Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Gunter, Oliver L; Hines, Leonard; Martin, Barbara J; Gibson, William; Clarke, P Chris; Cecil, William T; Cofer, Joseph B
Led by the Tennessee Chapter of the American College of Surgeons, in May 2008 a 10-hospital collaborative was formed between the Tennessee Chapter of ACS, the Tennessee Hospital Association, and the BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee Health Foundation. We hypothesized that by forming the Tennessee Surgical Quality Collaborative using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) system to share surgical process and outcomes data, overall patient surgical outcomes would improve. All NSQIP data from the 10-hospital collaborative for the time periods January to December 2009 (period 1) and January to December 2010 (period 2) were collected. Data on 20 categories of postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were compared between periods. Complication comparisons and hospital costs associated with complications were calculated per 10,000 procedures. Statistical analysis was performed by Z-test. There were 14,205 total surgical cases in period 1 and 14,901 surgical cases in period 2. Between periods (per 10,000 cases) there were significant improvements in superficial surgical site infections (-19%, p = 0.0005), on ventilator longer than 48 hours (-15%, p = 0.012), graft/prosthesis/flap failure (-60%, p < 0.0001), acute renal failure (-25%, p = 0.023), and wound disruption (-34%, p = 0.011). Although mortality (per 10,000) was higher in period 2 (237.6 vs 232.3), no statistical difference was noted. Net costs avoided between these periods were calculated as $2,197,543 per 10,000 general and vascular surgery cases. Data organization and scrutiny are the initial steps of process improvement. Participation in our regional surgical quality collaborative resulted in improved outcomes and reduced costs. Although the mechanisms for these changes are likely multifactorial, the collaborative establishes communication, process improvement, and frank discussion among the members as best practices are identified and shared and standardized processes are adopted
Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam
Conventional audit of surgical records through review of surgical results provides useful knowledge but hardly helps identify the technical reasons lying behind specific outcomes or complications. Surgical teams not only need to know that a complication might happen but also how and when it is most likely to happen. Functional awareness is therefore needed to prevent complications, know how to deal with them, and improve overall surgical performance. The authors wish to argue that the systematic recording and reviewing of surgical videos, a "surgical black box," might improve surgical care, help prevent complications, and allow accident analysis. A possible strategy to test this hypothesis is presented and discussed. Recording and reviewing surgical interventions, apart from helping us achieve functional awareness and increasing the safety profile of our performance, allows us also to effectively share our experience with colleagues. The authors believe that those potential implications make this hypothesis worth testing.
Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc
It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p < 0.001). In regression analysis, procedures performed in teaching hospitals were associated with an overall 22% (95% confidence interval 20%-24%) increase in surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies.
Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Eggman, Ashley A.; ElBardissi, Andrew W.; Henrickson, Sarah E.; Sundt, Thoralf M.
Over the past 50 years, significant improvements in cardiac surgical care have been achieved. Nevertheless, surgical errors that significantly impact patient safety continue to occur. In order to further improve surgical outcomes, patient safety programs must focus on rectifying work system factors in the operating room (OR) that negatively impact the delivery of reliable surgical care. The goal of this paper is to provide an integrative review of specific work system factors in the OR that may directly impact surgical care processes, as well as the subsequent recommendations that have been put forth to improve surgical outcomes and patient safety. The important role that surgeons can play in facilitating work system changes in the OR is also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges involved in assessing the impact that interventions have on improving surgical care. Opportunities for future research are also highlighted throughout the paper. PMID:20202623
Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc
Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p < 0.001). In regression analysis, procedures performed in teaching hospitals were associated with an overall 22% (95% confidence interval 20%–24%) increase in surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088
Cabral, Richard A; Eggenberger, Terry; Keller, Kathryn; Gallison, Barry S; Newman, David
To improve surgical team communication, a team at Broward Health Imperial Point Hospital, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, implemented a program for process improvement using a locally adapted World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist. This program included a standardized, comprehensive time out and a briefing/debriefing process. Postimplementation responses to the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire revealed a significant increase in the surgical team's perception of communication compared with that reported on the pretest (6% improvement resulting in t79 = -1.72, P < .05, d = 0.39). Perceptions of communication increased significantly for nurses (12% increase, P = .002), although the increase for surgeons and surgical technologists was lower (4% for surgeons, P = .15 and 2.3% for surgical technologists, P = .06). As a result of this program, we have observed improved surgical teamwork behaviors and an enhanced culture of safety in the OR.
Price, Raymond; Sergelen, Orgoi; Unursaikhan, Chadraabal
The W. C. Swanson Family Foundation selected Mongolia to help improve access to affordable quality surgical and medical care in 2000. Over the last 12 years of partnering with the Health Sciences University of Mongolia, three major concepts have been identified that have promoted sustainable progress in expanding and improving surgical care throughout the healthcare system-including urban and rural areas. Understanding and targeting the needs identified by the Mongolian surgical community has cultivated a critical working environment that has had a profound effect on expanding surgical care in Mongolia. Integrating modern surgical care training with basic emergency and essential surgical and medical initiatives created a trusting foundation providing many unforeseen educational opportunities. Lastly, the educational model introduced, including long-term capacity-building programs, has helped enable the local Mongolian surgeons, nurses, biotechnicians, administrators, and educators to continue pioneering independent efforts to further expand modern surgical care in Mongolia.
Morris, Daniel L J; Bryson, David J; Ollivere, Ben J; Forward, Daren P
English Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) were established in April 2012. Increased case volume and complexity has influenced trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) core surgical training in these centres. To determine if T&O core surgical training in MTCs meets Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) quality indicators including performance of T&O operative procedures and consultant supervised session attendance. An audit cycle assessing the impact of a weekly departmental core surgical trainee rota. The rota included allocated timetabled sessions that optimised clinical and surgical learning opportunities. Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP) records for T&O core surgical trainees at a single MTC were analysed for 8 months pre and post rota introduction. Outcome measures were electronic surgical logbook evidence of leading T&O operative procedures and consultant validated work-based assessments (WBAs). Nine core surgical trainees completed a 4 month MTC placement pre and post introduction of the core surgical trainee rota. Introduction of core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of T&O operative procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 20.2 to 34.0 (p<0.05). The mean number of hip hemiarthroplasty procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement was significantly increased (0.3 vs 2.4 [p=0.04]). Those of dynamic hip screw fixation (2.3 vs 3.6) and ankle fracture fixation (0.7 vs 1.6) were not. Introduction of a core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of consultant validated WBAs completed by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 1.7 to 6.6 (p<0.0001). Introduction of a departmental core surgical trainee rota utilising a 'problem-based' model can significantly improve T&O core surgical training in MTCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O
At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified
Kituuka, O.; Elobu, E.; Jombwe, J.; Sekabira, J.; Butler, Elissa; Faulal, J.
Introduction. Surgical camps are preplanned activities where volunteer surgical teams congregate at specified place(s) and perform a wide range of mostly elective procedures for a limited period of time. This is usually at no cost to the patients, who belong to vulnerable (poor and hard to reach) communities. We describe a surgical camp model and its challenges as a means of improving access to surgical services. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Data from a recent Association of Surgeons of Uganda surgical camp were collected and analyzed for demographics, costs, procedure types, and rates and, in addition, challenges encountered and solutions. Personnel that participated in this exercise included specialist surgeons, surgical residents, medical officers, clinical officers, anesthetists, and theater nurses (a total of 121 staff). Results. In total, 551 procedures were performed during a four-day-long camp. Mean age was 35 years (SD 23), M : F ratio was 2 : 1. Herniorrhaphy, skin lump excision, hydrocelectomy, and thyroidectomy formed 81% of all the procedures. Average cost per procedure was $73 USD. Conclusion. Surgical camps offer increased access to surgical services to vulnerable populations. Hernias and goiters were most common. Surgical camps should become an integral part of the Health Service delivery in low-resourced environments. PMID:27413775
Chouard, Claude-Henri; Dubois, François
Navigator is a three-dimensional C-T scan image localization device, which supplies the surgeon with a real time relationship of surgical instruments with pathological lesion and vital organs. Robot controls surgical devices movements according to a various sophisticated programming, in order to palliate the imperfection of their manual use. Navigators and robots, frequently connected, allow a precise control of the instruments course, improving accuracy and efficiency of most surgical procedures. It is necessary to contribute to their improvement and development, taking in count the economic, ethic and legal problems which may be encountered.
Hanly, Eric J; Miller, Brian E; Kumar, Rajesh; Hasser, Christopher J; Coste-Maniere, Eve; Talamini, Mark A; Aurora, Alexander A; Schenkman, Noah S; Marohn, Michael R
One of the most significant limitations of surgical robots has been their inability to allow multiple surgeons and surgeons-in-training to engage in collaborative control of robotic surgical instruments. We report the initial experience with a novel two-headed da Vinci surgical robot that has two collaborative modes: the "swap" mode allows two surgeons to simultaneously operate and actively swap control of the robot's four arms, and the "nudge" mode allows them to share control of two of the robot's arms. The utility of the mentoring console operating in its two collaborative modes was evaluated through a combination of dry laboratory exercises and animal laboratory surgery. The results from surgeon-resident collaborative performance of complex three-handed surgical tasks were compared to results from single-surgeon and single-resident performance. Statistical significance was determined using Student's t-test. Collaborative surgeon-resident swap control reduced the time to completion of complex three-handed surgical tasks by 25% compared to single-surgeon operation of a four-armed da Vinci (P < 0.01) and by 34% compared to single-resident operation (P < 0.001). While swap mode was found to be most helpful during parts of surgical procedures that require multiple hands (such as isolation and division of vessels), nudge mode was particularly useful for guiding a resident's hands during crucially precise steps of an operation (such as proper placement of stitches). The da Vinci mentoring console greatly facilitates surgeon collaboration during robotic surgery and improves the performance of complex surgical tasks. The mentoring console has the potential to improve resident participation in surgical robotics cases, enhance resident education in surgical training programs engaged in surgical robotics, and improve patient safety during robotic surgery.
The European Working Time Directive means safe patient hand over is imperative. It is the responsibility of every doctor and an issue of patient safety and clinical governance . The aims of this project were to improve the quality of patient handover between combined assessment unit (CAU) and surgical ward FY1 doctors. The Royal College of Surgeons England (RCSEng) guidelines on surgical patient handover  were used as the standard. Data was collected throughout November 2013. A handover tool was then introduced and attached to the front of patient notes when a patient was transferred from CAU to the surgical ward. The doctor handing over the patient and the ward doctor receiving the handover signed this document. Policy was also changed so that handover should take place once the patient had received senior review on the CAU and was deemed appropriate for transfer to the surgical ward. Data from the handover tool was collated and checked against the list of surgical admission for February 2014. The number of patients handed over improved from 15 % to 45%. The quality of patient handover also improved. 0 patient handovers in November 2013 included all of the information recommended by the RCSEng guidelines. 100% of the patient handovers in February 2014 contained all the recommended information. Introduction of a handover tool and formalisation of timing of patient handover helped to improve quality and number of patients being handed over. Further work needs to be done to improve safe handover of surgical patients, particularly out of hours.
Saw, Niharika; Vacanti, Joshua C; Liu, Xiaoxia; SaRego, Monica; Flanagan, Hugh; Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D
On time start of the first surgical case improves operating room (OR) utilization, physician, and patient satisfaction and decreases delays in subsequent cases. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary initiative to improve first patient in the room (FPIR) and first case on time start (FCOTS) metrics in a tertiary care setting. A multidisciplinary committee focused on first case start data collection. Reasons for both anesthesia and surgical delays were analyzed. Improvement efforts focused on the timely completion of surgical consent, a requirement of a surgical, anesthesia, and nurse team member presence at the patient's bedside by specific time, and parallel processing in the OR. Over 65,100 OR cases were analyzed between 2007 and 2014. There was a statistically significant improvement in FPIR (82.80% versus 69.60%, p < .0001) and FCOTS (66.60% versus 55.90%, p < .0001). Surgical consent completion rate increased from 35% baseline to 68%-100%, depending on the surgical subspecialty. Improvements appeared sustainable several years following process implementation for both FPIR (84.60% versus 69.60%, p < .0001) and FCOTS (67.60% versus 55.90%, p < .0001). Our study demonstrates a successful targeted, multidisciplinary initiative to improve first case surgical starts in an academic setting. Our approach was organizational rather than punitive or rewarding on an individual basis. Strategies included establishing concrete, time-specific goals and posting them visibly, empowering individuals to fulfill them, and ensuring no compromise in patient safety. In the complex environment of academic medicine including research protocols and teaching in the ORs, our organizational approach proved sustainable over several years.
Pandit, J J; Abbott, T; Pandit, M; Kapila, A; Abraham, R
We analysed more than 7000 theatre lists from two similar UK hospitals, to assess whether start times and finish times were correlated. We also analysed gap times (the time between patients when no anaesthesia or surgery occurs), to see whether these affected theatre efficiency. Operating list start and finish times were poorly correlated at both hospitals (r(2) = 0.077 and 0.043), and cancellation rates did not increase with late starts (remaining within 2% and 10% respectively at the two hospitals). Start time did not predict finish time (receiver operating curve areas 0.517 and 0.558, respectively), and did not influence theatre efficiency (~80-84% at either hospital). Median gap times constituted just 7% of scheduled list time and did not influence theatre efficiency below cumulative gap times of less than 15% scheduled list time. Lists with no gaps still exhibited extremely variable finish times and efficiency. We conclude that resources expended in trying to achieve prompt start times in isolation, or in reducing gap times to under ~15% of scheduled list time, will not improve theatre productivity. Instead, the primary focus should be towards quantitative improvements in list scheduling. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…
Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…
Lapierre, S D; Batson, C; McCaskey, S
In this paper, we propose a strategy to build a measurement system that helps improve on-time performance in health care organizations. We analyze the measurement system for monitoring the performance of daily start times of first surgeries in a U.S. hospital. Although surgeons appear to be the main cause of delay, efforts to improve their on-time performance alone are not sufficient to improve on-time performance for first surgeries. Therefore, working on the main source of delay to improve performance, as the Pareto principle suggests, does not always work in the health care context. Rather, we found that ameliorating the hospital's overall on-time performance achieves the desired result of improving surgeons' performance through a snowball effect (a self-reinforcing effect) and, consequently, the on-time performance for first surgeries also improves.
Ng, Wai Khuan; Awad, Nawal
Mafraq Hospital performs an average of 10,000 surgeries every year. The impact of having high volume high risk surgical procedures calls for the need to ensure safe surgery and a prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). SSI represents a significant portion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The impact on morbidity, mortality, and cost of care has resulted in identifying the need to reduce SSI as a top priority to prevent healthcare associated infections. The good news is that the majority of SSIs are preventable. Mafraq Hospital performs a range of surgical procedures that covers 14 surgical specialties. The infection prevention and control team performs surveillance for SSI for all patients who undergo operative procedure included in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Operative Procedure Category (40 surgical procedures). Out of the 40 CDC NHSN listed, 33 operative procedures were performed at Mafraq Hospital, of which 17 were reported with SSI for 2013 and 2014. Surgical site infection has implicated an increase average length of stay from seven to 10 additional postoperative hospital days and additional costs of AED 10,000 to AED 100,000/SSI depending on procedure and pathogen. A multidisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement measures to reduce/eliminate surgical site infection, as well as evaluate and monitor compliance. Hence a group of multidisciplinary teams were initiated to analyse the results, find out the gaps, and implement a quality improvement project to correct the deficits. Recommendations for appropriate improvement measures were formed on evidence-based international guidelines from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and CDC. Evidence based practice supports that many of the causes of surgical site infection can be prevented with proper medical attention and care.
Thom, Maria; Mathern, Gary W.; Cross, J. Helen; Bertram, Edward H.
Surgery has become the standard of care for patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy with anterior temporal lobe resection the most common operation performed for adults with hippocampal sclerosis. This procedure leads to significant improvement in the lives of the overwhelming majority of patients. Despite improved techniques in neuroimaging that have facilitated the identification of potential surgical candidates, the short and long term success of epilepsy surgery has not changed substantially in recent decades. The basic surgical goal, removal of the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus, is based on the hypothesis that these structures represent a uniform and contiguous source of seizures in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome. Recent observations from the histopathology of resected tissue, preoperative neuroimaging and the basic science laboratory suggest that the syndrome is not always a uniform entity. Despite clinical similarity, not all patients become seizure free. Improving surgical outcomes requires a re-examination of why patients fail surgery. This review will examine recent findings from the clinic and laboratory. Historically, we have considered MTLE a single disorder, but it may be time to view it as a group of closely related syndromes with variable type and extent of histopathology. That recognition may lead to identifying the appropriate subgroups that will require different diagnostic and surgical approaches to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:20976764
Van Esbroeck, Alexander; Rubinfeld, Ilan; Hall, Bruce; Syed, Zeeshan
To investigate the use of machine learning to empirically determine the risk of individual surgical procedures and to improve surgical models with this information. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data from 2005 to 2009 were used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to learn the relationship between textual constructs in current procedural terminology (CPT) descriptions and mortality, morbidity, Clavien 4 complications, and surgical-site infections (SSI) within 30 days of surgery. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers were validated on data from 2010 in univariate and multivariate analyses. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers achieved moderate-to-high levels of discrimination in univariate analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.871 for mortality, 0.789 for morbidity, 0.791 for SSI, 0.845 for Clavien 4 complications). Addition of these scores also substantially improved multivariate models comprising patient factors and previously proposed correlates of procedural risk (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.54 and 0.001 for mortality, 0.46 and 0.011 for morbidity, 0.68 and 0.022 for SSI, 0.44 and 0.001 for Clavien 4 complications; P < .05 for all comparisons). Similar improvements were noted in discrimination and calibration for other statistical measures, and in subcohorts comprising patients with general or vascular surgery. Machine learning provides clinically useful estimates of surgical risk for individual procedures. This information can be measured in an entirely data-driven manner and substantially improves multifactorial models to predict postoperative complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Awad, Samir S
Surgical site infection (SSI) is unequivocally morbid and costly. The estimated 300,000 SSIs annually in the United States represent the second most common infection among surgical patients, prolong hospitalization by 7-10 days, and have an estimated annual incremental cost of $1 billion. The mortality rate associated with SSI is 3%, with about three quarters of deaths being attributable directly to the infection. Prevention is possible for the most part, and concerted effort has been made to limit these infections, arguably to little effect. Review of pertinent English-language literature. Numerous risk factors for SSI and tactics for prevention have been described, but efforts to bundle these tactics into an effective, comprehensive prevention program have been disappointing. Numerous studies now demonstrate that the Surgical Care Improvement Program (SCIP), which focused on process improvement rather than outcomes, has been ineffective despite governmental support, financial penalties for non-compliance, and consequent widespread implementation. Required reporting has increased awareness of the problem of SSI, but just as the complexity of SSI risk, pathogenesis, and preventions reflects the complexity of the disease, many other factors must be taken into account, including the skill and knowledge of the surgical team and promulgation of a culture of quality and safety in surgical patient care.
Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Hobson, Deborah B; Bennett, Jennifer L; Wick, Elizabeth C
Surgical site infections are a potentially preventable patient harm. Emerging evidence suggests that the implementation of evidence-based process measures for infection reduction is highly variable. The purpose of this work was to develop an auditing tool to assess compliance with infection-related process measures and establish a system for identifying and addressing defects in measure implementation. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. We used the auditing tool to assess compliance with 10 process measures in a sample of colorectal surgery patients with and without postoperative infections at an academic medical center (January 2012 to March 2013). We investigated 59 patients with surgical site infections and 49 patients without surgical site infections. First, overall compliance rates for the 10 process measures were compared between patients with infection vs patients without infection to assess if compliance was lower among patients with surgical site infections. Then, because of the burden of data collection, the tool was used exclusively to evaluate quarterly compliance rates among patients with infection. The results were reviewed, and the key factors contributing to noncompliance were identified and addressed. Ninety percent of process measures had lower compliance rates among patients with infection. Detailed review of infection cases identified many defects that improved following the implementation of system-level changes: correct cefotetan redosing (education of anesthesia personnel), temperature at surgical incision >36.0°C (flags used to identify patients for preoperative warming), and the use of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (laxative solutions and antibiotics distributed in clinic before surgery). Quarterly compliance improved for 80% of process measures by the end of the study period. This study was conducted on a small surgical cohort within a select subspecialty. The
Hawn, Mary T; Vick, Catherine C; Richman, Joshua; Holman, William; Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Graham, Laura A; Henderson, William G; Itani, Kamal M F
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) improved surgical site infection (SSI) rates using national data at the patient level for both SCIP adherence and SSI occurrence. The SCIP was established in 2006 with the goal of reducing surgical complications by 25% in 2010. National Veterans' Affairs (VA) data from 2005 to 2009 on adherence to 5 SCIP SSI prevention measures were linked to Veterans' Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program SSI outcome data. Effect of SCIP adherence and year of surgery on SSI outcome were assessed with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for procedure type and variables known to predict SSI. Correlation between hospital SCIP adherence and SSI rate was assessed using linear regression. There were 60,853 surgeries at 112 VA hospitals analyzed. SCIP adherence ranged from 75% for normothermia to 99% for hair removal and all significantly improved over the study period (P < 0.001). Surgical site infection occurred after 6.2% of surgeries (1.6% for orthopedic surgeries to 11.3% for colorectal surgeries). None of the 5 SCIP measures were significantly associated with lower odds of SSI after adjusting for variables known to predict SSI and procedure type. Year was not associated with SSI (P = 0.71). Hospital SCIP performance was not correlated with hospital SSI rates (r = -0.06, P = 0.54). Adherence to SCIP measures improved whereas risk-adjusted SSI rates remained stable. SCIP adherence was neither associated with a lower SSI rate at the patient level, nor associated with hospital SSI rates. Policies regarding continued SCIP measurement and reporting should be reassessed.
Brighton, Brian K
In recent years, the safety, quality, and value of surgical care have become increasingly important to surgeons and hospitals. Quality improvement in surgical care requires the ability to collect, measure, and act upon reliable and clinically relevant data. One example of a large-scale quality effort is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-Pediatric), the only nationwide, risk-adjusted, outcomes-based program evaluating pediatric surgical care.
Purpose To evaluate changes in nocturia after surgical correction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 66 patients were included in the present study. All had been diagnosed with OSA syndrome by polysomnography and underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). Preoperative and postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), quality of life (QoL), and nocturia episodes were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaires. Three months postoperatively, telephone interviews were performed to determine the success of surgery, current LUTS, and nocturia episodes. Patients were divided into surgical success and failure groups. Surgical success was defined as snoring decrease more than 50% based on the patient’s subjective judgment. Results The response rate was 56% and success rate was 73%. In all patients, nocturia episodes significantly decreased from 1.7±1.1 to 0.8±1.2 (P=0.002). Mean IPSS score, OABSS score, and QoL scores were also significantly improved. The success group showed a significant decrease in nocturia episodes, and total IPSS, OABSS, and QoL scores. However, the failure group did not show significant changes in all parameters. Conclusions OSA correction improved nocturia as well as other LUTS. These improvements were not observed in the failure group. This study shows that OSA is a cause of nocturia and that other LUTS and nocturia can be improved by surgical correction of OSA. PMID:28043111
Shukla, P J; Barreto, S G; Nadkarni, M S
Six Sigma is a 'process excellence' tool targeting continuous improvement achieved by providing a methodology for improving key steps of a process. It is ripe for application into health care since almost all health care processes require a near-zero tolerance for mistakes. The aim of this study is to apply the Six Sigma methodology into a clinical surgical process and to assess the improvement (if any) in the outcomes and patient care. The guiding principles of Six Sigma, namely DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), were used to analyze the impact of double stapling technique (DST) towards improving sphincter preservation rates for rectal cancer. The analysis using the Six Sigma methodology revealed a Sigma score of 2.10 in relation to successful sphincter preservation. This score demonstrates an improvement over the previous technique (73% over previous 54%). This study represents one of the first clinical applications of Six Sigma in the surgical field. By understanding, accepting, and applying the principles of Six Sigma, we have an opportunity to transfer a very successful management philosophy to facilitate the identification of key steps that can improve outcomes and ultimately patient safety and the quality of surgical care provided.
Radetzky, A; Schröcker, F; Auer, L M
In the last years high efforts have been taken to develop surgical simulators for computer assisted training. However, most of these simulators use simple models of the human's anatomy, which are manually created using modeling software. Nevertheless, medical experts need to perform the training directly with the patient's complex anatomy, which can be received, for example, from digital imaging datasets (CT, MR). A common technique to display these datasets is volume rendering. However, even with high-end hardware only static models can be handled interactively. In surgical simulators a dynamic component is also needed because tissues must be deformed and partially removed. With the combination of springmass models, which are improved by neuro-fuzzy systems, and the recently developed OpenGL Volumizer, surgical simulation using real-time deformable (or dynamic) volume rendering became possible. As an application example the simulator ROBOSIM for minimally invasive neurosurgery is presented.
Ryland, K A; Nelson, C A; Hejkal, T W
Current methods of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, using laser photocoagulation, require surgeons to assume awkward standing positions, which can result in occupational injury. A new infant surgical table was designed for improving this surgical procedure. To quantify its benefits, an ergonomic comparison of the standard and modified procedures was carried out, using specialized checklists, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires, and analysis of videotaped procedures using an Ovako Working Posture Analysing System method. Analysis of the typical laser photocoagulation procedure revealed a high risk for cumulative trauma disorders. The majority of the risk factors were lowered considerably with use of the new table. Improvement was largely due to the new table allowing seated postures during surgery, relieving muscular stress on the back, shoulders and legs. This study demonstrates risk reduction through engineering design of new medical devices, and illustrates how combining different assessment approaches can help evaluate ergonomic impact of medical technologies.
Bucher, Brian T; Duggan, Eileen M; Grubb, Peter H; France, Daniel J; Lally, Kevin P; Blakely, Martin L
The purpose of this project was to examine the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (ACSNSQIP-P) Participant Use File (PUF) to compare risk-adjusted outcomes of neonates versus other pediatric surgical patients. In the ACS-NSQIP-P 2012-2013 PUF, patients were classified as preterm neonate, term neonate, or nonneonate at the time of surgery. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and composite morbidity. Patient characteristics significantly associated with the primary outcomes were used to build a multivariate logistic regression model. The overall 30-day mortality rate for preterm neonates, term neonate, and nonneonates was 4.9%, 2.0%, 0.1%, respectively (p<0.0001). The overall 30-day morbidity rate for preterm neonates, term neonates, and nonneonates was 27.0%, 17.4%, 6.4%, respectively (p<0.0001). After adjustment for preoperative and operative risk factors, both preterm (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.0, 1.4-3.0) and term neonates (aOR, 95% CI: 1.9, 1.2-3.1) had a significantly increased odds of 30-day mortality compared to nonneonates. Surgical neonates are a cohort who are particularity susceptible to postoperative morbidity and mortality after adjusting for preoperative and operative risk factors. Collaborative efforts focusing on surgical neonates are needed to understand the unique characteristics of this cohort and identify the areas where the morbidity and mortality can be improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barth, R J; Rowland-Morin, P A; Mott, L A; Burchard, K W
An important educational objective of academic surgical programs is to train surgical teachers. Whether formal instruction of surgery residents in general principles of teaching has a role in the achievement of this objective is unproven. We tested whether the teaching ability of surgery residents could be improved by two different interventions: (A) a lecture on communication effectiveness plus home study of their own videotaped lectures and (B) a critical review of their own videotaped lectures with a teaching consultant. Each resident taught four sessions. There was no intervention between sessions 1 and 2; intervention A occurred between sessions 2 and 3; and intervention B, between sessions 3 and 4. Each of the four videotaped sessions was graded for communication effectiveness using a standardized scoring form. There were no significant differences between scores from lectures 1 and 2 (no intervention) or lectures 2 and 3 (intervention A). Intervention B (individualized feedback) resulted in significant improvement in all scores from session 4 compared with sessions 1 and 2: content 3.40 versus 2.98 (p = 0.01), language 3.43 versus 3.22 (p = 0.03), delivery 3.25 versus 2.87 (p = 0.002), and overall 3.43 versus 2.88 (p = 0.002). Surgical resident teaching ability can be improved by communication effectiveness teaching. Individualized feedback is more effective than a lecture combined with self-study.
Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir Ayansiji; Adepoju, Feyi Grace; Owoeye, Joshua Foluso
To know the opinions of trainee ophthalmologists on ways to improve cataract surgical rate (CSR) with a view to having insight into actions that should be of high priority for achieving this improvement. A survey of 27 trainee ophthalmologists using structured self-administered questionnaire. Most trainees had a positive view about actions towards raising CSR: Structured ophthalmic training- 25 (92.6%), monthly cataract camps by eye departments in teaching hospitals- 21 (77.8%), rural allowance for ophthalmologists- 26 (96.3%) and welfare package for indigent cataract patients- 21 (77.8%). Other actions included local production of cataract consumables- 22 (81.5%), duty-free importation of ophthalmic materials- 23 (85.2%), employment of ophthalmologists in the services of the state governments- 24 (88.9%) and local governments- 20 (74.1%), effective primary eye care- 25 (92.6%) and marketing of cataract surgical services- 23 (85.2%). However, only 16 (59.3%) trainees wanted first ladies (wives of the president, governors and local government chairmen) to adopt cataract elimination as pet projects, and 24 (88.9%) opposed the introduction of cataract surgeons. Most trainees had positive perceptions about most actions that can raise CSR. However, top-priority actions to improve CSR were attractive rural allowance, structured training, resource availability, cost reduction and marketing of cataract surgical services. Multiple actions might be necessary to raise CSR.
Mercurio, Patti; Shaffer Ellis, Andrea; Schoettker, Pamela J; Stone, Raymond; Lenk, Mary Anne; Ryckman, Frederick C
The surgical consent serves as a key link in preventing breakdowns in communication that could lead to wrong-patient, wrong-site, or wrong-procedure events. We conducted a quality improvement initiative at a large, urban pediatric academic medical center to reliably increase the percentage of informed consents for surgical and medical procedures with accurate safety data information at the first point of perioperative contact. Improvement activities focused on awareness, education, standardization, real-time feedback and failure identification, and transparency. A total of 54,082 consent forms from 13 surgical divisions were reviewed between May 18, 2011, and November 30, 2012. Between May 2011 and June 2012, the percentage of consents without safety errors increased from a median of 95.4% to 99.7%. Since July 2012, the median has decreased slightly but has remained stable at 99.4%. Our results suggest that effective safety checks allow discovery and prevention of errors.
Saigusa, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Komachi, Taro; Kadosono, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Saigusa, Makoto; Niimi, Seiji
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive debilitating neurological disease. ALS disturbs the quality of life by affecting speech, swallowing and free mobility of the arms without affecting intellectual function. It is therefore of significance to improve intelligibility and quality of speech sounds, especially for ALS patients with slowly progressive courses. Currently, however, there is no effective or established approach to improve speech disorder caused by ALS. We investigated a surgical procedure to improve speech disorder for some patients with neuromuscular diseases with velopharyngeal closure incompetence. In this study, we performed the surgical procedure for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder caused by slowly progressing ALS. The patients suffered from speech disorder with hypernasality and imprecise and weak articulation during a 6-year course (patient 1) and a 3-year course (patient 2) of slowly progressing ALS. We narrowed bilateral lateral palatopharyngeal wall at velopharyngeal port, and performed this surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxant for the two patients. Postoperatively, intelligibility and quality of their speech sounds were greatly improved within one month without any speech therapy. The patients were also able to generate longer speech phrases after the surgery. Importantly, there was no serious complication during or after the surgery. In summary, we performed bilateral narrowing of lateral palatopharyngeal wall as a speech surgery for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder associated with ALS. With this technique, improved intelligibility and quality of speech can be maintained for longer duration for the patients with slowly progressing ALS.
Schwarting, T; Ruchholtz, S; Josephs, D; Oberkircher, L; Bartsch, D K; Fendrich, V
The quality of medical education is an ongoing challenge due to the continuing changes of the health-care politics and general social conditions. At many German university hospitals the dominating picture is overfilled courses, lack of hands-on practice, reduced patient contact and the dull provision of theoretical, abstract knowledge. The reformed surgical curriculum at the University of Marburg university hospital is used to demonstrate that, in spite of large student numbers, a practice-oriented, small-group training at a high didactic level is possible. The surgical training courses are organized in detail and coordinated. Course contents and structure are media available in print and online versions for both students and teachers and thus fulfill not only transparency needs but also contemporary requirements. The strategy of a practice- and patient-oriented, small-group training is followed strictly in the surgical curriculum. In addition, accompanying tutorial possibilities for individual study in an up-to-date learning center are offered. Here the students have the opportunity to intensify knowledge acquired in previous or future courses with numerous attractive education means. Continuous evaluation of the individual training courses at the end of each semester not only document motivation of the students but also serve to continuously improve the training concepts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kao, Lillian S; Thomas, Eric J
Safety practices in the aviation industry are being increasingly adapted to healthcare in an effort to reduce medical errors and patient harm. However, caution should be applied in embracing these practices because of limited experience in surgical disciplines, lack of rigorous research linking these practices to outcome, and fundamental differences between the two industries. Surgeons should have an in-depth understanding of the principles and data supporting aviation-based safety strategies before routinely adopting them. This paper serves as a review of strategies adapted to improve surgical safety, including the following: implementation of crew resource management in training operative teams; incorporation of simulation in training of technical and nontechnical skills; and analysis of contributory factors to errors using surveys, behavioral marker systems, human factors analysis, and incident reporting. Avenues and challenges for future research are also discussed.
Cataife, Guido; Weinberg, Daniel A; Wong, Hui-Hsing; Kahn, Katherine L
The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has developed a set of process compliance measures in an attempt to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs). Previous research has been inconclusive on whether compliance with these measures is associated with lower SSI rates. To determine whether hospitals with higher levels of compliance with SCIP measures have lower incidence of SSIs and to identify the measures that are most likely to drive this association. Analysis of linked SCIP compliance rates and SSIs on 295 hospital groups observed annually over the study period 2007-2010. A hospital group comprises all hospitals sharing identical categories for location by state, teaching status, bed size, and urban/rural location. We used a generalized linear model regression with logistic link and binomial family to estimate the association between 3 SCIP measures and SSI rates. Hospital groups with higher compliance rates had significantly lower SSI rates for 2 SCIP measures: antibiotic timing and appropriate antibiotic selection. For a hospital group of median characteristics, a 10% improvement in the measure provision of antibiotic 1 hour before intervention led to a 5.3% decrease in the SSI rates (P<0.05). Rural hospitals had effect sizes several times larger than urban hospitals (P<0.05). A third-core measure, Timely Antibiotic Stop, showed no robust association. This analysis supports a clinically and statistically meaningful relationship between adherence to 2 SCIP measures and SSI rates, supporting the validity of the 2 publicly available healthcare-associated infection metrics.
