotic applications need to be assessed. So far mainly dairy products have been investigated but other means such as probiotics in chewing gums or lozenges have also been studied. From the clinical practitioner's point of view direct recommendations for the use of probiotics cannot yet be given. However, scientific evidence so far indicates that probiotic therapy may be a reality also in dentistry and oral medicine in the future.

  2. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. [Burning mouth syndrome: pathogenic and therapeutic concepts].

    PubMed

    Ferensztajn, Ewa; Łojko, Dorota; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterized by pain, burning sensations and dryness within an oral mucosa, without any clinical changes of the latter. It occurs approximately seven times more frequently in women, mostly in perimenopausal age. The psychiatric aspect of BMS is significant: the most frequent co-morbidities are depression and anxiety disorders, and a number of psychotropic drugs play an essential role in its treatment. In the present review, the most important pathogenic and treatment concepts of BMS have been discussed. The BMS may be similar to neuropathic pain and has some related pathogenic elements with fibromyalgia and the restless leg syndrome. In primary BMS, the features of presynaptic dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons and deficiency of endogenous dopamine levels have been demonstrated. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine as well as hormonal and inflammatory factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of BMS. In the pharmacological treatment of BMS a variety of drugs have been used including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the final part of the paper, the possibility of using atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, in the treatment of BMS has been discussed. In the context of the recent studies on this topic, a case of female patient with the BMS lasting more than ten years has been mentioned, in whom the treatment with olanzapine brought about a rapid and significant reduction of symptoms. The probable mechanism of the therapeutic effect of olanzapine in BMS can include its effect on dopaminergic receptors and probably also on histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic ones.

  5. A model for column angle evolution during oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanto, B.; Ten Eyck, G.; Lu, T.-M.

    2010-07-01

    We present a semiempirical model based on the shadowing effect to describe quantitatively the aggregation of columnar structure during physical vapor condensation onto a surface with an array of line seeds and a flat surface. Specifically, we predict the relationship between the column angle and the incident flux angle and how this relationship changes with processing conditions and materials. The model uses one input parameter, the fan angle generated at normal incident flux. The model describes well our experimental data on the Ge column angle evolution as a function of a wide range of incident flux angles.

  6. Enhanced backscattering at grazing angles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zu-Han; Fuks, I M; Ciftan, Mikael

    2002-12-02

    Backscattering signals at small grazing angles are important for space vehicle atmospheric reentrance and subsurface radar sensing applications. They are also useful in Fourier-transform infrared grazing-angle microscopy. Recently we performed an experimental study of far-field scattering at small grazing angles, in particular, of enhanced backscattering at grazing angles. For a randomly weak rough dielectric film upon a reflecting metal substrate, a large enhanced backscattering peak was measured. Experimental results are compared with small perturbation theoretical predictions.

  7. Changes in facial morphology after adenotonsillectomy in mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Sara E M; Valera, Fabiana C P; Faria, Gisele; Matsumoto, Miriam A N; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T

    2011-09-01

    Morphological and dentofacial alterations have been attributed to impaired respiratory function. To examine the influence of mouth breathing (MB) on children facial morphology before and after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Thirty-three MB children who restored nasal breathing (NB) after surgery and 22 NB children were evaluated. Both groups were submitted to lateral cephalometry, at time 1 (T1) before and at time 2 (T2) 28 months on average postoperatively. Comparison between the MB and NB groups at T1 showed that mouth breathers had higher inclination of the mandibular plane; more obtuse gonial angle; dolichofacial morphology; and a decrease in the total and inferior posterior facial heights. Twenty-eight months after the MB surgical intervention, they still presented a dolichofacial morphologic pattern. During this period, MB altered the face growth direction and decreased their mandible plane inclination, with reduction in the SN.GoGn, PP.MP, SNGn, and ArGo.GoMe parameters as well as an increase in BaN.PtGn. After the MB rehabilitation, children between 3 and 6 years old presented significant normalization in the mandibular growth direction, a decrease in the mandible inclination, and an increase in the posterior facial height. Instead, they still persisted with a dolichofacial pattern when compared with nasal breathers. 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  9. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  10. Mandibular pathological fracture during treatment with a dynamic mouth opening device: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Marunick, Mark T; Garcia-Gazaui, Sabrina; Hildebrand, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    Trismus is a well-known complication of head and neck cancer treatment. It is defined as a progressive tonic contraction of the muscles of mastication that results in decreased mouth opening. This condition can lead to impairment of speech and eating, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, and difficulty with dental treatment. Its prevalence in patients with head and neck cancer ranges from 5% to 38%. Different treatments are available to improve muscle length and function. Mouth opening devices along with exercising of the mandible immediately after surgery and/or radiation therapy have been found to be effective in reducing the trismus induced by cancer therapy. Presently, only limited defined guidelines are available for initiating or monitoring trismus therapy in this patient population. This clinical report presents a patient with head and neck cancer and a history of progressive recurrent trismus as a sequela of extensive surgery and chemoradiation, who experienced a pathological fracture of the mandible during treatment with a mouth opening device.

  11. Robotic-assisted transoral removal of a bilateral floor of mouth ranulas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the management of bilateral oral ranulas with the use of the da Vinci Si Surgical System and discuss advantages and disadvantages over traditional transoral resection. Study Design Case Report and Review of Literature. Results A 47 year old woman presented to our service with an obvious right floor of mouth swelling. Clinical evaluation and computerized tomography scan confirmed a large floor of mouth ranula on the right and an incidental asymptomatic early ranula of the left sublingual gland. After obtaining an informed consent, the patient underwent a right transoral robotic-assisted transoral excision of the ranula and sublingual gland with identification and dissection of the submandibular duct and lingual nerve. The patient had an excellent outcome with no evidence of lingual nerve paresis and a return to oral intake on the first postoperative day. Subsequently, the patient underwent an elective transoral robotic-assisted excision of the incidental ranula on the left sublingual gland. Conclusion We describe the first robotic-assisted excision of bilateral oral ranulas in current literature. The use of the da Vinci system provides excellent visualization, magnification, and dexterity for transoral surgical management of ranulas with preservation of the lingual nerve and Wharton's duct with good functional outcomes. However, the use of the robotic system for anterior floor of mouth surgery in terms of improved surgical outcomes as compared to traditional transoral surgery, long-term recurrence rates, and cost effectiveness needs further validation. PMID:21767364

  12. Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards on concussions has not been conclusively demonstrated. In this review, the current literature pertaining to the effect that equipment has on concussions is evaluated. Understanding the role that this equipment plays in preventing concussions is complicated by many factors, such as selection bias in non-randomized studies, variations in playing style, and risk compensation in sports with mandatory protective equipment. At this point, there is little evidence supporting the use of specific helmets or mouth guards to prevent concussions outside of specific sports such as cycling, skiing, and snowboarding. Improving coach and player education about proper concussion management, encouraging neck strengthening exercises, and minimizing high-risk impacts may provide a more fruitful avenue to reduce concussions in sports. PMID:21074089

  13. Clinical and Microbial Evaluation of the Effects on Gingivitis of a Mouth Rinse Containing an Enteromorpha linza Extract

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Bin; Lee, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Choi, Jae-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Enteromorpha linza, a green alga, has been recognized as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antifungal compounds. We previously reported that an E. linza extract strongly inhibited the growth of Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract on gingivitis disease, as measured by the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP), and on two bacterial strains (P. intermedia and P. gingivalis), in comparison with Listerine® (Listerine-Korea, Seoul, Korea), which was used as a positive control. In total, 55 subjects were recruited into active participation in this clinical study. The PI, GI, BOP, and bacterial strains were then evaluated over a test period of 6 weeks. After 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, the same clinical indices were recorded, and the levels of P. intermedia and P. gingivalis were quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of the study, the group using the mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract evidenced significant reductions in the clinical indices (PI, GI, and BOP) and P. gingivalis compared with baseline values. Moreover, E. linza extract containing mouth rinse produced effects similar to those of Listerine. Overall, these results indicate that a mouth rinse containing E. linza extract significantly reduces plaque, improves the condition of gingival tissues, and reduces bleeding. Additionally, E. linza extract mouth rinse significantly inhibits P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. Thus, this clinical study demonstrated that the twice-daily use of an E. linza extract mouth rinse can inhibit and prevent gingivitis. PMID:22145775

  14. Clinical and microbial evaluation of the effects on gingivitis of a mouth rinse containing an Enteromorpha linza extract.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Bin; Lee, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-12-01

    Enteromorpha linza, a green alga, has been recognized as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antifungal compounds. We previously reported that an E. linza extract strongly inhibited the growth of Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract on gingivitis disease, as measured by the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP), and on two bacterial strains (P. intermedia and P. gingivalis), in comparison with Listerine(®) (Listerine-Korea, Seoul, Korea), which was used as a positive control. In total, 55 subjects were recruited into active participation in this clinical study. The PI, GI, BOP, and bacterial strains were then evaluated over a test period of 6 weeks. After 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, the same clinical indices were recorded, and the levels of P. intermedia and P. gingivalis were quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of the study, the group using the mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract evidenced significant reductions in the clinical indices (PI, GI, and BOP) and P. gingivalis compared with baseline values. Moreover, E. linza extract containing mouth rinse produced effects similar to those of Listerine. Overall, these results indicate that a mouth rinse containing E. linza extract significantly reduces plaque, improves the condition of gingival tissues, and reduces bleeding. Additionally, E. linza extract mouth rinse significantly inhibits P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. Thus, this clinical study demonstrated that the twice-daily use of an E. linza extract mouth rinse can inhibit and prevent gingivitis.

  15. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  16. Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Martin U.; Lüdemann, Wolf O.; Schreiber, Hartwig; Samii, Madjid

    1997-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas in an infratentorial and extra-axial location are extremely rare. The presented case of an extensive lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represents 0.05% of all CPA tumors operated on in our department from 1978 to 1996. The lipoma constitutes an important differential diagnosis because the clinical management differs significantly from other CPA lesions. The clinical presentation and management of the presented case are analyzed in comparison to all previously described cases of CPA lipomas. The etiology and the radiological features of CPA lipomas are reviewed and discussed. CPA lipomas are maldevelopmental lesions that may cause slowly progressive symptoms. Neuroradiology enables a reliable preoperative diagnosis. Attempts of complete lipoma resection usually result in severe neurological deficits. Therefore, we recommend a conservative approach in managing these patients. Limited surgery is indicated if the patient has an associated vascular compression syndrome or suffers from disabling vertigo. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171031

  17. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  18. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  19. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  20. Inhalability of micron particles through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Se, Camby Mei King; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2010-03-01

    Aspiration efficiencies from nose and mouth inhalations are investigated at low and high inhalation rates by using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software CFX 11. A realistic human head with detailed facial features was constructed. Facial features were matched to represent the 50th percentile of a human male, aged between 20 and 65 years old, based on anthropometric data. The constant freestream velocity was 0.2 ms(-1), normal to the face, and inhalation rates through the mouth and nose were 15 liters per minute (LPM) for light breathing and 40 LPM for heavy breathing. It was found that the flow field in the near breathing region exhibited vertical direction caused by the presence of the torso where the airstream diverges as it flows around and over the body. The critical area concept was used as a tool to determine the aspiration efficiency of particles. Comparisons between critical areas for the nose and mouth inhalations show similar geometric properties such as the area's shape, and its vertical distance location on the x-z plane located at y = 80 cm upstream. The critical area sizes were found to be slightly larger for the mouth inhalation mainly due to the larger mouth area and also the aligned orientation of the mouth to the upstream flow, whereas the nose is perpendicular to the upstream flow. This study was undertaken to establish the flow field in the near breathing region that will help to characterize the flow and particle field for initial boundary conditions leading to a more holistic modeling approach of respiration through the internal nasal cavity and mouth.