John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; Ellahham, Samer
Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification
John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; ELLAHHAM, SAMER
Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification
Saunders, Lauren; Perennec-Olivier, Marion; Jarno, Pascal; L'Hériteau, François; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Simon, Loïc; Giard, Marine; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; Viel, Jean-François
Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance is a key factor in the elaboration of strategies to reduce SSI occurrence and in providing surgeons with appropriate data feedback (risk indicators, clinical prediction rule). To improve the predictive performance of an individual-based SSI risk model by considering a multilevel hierarchical structure. Data were collected anonymously by the French SSI active surveillance system in 2011. An SSI diagnosis was made by the surgical teams and infection control practitioners following standardized criteria. A random 20% sample comprising 151 hospitals, 502 wards and 62280 patients was used. Three-level (patient, ward, hospital) hierarchical logistic regression models were initially performed. Parameters were estimated using the simulation-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. A total of 623 SSI were diagnosed (1%). The hospital level was discarded from the analysis as it did not contribute to variability of SSI occurrence (p = 0.32). Established individual risk factors (patient history, surgical procedure and hospitalization characteristics) were identified. A significant heterogeneity in SSI occurrence between wards was found (median odds ratio [MOR] 3.59, 95% credibility interval [CI] 3.03 to 4.33) after adjusting for patient-level variables. The effects of the follow-up duration varied between wards (p<10-9), with an increased heterogeneity when follow-up was <15 days (MOR 6.92, 95% CI 5.31 to 9.07]). The final two-level model significantly improved the discriminative accuracy compared to the single level reference model (p<10-9), with an area under the ROC curve of 0.84. This study sheds new light on the respective contribution of patient-, ward- and hospital-levels to SSI occurrence and demonstrates the significant impact of the ward level over and above risk factors present at patient level (i.e., independently from patient case-mix).
Maweni, R M; Foley, R W; Lupi, M; Shier, D; Ronan O'Connell, P; Vig, S
To ascertain whether house officers (HOs) attain a more satisfactory surgical rotation experience when they perform basic surgical learning activities. We also sought to establish how many and which learning activities HOs achieve and the effect on their surgical experience. A questionnaire listing 20 learning activities and questions regarding satisfaction with an overall experience was disseminated to HOs in the UK and Ireland who had completed ≥3 months of surgical rotations. Satisfaction with surgical experience was dichotomised in order to perform logistic regression using R Studio software v0.98. The survey was completed by 150 respondents, with 26 % completing at least 10 basic surgical learning activities during their surgical rotation. On multivariate analysis, the completion of these learning activities was significantly associated with a satisfactory rotation experience (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the use of a checklist of surgical activities provided to HOs was associated with a significant increase in the performance of learning activities (p = 0.003). Surgical HOs who were informed about potential basic surgical learning activities that can be performed during their rotations performed significantly more of these activities. And these activities were associated with a significantly greater satisfaction with surgical rotations. Therefore, we recommend facilitating HOs completion of these activities as this will ensure that basic surgical competencies are achieved and that HOs will be more satisfied with their surgical experience.
Arca, Marjorie J; Enters, Jessica; Christensen, Melissa; Jeziorczak, Paul; Sato, Thomas T; Thielke, Robert; Oldham, Keith T
Quality improvement (QI) is critical to enhancing patient care. It is necessary to prioritize which QI initiatives are relevant to one's institution and practice, as implementation is resource-intensive. We have developed and implemented a streamlined process to identify QI opportunities in our practice. We designed a web-based Pediatric and Infant Case Log and Outcomes (PICaLO) instrument using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap™) to record all surgical procedures for our practice. At the time of operation, a surgeon completes a case report form. An administrative assistant enters the data in PICaLO within 5-7days. Outcomes such as complications, deaths, and "occurrences" (readmissions, reoperations, transfers to ICU, ER visit, additional clinic visits) are recorded at the time of encounter, during M & M Conferences, and during follow-up clinic visits. Variables were chosen and defined based on national standards from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), and Patient Based Learning Log. Occurrences are queried for potential QI initiatives. In 2012, 3597 patients were entered, totaling 5177 procedures. There were 220 complications, 278 occurrences, and 16 deaths. Specific QI opportunities were identified and put into place. Data on procedures and outcomes can be collected effectively in a pediatric surgery practice to delineate pertinent QI initiatives. PICaLO is recognized by the American Board of Surgery as a mechanism to meet Maintenance of Certification 4 criteria. © 2014.
Demehri, Farokh R; Claflin, Jake; Alameddine, Mitchell; Sandhu, Gurjit; Magas, Christopher P; Virgin, Kristen; Gauger, Paul G
Busy surgical services with diverse team members and frequent handoffs create barriers to patient- and family-centered care. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of cards containing team member names, roles, and photographs-"Surgical Baseball Cards" (SBCs)-would improve patient recognition of caregivers and whether this would improve patient satisfaction. A prospective, controlled study was performed of all adult patients admitted to 2 academic acute care general surgery services with alternating admitting days. Surgical team members on one service had SBCs to give patients at introduction, whereas the control service used no such tool. Before discharge, patients completed a survey consisting of a quiz requiring matching of caregiver photographs to names and roles (5-point maximum), questions rating select elements of patient satisfaction (5-point Likert scale), and an opportunity to provide comments. Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, a university teaching hospital. A total of 162 patients were included over 2 months, with at least a 24-hour admission to an acute care general surgery service. Overall, 60% of patients in the intervention arm received SBCs. Per-unit SBC cost was 0.16 USD. Patients who received SBCs had significantly improved identification of team members based on name (1.7 ± 1.4 vs 1.2 ± 1.5, p = 0.02) and role (1.6 ± 1.4 vs 0.9 ± 1.2, p = 0.02) than controls did. All the SBC recipients and 88% of controls felt that SBCs should be implemented hospital-wide. SBC recipients reported a trend toward increased comfort with resident involvement in care (4.6 ± 0.7 vs 4.5 ± 0.9, p = 0.14). Among themes discerned from free-response comments, 46% of SBC recipients commented on the innovative nature of SBCs and 29% noted improved team identification. Overall, 17% of SBC recipients commented positively on patient-centered care (vs 3% of controls), whereas 5% commented negatively on patient-centered care (vs 15
Kelly, D L; Pestotnik, S L; Coons, M C; Lelis, J W
Integrating principles from a variety of theory has led to the development of a conceptual framework for reengineering in a clinical care delivery setting to improve the value of services provided to the customer. A conceptual framework involving the identification of three high level core processes to reengineer can provide clarity and focus for clinicians to begin directing reengineering efforts. Those core processes are: clinical management of the patient's medical needs, patient operational processes to support the clinical processes, and administrative decision-making processes to support the implementation of the clinical and operational processes. Improvement in any one of these areas has the potential to increase value, but the concurrent targeting of these core processes for reengineering has provided a synergy that has accelerated the achievement of the desired outcomes in the area of surgical services.
Watkins, Michelle Hoyt
The use of gloves as a barrier to cross infection in the medical industry has increased substantially due to the heightened awareness of viral transmission, especially the human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B virus. The glove must allow for tactile sensation, comfort and long use times, while providing equally critical mechanical performance. The majority of surgical gloves are made of natural rubber latex which do not give a critical level of cut-resistance or puncture-resistance. Natural rubber latex gloves are also known to cause latex allergy with hypersensitivity reactions ranging from mild skin rashes to more severe bronchial asthma, anaphylactic reactions, and even death. It has been postulated natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins cause these allergic reactions. The research that has been conducted comprises two approaches that have been explored for improving the cut-resistance of surgical gloves. The first method involves an integral fiber-latex structure that possesses the combination of high reversible extensibility, barrier performance and retention of tactile sense. Improvement in mechanical properties in excess of 85% has been achieved as well as an improvement in cut-resistance. The second method involves the incorporation of a low concentration of ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) polyacrylamide. Although the initial premise for using a UHMW polymer was that it would bridge the latex compound particulates to improve strength, an entirely different mechanism for the enhancement of strength was explored through a parallel investigation of the release of proteins from cured natural rubber. However, no mechanism was conclusively identified. To address the allergy aspects of NRL, a thorough examination of the release of naturally-occurring latex proteins from cured natural rubber latex glove material was conducted in order to identify mechanisms for eliminating and/or reducing the potential allergens. The initial study examined the release of
Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Oumer, Ramadan; Tapper, Richard; Roberts, Ross
In health care, record keeping of doctor-patient encounters is vital for quality patient care and medico-legal reasons. We audited the documentation of post-acute consultant ward round (PACWR) in our department before and six months after an introduction of a proforma (standard form). The clinical notes of all patients admitted acutely under General Surgery over a period of one week before and one week after the introduction of a proforma were reviewed to note whether time and date, signature, impression and dietary plan were documented after PACWR. The nurses were also surveyed on the day of the PACWR for their certainty regarding the dietary plan of their patients and whether they had to contact the surgical team for clarification. There were 108 and 103 patients eligible for the first and second study periods respectively. After the introduction of the proforma, there was a statistically significant improvement in the documentation of time and date (37% vs. 72%, p-value < 0.01) and impression (40% vs. 61%, p-value < 0.01). Improvement in the documentation of the dietary plan reached statistical significant only when the analysis was restricted to the cases where a proforma was filled out (78 out of 103 patients). Introduction of the proforma had no statistically significant impact on the nurses' certainty regarding their patients' dietary plan and the number of times they had to contact the surgical teams. In conclusion, PACWR proforma improves overall documentation. This will help in avoiding adverse effects on patient care and medico-legal ramifications.
Arenas-Márquez, Humberto; Anaya-Prado, Roberto
Surgery is an extreme experience for both patient and surgeon. The patient has to be rescued from something so serious that it may justify the surgeon to violate his/her integrity in order to resolve the problem. Nevertheless, both physician and patient recognize that the procedure has some risks. Medical errors are the 8th cause of death in the U.S., and malpractice can be documented in >50% of the legal prosecutions in Mexico. Of special interest is the specialty of general surgery where legal responsibility can be confirmed in >80% of the cases. Interest in mortality attributed to medical errors has existed since the 19th century; clearly identifying the lack of knowledge, abilities, and poor surgical and diagnostic judgment as the cause of errors. Currently, poor organization, lack of team work, and physician/ patient-related factors are recognized as the cause of medical errors. Human error is unavoidable and health care systems and surgeons should adopt the culture of error analysis openly, inquisitively and permanently. Errors should be regarded as an opportunity to learn that health care should to be patient centered and not surgeon centered. In this review, we analyze the causes of complications and errors that can develop during routine surgery. Additionally, we propose measures that will allow improvements in the safety of surgical patients.
Rajan, M S
The recent years have brought about a sea change in the field of corneal transplantation with penetrating keratoplasty being phased to newer lamellar keratoplasty techniques for a variety of corneal pathology. Improved and innovative surgical techniques have allowed selective replacement of diseased host corneal layers with pre-prepared healthy donor corneal lamellae for anterior corneal disorders such as keratoconus and posterior corneal disorders such as Fuch's corneal endothelial dystrophy. The results of lamellar techniques are encouraging, with rapid visual rehabilitation and vastly reduced risk of immune-mediated transplant rejection. The techniques of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) continue to evolve with advent of femtosecond lasers and newer concepts such as pre-conditioned donor corneas for Microthin DSAEK and Descemet's membrane keratoplasty. This review describes the current developments in lamellar keratoplasty, including the futuristic approach using cell therapy to restore vision in corneal blindness. PMID:24384964
Schmitt, Cristiane; Lacerda, Rubia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Padoveze, Maria Clara
Improving surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) use is an important element in the control of antimicrobial resistance. However, compliance with SAP guidelines is unsatisfactory. This study investigated the level of compliance with SAP guidelines in neurosurgery, and institutional characteristics associated with compliance. This study assessed surgeries in 9 Brazilian hospitals. Medical record reviews and a structured questionnaire were used to assess compliance and to describe institutional characteristics. Six attributes of compliance with SAP guidelines were evaluated; full compliance was defined whenever all these attributes were met. Logistic and linear regressions were used to investigate the association between compliance, patients, and hospital characteristics. Full compliance was 10% and was associated with weekly hours of infection control personnel per intensive care unit bed (95% CI, 0.2-0.1), hospital-wide dissemination of SAP guidelines (95% CI, 1.2-25.1), monitoring (95% CI, 1.2-25.1), and feedback of compliance rates (95% CI, 3.8-25.2). Daytime procedures had greater compliance regarding drug dose (odds ratio [OR], 3.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-6.65) and initial time (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.24-4.25). Spinal procedures achieved greater compliance with initial time (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.12-3.01) and duration (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.7-2.16). A low level of compliance was identified, which pointed out the need for an innovative stewardship approach to improve adherence to SAP guidelines. Targeted training programs need to be developed to ensure dissemination of guidelines among surgeons. Monitoring, feedback, and closer interaction between the infection control personnel and the surgical team are key factors for better compliance rates of SAP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rowell, Katherine S; Turrentine, Florence E; Hutter, Matthew M; Khuri, Shukri F; Henderson, William G
Semiannually, the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) provides its participating sites with observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios for 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity. At each reporting period, there is typically a small group of hospitals with statistically significantly high O/E ratios, meaning that their patients have experienced more adverse events than would be expected on the basis of the population characteristics. An important issue is to determine which actions a surgical service should take in the presence of a high O/E ratio. This article reviews case studies of how some of the Department of Veterans Affairs and private-sector NSQIP participating sites used the clinically rich NSQIP database for local quality improvement efforts. Data on postoperative adverse events before and after these local quality improvement efforts are presented. After local quality improvement efforts, wound complication rates were reduced at the Salt Lake City Veterans Affairs medical center by 47%, surgical site infections in patients undergoing intraabdominal surgery were reduced at the University of Virginia by 36%, and urinary tract infections in vascular patients were reduced at the Massachusetts General Hospital by 74%. At some sites participating in the NSQIP, notably the Massachusetts General Hospital and the University of Virginia, the NSQIP has served as the basis for surgical service-wide outcomes research and quality improvement programs. The NSQIP not only provides participating sites with risk-adjusted surgical mortality and morbidity outcomes semiannually, but the clinically rich NSQIP database can also serve as a catalyst for local quality improvement programs to significantly reduce postoperative adverse event rates.
Luo, H.; Li, Y.
According to signal theory, to improve resolution of seismic section is to extend high-frequency band of seismic signal. In cross-well section, sonic log can be regarded as a reliable source providing high-frequency information to the trace near the borehole. In such case, what to do is to introduce this high-frequency information into the whole section. However, neither traditional deconvolution algorithms nor some new inversion methods such as BCI (Broad Constraint Inversion) are satisfied because of high-frequency noise and nonuniqueness of inversion results respectively. To overcome their disadvantages, this paper presents a new algorithm based on Time-Frequency Analysis (TFA) technology which has been increasingly received much attention as an useful signal analysis too. Practical applications show that the new method is a stable scheme to improve resolution of cross-well seismic section greatly without decreasing Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).
Luboga, Sam; Galukande, Moses; Mabweijano, Jacqueline; Jayaraman, Sudha
Recently, surgical services have been gaining greater attention as an integral part of public health in low-income countries due to the significant volume and burden of surgical conditions, growing evidence of the cost-effectiveness of surgical intervention, and global disparities in surgical care. Nonetheless, there has been limited discussion of the key aspects of health policy related to surgical services in low-income countries. Uganda, like other low-income sub-Saharan African countries, bears a heavy burden of surgical conditions with low surgical output in health facilities and significant unmet need for surgical care. To address this lack of adequate surgical services in Uganda, a diverse group of local stakeholders met in Kampala, Uganda, in May 2008 to develop a roadmap of key policy actions that would improve surgical services at the national level. The group identified a list of health policy priorities to improve surgical services in Uganda. The priorities were classified into three areas: (1) human resources, (2) health systems, and (3) research and advocacy. This article is a critical discussion of these health policy priorities with references to recent literature. This was the first such multidisciplinary meeting in Uganda with a focus on surgical services and its output may have relevance to health policy development in other low-income countries planning to improve delivery of surgical services. PMID:20730430
I substantially modified a portable surgical table design by Courtois (1981) to increase its durability and utility. The new design incorporated durable plastic components, a nonskid neoprene surgery surface, and surgical tool bins. The system was used to implant fish and amphibi...
I substantially modified a portable surgical table design by Courtois (1981) to increase its durability and utility. The new design incorporated durable plastic components, a nonskid neoprene surgery surface, and surgical tool bins. The system was used to implant fish and amphibi...
Martis, Walston R; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Lee, Tracey; Merry, Alan F; Mitchell, Simon J
A new approach to administering the surgical safety checklist (SSC) at our institution using wall-mounted charts for each SSC domain coupled with migrated leadership among operating room (OR) sub-teams, led to improved compliance with the Sign Out domain. Since surgical specimens are reviewed at Sign Out, we aimed to quantify any related change in surgical specimen labelling errors. Prospectively maintained error logs for surgical specimens sent to pathology were examined for the six months before and after introduction of the new SSC administration paradigm. We recorded errors made in the labelling or completion of the specimen pot and on the specimen laboratory request form. Total error rates were calculated from the number of errors divided by total number of specimens. Rates from the two periods were compared using a chi square test. There were 19 errors in 4,760 specimens (rate 3.99/1,000) and eight errors in 5,065 specimens (rate 1.58/1,000) before and after the change in SSC administration paradigm (P=0.0225). Improved compliance with administering the Sign Out domain of the SSC can reduce surgical specimen errors. This finding provides further evidence that OR teams should optimise compliance with the SSC.