  1. Effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor: a randomized, open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iha, Kosaku; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Takeshita, Toru; Hirofuji, Takao

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess oral malodor and clinical parameters related to oral malodor before and after mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel (n = 9) or with gel not including hinokitiol (n = 9). Mouth cleaning included the teeth, gingiva, and tongue and was carried out 3 times per day for 4 weeks. Organoleptic test (OLT) scores (P = .021), levels of hydrogen sulfide (P = .008) and methyl mercaptan (P = .020), frequency of bleeding on probing, average probing pocket depth, and plaque index significantly improved in the group using hinokitiol. In contrast, only the OLT score (P = .031) significantly improved in the control group after the treatment regimen. Mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel may be effective for reduction of oral malodor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  3. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Effect of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Knabe, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release angling is popular in many parts of the world and plays an increasingly important role in fish conservation efforts. Although survival rates associated with catch-and-release angling are well documented for many species, sublethal effects have been less studied. An experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Catch-and-release events were simulated in laboratory tanks maintained at 15-16 ??C with hooks manually placed in pre-designated locations in the mouths of the fish. There were no differences in standard length (P = 0.59) or wet weight (P = 0.81) gained between caught and uncaught fish over a 1-month angling and recovery period. Survival was 96.99 ?? 0.06% for rainbow trout caught and released, and did not vary with number (one, two or four) of captures. Thus, catch-and-release angling appears to have little effect on growth and mortality of rainbow trout hooked in the mouth. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of Efficacy of an Herbal Compound on Dry Mouth in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool; Ghobadi, Ali; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    Dry mouth is a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. This study compared the efficacy of an herbal compound containing Malva sylvestris and Alcea digitata (Boiss) with artificial saliva (Hypozalix) for improving the symptoms of dry mouth in head and neck cancer patients. The study examined a total of 62 subjects assigned to 2 groups. The herbal compound and Hypozalix were administered for 4 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the visual analog scale and by grading the degree of dry mouth. Both groups showed a significant difference between visual analog scale before and following intervention. There was also a significant difference in visual analog scale between groups at 4 weeks after onset of intervention. The herbal group showed a significant difference between the grade of dry mouth before and after intervention, but no change was observed for grade of dry mouth in the Hypozalix group. This study supports the efficacy of the herbal compound for controlling symptoms of dry mouth in head and neck cancer patients.

  6. Surfing for mouth guards: assessing quality of online information.

    PubMed

    Magunacelaya, Macarena B; Glendor, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    The Internet is an easily accessible and commonly used source of health-related information, but evaluations of the quality of this information within the dental trauma field are still lacking. The aims of this study are (i) to present the most current scientific knowledge regarding mouth guards used in sport activities, (ii) to suggest a scoring system to evaluate the quality of information pertaining to mouth guard protection related to World Wide Web sites and (iii) to employ this scoring system when seeking reliable mouth guard-related websites. First, an Internet search using the keywords 'athletic injuries/prevention and control' and 'mouth protector' or 'mouth guards' in English was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, SvedMed+ and Web of Science to identify scientific knowledge about mouth guards. Second, an Internet search using the keywords 'consumer health information Internet', 'Internet information public health' and 'web usage-seeking behaviour' was performed on PubMed and Web of Science to obtain scientific articles seeking to evaluate the quality of health information on the Web. Based on the articles found in the second search, two scoring systems were selected. Then, an Internet search using the keywords 'mouth protector', 'mouth guards' and 'gum shields' in English was performed on the search engines Google, MSN and Yahoo. The websites selected were evaluated for reliability and accuracy. Of the 223 websites retrieved, 39 were designated valid and evaluated. Nine sites scored 22 or higher. The mean total score of the 39 websites was 14.2. Fourteen websites scored higher than the mean total score, and 25 websites scored less. The highest total score, presented by a Public Institution Web site (Health Canada), was 31 from a maximum possible score of 34, and the lowest score was 0. This study shows that there is a high amount of information about mouth guards on the Internet but that the quality of this information varies. It should be the responsibility

  7. High-Resolution Optoelectronic Shaft-Angle Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic encoder measures absolute angle to which shaft has been rotated. Costs little more than older, less capable encoders do, yet measures absolute angles at high resolution and does not lose absolute-angle data because generates those data anew with each reading at up to 1,000 times per second. It accumulates increments to measure total angular interval through which shaft has been turned (including unlimited number of complete turns), as long as power remains on.

  8. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  9. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  10. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth.

  11. Split-mouth design in Paediatric Dentistry clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pozos-Guillén, A; Chavarría-Bolaños, D; Garrocho-Rangel, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the essential concepts of the split-mouth design, its underlying assumptions, advantages, limitations, statistical considerations, and possible applications in Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation. In Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation, and as part of randomised controlled trials, the split-mouth design is commonly used. The design is characterised by subdividing the child's dentition into halves (right and left), where two different treatment modalities are assigned to one side randomly, in order to allow further outcome evaluation. Each participant acts as their own control by making within- patient rather than between-patient comparisons, thus diminishing inter-subject variability and increasing study accuracy and power. However, the main problem with this design comprises the potential contamination of the treatment effect from one side to the other, or the "carry-across effect"; likewise, this design is not indicated when the oral disease to be treated is not symmetrically distributed (e.g. severity) in the mouth of children. Thus, in spite of its advantages, the split-mouth design can only be applied in a limited number of strictly selected cases. In order to obtain valid and reliable data from split mouth design studies, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of carry-across effect as well as to carefully analise and select adequate inclusion criteria, sample-size calculation and method of statistical analysis.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: the role of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Virgili, A; Corazza, M; Trombelli, L; Arcidiacono, A

    1996-11-01

    The burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an unpleasant sensation of burning in the oral cavity, without clinical signs. Causal factors may be psychogenic, systemic or local. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of contact allergy in the pathogenesis of burning mouth syndrome. Fifteen patients with burning mouth syndrome were studied through anamnesis and laboratory analysis. Epicutaneous patch tests were performed with the Italian standard series (GIRDCA - Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto ed Ambientali), preservative and dental series. The same tests were carried out in 12 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The number of patients affected by burning mouth syndrome with a positive reaction to patchtesting was 6 out of 15, while the number of allergic patients in the control group was 3 out of 12. No association could be found between positive reaction at patchtesting and exposure to allergens. Contact allergy in burning mouth syndrome seems not to play a primary role; nevertheless, it is advisable to perform patch tests in selected patients to identify a possible aetiological agent.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in mouth breathing children.

    PubMed

    Izu, Suemy Cioffi; Itamoto, Caroline Harumi; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Pizarro, Gilberto Ulson; Tufik, Sérgio; Pignatari, Shirley; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that mouth breathing is associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy - which is the main cause of obstructive sleep apnea among children. Despite the importance of this matter, there are only a handful of studies showing the relationship between OSAS and mouth breathing. to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep disorders in mouth breathing children and study its correlation with otorhinolaryngological findings. Retrospective cohort study. Data analysis from 248 medical charts of mouth breathing children seen at the Pediatric Otolaryngologic Division of a large medical institution between the years of 2000 and 2006. All patients had nasofibroscopy and or Cavum radiographs and polysomnographic exams. According to the Apnea index, patients were classified as primary snorers (AI<1); and as OSAS (>1). From 248 patients included in the study, 144 (58%) were primary snorers and 104 (42%) had OSAS. The most prevalent otorhinolaryngological findings were adenotonsillar hypertrophy (n=152; 61.2%), tonsilar hypertrophy (n=17; 6.8%), adenoid hypertrophy (n=37; 14.9%), rhinitis (n=155; 62.5%) and secretory otitis (n=36; 14.5%). primary snoring and OSAS are frequent findings in mouth breathing children. The most frequent otorhinolaryngological disorder in children with OSAS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy with or without rhinitis.

  14. Electromyographic muscle EMG activity in mouth and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eliane C; Marchiori, Susana C; da Silva, Ana Maria T

    2004-04-01

    Mouth breathing may cause changes in muscle activity, because an upper airway obstruction leads may cause a person to extend his/her head forward, demanding a higher inspiratory effort on the accessory muscles (sternocleidomastoids). This purpose of this study is to compare, using electromyography (EMG), the activity pattern the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscles in mouth breathing children and nasal breathing children. Forty-six children, ages 8-12 years, 33 male and 13 female were included. The selected children were divided into two groups: Group I consisted of 26 mouth breathing children, and Group II, 20 nasal breathing children. EMG recordings were made using surface electrodes bilaterally in the areas of the sternocleidomastoideus and upper trapezius muscles, while relaxed and during maximal voluntary contraction. The data were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. The results indicated higher activity during relaxation and lower activity during maximal voluntary contraction in mouth breathers when compared to the nasal breathers. It is suggested that the activity pattern of the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscles differs between mouth breathing children and nasal breathing children. This may be attributed to changes in body posture which causes muscular imbalance. Because of the limitations of surface EMG, the results need to be confirmed by adding force measurements and repeating the experiments with matched subjects.

  15. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Wendy

    2009-04-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill's criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths.

  16. Foot Progression Angle Walking Test

    PubMed Central

    Ranawat, Anil S.; Gaudiani, Michael A.; Slullitel, Pablo A.; Satalich, James; Rebolledo, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determining an accurate clinical diagnosis for nonarthritic hip pain may be challenging, as symptoms related to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip instability can be difficult to elucidate with current testing methods. In addition, commonly utilized physical examination maneuvers are static and do not include a dynamic or weightbearing assessment to reproduce activity-related symptoms. Therefore, implementing a dynamic assessment for FAI and hip instability could help to improve diagnostic accuracy for routine clinical examinations of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel diagnostic foot progression angle walking (FPAW) test for identifying hip pathology related to FAI or hip instability. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This prospective study included 199 consecutive patients who were evaluated for unilateral hip pain and who underwent FPAW testing along with standard physical examination testing. Demographic data, including age, sex and hip laterality, were collected from each patient. FPAW testing was performed with directed internal and external foot progression angles from their baseline measurements, with a positive test reproducing pain and/or discomfort. Comparisons were then made with flexion adduction internal rotation (FADIR) and flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) tests as the designated diagnostic standard examinations for FAI and hip instability, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, along with the McNemar chi-square test for group comparison, were used to generate summary statistics. In addition, areas under the combined receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of test performance were calculated for both FPAW and the designated standard examination tests (FADIR, FABER). Radiographic imaging was used subsequently to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The average age of the study cohort was 35.4 ± 11.8 years, with 114 patients being

  17. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  18. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  19. Conspicuous, ultraviolet-rich mouth colours in begging chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M; Langmore, Naomi E; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2003-01-01

    There is as yet no clear consensus on the function of vivid mouth colours in begging chicks. A major obstacle to our understanding has been that no studies have measured gape colours independently of human colour perception. Here, we present the first study, to our knowledge, to use UV-VIS spectrometry to quantify the gape colour, background nest colour and nest light environment of eight European passerines. Both mouths and the surrounding flanges show striking and previously unreported peaks of reflectance in the ultraviolet, coupled with high long-wavelength reflectance responsible for the human-visible appearance of the gape. High ultraviolet reflectance is likely to have an important effect on the conspicuousness of nestling mouths, since contrast with the nest background is maximal in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, the dual-peak nature of the spectra suggests that gapes are avian non-spectral colours analogous to human purple. PMID:12952627

  20. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  1. Effect of a person-centered mouth care intervention on care processes and outcomes in three nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Philip D; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Chen, Xi; Barrick, Ann L; Poole, Patricia; Reed, David; Mitchell, Madeline; Cohen, Lauren W

    2013-07-01

    To develop and test a person-centered, evidence-based mouth care program in nursing homes. Pre-post assessment, with an 8-week intervention period and a pilot 6-month extension at one site. Three North Carolina nursing homes. Ninety-seven residents and six certified nursing assistants (CNAs). CNAs already working in the facilities were trained as dedicated mouth care aides. A psychologist and dental hygienist provided didactic and hands-on training in evidence-based mouth care products and techniques and in person-centered behavioral care. Primary outcome measures for natural teeth were the Plaque Index for Long-Term Care (PI-LTC) and Gingival Index for Long-Term Care(GI-LTC) and for dentures the Denture Plaque Index (DPI); a dentist unmasked to study design obtained measures. Secondary outcomes included quantity and quality of care provided. Outcome scores significantly improved (P < .001 for PI-LTC and GI-LTC; P = .04 for DPI). Coding of videotaped care episodes indicated that care was more thorough (P < .001-P = .03) but took more time (P < .001) after training. Consistency of care appeared to be more important for natural teeth than dentures. As little as 8 weeks of mouth care can significantly improve oral hygiene outcomes. Given the consequences of poor oral hygiene, greater attention to mouth care education and provision are merited. The dedicated worker model is controversial, and future work should assess whether other models of care are equally beneficial. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Effects of Mouth Rinses on Color Stability of Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Yuzugullu, Bulem; Erkut, Selim; Yamanel, Kıvanc