Schlickum, Marcus Kolga; Hedman, Leif; Enochsson, Lars; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li
Previous studies have shown a correlation between previous video game experience and performance in minimally invasive surgical simulators. The hypothesis is that systematic video game training with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarity to endoscopy would show a transfer effect on performance in virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulation. A prospective randomized study was performed. Thirty surgical novices were matched and randomized to five weeks of systematic video game training in either a first-person shooter game (Half Life) with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarities to endoscopy or a video game with mainly cognitive demands (Chessmaster). A matched control group (n = 10) performed no video game training during five weeks. Performance in two virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulators (MIST-VR and GI Mentor II) was measured pre- and post-training. Before simulator training we also controlled for students' visual-spatial ability, visual working memory, age, and previous video game experience. The group training with Half Life showed significant improvement in two GI Mentor II variables and the MIST-VR task MD level medium. The group training with Chessmaster only showed an improvement in the MIST-VR task. No effect was observed in the control group. As recently shown in other studies, current and previous video game experience was important for simulator performance. Systematic video game training improved surgical performance in advanced virtual reality endoscopic simulators. The transfer effect increased when increasing visual similarity. The performance in intense, visual-spatially challenging video games might be a predictive factor for the outcome in surgical simulation.
Martinou, Eirini; Shouls, Genevieve; Betambeau, Nadine
Procedural coding in surgical discharge summaries is extremely important; as well as communicating to healthcare staff which procedures have been performed, it also provides information that is used by the hospital's coding department. The OPCS code (Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures) is used to generate the tariff that allows the hospital to be reimbursed for the procedure. We felt that the OPCS coding on discharge summaries was often incorrect within our breast and endocrine surgery department. A baseline measurement over two months demonstrated that 32% of operations had been incorrectly coded, resulting in an incorrect tariff being applied and an estimated loss to the Trust of £17,000. We developed a simple but specific OPCS coding table in collaboration with the clinical coding team and breast surgeons that summarised all operations performed within our department. This table was disseminated across the team, specifically to the junior doctors who most frequently complete the discharge summaries. Re-audit showed 100% of operations were accurately coded, demonstrating the effectiveness of the coding table. We suggest that specifically designed coding tables be introduced across each surgical department to ensure accurate OPCS codes are used to produce better quality surgical discharge summaries and to ensure correct reimbursement to the Trust. PMID:26734286
Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet
Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Telfah, Shorouq; Nazer, Lama; Dirani, Manar; Daoud, Faiez
Objectives: This study aimed to show the impact of a multidisciplinary quality improvement project on adherence to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines in oncological surgery. Methods: This pre- and post-intervention prospective observational study was carried out at the King Hussein Cancer Centre (KHCC) in Amman, Jordan, between August 2009 and February 2012. The quality improvement project consisted of revising the institutional guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis, assigning a clinical pharmacist to the surgical department, establishing an operating room satellite pharmacy and providing education regarding the appropriate utilisation of antibiotics. The medical records of adult cancer patients who underwent surgery were evaluated one month before and one month after the project was implemented to assess adherence to the guidelines with regards to antibiotics prescribed, drug doses and timing and treatment duration. Results: A total of 70 patients were evaluated before and 97 patients were evaluated after the intervention, of which 57 (81.4%) and 95 (97.9%) patients received antibiotics, respectively. In comparing the pre- and post-intervention groups, an improvement was observed in the proportion of patients who received antibiotics at the appropriate time (n = 12 versus n = 79; 21.1% versus 83.2%; P <0.01), for the appropriate duration of time (n = 22 versus n = 94; 38.6% versus 99.0%; P <0.01) and in the appropriate dose (n = 9 versus n = 87; 56.3% versus 98.9%; P <0.01). Conclusion: Adherence to the antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines at KHCC improved significantly after the implementation of a quality improvement project. PMID:26629381
Sheils, Catherine R; Dahlke, Allison R; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Yang, Anthony D
The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program is well recognized in surgical quality measurement and is used widely in research. Recent calls to make it a platform for national public reporting and pay-for-performance initiatives highlight the importance of understanding which types of hospitals elect to participate in the program. Our objective was to compare characteristics of hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to characteristics of nonparticipating US hospitals. The 2013 American Hospital Association and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Healthcare Cost Report Information System datasets were used to compare characteristics and operating margins of hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to those of nonparticipating hospitals. Of 3,872 general medical and surgical hospitals performing inpatient surgery in the United States, 475 (12.3%) participated in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Participating hospitals performed 29.0% of all operations in the United States. Compared with nonparticipating hospitals, American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program hospitals had a higher mean annual inpatient surgical case volume (6,426 vs 1,874; P < .001) and a larger mean number of hospital beds (420 vs 167; P < .001); participating hospitals were more often teaching hospitals (35.2% vs 4.1%; P < .001), had more quality-related accreditations (P < .001), and had higher mean operating margins (P < .05). States with the highest proportions of hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program had established surgical quality improvement collaboratives. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program hospitals are large teaching
Drosdeck, Joseph; Carraro, Ellen; Arnold, Mark; Perry, Kyle; Harzman, Alan; Nagel, Rollin; Sinclair, Lynnsay; Muscarella, Peter
Medical students desire to become proficient in surgical techniques and believe their acquisition is important. However, the operating room is a challenging learning environment. Small group procedural workshops can improve confidence, participation, and performance. The use of fresh animal tissues has been rated highly among students and improves their surgical technique. Greater exposure to surgical procedures and staff could positively influence students' interest in surgical careers. We hypothesized that a porcine "wet lab" course for third year medical students would improve their surgical skills. Two skills labs were conducted for third year medical students during surgery clerkships in the fall of 2011. The students' surgical skills were first evaluated in the operating room across nine dimensions. Next, the students performed the following procedures during the skills lab: (1) laparotomy; (2) small bowel resection; (3) splenectomy; (4) partial hepatectomy; (5) cholecystectomy; (6) interrupted abdominal wall closure; (7) running abdominal wall closure; and (8) skin closure. After the skills lab, the students were re-evaluated in the operating room across the same nine dimensions. Student feedback was also recorded. Fifty-one participants provided pre- and post-lab data for use in the final analysis. The mean scores for all nine surgical skills improved significantly after participation in the skills lab (P ≤ 0.002). Cumulative post-test scores also showed significant improvement (P = 0.002). Finally, the student feedback was largely positive. The surgical skills of third year medical students improved significantly after participation in a porcine wet lab, and the students rated the experience as highly educational. Integration into the surgery clerkship curriculum would promote surgical skill proficiency and could elicit interest in surgical careers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montgomery, Kieran; Khan, Imran; Thomson, Kathleen; Wynne, David
The World Health Organisation (WHO) surgical checklist acts as a safety check before surgery. The three components are: sign in, surgical pause and sign out. This study aims to assess and improve the surgical pause at a tertiary paediatric surgical unit. Theatre nurses used as a standardised tool to record how the pause was carried out. All other theatre staff were blinded. Presentation of these data at departmental meetings allowed creation of a checklist poster which was placed in every theatre. Data collection was repeated five months later. Data on 114 operations were initially collected. Fifty-one per cent of operations completed all four steps to guideline. Introduction step met guideline in 61% of operations, identity and procedure in 90%, checklist in 98% and concerns in 71%. Following intervention, data were collected from 39 operations; 77% of operations completed all four steps to guideline. Introduction step met guideline in 87% of operations, identity and procedure in 100%, checklist in 100% and concerns in 90%. This study shows that by engaging with theatre staff to create an acceptable checklist poster, better standard of patient safety in the operating theatre can be achieved. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lin, Dana T; Park, Julia; Liebert, Cara A; Lau, James N
Current surgical education curricula focus mainly on the acquisition of technical skill rather than clinical and operative judgment. SICKO (Surgical Improvement of Clinical Knowledge Ops) is a novel gaming platform developed to address this critical need. A pilot study was performed to collect validity evidence for SICKO as an assessment for surgical decision making. Forty-nine subjects stratified into 4 levels of expertise were recruited to play SICKO. Later, players were surveyed regarding the realism of the gaming platform as well as the clinical competencies required of them while playing SICKO. Each group of increasing expertise outperformed the less experienced groups. Mean total game scores for the novice, junior resident, senior resident, and expert groups were 5,461, 8,519, 11,404, and 13,913, respectively (P = .001). Survey results revealed high scores for realism and content. SICKO holds the potential to be not only an engaging and immersive educational tool, but also a valid assessment in the armamentarium of surgical educators. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hull, Louise; Athanasiou, Thanos; Russ, Stephanie
The aim of this review was to emphasize the importance of implementation science in understanding why efforts to integrate evidence-based interventions into surgical practice frequently fail to replicate the improvements reported in early research studies. Over the past 2 decades, numerous patient safety initiatives have been developed to improve the quality and safety of surgical care. The surgical community is now faced with translating "promising" initiatives from the research environment into clinical practice-the World Health Organization (WHO) has described this task as one of the greatest challenges facing the global health community and has identified the importance of implementation science in scaling up evidence-based interventions. Using the WHO surgical safety checklist, a prominent example of a rapidly and widely implemented surgical safety intervention of the past decade, a review of literature, spanning surgery, and implementation science, was conducted to identify and describe a broad range of factors affecting implementation success, including contextual factors, implementation strategies, and implementation outcomes. Our current approach to conceptualizing and measuring the "effectiveness" of interventions has resulted in factors critical to implementing surgical safety interventions successfully being neglected. Improvements in the safety and quality of surgical care can be accelerated by drawing more heavily upon implementation science and that until this rapidly evolving field becomes more firmly embedded into surgical research and implementation efforts, our understanding of why interventions such as the checklist "work" in some settings and appear "not to work" in other settings will be limited.
Roche-Nagle, G; Bachynski, K; Nathens, A B; Angoulvant, D; Rubin, B B
Management of vascular surgical emergencies requires rapid access to a vascular surgeon and hospital with the infrastructure necessary to manage vascular emergencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of regionalization of vascular surgery services in Toronto to University Health Network (UHN) and St Michael's Hospital (SMH) on the ability of CritiCall Ontario to transfer patients with life- and limb-threatening vascular emergencies for definitive care. A retrospective review of the CritiCall Ontario database was used to assess the outcome of all calls to CritiCall regarding patients with vascular disease from April 2003 to March 2010. The number of patients with vascular emergencies referred via CritiCall and accepted in transfer by the vascular centers at UHN or SMH increased 500% between 1 April 2003-31 December 2005 and 1 January 2006-31 March 2010. Together, the vascular centers at UHN and SMH accepted 94.8% of the 1002 vascular surgery patients referred via CritiCall from other hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 March 2010, and 72% of these patients originated in hospitals outside of the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Across Ontario, the number of physicians contacted before a patient was accepted in transfer fell from 2.9 ± 0.4 before to 1.7 ± 0.3 after the vascular centers opened. In conclusion, the vascular surgery centers at UHN and SMH have become provincial resources that enable the efficient transfer of patients with vascular surgical emergencies from across Ontario. Regionalization of services is a viable model to increase access to emergent care.
Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.
The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.
Schonberger, Robert B.; Barash, Paul G.; Lagasse, Robert S.
Since 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has promoted three perioperative antibiotic recommendations designed to reduce the incidence of surgical-site infections. Despite good evidence for the efficacy of these recommendations, SCIP's efforts have not measurably improved rates of surgical site-infections. We offer three arguments as to why SCIP has fallen-short of expectations. We then suggest a reorientation of quality improvement efforts to focus less on reporting, and incentivizing adherence to imperfect metrics, and more on creating local and regional quality collaboratives to educate clinicians about how to improve practice. Ultimately, successful quality improvement projects are behavioral interventions that will only succeed to the degree that they motivate individual clinicians, practicing within a particular context, to do the difficult work of identifying failures and iteratively working toward excellence. PMID:26197373
Schonberger, Robert B; Barash, Paul G; Lagasse, Robert S
Since 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has promoted 3 perioperative antibiotic recommendations designed to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. Despite good evidence for the efficacy of these recommendations, the efforts of SCIP have not measurably improved the rates of surgical site infections. We offer 3 arguments as to why SCIP has fallen short of expectations. We then suggest a reorientation of quality improvement efforts to focus less on reporting, and incentivizing adherence to imperfect metrics, and more on creating local and regional quality collaboratives to educate clinicians about how to improve practice. Ultimately, successful quality improvement projects are behavioral interventions that will only succeed to the degree that they motivate individual clinicians, practicing within a particular context, to do the difficult work of identifying failures and iteratively working toward excellence.
surgical interface. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Short Post-Assessment Situational Awareness (SPASA) questionnaire results have shown that overall mental workload of surgeons related with surgical interface has been low as it has been aimed, and overall situational awareness scores of surgeons have been considerably high. Conclusions This preliminary study highlights the improvement of a developed surgical interface using eye tracking technology to obtain the best SI configuration. The results presented here reveal that visual surgical interface design prepared according to eye movement characteristics may lead to improved usability. PMID:25080176
Erol Barkana, Duygun; Açık, Alper; Duru, Dilek Goksel; Duru, Adil Deniz
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Short Post-Assessment Situational Awareness (SPASA) questionnaire results have shown that overall mental workload of surgeons related with surgical interface has been low as it has been aimed, and overall situational awareness scores of surgeons have been considerably high. This preliminary study highlights the improvement of a developed surgical interface using eye tracking technology to obtain the best SI configuration. The results presented here reveal that visual surgical interface design prepared according to eye movement characteristics may lead to improved usability.
Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric
Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p < 0.005). Conclusions Preventative measures, in the form of a standardized protocol, to decrease surgical site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.
Zare, S.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Bayat, E.
A 5 cm diameter by 6 cm height NE213 scintillator attached to two XP2282 PHOTONIS photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) exposed to 241Americium-Berylium (Am-Be) neutron-gamma source has been used for timing response studies. The neutron-gamma discrimination (NGD) measurements based on a modified zero-crossing (ZC) method show that the discrimination quality, usually expressed in figure-of-merit (FoM) and peak-to-valley (P/V) values, has been improved. The timing response evaluated with Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, also verifies this improvement.
Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.
Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.
Sharkey, Siobhan; Hudak, Sandra; Horn, Susan D; Spector, William
The goal of this article was to enhance understanding of the On-Time Quality Improvement for Long-term Care Program, a practical approach to embed health information technology into quality improvement in nursing homes that leverages certified nursing assistant documentation and knowledge, supports frontline clinical decision making, and establishes proactive intervention for pressure ulcer prevention.
Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L
Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.
Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Sogorski, Alexander; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Harati, Kamran; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien; Hirsch, Tobias; Goertz, Ole
Surgical flaps have become safe and reliable reconstructive tools, but total flap loss rates as high as 25 percent and partial flap loss rates as high as 36 percent have been reported due to insufficient perfusion. Therefore, a reliable, noninvasive, and effective way to improve the microcirculation of surgical flaps is desirable. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of remote ischemic conditioning on the microcirculation of pedicled and free surgical flaps. Thirty patients undergoing free (n = 20) and pedicled (n = 10) tissue transfer were included in this study. Remote ischemic conditioning was applied on the upper extremity for three cycles on postoperative days 1, 5, and 12. Blood flow, tissue oxygen saturation, and relative hemoglobin content were measured by means of a combination of laser Doppler and spectroscopy (O2C device) in the flap and the surrounding tissue. The relative increase compared with baseline measurements was assessed. Blood flow increased significantly in controls on all 3 postoperative days (p < 0.05 for all). In free flaps, tissue oxygen saturation improved significantly on postoperative days 1 and 12 and blood flow improved significantly on postoperative days 5 and 12 (p < 0.05). In pedicled flaps, blood flow and tissue oxygen saturation increased on postoperative day12, but not significantly. Remote ischemic conditioning is a safe, inexpensive, fast, and reliable method to improve the microcirculation of surgical flaps. Further research is warranted to see whether such an improvement translates into improved flap survival, but it is likely. Therapeutic, IV.
Medbery, Rachel L; Sellers, Morgan M; Ko, Clifford Y; Kelz, Rachel R
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Next Accreditation System will require general surgery training programs to demonstrate outstanding clinical outcomes and education in quality improvement (QI). The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Quality In-Training Initiative reports the results of a systematic review of the literature investigating the availability of a QI curriculum. Using defined search terms, a systematic review was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar (January 2000-March 2013) to identify a surgical QI curriculum. Bibliographies from selected articles and other relevant materials were also hand searched. Curriculum was defined as an organized program of learning complete with content, instruction, and assessment for use in general surgical residency programs. Two independent observers graded surgical articles on quality of curriculum presented. Overall, 50 of 1155 references had information regarding QI in graduate medical education. Most (n = 24, 48%) described QI education efforts in nonsurgical fields. A total of 31 curricular blueprints were identified; 6 (19.4%) were specific to surgery. Targeted learners were most often post graduate year-2 residents (29.0%); only 6 curricula (19.4%) outlined a course for all residents within their respective programs. Plan, Do, Study, Act (n = 10, 32.3%), and Root Cause Analysis (n = 5, 16.1%) were the most common QI content presented, the majority of instruction was via lecture/didactics (n = 26, 83.9%), and only 7 (22.6%) curricula used validated tool kits for assessment. Elements of QI curriculum for surgical education exist; however, comprehensive content is lacking. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Quality In-Training Initiative will build on the high-quality components identified in our review and develop data-centered QI content to generate a comprehensive national QI curriculum for use in
Akenroye, Olusola O; Adebona, Olumuyiwa T; Akenroye, Ayobami T
The purpose of this study was to identify the various problems with surgical care in the developing world and enumerate identified strategies or propose solutions. We also sought to rank these strategies in order of potential impact. The MEDLINE database was sought. Studies published in English, reporting currently employed solutions to identified barriers or problems to surgical care in developing countries or potential solution(s) and published between 2000 and 2012 were eligible for inclusion. 2156 articles were identified for possible inclusion. MeSH terms include surgery, general surgery, developing countries, health services accessibility and quality improvement. Forty-nine full articles with a primary focus on the solutions to the challenges to surgical care in the developing world were included in the final review. Many articles identified problems with infrastructure, workforce shortage, inadequate or inappropriate policies, and poor financing as major problems with healthcare in the developing world. Solutions addressing these problems are multifactorial and would require active participation of local authorities and collaboration with providers from the developed world. The burden of surgical care is increasing. There is poor access to surgical services in the developing world. If and when surgical care is received, the quality could be less than the standard in developed nations. Solutions exist to tackle these problems but require a multidimensional approach to be successful.