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 commercially available mouth rinses on the color stability of 4 different resin-based composite restorative materials. Methods Forty disc-shaped specimens (10x2 mm) were prepared from each of the following materials: A nanofill composite Filtek Supreme XT (3M/Espe, St. Paul, MN, USA); a packable low-shrinkage composite, AeliteLS Packable (BISCO, Inc, Shaumburg, IL, USA); nanoceramic composite resin Ceram-X (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany); a microhybrid composite, and Aelite All-Purpose Body (BISCO). The specimens were then incubated in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The baseline color values (L*, a*, b*) of each specimen were measured with a colorimeter according to the CIELAB color scale. After baseline color measurements, 10 randomly selected specimens from each group were immersed in 1 of the 3 mouth rinses and distilled water as control. The specimens were stored in 20 mL of each mouth rinse (Oral B Alcohol-free, Listerine Tooth Defense Anti-cavity Fluoride Rinse and Klorhex) for 12 hours. After immersion, the color values of all specimens were remeasured, and the color change value ΔE*ab was calculated. Data were analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance at a significance level of .05. Results All specimens displayed color changes after immersion, and there was a statistically significant difference among restorative materials and mouth rinses (P<.05); however, the change was not visually perceptible (ΔE*ab<3.3). The interaction between the effect of mouth rinses and type of restorative materials was not statistically significant (P>.05). Conclusions It may be concluded that although visually nonperceptible, all resin restorative materials tested showed a color difference after immersion in different mouth rinses. PMID:19212530

  3. Optimizing bag-valve-mask ventilation with a new mouth-to-bag resuscitator.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Wenzel, Volker; Stallinger, Angelika; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Rheinberger, Klaus; Augenstein, Sven; Herff, Holger; Idris, Ahamed H; Dörges, Volker; Lindner, Karl H; Hörmann, Christoph

    2003-02-01

    conclusion, employing the mouth-to-bag resuscitator during simulated ventilation of an unintubated patient in respiratory arrest significantly decreased inspiratory flow rate and improved lung tidal volumes, while decreasing mask leakage.

  4. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P < 0.009). No significant improvement in the overall score for quality of life was observed, although subjects receiving acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  6. Short term clinical effectiveness of a 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Narinder; Kumar, Atul; Gupta, Siddharth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To test the short term clinical effectiveness of commercially available 0.07%.cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment as compared to a placebo mouth rinse and patients using toothbrush and toothpaste. Method Forty-five subjects for this double blind study were assigned randomly into three groups of 15 each. Gingival inflammation, plaque accumulation, and bleeding on probing, were recorded at baseline (10 days after prophylaxis), and at the end of one month in all the three groups and compared. Results Paired t test showed significant differences in bleeding index for pre and post treatment recordings for cetylpyridinium group. Modified gingival index showed no significant difference in the cetylpyridinium group. For plaque index significant difference was found for cetylpyridinium and control groups. Conclusion Cetylpyridinium mouth rinse 0.7% was found to be effective in reducing the bleeding and plaque index scores. It was not effective in reducing the modified gingival index scores. Cetylpyridinium mouth rinse 0.07% improves the oral hygiene of orthodontic patients when used as an adjunct to normal oral hygiene measures. PMID:23960507

  7. [Case of oromandibular dystonia presenting with severe impairment of mouth-opening, and a marked effect by administration of baclofen].

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Masamichi; Yoneda, Makoto; Nakagawa, Hiroto; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    We report a 67-year-old woman with idiopathic oromandibular dystonia (OMD). She could neither open the mouth nor take meals due to involuntarily strong mouth-closing. The movement of face, pharynx and tongue were normal, and she could open the mouth slightly when jaw and cheek were touched (sensory trick). Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign were negative, and opisthotonus was not recognized. The laboratory data including calcium, phosphorous and cerebrospinal fluid were within normal limits, head and cervical MRI, temporomandibular joints-Xp and needle electromyography were normal. The surface electromyography revealed that masseter and chin muscles contracted synchronously. This result meant dystonia around the mouth. The clinical course and physical examination did not support the diagnosis of tetanus, tetany or bulldog response. She was diagnosed as OMD. She had peroral administration of baclofen, because this drug is a GABA-derivative and acts as a muscular relaxant. Her clinical symptoms and dystonic pattern on the surface electromyography improved markedly after the administration. Baclofen is an effective drug for treatment of oromandibular dystonia.

  8. Effectiveness of saliva substitute products in the treatment of dry mouth in the elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matear, David W; Barbaro, John

    2005-01-01

    The aging population is susceptible to developing dry mouth (xerostomia). Elderly patients present all of the major risk factors to acquiring dry mouth which include systemic diseases and disorders, such as diabetes and depression, and the use of numerous medications, including anti-hypertensives and anti-depressants. The consequences of untreated dry mouth are severe limitations of masticatory function and speech, and increased risk of developing caries, periodontal diseases and fungal infections. Assessment of xerostomia, which includes a set of signs and symptoms that impact on the individual, can only be fully explored through a thorough medical history, intra-oral examination and recording the subjective views of patients. This study suggests a methodology for the assessment of xerostomia through a xerostomia questionnaire, which was used to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a saliva substitute product (Biotène) in the treatment of xerostomia in 20 elderly patients exhibiting both severe and moderate symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests revealed significant improvements in the number and severity of symptoms between the pre-test and the post-test groups. Biotène products were also found to be effective in the treatment of both severe and moderate symptoms of xerostomia. Biotène saliva substitutes are an acceptable and effective method of treatment for elderly people suffering from dry mouth.

  9. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-07

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1{sigma}). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  10. The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehle, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

  11. The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehle, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

  12. Development of a scanning angle total internal reflection Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Kristopher J.; Smith, Emily A.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning angle total internal reflection (SATIR) Raman spectrometer has been developed for measuring interfacial phenomena with chemical specificity and high axial resolution perpendicular to the interface. The instrument platform is an inverted optical microscope with added automated variable angle optics to control the angle of an incident laser on a prism/sample interface. These optics include two motorized translation stages, the first containing a focusing lens and the second a variable angle galvanometer mirror. The movement of all instrument components is coordinated to ensure that the same sample location and area are probed at each angle. At angles greater than the critical angle, an evanescent wave capable of producing Raman scatter is generated in the sample. The Raman scatter is collected by a microscope objective and directed to a dispersive spectrometer and charge-coupled device detector. In addition to the collected Raman scatter, light reflected from the prism/sample interface is collected to provide calibration parameters that enable modeling the distance over which the Raman scatter is collected for depth profiling measurements. The developed instrument has an incident angle range of 25.5°-75.5°, with a 0.05° angle resolution. Raman scatter can be collected from a ZnSe/organic interface over a range of roughly 35-180 nm. Far from the critical angle, the achieved axial resolution perpendicular to the focal plane is approximately 34 nm. This is roughly a 30-fold improvement relative to confocal Raman microscopy.

  13. Error correction of photoelectric rotary and angle encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; She, Wen-ji; Huang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The photoelectric rotary and angle encoder is a digital angle measuring device, which is integrated with optics, mechanics and electrics. Because of its simple structure, high resolution, and high accuracy, it has been widely used in precision measurement of angle, digital control and digital display system. With the needs of fast tracking and accurate orientation on the horizon and air targets, putting forward higher requirements on accuracy of angle measurement and resolution of photoelectric rotary and angle encoder. Influences of manufacturing, electronics segmentation, optical and mechanical structure and eccentric shaft to photoelectric encoder precision and reducing methods are introduced. Focusing on the eccentricity error, building up an error correction model to improve the resolution of angle encoder and the model was verified by test.

  14. Management of dry mouth: assessment of oral symptoms after use of a polysaccharide-based oral rinse.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Villines, Dana C; Singh, Mabi; Papas, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction is associated with a range of oral/dental issues, and management of oral symptoms may improve oral function and overall quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate oral symptoms and function in a xerostomic population after use of a proprietary topical for dry mouth, Moisyn (Synedgen Inc., Claremont, CA), which is a polysaccharide-based product. A pre- and post-test survey was completed by 57 patients with xerostomia. Patients rated their common oral symptoms, based on the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey, before and after 1-week use of Moisyn rinse and spray. Saliva production under resting and chewing stimulation was also assessed. Most patients reported relief from dry mouth symptoms and thick saliva (81.7% and 76.0%, respectively) for more than 30 minutes after product use. Statistically significant reductions were found in 15 of 33 oral symptoms. Symptom improvement ranged from 10.7% to 28.4% for thick saliva, 8.4% to 30.6% for pain, 5.5% to 30.4% for dry mouth, and 12% to 21.3% for taste/diet change. Whole unstimulated/resting saliva improved by 100%, and whole stimulated saliva improved by 23.8%. These findings suggest that the product has utility in symptom control in patients with xerostomia and may lead to an increase in saliva production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  16. Analysis of angle effect on particle flocculation in branch flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Karthik; Fink, Kathryn; Liepmann, Dorian

    2014-11-01

    Hollow point microneedle drug delivery systems are known to be highly susceptible to blockage, owing to their very small structures. This problem has been especially noted when delivering suspended particle solutions, such as vaccines. Attempts to reduce particle flocculation in such devices through surface treatments of the particles have been largely unsuccessful. Furthermore, the particle clog only forms at the mouths of the microneedle structures, leaving the downstream walls clear. This implies that the sudden change in length scales alter the hydrodynamic interactions, creating the conditions for particle flocculation. However, while it is known that particle flocculation occurs, the physics behind the event are obscure. We utilize micro-PIV to observe how the occurrence and formation of particle flocculation changes in relation to the angle encountered by particle laden flow into microfluidic branch structures. The results offer the ability to optimize particle flocculation in MEMS devices, increasing device efficacy and longevity.

  17. Facial soft tissues of mouth-breathing children: do expectations meet reality?

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Lopes, Petrus B; Veloso, Natalia C; Avelino, Ricardo A; Pereira, Tatiana B J; Souza, Paulo E A; Franco, Leticia P; Becker, Helena M G

    2014-07-01

    To quantify the differences between the facial soft tissue morphology of severely obstructed mouth breathing (MB) and that of predominantly nasal breathing (NB) children. Soft tissue measurements were performed in the lateral cephalograms of 64 severely obstructed MB children (mean age 6.7 ± 1.6) compared with 64 NB children (mean age 6.5 ± 1.3). Groups were paired by age, gender, skeletal maturation status and sagittal skeletal pattern. Based on the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity, comparison of the means and medians of soft tissue measurements between the two groups was performed. The facial convexity and anterior facial height ratio of MB were similar to NB children. The upper lip of MB children was protruded, and its base was thinner compared with NB; however, the length was not affected. The lower lip was shorter and more protruded in MB children. The nasolabial angle, nasal prominence, and chin thickness were smaller in MB children. The facial soft tissue of severely obstructed MB children is different than in NB children. Changes in lips, nasolabial angle, nasal prominence, and chin thickness are associated with severe airway obstruction in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dopa responsive burning mouth syndrome: restless mouth syndrome or oral variant of restless legs syndrome?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sanjay; Ahuja, Sunil; Rathod, Chirag

    2012-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an oral dysesthesia presenting as a burning sensation of the tongue and other oral and perioral mucosae. A painful symptomatology in different bodily regions (extraoral) may also be a common feature in patient with BMS. The management of BMS is challenging and there is no clear guideline for the management of idiopathic BMS. Herein, we describe a group of patients (5 patients) in whom symptoms of BMS responded to levodopa. In parallel, four patients fulfilled the criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS). Family history of RLS was positive in two patients. We reviewed the literature and noted a marked overlap between BMS and RLS. Overlaps were noted in epidemiological profiles, pattern of clinical features and even in neurophysiological observations (alterations in the striatal dopaminergic system). We suggest that a subset of patients with BMS may be a phenotypic variant of RLS and a trial of dopaminergic drugs should be given in patients with BMS who has a history suggestive of RLS or in a patient who do not show a response to usual therapies for BMS.

  19. The origin of conical mounds at the mouth of Chasma Boreale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Nicholas H.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2008-11-01

    One-hundred and six isolated conical mound landforms were identified proximal to the north polar cap of Mars at the mouth of Chasma Boreale. Five unique morphologies were identified including moderately sloped (4°-6°) cratered mound forms including two mounds of Abalos Colles, flat-topped moderately sloped (4°-6°) polygonal mound forms, steeper (6-13°) conical mound forms, subdued mound forms with low-angle slopes (0.5-3°), and small (<2 km diameter) clustered conical forms with low- to moderate-angle (1-5°) flank slopes. From first-order relationships between flank slope and the volcano productivity index (volume/diameter ratio), 16 mounds were found to be morphologically similar to terrestrial low-angle basaltic shield volcanoes. Thirteen mounds exhibit summit craters that range in depth (d) to diameter (D) ratio from 1:9 to 1:320. The circularity and d/D ratios of mound summit craters are consistent with highly modified northern plains impact craters. Image analysis of shield-like mounds reveals morphologic characteristics inconsistent with pristine volcanic landforms for most features. Horizontal flank layering (10-100 m thick), polygonal map-view morphology, topographic relationships, and spatial association with retreating polar scarps suggest that mound forms at the mouth of Chasma Boreale represent remnants of a once thicker, more continuous sequence of near-polar layered material. Evidence for northward scarp retreat is visible along Rupes Tenuis, a sinuous scarp located west of Chasma Boreale. Along this scarp, a single ~100-m-thick resistant cap unit (part of the Early Amazonian age Rupes Tenuis unit) is being undermined by aeolian erosion, solar ablation, and mass wasting. Remnants of the cap unit rest along the scarp margin and in places form small conical mound clusters at the base of the scarp. Fracture controlled retreat of the scarp is visible along the eastern portion of Rupes Tenuis and along the Escorial crater remnant mesa where small

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  1. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  2. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management.