Adebona, Olumuyiwa T.; Akenroye, Ayobami T.
The purpose of this study was to identify the various problems with surgical care in the developing world and enumerate identified strategies or propose solutions. We also sought to rank these strategies in order of potential impact. The MEDLINE database was sought. Studies published in English, reporting currently employed solutions to identified barriers or problems to surgical care in developing countries or potential solution(s) and published between 2000 and 2012 were eligible for inclusion. 2156 articles were identified for possible inclusion. MeSH terms include surgery, general surgery, developing countries, health services accessibility and quality improvement. Forty-nine full articles with a primary focus on the solutions to the challenges to surgical care in the developing world were included in the final review. Many articles identified problems with infrastructure, workforce shortage, inadequate or inappropriate policies, and poor financing as major problems with healthcare in the developing world. Solutions addressing these problems are multifactorial and would require active participation of local authorities and collaboration with providers from the developed world. The burden of surgical care is increasing. There is poor access to surgical services in the developing world. If and when surgical care is received, the quality could be less than the standard in developed nations. Solutions exist to tackle these problems but require a multidimensional approach to be successful. PMID:28299109
Pape-Koehler, Carolina; Immenroth, Marc; Sauerland, Stefan; Lefering, Rolf; Lindlohr, Cornelia; Toaspern, Jens; Heiss, Markus
Surgical procedures are complex motion sequences that require a high level of preparation, training, and concentration. In recent years, Internet platforms providing surgical content have been established. Used as a surgical training method, the effect of multimedia-based training on practical surgical skills has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multimedia-based training on surgical performance. A 2 × 2 factorial, randomized controlled trial with a pre- and posttest design was used to test the effect of multimedia-based training in addition to or without practical training on 70 participants in four groups defined by the intervention used: multimedia-based training, practical training, and combination training (multimedia-based training + practical training) or no training (control group). The pre- and posttest consisted of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a Pelvi-Trainer and was video recorded, encoded, and saved on DVDs. These were evaluated by blinded raters using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). The main evaluation criterion was the difference in OSATS score between the pre- and posttest (ΔOSATS) results in terms of a task-specific checklist (procedural steps scored as correct or incorrect). The groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic parameters, surgical experience, and pretest OSATS scores. The ΔOSATS results were highest in the multimedia-based training group (4.7 ± 3.3; p < 0.001). The practical training group achieved 2.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.028), whereas the combination training group achieved 4.6 ± 3.5 (p < 0.001), and the control group achieved 0.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.294). Multimedia-based training improved surgical performance significantly and thus could be considered a reasonable tool for inclusion in surgical curricula.
Graafland, Maurits; Bemelman, Willem A; Schijven, Marlies P
Equipment-related malfunctions during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are common and threaten patient safety. As they occur in the periphery of the surgeon's vision, the surgical team requires a high level of situational awareness in order to intercept these errors timely. A serious game has been developed to train surgical residents to deal with equipment-related errors. This study investigates to what extent surgical educators and trainees would accept a serious game as a training method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 45 surgeons, surgical residents, and medical students who played the serious game at a scientific convention. The questionnaire contained statements on perceived realism, usefulness, teaching capability, user experience and application toward surgical training. RESULTS were analyzed according to participants' MIS experience ("expert," "intermediate," and "novice"). The majority found that important medical constructs are represented realistically (64.4%-88.9%) and indicated the game to be particularly useful for training operating room nurses and surgical residents (75%-86%). Both educators and trainees found the game to be useful for surgical training (53%). Serious gaming was viewed as positive (78%) and challenging (60%), and 66% would play the game in their leisure time. Licensed surgeons perceived the game more frequently as boring than the intermediate-level and trainee groups (23.5% versus 6.7% and 8.3%; P=.045). This is the first study to show acceptance of a serious game as a training format in surgical training by educators and trainees. Future research should investigate whether the serious game indeed improves problem-solving and situational awareness in the operating room.
Sacks, Greg D; Shannon, Evan M; Dawes, Aaron J; Rollo, Johnathon C; Nguyen, David K; Russell, Marcia M; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda A
To define the target domains of culture-improvement interventions, to assess the impact of these interventions on surgical culture and to determine whether culture improvements lead to better patient outcomes and improved healthcare efficiency. Healthcare systems are investing considerable resources in improving workplace culture. It remains unclear whether these interventions, when aimed at surgical care, are successful and whether they are associated with changes in patient outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2015. We included studies on interventions that aimed to improve surgical culture, defined as the interpersonal, social and organisational factors that affect the healthcare environment and patient care. The quality of studies was assessed using an adapted tool to focus the review on higher-quality studies. Due to study heterogeneity, findings were narratively reviewed. The 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria (4 randomised trials and 10 moderate-quality observational studies) reported on interventions that targeted three domains of culture: teamwork (n=28), communication (n=26) and safety climate (n=19); several targeted more than one domain. All moderate-quality studies showed improvements in at least one of these domains. Two studies also demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes, such as reduced postoperative complications and even reduced postoperative mortality (absolute risk reduction 1.7%). Two studies reported improvements in healthcare efficiency, including fewer operating room delays. These findings were supported by similar results from low-quality studies. The literature provides promising evidence for various strategies to improve surgical culture, although these approaches differ in terms of the interventions employed as well as the techniques used to measure culture. Nevertheless, culture improvement appears to be associated with other positive effects, including
Despite advances in science and technology, the success rate for the treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in high-energy injuries remains disappointing. The blood supply system in the femoral head of humans does not favor recovery from these fractures. Once these fractures occur, osteonecrosis and nonunion rates may be as high as 30%, even if the newest technique is used. There are some surgical techniques used to supplement internal fixation to reestablish the blood supply in the femoral head, but none have been evidently successful. After analysis of related studies, the author concludes that immediate surgical treatment using improved techniques incorporating the principles of biomechanics can improve the success rate of treatment of these fractures. Using these principles, the fracture site can achieve sufficient stability. Consequently, the blood supply in the femoral head and neck can be reestablished earlier and loss of reduction of fragments during treatment can be minimized. Thus, the chance of full recovery from these complicated fractures can be maximized. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of these fractures and the principles associated with the surgical techniques used for treating them are reviewed and clarified. Finally, a surgical technique which is ideal from the author's viewpoint is presented. The author believes that the recommended surgical technique may become the best method for treating these complicated fractures.
Fallah, Parisa Nicole; Bernstein, Mark
Access to adequate surgical care is limited globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To address this issue, surgeons are becoming increasingly involved in international surgical teaching collaborations (ISTCs), which include educational partnerships between surgical teams in high-income countries and those in LMICs. The purpose of this study is to determine a framework for unifying, systematizing, and improving the quality of ISTCs so that they can better address the global surgical need. A convenience sample of 68 surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicians, residents, nurses, academics, and administrators from the U.S., Canada, and Norway was used for the study. Participants all had some involvement in ISTCs and came from multiple specialties and institutions. Qualitative methodology was used, and participants were interviewed using a pre-determined set of open-ended questions. Data was gathered over two months either in-person, over the phone, or on Skype. Data was evaluated using thematic content analysis. To organize and systematize ISTCs, participants reported a need for a centralized/systematized process with designated leaders, a universal data bank of current efforts/progress, communication amongst involved parties, full-time administrative staff, dedicated funds, a scholarly approach, increased use of technology, and more research on needs and outcomes. By taking steps towards unifying and systematizing ISTCs, the quality of ISTCs can be improved. This could lead to an advancement in efforts to increase access to surgical care worldwide.
Holland, Luke C; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Taggart, David P
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical therapy, does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes? A total of 528 papers were identified using the search protocol described, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There were 5 case series and 1 prospective cohort study. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 5 of the case series demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance or quality of life in patients undergoing surgical sympathectomy. An early case series investigating an open approach had a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the 4 other series used a minimally invasive technique and had low morbidity and zero perioperative mortality rates. The cohort study compared surgical sympathectomy with transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) and concluded TMR to be superior. However, this study looked only at unilateral sympathectomy, whereas all 5 case series focused on bilateral surgery. We conclude that the best currently available evidence does suggest that patients report an improvement in their symptoms and quality of life following surgical sympathectomy, but the low level of this evidence does not allow for a statistically proved recommendation.
Stewart, James; Billinghurst, Mark
Surgical navigation is typically shown on a computer display that is distant from the patient, making it difficult for the surgeon to watch the patient while performing a guided task. We investigate whether a light-weight, untracked, wearable display (such as Google Glass, which has the same size and weight as corrective glasses) can improve attentiveness to the surgical field in a simulated surgical task. Three displays were tested: a computer monitor; a peripheral display above the eye; and a through-the-lens display in front of the eye. Twelve subjects performed a task to position and orient a tracked tool on a plastic femur. Both wearable displays were tested on the dominant and non-dominant eyes of each subject. Attentiveness during the task was measured by the time taken to respond to randomly illuminated LEDs on the femur. Attentiveness was improved with the wearable displays at the cost of a decrease in accuracy. The through-the-lens display performed better than the peripheral display. The peripheral display performed better when on the dominant eye, while the through-the-lens display performed better when on the non-dominant eye. Attentiveness to the surgical field can be improved with the use of a light-weight, untracked, wearable display. A through-the-lens display performs better than a peripheral display, and both perform better than a computer monitor. Eye dominance should be considered when positioning the display.
Liu, Charles; Kayima, Peter; Riesel, Johanna; Situma, Martin; Chang, David; Firth, Paul
The lack of a classification system for surgical procedures in resource-limited settings hinders outcomes measurement and reporting. Existing procedure coding systems are prohibitively large and expensive to implement. We describe the creation and prospective validation of 3 brief procedure code lists applicable in low-resource settings, based on analysis of surgical procedures performed at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda's second largest public hospital. We reviewed operating room logbooks to identify all surgical operations performed at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital during 2014. Based on the documented indication for surgery and procedure(s) performed, we assigned each operation up to 4 procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. Coding of procedures was performed by 2 investigators, and a random 20% of procedures were coded by both investigators. These codes were aggregated to generate procedure code lists. During 2014, 6,464 surgical procedures were performed at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, to which we assigned 435 unique procedure codes. Substantial inter-rater reliability was achieved (κ = 0.7037). The 111 most common procedure codes accounted for 90% of all codes assigned, 180 accounted for 95%, and 278 accounted for 98%. We considered these sets of codes as 3 procedure code lists. In a prospective validation, we found that these lists described 83.2%, 89.2%, and 92.6% of surgical procedures performed at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital during August to September of 2015, respectively. Empirically generated brief procedure code lists based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification can be used to classify almost all surgical procedures performed at a Ugandan referral hospital. Such a standardized procedure coding system may enable better surgical data collection for administration, research, and quality improvement in resource
Nousiainen, Markku T; Latter, David A; Backstein, David; Webster, Fiona; Harris, Kenneth A
This paper examines current issues concerning surgical fellowship training in Canada. Other than information from a few studies of fellowship training in North America, there are scant data on this subject in the literature. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of those who pursue fellowship training in Canada, what the experiences and expectations are of fellows and their supervisors with respect to the strengths and weaknesses of this level of training, or how this level of education fits in with Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. We summarize current knowledge about fellowship training in Canada as it pertains to demographic characteristics, finances, work hours, residency training, preparation for clinical and research work and satisfaction with training. Most information on surgical fellowship training comes from the United States. As such, we used information from American studies to supplement the Canadian data. Because a surgical fellowship experience in Canada may be different from that in the United States, we propose that Canadian surgical fellows and their supervisors should be surveyed to gain an understanding of such information. This knowledge could be used to improve surgical fellowship training in Canada.
Nousiainen, Markku T.; Latter, David A.; Backstein, David; Webster, Fiona; Harris, Kenneth A.
This paper examines current issues concerning surgical fellowship training in Canada. Other than information from a few studies of fellowship training in North America, there are scant data on this subject in the literature. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of those who pursue fellowship training in Canada, what the experiences and expectations are of fellows and their supervisors with respect to the strengths and weaknesses of this level of training, or how this level of education fits in with Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. We summarize current knowledge about fellowship training in Canada as it pertains to demographic characteristics, finances, work hours, residency training, preparation for clinical and research work and satisfaction with training. Most information on surgical fellowship training comes from the United States. As such, we used information from American studies to supplement the Canadian data. Because a surgical fellowship experience in Canada may be different from that in the United States, we propose that Canadian surgical fellows and their supervisors should be surveyed to gain an understanding of such information. This knowledge could be used to improve surgical fellowship training in Canada. PMID:22269304
Bendix, Peter G; Anderson, Jamie E; Rose, John A; Noormahomed, Emilia V; Bickler, Stephen W
High disease burden and inadequate resources have formed the basis for advocacy to improve surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Current measures are heavily focused on availability of resources rather than impact and fail to fully describe how surgery can be more integrated into health systems. We propose a new monitoring and evaluation framework of surgical care in LMICs to integrate surgical diseases into broader health system considerations and track efforts toward improved population health. Although more discussion is required, we seek to broaden the dialogue of how to improve surgical care in LMICs through this comprehensive framework.
Sueda, Yamato; Hattori, Minoru; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Ueda, Jun; Tsuji, Toshio; Kurita, Yuichi
This paper reports experimental results on a surgical grasping forceps with a vibration actuator that enhances a tactile perception ability. A short-time exposure of tactile receptors to sub-sensory white-noise vibration is known to improve perception ability. This phenomenon, called stochastic resonance (SR) in the somatosensory system, is expected to enhance the sense of touch when the weak vibration is applied to a fingertip, and thereby improve associated motor skills. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator was attached on the grip of surgical grasping forceps. A passive sensory test has been conducted for healthy subjects to confirm the efficacy of the device. Statistical significance has been observed when appropriate noise is applied. To investigate the effect of the noise intensity, a summing network of FitzHugh-Nagumo model neurons was built. The simulation results showed that a network with relatively large units can improve the detection capability of the input signal.
Hughes, Duncan B; Perez, Edgar; Garcia, Ryan M; Aragón, Oriana R; Erdmann, Detlev
"Buried penis" is an increasing burden in our population with many possible etiologies. Although surgical correction of buried penis can be rewarding and successful for the surgeon, the psychological and functional impact of buried penis on the patient is less understood. The study's aim was to evaluate the sexual satisfaction and overall quality of life before and after buried penis surgery in a single-surgeon's patient population using a validated questionnaire (Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire short-form). Using Likert scales generated from the questionnaire and 1-tailed paired t test analysis, we found that there was significantly improved sexual function after correction of a buried penis. Variables individually showed that there was significant improvement with sexual pleasure, urinating, and with genital hygiene postoperatively. There were no significant differences concerning frequency of pain with orgasms. Surgical correction of buried penis significantly improves the functional, sexual, and psychological aspects of patient's lives.
Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Laustsen, Sussie
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step Questionnaire supported the improvements in health-related quality of life and self-esteem six months postsurgery. This study confirms positive effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Patients were to a greater extent self-satisfied about chest appearance following surgery, indicating this to be a step in the right direction toward improved body image, mental health and self-esteem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred; Mulier, Jan P; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Woo, Tiffany; Li, Michael K; Grobara, Peter; Assaid, Christopher A; Fennema, Hein; Szegedi, Armin
Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We further assessed whether use of low insufflation pressure improves patient pain scores after surgery. This randomized, controlled, blinded study (NCT01728584) compared use of deep (1-2 post-tetanic-counts) or moderate (train-of-four ratio 10%) NMB, and lower (8 mmHg) or higher (12 mmHg; 'standard') insufflation pressure in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Primary endpoint was surgeon's overall satisfaction with surgical conditions, rated at end of surgery using an 11-point numerical scale. Post-operative pain scores were also evaluated. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Of 127 randomized patients, 120 had evaluable data for the primary endpoint. Surgeon's score of overall satisfaction with surgical conditions was significantly higher with deep versus moderate NMB indicated by a least-square mean difference of 1.1 points (95% confidence interval 0.1-2.0; P = 0.026). Furthermore, strong evidence of an effect was observed for standard versus low pressure: least-square mean difference of 3.0 points (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.0; P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in average pain scores within 24 h post-surgery for low versus standard pressure [0.17 (95% confidence interval -0.67 to +0.33); P = 0.494]. Although associated with significantly improved surgical conditions, deep NMB alone was insufficient to promote use of low insufflation pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Furthermore, low insufflation pressure did not result in reduced pain, compared with standard pressure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01728584. Merck Sharp and Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra
To compare outcomes of our revision surgical operations in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) patients to results of conventional operative procedures at other institutions. We analyzed our OBPP data and identified 10 female and 10 male children aged 2.0 to 11.8 years (average age 6.5 years), who had prior conventional surgical therapies at other clinics. Of the 20 patients, 18 undergone triangle tilt, 2 had only mod Quad. Among 18 patients, 8 had only triangle tilt and 10 had also mod Quad as revision surgeries with us. We analyzed the anatomical improvements and functional modified Mallet statistically before and after a year post-revision operations. Pre-revision surgery average modified Mallet score was 12.0 ± 1.5. This functional score was greatly improved to 18 ± 2.3 (P < 0.0001) at least one-year after revision surgical procedures. Radiological scores (PHHA and glenoid version) were also improved significantly to 31.9 ± 13.6 (P < 0.001), -16.3 ± 11 (P < 0.0002), at least one-year after triangle tilt procedure. Their mean pre-triangle tilt (yet after other surgeon's surgeries) PHHA, glenoid version and SHEAR were 14.6 ± 21.7, -31.6 ± 19.3 and 16.1 ± 14.7 respectively. We demonstrate here, mod Quad and triangle tilt as successful revision surgical procedures in 20 OBPP patients, who had other surgical treatments at other clinics before presenting to us for further treatment.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra
AIM To compare outcomes of our revision surgical operations in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) patients to results of conventional operative procedures at other institutions. METHODS We analyzed our OBPP data and identified 10 female and 10 male children aged 2.0 to 11.8 years (average age 6.5 years), who had prior conventional surgical therapies at other clinics. Of the 20 patients, 18 undergone triangle tilt, 2 had only mod Quad. Among 18 patients, 8 had only triangle tilt and 10 had also mod Quad as revision surgeries with us. We analyzed the anatomical improvements and functional modified Mallet statistically before and after a year post-revision operations. RESULTS Pre-revision surgery average modified Mallet score was 12.0 ± 1.5. This functional score was greatly improved to 18 ± 2.3 (P < 0.0001) at least one-year after revision surgical procedures. Radiological scores (PHHA and glenoid version) were also improved significantly to 31.9 ± 13.6 (P < 0.001), -16.3 ± 11 (P < 0.0002), at least one-year after triangle tilt procedure. Their mean pre-triangle tilt (yet after other surgeon’s surgeries) PHHA, glenoid version and SHEAR were 14.6 ± 21.7, -31.6 ± 19.3 and 16.1 ± 14.7 respectively. CONCLUSION We demonstrate here, mod Quad and triangle tilt as successful revision surgical procedures in 20 OBPP patients, who had other surgical treatments at other clinics before presenting to us for further treatment. PMID:27900273
Smith, Paula J W; Wigmore, Stephen J; Paisley, Anna; Lamb, Peter; Richards, Jennifer M J; Robson, Andrew J; Revie, Erica; McKeown, Dermot; Dewhurst, David; Garden, O James
improve their chances of gaining a surgical training post, and 224 (90%) would recommend the programme to their peers. The online MSc programme supports academic development of trainees in the early years of surgical training, is well received by students, and is associated with improved success in their professional examination.
Roman, Cristina P; Poole, Susan G; Dooley, Michael J; Smit, De Villiers; Mitra, Biswadev
ED overcrowding has been associated with increased mortality, morbidity and delays to essential treatment. It was hypothesised that hospital-wide reforms designed to improve patient access and flow, in addition to improving ED overcrowding, would impact on clinically important processes within the ED, such as timely delivery of antibiotics. A single pre-implementation and post-implementation prospective cohort study was conducted prior to and after a hospital-wide reform (Timely Quality Care (TQC)). Among patients who had intravenous antibiotics prescribed in the ED, data were prospectively collected on times of presentation, prescription and administration of antibiotics. Demographics and discharge diagnoses were retrospectively extracted. There were 380 cases included with 179 cases prior to introduction of the TQC model and 201 cases after its introduction. Time from presentation to administration of antibiotics improved significantly from 192 (99-320) min to 142 (81-209) min (P < 0.01). The time from presentation to prescription pre-TQC and post-TQC was 120 (51-230) min and 92 (49-153) min, respectively (P < 0.01). The times from prescription to administration pre-TQC and post-TQC were 43 (20-83) min and 34 (15-66) min, respectively (P = 0.03). Following implementation of hospital-wide reform directed at mitigating ED overcrowding through improved access and flow, times to administration of antibiotics were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that improved quality of care in this area may be achieved with processes aimed at improved hospital access and flow. Ongoing evaluation and vigilance is necessary to ensure sustainability and drive further improvements. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D; Cao, Caroline G; Warshaw, Andrew L; Rattner, David W; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C; Jones, Daniel B; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W
To explore how the 2 most important components of surgical performance--speed and accuracy-are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music is on these factors. On the basis of a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon's life. Thirty-one surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to 4 simple standardized tasks to be performed on the SurgicalSIM VR laparoscopic simulator (Medical Education Technologies, Inc, Sarasota, FL), allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons' performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon's life. Further investigation is necessary to determine the
Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D.; Cao, Caroline G.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Rattner, David W.; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C.; Jones, Daniel B.; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W.
OBJECTIVE To explore how the two most important components of surgical performance - speed and accuracy - are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music on these factors is. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Based on a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning, and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon’s life. METHODS 31 surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to four simple standardized tasks to be performed on the Surgical SIM VR laparoscopic simulator, allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the Brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). RESULTS Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially, but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. CONCLUSION Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons’ performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon’s life. Further investigation is necessary to determine
Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary
Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls.
Hori, Kenta; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Nakamura, Takehiko; Takahashi, Takashi
For faultless collaboration among the surgeon, surgical staffs, and surgical robots in telesurgery, communication must include environmental information of the remote operating room, such as behavior of robots and staffs, vital information of a patient, named supporting information, in addition to view of surgical field. "Surgical Cockpit System, " which is a telesurgery support system that has been developed by the authors, is mainly focused on supporting information exchange between remote sites. Live video presentation is important technology for Surgical Cockpit System. Visualization method to give precise location/posture of surgical instruments is indispensable for accurate control and faultless operation. In this paper, the authors propose three-side-view presentation method for precise location/posture control of surgical instruments in telesurgery. The experimental results show that the proposed method improved accurate positioning of a telemanipulator.
Gilbert, Lindsey M; Sgro, Mario P; Modlin, Deah L; Wheat, Nathaniel J; Kallman, Mary J
These studies, ranging in duration from 3 to 8months, evaluated the patency and longevity of the intravenous (IV) self-administration surgical model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Surgeries were categorized and assessed based on the number of catheter and/or skin button repairs required per animal across four separate self-administration studies. Design improvements in skin button types and changes in surgical procedures were chronologically tracked and assessed. Animals were evaluated under a self-administration paradigm in which they were trained to respond for a food reward under a fixed ratio schedule (FR5 or FR10). Animals were then surgically prepared with a femoral catheter and skin button port. Following recovery, animals were returned to food-maintained responding for at least 5 sessions and subsequently trained to respond for injections of a reinforcing drug. Once drug training criteria was established, the effects of vehicle or varying doses of test articles were evaluated. Animals were tested in operant chambers one hour each day 5days a week and the length of each study was recorded. Differences in the number of repairs per study as well as the total number of repairs were tabulated. Study length was directly correlated to the mean number of repairs occurring per study, with study length increasing as the total number of repairs increased. The majority of repairs were skin button-related issues. Multiple combinations of skin button types and surgical techniques were implemented across time to evaluate model efficiency and decrease overall cycle time per study. Initial combinations produced a greater number of repairs on a per study basis. However, the skin button type and surgical technique combination that resulted in the fewest number of total repairs used a lateral incision with a dorsal biopsy punch. The combination of improvements in skin button type and surgical techniques drastically decreased the number of surgical repairs required per study
Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a lethal structural complication following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Surgical repair of VSR was first reported in 1957 by Cooley. Since then, many methods have been introduced, variously using right and/or left ventriculotomy. Daggett used infarctectomy and septal reconstruction via left ventriculotomy, reporting 52% operative mortality when repair was attempted within 21 days, but only 7% when done after 3 weeks. Komeda and David described single pericardial patch infarct exclusion without infarctectomy through a left ventriculotomy in 1990. It seemed conceptually simple, and became a standard technique. Modifications of that technique and development of other methods have been reported by many surgeons. Nonetheless, recent clinical outcomes of surgical repairs demonstrated operative mortality from 19 to 81%. Predictors for poor survival include cardiogenic shock, the need for repair within 7 days after AMI, posterior VSR and shunt recurrence. Reasons for poor outcomes after surgical repair of VSR include preoperative cardiogenic shock, the unclear boundary between infarction and viable myocardium in the acute phase, and frequent shunt recurrence. Surgical complications such as bleeding from an LV incision and low output syndrome are significant concerns as well. We propose that the fundamental requirements for VSR closure include a sufficiently large patch securely fixed on the LV side of the septum, minimal damage to LV function, and simplicity of technique. Our "extended sandwich patch technique" fulfills those requirements, and has yielded improved outcomes without shunt recurrence, even within 7 days following onset, and for posterior VSR.
Tong, Weidong; Wang, Li
The prevalence of chronic constipation is about 16% in adults, and increases with age, especially after 60 years old. Usually, surgical intervention is recommended to patients with long standing intractable constipation, who have undergone various conservative therapies. Lots of surgical procedures have been reported for different kinds of constipation, including slow transit, outlet obstruction, etc. For slow transit constipation, total or subtotal colectomy is commonly used. Merely for the internal rectal prolapse, at least 10 procedures are commonly adopted in clinic. However, no single procedure has been reached a consensus, not to mention the operative indication, principle of procedure selection and outcome assessment. Objectively, the surgical result of chronic constipation is far from perfect. Especially for outlet obstructive constipation, the satisfactory rate is only about 70%. How to enhance the surgical therapeutic effects should be expected on clinical and translation research. Fortunately, sacral neuromodulation therapy and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in managing refractory constipation have brought expected outcomes in recent years. Relationship between microbiota of the colonic mucosa and symptoms, and the sensory nerve regulatory mechanism have attracted much attention. We believe that more translational medicine results can be helpful in the future to improve the comprehensive efficacy of constipation.
Alamri, Yassar; Frizelle, Frank; Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Eglinton, Tim; Roberts, Ross
Poor documentation of medical notes and plans not only adversely affects patient management but also has medico-legal implications. A standardized ward round checklist (adhesive proforma sticker, PFS) was introduced at our institution in 2013 to improve documentation by junior doctors. We aimed to examine the current pattern of PFS documentation (2 years after its introduction) and to identify which fields, if any, have been the most problematic to complete. Notes of all current general surgical inpatients admitted to Christchurch Public Hospital on or before the two study days were reviewed. All information written in the PFS, regardless of accuracy, authorship or completeness, was recorded. Documentation of the various PFS fields was classified as well documented (completed in >80% of PFS), inadequate (40-80%) or minimal (<40%). Four hundred and seventy-nine PFS were reviewed. Most fields in the PFS were documented to an adequate level (i.e. >80%). Problematic fields identified were dietary plans, diagnosis, national health index number, estimated date of discharge and the patient's first name. Notes of patients on outlying ward contained significantly fewer PFS compared with home-ward patients' notes (0.71 PFS/day versus 1.21 PFS/day, respectively, P < 0.001). Our study has shown generally adequate patterns of medical note documentation in the General Surgery service. Certain fields remain challenging to document accurately. The proposed modified PFS was designed to help rectify this; electronic data record may be the step forward, however. It is hoped that other institutions in Australasia would benefit from our experience. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Raval, Mehul V; Dillon, Peter W; Bruny, Jennifer L; Ko, Clifford Y; Hall, Bruce L; Moss, R Lawrence; Oldham, Keith T; Richards, Karen E; Vinocur, Charles D; Ziegler, Moritz M
There has been a long-standing desire to implement a multi-institutional, multispecialty program to address surgical quality improvement for children. This report documents results of the initial phase of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric. From October 2008 to December 2009, patients from 4 pediatric referral centers were sampled using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program methodology tailored to children. A total of 7,287 patients were sampled, representing general/thoracic surgery (n = 2,237; 30.7%), otolaryngology (n = 1,687; 23.2%), orthopaedic surgery (n = 1,367; 18.8%), urology (n = 893; 12.3%), neurosurgery (n = 697; 9.6%), and plastic surgery (n = 406; 5.6%). Overall mortality rate detected was 0.3% and 287 (3.9%) patients had postoperative occurrences. After accounting for demographic, preoperative, and operative factors, occurrences were 4 times more likely in those undergoing inpatient versus outpatient procedures (odds ratio [OR] = 4.71; 95% CI, 3.01-7.35). Other factors associated with higher likelihood of postoperative occurrences included nutritional/immune history, such as preoperative weight loss/chronic steroid use (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.03-2.15), as well as physiologic compromise, such as sepsis/inotrope use before surgery (OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-1.95). Operative factors associated with occurrences included multiple procedures under the same anesthetic (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21-2.06) and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification category 4/5 versus 1 (OR = 5.74; 95% CI, 2.94-11.24). Specialty complication rates varied from 1.5% for otolaryngology to 9.0% for neurosurgery (p < 0.001), with specific procedural groupings within each specialty accounting for the majority of complications. Although infectious complications were the predominant outcomes identified across all specialties, distribution of complications varied by specialty. Based on this
Albareda, J; Clavel, D; Mahulea, C; Blanco, N; Ezquerra, L; Gómez, J; Silva, J M
The objective is to establish the duration of our interventions, intermediate times and surgical performance. This will create a virtual waiting list to apply a mathematical programme that performs programming with maximum performance. Retrospective review of 49 surgical sessions obtaining the delay in start time, intermediate time and surgical performance. Retrospective review of 4,045 interventions performed in the last 3 years to obtain the average duration of each type of surgery. Creation of a virtual waiting list of 700 patients in order to perform virtual programming through the MIQCP-P until achieving optimal performance. Our surgical performance with manual programming was 75.9%, ending 22.4% later than 3pm. The performance in the days without suspensions was 78.4%. The delay at start time was 9.7min. The optimum performance was 77.5% with a confidence of finishing before 15h of 80.6%. The waiting list has been scheduled in 254 sessions. Our manual surgical performance without suspensions (78.4%) was superior to the optimal (77.5%), generating days finished later than 3pm and suspensions. The possibilities for improvement are to achieve punctuality at the start time and adjust the schedule to the ideal performance. The virtual programming has allowed us to obtain our ideal performance and to establish the number of operating rooms necessary to solve the waiting list created. The data obtained in virtual mathematical programming are reliable enough to implement this model with guarantees. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Romano, Patrick S; Mull, Hillary J; Rivard, Peter E; Zhao, Shibei; Henderson, William G; Loveland, Susan; Tsilimingras, Dennis; Christiansen, Cindy L; Rosen, Amy K
To examine the criterion validity of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) using clinical data from the Veterans Health Administration (VA) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Fifty five thousand seven hundred and fifty two matched hospitalizations from 2001 VA inpatient surgical discharge data and NSQIP chart-abstracted data. We examined the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), and positive likelihood ratios of five surgical PSIs that corresponded to NSQIP adverse events. We created and tested alternative definitions of each PSI. FY01 inpatient discharge data were merged with 2001 NSQIP data abstracted from medical records for major noncardiac surgeries. Sensitivities were 19-56 percent for original PSI definitions; and 37-63 percent using alternative PSI definitions. PPVs were 22-74 percent and did not improve with modifications. Positive likelihood ratios were 65-524 using original definitions, and 64-744 using alternative definitions. "Postoperative respiratory failure" and "postoperative wound dehiscence" exhibited significant increases in sensitivity after modifications. PSI sensitivities and PPVs were moderate. For three of the five PSIs, AHRQ has incorporated our alternative, higher sensitivity definitions into current PSI algorithms. Further validation should be considered before most of the PSIs evaluated herein are used to publicly compare or reward hospital performance.
Beiles, C Barry; Retegan, Claudia; Maddern, Guy J
Improved outcomes are desirable results of clinical audit. The aim of this study was to use data from the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality (VASM) and the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) to highlight specific areas of clinical improvement and reduction in mortality over the duration of the audit process. This study used retrospective, observational data from VASM and VAED. VASM data were reported by participating public and private health services, the Coroner and self-reporting surgeons across Victoria. Aggregated VAED data were supplied by the Victorian Department of Health. Assessment of outcomes was performed using chi-squared trend analysis over successive annual audit periods. Because initial collection of data was incomplete in the recruitment phase, statistical analysis was confined to the last 3-year period, 2010-2013. A 20% reduction in surgical mortality over the past 5 years has been identified from the VAED data. Progressive increase in both surgeon and hospital participation, significant reduction in both errors in management as perceived by assessors and increased direct consultant involvement in cases returned to theatre have been documented. The benefits of VASM are reflected in the association with a reduction of mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, which have clinical and financial benefits. It is a purely educational exercise and continued participation in this audit will ensure the highest standards of surgical care in Australia. This also highlights the valuable collaboration between the Victorian Department of Health and the RACS. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Romano, Patrick S; Mull, Hillary J; Rivard, Peter E; Zhao, Shibei; Henderson, William G; Loveland, Susan; Tsilimingras, Dennis; Christiansen, Cindy L; Rosen, Amy K
Objectives To examine the criterion validity of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) using clinical data from the Veterans Health Administration (VA) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Data Sources Fifty five thousand seven hundred and fifty two matched hospitalizations from 2001 VA inpatient surgical discharge data and NSQIP chart-abstracted data. Study Design We examined the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), and positive likelihood ratios of five surgical PSIs that corresponded to NSQIP adverse events. We created and tested alternative definitions of each PSI. Data Collection FY01 inpatient discharge data were merged with 2001 NSQIP data abstracted from medical records for major noncardiac surgeries. Principal Findings Sensitivities were 19–56 percent for original PSI definitions; and 37–63 percent using alternative PSI definitions. PPVs were 22–74 percent and did not improve with modifications. Positive likelihood ratios were 65–524 using original definitions, and 64–744 using alternative definitions. “Postoperative respiratory failure” and “postoperative wound dehiscence” exhibited significant increases in sensitivity after modifications. Conclusions PSI sensitivities and PPVs were moderate. For three of the five PSIs, AHRQ has incorporated our alternative, higher sensitivity definitions into current PSI algorithms. Further validation should be considered before most of the PSIs evaluated herein are used to publicly compare or reward hospital performance. PMID:18823449
Moon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Chun-Kee; Shin, Jung-won; Moon, Jangsup; Kang, Bong Su; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Jung, Ki-Young; Cho, Yong Won; Lee, Sang Kun
Background and Purpose It is crucial to make selection strategy to identify surgical candidates among medically refractory MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients. In our previous study, we suggested two or more concordance between noninvasive studies (EEG, ictal scalp EEG, interictal FDG-PET, and SPECT) as a new patient selection strategy for MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients before and after the implementation of a new selection strategy. Methods From 1995 to 2011, we included 153 consecutive MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients who received focal resection and had a follow-up period of at least 2 years. These patients were divided into two groups according to their date of surgery (before and after July 2002). The old group consisted of 89 patients and the new one consisted of 53 patients. Clinical characteristics, presurgical evaluations, and pathology were reviewed. Results The new patient selection strategy led to a significant increase in the concordance between two or more modalities. The improvement in surgical outcome after 2002 was significant (seizure-free outcome, 47.2% vs. 75.5%; p = 0.001). Concordance between two or more presurgical evaluations and localizing PET were related to a seizure-free outcome in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions After a change in surgical strategy to select patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies, the seizure-free outcome improved up to 75.5%. MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies seem to be good candidates for epilepsy surgery. PMID:28101477
Phruetthiphat, Ong-Art; Gao, Yubo; Anthony, Chris A; Pugely, Andrew J; Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J
Total joint arthroplasty is a proven treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee and hip that has failed conservative treatment. While most of total joint arthroplasty is considered elective with surgery on the day of admission, a small subset of patients may require delay in surgery past the day of admission. Recently, surgical delay for primary total knee arthroplasty has been identified. However, the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for delay in surgery before total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been previously defined. In patients undergoing THA, we sought to define (1) the incidence of and risk factors for delay in surgery, (2) the postoperative complications between surgical delay and no surgical delay cohorts, and (3) association of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in patients with delay of surgery. We retrospectively queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database using Current Procedural Terminology billing codes and identified 7890 THAs performed between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis were then used to identify risk factors for surgical delay. Correlation between CCI and surgical delay in THA was evaluated. One-hundred seventy-nine patients (2.31%) were identified as experiencing a surgical delay before THA. Multivariate analysis identified congestive heart failure (CHF) (P = .0038), bleeding disorder (P < .0001), sepsis (P < .0001), prior operation in past 30 days (P = .0001), dependent functional status (P < .0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 (P = .0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 4 (P = .0023), significant weight loss (P = .0109), and hematocrit <38% (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for delay in surgery. Compared with the nondelay cohort, those experiencing surgical delay before THA had higher rates of postoperative surgical (8.9% vs 3.1%, P < .0001) and medical complications (23.5% vs 10.1%, P < .0001). Mean CCI was higher
Waterman, Brian R; Martin, Kevin D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Owens, Brett D; Belmont, Philip J
Although virtual reality simulators have established construct validity, no studies have proven transfer of skills from a simulator to improved in vivo surgical skill. The current authors hypothesized that simulation training would improve residents' basic arthroscopic performance and safety. Twenty-two orthopedic surgery trainees were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. At baseline testing, all of the participants performed simulator-based testing and a supervised, in vivo diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy with video recording. The simulation group subsequently received 1 hour of total instruction during a 3-month period, and the standard practice group received no simulator training. After intervention, both groups were reevaluated with simulator testing and a second recorded diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy. Two blinded, independent experts evaluated arthroscopic performance using the anatomic checklist, Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET) score, and total elapsed time. All outcome measures were compared within and between groups. After intervention, mean time required by the simulation group to complete the simulator task (30.64 seconds) was 8±1.2 seconds faster than the time required by the control group (38.64 seconds; P=.001). Probe distance (51.65 mm) was improved by 41.2±6.08 mm compared with the control (92.83 mm; P=.001). When comparing ASSET safety scores, the simulation group was competent (3.29) and significantly better than the control group (3.00; P=.005) during final arthroscopic testing. This study establishes transfer validity for an arthroscopic shoulder simulator model. Simulator training for residents in training can decrease surgical times, improve basic surgical skills, and confer greater patient safety during shoulder arthroscopy. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e479-e485.].
Hoang, Tuan N; Kang, Jeff; Siriratsivawong, Kris; LaPorta, Anthony; Heck, Amber; Ferraro, Jessica; Robinson, Douglas; Walsh, Jonathan
The high-stress, fast-paced environment of combat casualty care relies on effective teamwork and communication which translates into quality patient care. A training course was developed for U.S. Navy Fleet Surgical Teams to address these aspects of patient care by emphasizing efficiency and appropriate patient care. An effective training course provides knowledge and skills to pass the course evaluation and sustain the knowledge and skills acquired over time. The course included classroom didactic hours, and hands-on simulation sessions. A pretest was administered before the course, a posttest upon completion, and a sustainment test 5 months following course completion. The evaluation process measured changes in patient time to disposition and critical errors made during patient care. Naval Base San Diego, with resuscitation and surgical simulations carried out within the shipboard medical spaces. United States Navy medical personnel including physicians of various specialties, corpsmen, nurses, and nurse anesthetists deploying aboard ships. Time to disposition improved significantly, 11 ± 3 minutes, from pretest to posttest, and critical errors improved by 4 ± 1 errors per encounter. From posttest to sustainment test, time to disposition increased by 3 ± 1, and critical errors decreased by 1 ± 1. This course showed value in improving teamwork and communication skills of participants, immediately upon completion of the course, and after 5 months had passed. Therefore, with ongoing sustainment activities within 6 months, this course can substantially improve trauma care provided by shipboard deployed Navy medical personnel to wounded service members. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ji, Tao; Eskander, Ramez; Wang, Yifei; Sun, Kunkun; Hoang, Bang H; Guo, Wei
The evaluation, counseling, and management of gynecologic patients with bone metastasis remain a challenge for clinicians. In order to critically evaluate the role of surgery, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 18 patients surgically treated for metastatic gynecologic tumors of bone, focusing on quality of life, local tumor control, and survival. Eighteen patients underwent surgical procedures for the treatment of bone metastases secondary to gynecologic cancer between September 2003 and April 2012. The primary cancer sites included the uterus (n = 10), the cervix (n = 5), and an ovary (n = 3). Patients were followed for an average period of 13.8 months (range, 2 to 34 months). A visual analog pain scale (VAS) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status were evaluated both pre- and postoperatively. The median survival time following diagnosis of bone metastasis was 10.0 months. The mean VAS score was 5.8 preoperatively compared with 2.1, 3 months after surgery. The mean pre and postoperative ECOG performance status grades were 3.1 and 2.3, respectively. The prognosis of gynecological cancer patients with bone metastasis is poor. Some patients had improvement in their quality of life after surgical intervention for bone metastases; however, novel integrated treatment modalities should be investigated.
Jones, Daniel B; Sung, Robert; Weinberg, Crispin; Korelitz, Theodore; Andrews, Robert
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been used in the manufacturing industry for rapid prototyping and product testing. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of creating anatomical 3D models from a digital image using 3D printers. Furthermore, we sought face validity of models and explored potential opportunities for using 3D printing to enhance surgical education and clinical practice. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images were reviewed, converted to computer models, and printed by stereolithography to create near exact replicas of human organs. Medical students and surgeons provided feedback via survey at the 2014 Surgical Education Week conference. There were 51 respondents, and 95.8% wanted these models for their patients. Cost was a concern, but 82.6% found value in these models at a price less than $500. All respondents thought the models would be useful for integration into the medical school curriculum. Three-dimensional printing is a potentially disruptive technology to improve both surgical education and clinical practice. As the technology matures and cost decreases, we envision 3D models being increasingly used in surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mishra, Kapil; Mathai, Mariam; Della Rocca, Robert C; Reddy, Harsha S
To develop a new oculoplastic curriculum that incorporates learning theory of skill acquisition. To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of instructional videos for an oculoplastic surgical wet laboratory. Proof of concept, randomized controlled trial. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai-tertiary care academic institution. In total, 16 ophthalmology residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and given either video and text or text instructions alone for the following 2 procedures: blepharoplasty and eyelid laceration repair. Operating time and esthetic result were measured, and the groups were statistically compared. A brief survey was administered. We developed a new 6 component oculoplastics curriculum that incorporates concepts of the Fitts and Posner skill acquisition model and mental imagery. In the wet laboratory pilot study, the group that watched the video of the laceration repair showed better esthetic grades than the group that received text alone (p = 0.038). This difference was not found for the blepharoplasty (p = 0.492). There was no difference between groups in operating time for the laceration repair (p = 0.722), but the group that watched the blepharoplasty video required more time to complete the task than those that reviewed text only (p = 0.023). In total, 100% of residents reported the videos augmented their learning. Methods to optimize surgical education are important given limited operating room time in oculoplastics, a subspecialty in which the number of surgeries performed during residency is relatively low. We developed a curriculum based on learning theory and sought to formally test one important aspect, surgical video for wet laboratories. Our pilot study, despite its limitations, showed that wet laboratory surgical videos can be effective tools in improving motor skill acquisition for oculoplastic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, P J; Allcutt, D A; Bates, D; Crawford, P J
A case of cauda equina syndrome with multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is described. The value of computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive means of establishing the diagnosis is emphasised. In contrast to previously reported cases the patient showed neurological improvement following surgical therapy. Surgery may be indicated in some patients, particularly when there is nerve root compression by the arachnoid cysts and when the patient is seen early before irreversible damage to the cauda equina has occurred. Images PMID:2292702
Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia; Izatt, Joseph A.
Ophthalmic surgeons manipulate micron-scale tissues using stereopsis through an operating microscope and instrument shadowing for depth perception. While ophthalmic microsurgery has benefitted from rapid advances in instrumentation and techniques, the basic principles of the stereo operating microscope have not changed since the 1930's. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic imaging and is now the gold standard for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of most retinal and many corneal procedures. We and others have developed initial microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) systems for concurrent OCT and operating microscope imaging, but these are limited to 2D real-time imaging and require offline post-processing for 3D rendering and visualization. Our previously presented 4D MIOCT system can record and display the 3D surgical field stereoscopically through the microscope oculars using a dual-channel heads-up display (HUD) at up to 10 micron-scale volumes per second. In this work, we show that 4D MIOCT guidance improves the accuracy of depth-based microsurgical maneuvers (with statistical significance) in mock surgery trials in a wet lab environment. Additionally, 4D MIOCT was successfully performed in 38/45 (84%) posterior and 14/14 (100%) anterior eye human surgeries, and revealed previously unrecognized lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope. These lesions, such as residual and potentially damaging retinal deformation during pathologic membrane peeling, were visualized in real-time by the surgeon. Our integrated system provides an enhanced 4D surgical visualization platform that can improve current ophthalmic surgical practice and may help develop and refine future microsurgical techniques.
Schenker, Yael; Fernandez, Alicia; Sudore, Rebecca; Schillinger, Dean
Background Patient understanding in clinical informed consent is often poor. Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve comprehension or the extent to which such interventions address different elements of understanding in informed consent. Purpose To systematically review communication interventions to improve patient comprehension in informed consent for medical and surgical procedures. Data Sources A systematic literature search of English-language articles in MEDLINE (1949–2008) and EMBASE (1974–2008) was performed. In addition, a published bibliography of empirical research on informed consent and the reference lists of all eligible studies were reviewed. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials with non-random allocation were included if they compared comprehension in informed consent for a medical or surgical procedure. Only studies that used a quantitative, objective measure of understanding were included. All studies addressed informed consent for a needed or recommended procedure in actual patients. Data Extraction Reviewers independently extracted data using a standardized form. All results were compared, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis Forty-four studies were eligible. Intervention categories included written information, audiovisual/multimedia, extended discussions, and test/feedback techniques. The majority of studies assessed patient understanding of procedural risks; other elements included benefits, alternatives, and general knowledge about the procedure. Only 6 of 44 studies assessed all 4 elements of understanding. Interventions were generally effective in improving patient comprehension, especially regarding risks and general knowledge. Limitations Many studies failed to include adequate description of the study population, and outcome measures varied widely. Conclusions A wide range of communication interventions improve comprehension in clinical informed
Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Hartman, Cory; Hooten, Kristopher; Cutler, Andrew; Blackburn, Spiros
Although angiography does not generally lead to increased clinically significant neurologic deficits, it has been reported that angiography for spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) can lead to acute neurologic decline. This has been rarely reported, and outcome after decline and the subsequent intervention performed have not been clarified. We describe a patient with SDAVF who experienced acute neurologic decline shortly after spinal angiography. Acute surgical treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms. A 70-year-old woman presented following 5 months of progressive numbness and weakness in her lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed thoracic spinal cord edema. Spinal angiography revealed a type 1 SDAVF. Several hours after spinal angiography, the patient's lower extremity motor strength declined significantly. This neurologic change led to emergent surgical intervention and ligation of the SDAVF. The patient's neurologic decline subsequently improved and ultimately resolved completely. Although acute worsening of neurologic deficits is a rare complication following angiography of SDAVFs, the reversibility of these deficits by emergent intervention argues for careful surveillance after angiography with protocols in place to rapidly intervene if needed. Warming and diluting the contrast agent should be considered to reduce contrast viscosity, a potential aggravating factor to the venous congestion of spinal fistulas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weston, Adam; Caldera, Kathleen; Doron, Shira
The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) started in 2006 as a core measure to reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality, with many measures addressing perioperative antibiotic usage and timing. However, measures are often rolled out without consideration of their full impact, causing confusion, frustration, and possibly patient harm. We have provided examples of each. The institution of SCIP has markedly increased the compliance to its measures but little evidence shows that it provides any substantial benefit to patients, whereas this improved compliance comes at the cost of significant time, money, and staff resources. Despite this, several SCIP measures, which are currently incorporated into quality contracts, will be tied to Medicare reimbursement in 2013 under value-based purchasing, with third-party payers likely following suit. This may lead to inappropriate lower compensation of hospitals providing good care with questionable effects on patient outcomes. PMID:23143099
Flores, Leandro Pretto
The study aims to demonstrate the techniques employed in surgery of the brachial plexus that are associated to evidence-based improvement of the functional outcome of these patients. A retrospective study of one hundred cases of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Comparison between the postoperative outcomes associated to some different surgical techniques was demonstrated. The technique of proximal nerve roots grafting was associated to good results in about 70% of the cases. Significantly better outcomes were associated to the Oberlin's procedure and the Sansak's procedure, while the improvement of outcomes associated to phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve and the accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer did not reach statistical significance. Reinnervation of the hand was observed in less than 30% of the cases. Brachial plexus surgery renders satisfactory results for reinnervation of the proximal musculature of the upper limb, however the same good outcomes are not usually associated to the reinnervation of the hand.
Nicolay, C R; Purkayastha, S; Greenhalgh, A; Benn, J; Chaturvedi, S; Phillips, N; Darzi, A
The demand for the highest-quality patient care coupled with pressure on funding has led to the increasing use of quality improvement (QI) methodologies from the manufacturing industry. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the application and effectiveness of these QI methodologies to the field of surgery. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Health Business(™) Elite, the Health Management Information Consortium and PsycINFO(®) were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Empirical studies were included that implemented a described QI methodology to surgical care and analysed a named outcome statistically. Some 34 of 1595 articles identified met the inclusion criteria after consensus from two independent investigators. Nine studies described continuous quality improvement (CQI), five Six Sigma, five total quality management (TQM), five plan-do-study-act (PDSA) or plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycles, five statistical process control (SPC) or statistical quality control (SQC), four Lean and one Lean Six Sigma; 20 of the studies were undertaken in the USA. The most common aims were to reduce complications or improve outcomes (11), to reduce infection (7), and to reduce theatre delays (7). There was one randomized controlled trial. QI methodologies from industry can have significant effects on improving surgical care, from reducing infection rates to increasing operating room efficiency. The evidence is generally of suboptimal quality, and rigorous randomized multicentre studies are needed to bring evidence-based management into the same league as evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mei, Feng; Yili, Fu; Bo, Pan; Xudong, Zhao
In order to enhance the dexterity of surgical instruments in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery, the robot is generally configured so as to have a wrist. However, this configuration has a problem in that there is a coupling of the motions of the wrist and the end-effector. In this paper an improved surgical instrument is proposed that eliminates the coupled motion using a compensation mechanism. The design concept behind the compensation mechanism can be applied to other types of surgical instruments. The performance of the proposed surgical instrument is validated by mechanical performance testing and animal experiments, which indicate that the problem of the coupled motion is successfully solved and the instrument is able to perform surgical tasks.