  4. 4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to headgate house, looking west. Tramway car, used for repairing dam, is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  5. 3. General view from mouth of raceway showing east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view from mouth of raceway showing east and north facades of Wilder Mill, Building No. 6, with pedestrian bridge in foreground; view to west. - Champion-International Paper Company, Wilder Mill, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  6. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  7. Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.; And Others

    Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease in tropical wildlife.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2004-10-01

    This review of foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed, free-living animals, describes the disease, the wide range of the hosts, the carrier state, and the interrelationship between disease in domestic livestock and wildlife. This information becomes even more crucial to the development of control strategies when linked to the process of pathogenesis and the epidemiology of the disease.

  9. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    PubMed

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  10. Coxsackievirus A6 and Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Österback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo

    2009-01-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD. PMID:19788821

  11. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 1. Aerial view, looking east towards Rose Island and mouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking east towards Rose Island and mouth of Narraganset Bay. Fort Adams is in background. The "dumplings" are to the right. Fort Wolcott was to the left. These four sites worked together to guard the entrance to Narraganset Bay and Newport Harbor. - Fort Hamilton, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  13. Oral manifestations of "meth mouth": a case report.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the documentation of this clinical case is to make clinicians aware of "meth mouth" and the medical risks associated with this serious condition. Methamphetamine is a very addictive, powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and can produce other effects such as cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior. Dental patients abusing methamphetamine can present with poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, rampant caries ("meth mouth"), and excessive tooth wear. Oral rehabilitation of patients using methamphetamine can be challenging. A 30-year-old Caucasian woman presented with dental pain, bad breath, and self-reported poor esthetics. A comprehensive examination including her medical history, panoramic radiograph, and intraoral examination revealed 19 carious lesions, which is not very common for a healthy adult. She reported her use of methamphetamine for five years and had not experienced any major carious episodes before she started using the drug. The patient's medical and dental histories along with radiographic and clinical findings lead to a diagnosis of "meth mouth." Although three different dental treatment modalities (either conventional or implant-supported) have been offered to the patient since August 2007, the patient has yet to initiate any treatment. This clinical case showing oral manifestations of meth mouth was presented to help dental practitioners recognize and manage patients who may be abusing methamphetamines. Dental practitioners also may be skeptical about the reliability of appointment keeping by these patients, as they frequently miss their appointments without reasonable justification.

  14. 2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers 10 and 11, view is to southwest, with Pier 10 in distance left. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, showing (1-r) north wall of Pier 10 and south wall of Pier 11. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  17. Oral pain perception and taste in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Just, T; Steiner, S; Pau, H W

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (BMS) on both, the pain perception within trigeminal lingual nerve distribution and gustatory sensitivity using capsaicin threshold test, and regional taste tests, respectively. Pain thresholds for capsaicin were assessed using capsaicin-impregnated filter-paper strips. The strips were placed midline on the tongue tip for whole mouth testing with the mouth closed, and on the left or right edge of the extended anterior tongue for lateralized testing. Measures of gustatory function were obtained by validated "taste strips" test kit and electrogustometry. The tests were applied to 13 patients with BMS. Results were compared with those from 28 healthy subjects. Patients with BMS exhibited a decreased gustatory and somatosensory perception compared with healthy controls. These changes were found for lateralized tests but not for the whole mouth test procedure. Duration of disorder showed an effect on the capsaicin threshold, with patients being less sensitive to capsaicin exhibiting an increased duration of disorder. Both pain-related and gustatory sensitivies of the tongue are found to be decreased in BMS.

  18. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... your kids brush for 2 minutes, twice a day. En Español facebook twitter Kids’ Healthy Mouths ... about dental visits Floss Every Day Floss Every Day As soon as two teeth touch each other ( ...

  19. Stomatal Patterning: SERKs Put the Mouths in Their Right Place.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-10-05

    Plants have stomata, mouth-like pores on their surface, to adjust to environmental changes such as temperature and humidity to ensure optimum physiology and metabolism. A new study adds a key player, SERK, to the signal-sensing apparatus to inform where stomata are to be formed on the leaf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G; El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abd El-Rahman, Adel Omar; Soliman, Hatem M; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Statham, Robert J; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2007-10-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  1. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M.; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East. PMID:18258017

  2. A foreign body in the floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Ehab; Moussa, Kholoud; Al-Gorashi, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    A case of unusual presentation of foreign body in the floor of mouth is reported. The patient presented with a history and clinical findings of sublingual ranula. Marsupialisation and sublingual sialadenectomy was planned. After marsupialisation, a foreign body (spray cover) was found between the lumen of the submandibular duct and the ranula. PMID:23960490

  3. Mouth of the Amazon River as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A near-nadir view of the mouth of the Amazon River, that shows all signs of being a relatively healthy system, breathing and exhaling. The well-developed cumulus field over the forested areas on both the north and south sides of the river (the view is slightly to the west) shows that good evapotranspiration is underway.

  4. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  5. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  6. Estimation of hand-to-mouth transfer efficiency of lead.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, Jennifer; Hsu, Elleen I; Avens, Heather J; Beckett, Evan M; Devlin, Kathryn D

    2015-03-01

    There are currently no published empirical data that characterize hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies for metallic lead. The purpose of this study was to quantify the hand-to-mouth transfer efficiency of lead in adult volunteers (n = 6) using human saliva as a surrogate for the mouth and commercially available, 100% lead fishing weights as the source of lead for dermal loading. Study volunteers' saliva was collected and subsequently poured onto a sheet of wax paper placed on a balance scale. The volunteers handled lead fishing weights with both hands for approximately 15 s and then pressed three fingers from the right hand (test hand) into their saliva 10 times, with ~0.45kg of pressure. The left hand (control hand) was used as a comparison for dermal loading of lead and had no contact with saliva. SKC Full Disclosure® wipes were used to collect lead from the saliva and skin surfaces. Samples were analyzed using the NIOSH 7300 method, which was modified for wipes. The mean lead skin-to-saliva transfer efficiency was 24% (range: 12-34%). These data will be useful for more accurately characterizing lead hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies and are likely to be helpful in exposure assessments or human health risk assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  8. GT-9A - EARTH SKY - BRAZIL - MOUTH OF AMAZON

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-04

    S66-38191 (4 June 1966) --- The mouth of the Amazon River on the northern coast of Brazil, looking southwest, as seen from the Gemini-9A spacecraft during its 18th revolution of Earth. The image was taken with a 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER AND TYBEE ISLAND, GA.," of 48th NY infantry on the south wall looking to the southeast corner (note: cockspur beacon in near background and Tybee Island in far background) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Wei; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Wen-Qing; Fang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). METHODS Patients (n=23, 31 eyes) were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05). IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05). Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05), whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group. CONCLUSION Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery. PMID:26309873

  11. Amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planing of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Cionca, Norbert; Giannopoulou, Catherine; Ugolotti, Giovanni; Mombelli, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    It has been suggested that scaling and root planing of all pockets within a few hours and chlorhexidine treatments (full-mouth disinfection) may reduce the need for supplementary therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of amoxicillin and metronidazole administered immediately after completion of full-mouth periodontal debridement in patients with chronic periodontitis. This was a single-center, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized longitudinal study of 6 months' duration. Fifty-one patients received full-mouth periodontal debridement, performed within 48 hours. Twenty-five subjects received metronidazole, 500 mg, and amoxicillin, 375 mg, three times a day for 7 days; 26 subjects received a placebo. Forty-seven patients could be followed up to month 6. No differences in clinical parameters were noted before treatment. The overall mean probing depth decreased from 4.3 +/- 0.4 mm to 3.0 +/- 0.2 mm in the test group and from 4.4 +/- 0.4 mm to 3.1 +/- 0.3 mm in the control group (P = 0.05, difference between groups). More importantly, test subjects had a significantly lower mean number of persisting pockets >4 mm and bleeding on probing that required further treatment (P = 0.005): 6 months after full-mouth debridement plus antibiotics, only 0.4 +/- 0.8 persisting pockets were still present, whereas 3.0 +/- 4.3 persisting pockets were still present in the control group. The protective risk of the antibiotics for having more than one pocket deeper than 4 mm and bleeding on probing per subject after 6 months was 8.85. Systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin significantly improved the 6-month clinical outcomes of full-mouth non-surgical periodontal debridement, thus significantly reducing the need for additional therapy.

  12. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Furness, Susan; Worthington, Helen V; Bryan, Gemma; Birchenough, Sarah; McMillan, Roddy

    2011-12-07

    Xerostomia (the feeling of dry mouth) is a common symptom especially in older adults. Causes of dry mouth include medications, autoimmune disease (Sjögren's Syndrome), radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer, hormone disorders and infections. To determine which topical treatments for dry mouth are effective in reducing this symptom. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (28 October 2011), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 2011), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 28 October 2011), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 28 October 2011), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 28 October 2011), AMED via OVID (1985 to 28 October 2011), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 28 October 2011). We included randomised controlled trials of topical interventions such as lozenges, sprays, mouthrinses, gels, oils, chewing gum or toothpastes for the treatment of dry mouth symptom. We classified interventions into two broad categories, saliva stimulants and saliva substitutes, and these were compared with either placebo or another intervention. We included both parallel group and crossover trials. Two or more review authors independently carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. Trial authors were contacted for additional information as required. Thirty-six randomised controlled trials involving 1597 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two trials compared saliva stimulants to placebo, nine trials compared saliva substitutes to placebo, five trials compared saliva stimulants directly with saliva substitutes, 18 trials directly compared two or more saliva substitutes, and two trials directly compared two or more saliva stimulants. Only one trial was at low risk of bias and 17 were at high risk of bias. Due to the range of interventions, comparisons and outcome measures in the trials, meta-analysis was possible for only a few comparisons. Oxygenated glycerol triester (OGT) saliva substitute

  13. Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M

    1996-01-01

    Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was

  14. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-07-05

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinses on polyspecies biofilms.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Bernhard; Meier, Andräé

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Zurich polyspecies biofilm model to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses available on the Swiss market. As positive and negative controls, aqueous 0.15% CHX solution and water were used, respectively. In addition, Listerine® without CHX was tested. Biofilms in batch culture were grown in 24- well polystyrene tissue culture plates on hydroxyapatite discs in 70% mixed (1:1 diluted) unstimulated saliva and 30% complex culture medium. During the 64.5-hour culturing period, the biofilms were exposed to the test solutions for 1 minute twice a day on two subsequent days. Thereafter, the biofilms were dip-washed 3 times in physiological NaCl. Following the last exposure, the incubation of biofilms was continued for another 16 h. They were then harvested at 64.5 h. The dispersed biofilms were plated on 2 agar media. After incubation, colonies (CFU) were counted. All solutions containing CHX as well as Listerine ® significantly reduced the number of microorganisms in biofilms. According to their efficacy, the mouth rinses were classified into 2 groups. The two Curasept ADS solutions, Parodentosan, and the Listerine® mouth rinse reduced the number of total CFU by 3 log10 steps. This seems sufficient for a long-lasting prophylactic application. The two PlakOut® mouth rinses and the CHX control fell into the other group, where the number of CFU was reduced by 7 log10 steps. These mouth rinses are predestined for short-term therapeutic use. However, reversible side effects must be taken into account. It has thus far not been possible to formulate CHX products with effective ADS (Anti Discoloration System) additives without reducing antimicrobial activity.

  16. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Jansma, J. M.; Salari, E.; Freudenburg, Z. V.; Raemaekers, M.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. Approach. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a ‘winner-takes-all’ design. Main results. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). Significance. The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  17. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bleichner, M G; Jansma, J M; Salari, E; Freudenburg, Z V; Raemaekers, M; Ramsey, N F

    2015-12-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a 'winner-takes-all' design. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  18. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  19. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Meth mouth severity in response to drug-use patterns and dental access in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronni E; Morisky, Donald E; Silverstein, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    Meth mouth is the rapid development of tooth decay in methamphetamine users. Our study questioned whether drug-use patterns and dental care access are risk factors affecting the severity of meth mouth. Participants received dental examinations, and the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were counted and used to measure meth mouth severity.