Agha, Riaz A; Barai, Ishani; Rajmohan, Shivanchan; Lee, Seon; Anwar, Mohammed O; Fowler, Alexander J; Orgill, Dennis P; Altman, Douglas G
Evidence-based medicine works best if the evidence is reported well. Past studies have shown reporting quality to be lacking in the field of surgery. Reporting guidelines are an important tool for authors to optimize the reporting of their research. The objective of this study was to analyse the frequency and strength of recommendation for such reporting guidelines within surgical journals. A systematic review of the 198 journals within the Journal Citation Report 2014 (surgery category) published by Thomson Reuters was undertaken. The online guide for authors for each journal was screened by two independent groups and results compared. Data regarding the presence and strength of recommendation to use reporting guidelines was extracted. 193 journals were included (as five appeared twice having changed their name). These had a median impact factor of 1.526 (range 0.047-8.327), with a median of 145 articles published per journal (range 29-659), with 34,036 articles published in total over the two-year window 2012-2013. The majority (62%) of surgical journals made no mention of reporting guidelines within their guidelines for authors. Of the 73 (38%) that did mention them, only 14% (10/73) required the use of all relevant reporting guidelines. The most frequently mentioned reporting guideline was CONSORT (46 journals). The mention of reporting guidelines within the guide for authors of surgical journals needs improvement. Authors, reviewers and editors should work to ensure that research is reported in line with the relevant reporting guidelines. Journals should consider hard-wiring adherence to them. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chekan, Edward; Whelan, Richard L
The introduction of both new surgical devices and reengineered existing devices leads to modifications in the way traditional tasks are carried out and allows for the development of new surgical techniques. Each new device has benefits and limitations in regards to tissue interactions that, if known, allow for optimal use. However, most surgeons are unaware of these attributes and, therefore, new device introduction creates a “knowledge gap” that is potentially dangerous. The goal of this review is to present a framework for the study of device– tissue interactions and to initiate the process of “filling in” the knowledge gap via the available literature. Surgical staplers, which are continually being developed, are the focus of this piece. The integrity of the staple line, which depends on adequate tissue compression, is the primary factor in creating a stable anastomosis. This review focuses on published studies that evaluated the creation of stable anastomoses in bariatric, thoracic, and colorectal procedures. Understanding how staplers interact with target tissues is key to improving patient outcomes. It is clear from this review that each tissue type presents unique challenges. The thickness of each tissue varies as do the intrinsic biomechanical properties that determine the ideal compressive force and prefiring compression time for each tissue type. The correct staple height will vary depending on these tissue-specific properties and the tissue pathology. These studies reinforce the universal theme that compression, staple height, tissue thickness, tissue compressibility, and tissue type must all be considered by the surgeon prior to choosing a stapler and cartridge. The surgeon’s experience, therefore, is a critical factor. Educational programs need to be established to inform and update surgeons on the characteristics of each stapler. It is hoped that the framework presented in this review will facilitate this process. PMID:25246812
Yule, Steven; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Wilkinson, Jill; McKinley, Aileen; MacDonald, Jamie; Neill, Adrian; McAdam, Tim
To investigate the effect of coaching on non-technical skills and performance during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated operating room (OR). Non-technical skills (situation awareness, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) underpin technical ability and are critical to the success of operations and the safety of patients in the OR. The rate of developing assessment tools in this area has outpaced development of workable interventions to improve non-technical skills in surgical training and beyond. A randomized trial was conducted with senior surgical residents (n = 16). Participants were randomized to receive either non-technical skills coaching (intervention) or to self-reflect (control) after each of 5 simulated operations. Coaching was based on the Non-Technical Skills For Surgeons (NOTSS) behavior observation system. Surgeon-coaches trained in this method coached participants in the intervention group for 10 minutes after each simulation. Primary outcome measure was non-technical skills, assessed from video by a surgeon using the NOTSS system. Secondary outcomes were time to call for help during bleeding, operative time, and path length of laparoscopic instruments. Non-technical skills improved in the intervention group from scenario 1 to scenario 5 compared with those in the control group (p = 0.04). The intervention group was faster to call for help when faced with unstoppable bleeding in the final scenario (no. 5; p = 0.03). Coaching improved residents' non-technical skills in the simulated OR compared with those in the control group. Important next steps are to implement non-technical skills coaching in the real OR and assess effect on clinically important process measures and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Tao; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Qiudian; Tong, Yawei; Wang, Hecheng; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Lunxu; Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Yang; Fan, Dongsheng; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yinglan; Xiao, Weizhong; Guo, Xiangyang; Chui, Dehua
Surgical stress induced depression and anxiety like behavior are common complications among aged individuals suffering from surgery. Recent studies proposed that accumulation of oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of stress induced depression and anxiety. Dapsone possesses antioxidant properties, however, whether dapsone is effective in modulating surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage remains uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dapsone on surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior, and brain oxidative stress in a well-established surgical stress model. Depressive and anxiety like behavior accompanied by elevated brain oxidative stress were observed in aged mice underwent abdominal surgery. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg dapsone significantly improved the behavioral disorder and ameliorated brain oxidative stress in this model. Further investigation, revealed that surgical stress increased brain NADPH oxidase level, while pretreatment with dapsone abrogated the elevation of NADPH oxidase triggered by surgical stress. These findings suggest that dapsone is effective in improving surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage via down-regulating NADPH oxidase level in aged mice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Lee, Erica H; Nehal, Kishwer S
Determining the biopsy site location of a skin cancer before treatment is often challenging. To study the implementation and effectiveness of biopsy site selfies as a quality improvement measure for correct surgical site identification. In the first phase, the ability of dermatologic surgeon and patient to definitively identify the biopsy site and whether photography was needed to ensure site agreement were recorded. In the second phase, patients were requested to take biopsy site selfies, and after implementation, similar data were collected including whether a biopsy site selfie was helpful for definitive site identification. In the first phase, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.6% (49/278) and 25.5% (71/278) of cases, respectively. A photograph was needed in 22.7% of cases (63/278). After implementation of biopsy site selfies, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.4% (23/132) and 15.2% (20/132) of cases, respectively. Biopsy site selfies were available for 64.1% of cases for which no internal image was available and critical for site identification in 21.4% of these cases. Biopsy site selfies has proven to be helpful for correct surgical site identification by both the physician and the patient and may also provide further reassurance and confidence for patients.
Sedlack, Jeffrey D
Surgeons have been slow to incorporate industrial reliability techniques. Process control methods were applied to surgeon waiting time between cases, and to length of stay (LOS) after colon surgery. Waiting times between surgeries were evaluated by auditing the operating room records of a single hospital over a 1-month period. The medical records of 628 patients undergoing colon surgery over a 5-year period were reviewed. The average surgeon wait time between cases was 53 min, and the busiest surgeon spent 291/2 hr in 1 month waiting between surgeries. Process control charting demonstrated poor overall control of the room turnover process. Average LOS after colon resection also demonstrated very poor control. Mean LOS was 10 days. Weibull's conditional analysis revealed a conditional LOS of 9.83 days. Serious process management problems were identified in both analyses. These process issues are both expensive and adversely affect the quality of service offered by the institution. Process control mechanisms were suggested or implemented to improve these surgical processes. Industrial reliability and quality management tools can easily and effectively identify process control problems that occur on surgical services.
Park, Hyojun; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, BoKyong; Lim, Do Hoon; Choi, Yoon-La; Choi, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Park, Jae Berm; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung Joo
Abstract Given that retroperitoneal liposarcoma (LPS) is extremely difficult to completely resect, and has a relatively high rate of recurrence, radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice after surgical resection. However, it is difficult to obtain a sufficient radiation field because of the close proximity of surrounding organs. We introduce the use of tissue expanders (TEs) after LPS resection in an attempt to secure a sufficient radiation field and to improve recurrence-free survival. This study is a retrospective review of 53 patients who underwent surgical resection of LPS at Samsung Medical Center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and had no residual tumor detected 2 months postoperatively. The median follow-up period was 38.9 months. Patients were divided into 3 groups. Those in group 1 (n = 17) had TE inserted and received postoperative RT. The patients in group 2 (n = 9) did not have TE inserted and received postoperative RT. Finally, those in group 3 (n = 27) did not receive postoperative RT. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with recurrence-free survival within 3 years. Younger age, history of LPS treatment, and RT after TE insertion (group 1 vs group 2 or 3) were significantly favorable factors influencing 3-year recurrence-free survival. TE insertion after LPS resection is associated with increased 3-year recurrence-free survival, most likely because it allows effective delivery of postoperative RT. PMID:27512857
Schwartz, H C
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery using computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS), with cases planned using traditional methods. Total doctor time was used to measure efficiency. While costs vary widely in different localities and in different health schemes, time is a valuable and limited resource everywhere. For this reason, total doctor time is a more useful measure of efficiency than is cost. Even though we use CASS primarily for planning more complex cases at the present time, this study showed an average saving of 60min for each case. In the context of a department that performs 200 bimaxillary cases each year, this would represent a saving of 25 days of doctor time, if applied to every case. It is concluded that CASS offers great potential for improving efficiency when used in the planning of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. It saves significant doctor time that can be applied to additional surgical work. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Hyojun; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, BoKyong; Lim, Do Hoon; Choi, Yoon-La; Choi, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Park, Jae Berm; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung Joo
Given that retroperitoneal liposarcoma (LPS) is extremely difficult to completely resect, and has a relatively high rate of recurrence, radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice after surgical resection. However, it is difficult to obtain a sufficient radiation field because of the close proximity of surrounding organs. We introduce the use of tissue expanders (TEs) after LPS resection in an attempt to secure a sufficient radiation field and to improve recurrence-free survival.This study is a retrospective review of 53 patients who underwent surgical resection of LPS at Samsung Medical Center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and had no residual tumor detected 2 months postoperatively. The median follow-up period was 38.9 months.Patients were divided into 3 groups. Those in group 1 (n = 17) had TE inserted and received postoperative RT. The patients in group 2 (n = 9) did not have TE inserted and received postoperative RT. Finally, those in group 3 (n = 27) did not receive postoperative RT. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with recurrence-free survival within 3 years. Younger age, history of LPS treatment, and RT after TE insertion (group 1 vs group 2 or 3) were significantly favorable factors influencing 3-year recurrence-free survival.TE insertion after LPS resection is associated with increased 3-year recurrence-free survival, most likely because it allows effective delivery of postoperative RT.
Hu, Pao-Hsueh; Hu, Hsiao-Chen; Huang, Hui-Ju; Chao, Hui-Lin; Lei, Ei-Fang
Because surgical pathology specimens are crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of disease, it is critical that they be collected and transported safely and securely. Due to recent near-miss events in our department, we used the healthcare failure model and effect analysis to identify 14 potential perils in the specimen collection and transportation process. Improvement and prevention strategies were developed accordingly to improve quality of care. Using health care failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) may improve the surgical specimen transportation process and reduce the rate of surgical specimen rejection. Rectify standard operating procedures for surgical pathology specimen collection and transportation. Create educational videos and posters. Rectify methods of specimen verification. Organize and create an online and instantaneous management system for specimen tracking and specimen rejection. Implementation of the new surgical specimen transportation process effectively eliminated the 14 identified potential perils. In addition, the specimen rejection fell from 0.86% to 0.03%. This project was applied to improve the specimen transportation process, enhance interdisciplinary cooperation, and improve the patient-centered healthcare system. The creation and implementation of an online information system significantly facilitates specimen tracking, hospital cost reductions, and patient safety improvements. The success in our department is currently being replicated across all departments in our hospital that transport specimens. Our experience and strategy may be applied to inter-hospital specimen transportation in the future.
Málek, J; Simánková, E; Jandová, J; Broz, L
The objectives of this open-perspective clinical study were to test the effect of a new type of anaesthesia using sevofluran during surgical treatment of patients with burns, and to compare it with that of ketamin, at present the most frequently used anaesthetic. The study, conceived as a pilot study, was performed on 10 paediatric and 8 adult patients with 2nd degree burns covering between 7% and 35% of body surface. Owing to highly significant differences in parameters in favour of sevofluran, it was recommended by our ethical committee not to increase the number of patients. The parameters considered were ease of induction, undesirable effects, span of time before oral administration of liquids. Daily uptake of energy was measured for both types of anaesthetics in another group of 10 patients. In adult patients the two anaesthetics, ketamin versus sevofluran, differed in terms of incidence of unrest during surgery (ketamin 50% vs. sevofluran 0%, p < 0.05), time between end of surgery and return to full consciousness (11.3 min. vs. 2.7 min. p < 0.001), post-surgical inhibition (75% vs. 0%, p < 0.01) psychomimetic reactions after surgery (50% vs. 0%, p < 0.05), time until first intake of liquids (86.7 min. vs. 8.5 min, p < 0.001), and mobilisation (110.8 min. vs. 17 min., p < 0.001). In paedriatic patients, differences in speed of onset of anaesthesia (216 sec. vs. 66 sec., p < 0.001) and time until first uptake of liquids (75 min. vs. 22 min., p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Apart from problems associated with anesthesia, another considerable advantage of the new anaesthetic sevofluran was a significantly increased uptake of calories after use than was the case after ketamin (1645 kJ higher on the average, p < 0.05). Based on these results, sevofluran was introduced to burns surgery as a routine anaesthetic.
Macpherson, Laura; Collins, Maggie
, Asia and the Middle East. THET argues that these initiatives are both responsible and effective. The four partnerships featured in this paper have demonstrated not only their effectiveness in increasing health worker skills and knowledge, but have done so across a variety of surgical and anaesthesia disciplines and within different contexts. This wide reach and applicability of partnership initiatives adds even greater value to their use as responsible training interventions. One challenge that has faced these partnerships has been the capture of improvements to patient outcomes as a result of improved practice. To counteract the problems of data collection, partnerships are collecting anecdotal evidence of improvements at the patient outcome level. The interventions supported by THET have been able to demonstrate success in improving health worker skills and knowledge, and albeit to a lesser extent, in improving patient outcomes. The implementing partners are achieving these successes by training responsibly: responding to locally identified need, implementing projects that are appropriate to the local context and are of high quality, and establishing mechanisms that ensure self-sufficiency of the health worker training and education that is delivered. Greater investment in responsible training initiatives such as these are required to address the significant lack of access to appropriate and safe surgical and anaesthesia interventions when needed and the growing burden of disease. © The Author(s) 2016.
Van Houdenhoven, Mark; van Oostrum, Jeroen M; Hans, Erwin W; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, Geert
An operating room (OR) department has adopted an efficient business model and subsequently investigated how efficiency could be further improved. The aim of this study is to show the efficiency improvement of lowering organizational barriers and applying advanced mathematical techniques. We applied advanced mathematical algorithms in combination with scenarios that model relaxation of various organizational barriers using prospectively collected data. The setting is the main inpatient OR department of a university hospital, which sets its surgical case schedules 2 wk in advance using a block planning method. The main outcome measures are the number of freed OR blocks and OR utilization. Lowering organizational barriers and applying mathematical algorithms can yield a 4.5% point increase in OR utilization (95% confidence interval 4.0%-5.0%). This is obtained by reducing the total required OR time. Efficient OR departments can further improve their efficiency. The paper shows that a radical cultural change that comprises the use of mathematical algorithms and lowering organizational barriers improves OR utilization.
Zimkowski, Michael M.
About 600,000 hernia repair surgeries are performed each year. The use of laparoscopic minimally invasive techniques has become increasingly popular in these operations. Use of surgical mesh in hernia repair has shown lower recurrence rates compared to other repair methods. However in many procedures, placement of surgical mesh can be challenging and even complicate the procedure, potentially leading to lengthy operating times. Various techniques have been attempted to improve mesh placement, including use of specialized systems to orient the mesh into a specific shape, with limited success and acceptance. In this work, a programmed novel Shape Memory Polymer (SMP) was integrated into commercially available polyester surgical meshes to add automatic unrolling and tissue conforming functionalities, while preserving the intrinsic structural properties of the original surgical mesh. Tensile testing and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was performed on four different SMP formulas to identify appropriate mechanical properties for surgical mesh integration. In vitro testing involved monitoring the time required for a modified surgical mesh to deploy in a 37°C water bath. An acute porcine model was used to test the in vivo unrolling of SMP integrated surgical meshes. The SMP-integrated surgical meshes produced an automated, temperature activated, controlled deployment of surgical mesh on the order of several seconds, via laparoscopy in the animal model. A 30 day chronic rat model was used to test initial in vivo subcutaneous biocompatibility. To produce large more clinical relevant sizes of mesh, a mold was developed to facilitate manufacturing of SMP-integrated surgical mesh. The mold is capable of manufacturing mesh up to 361 cm2, which is believed to accommodate the majority of clinical cases. Results indicate surgical mesh modified with SMP is capable of laparoscopic deployment in vivo, activated by body temperature, and possesses the necessary strength and
Fitzgerald, J E F; Giddings, C E B; Khera, G; Marron, C D
In the past decade surgical training in the United Kingdom (UK) has seen radical overhaul with the introduction of formal training curricula, competency based assessment, and a new Core Surgical Training programme. Despite this, and in common with many other countries, numerous threats remain to sustaining high-quality surgical training and education in the modern working environment. These include service delivery pressures and the reduction in working hours. There are numerous areas for potential improvement and dissemination of best training practice, from incentivising training within the National Health Service (NHS) through top-down government initiatives, to individualised information and feedback for trainees at the front-line. This document sets out the current structure of surgical training in the UK, and describes the contribution to the current debate by the Association of Surgeons in Training. Highlighting areas for improvement at national, regional, local and individual levels, the Association proposes 34 action points to enhance surgical training and education. Adoption of these will ensure future practice continues to improve on, and learn from, the longstanding history of training provided under the guidance of the Royal Surgical Colleges.
Skoufalos, Alexandria; Clarke, Janice L; Napp, Marc; Abrams, Kenneth J; Berman, Bettina; Armellino, Donna; Schilling, Mary Ellen; Pracilio, Valerie
Surgical site infection (SSI) is recognized as a focus area by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Joint Commission, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and the Institute of Medicine. An estimated 47% to 84% of SSIs present after discharge from the hospital or ambulatory care facility and, as a result, go undetected by standard SSI surveillance programs. Evidence-based processes and practices that are known to reduce the incidence of SSIs tend to be underused in routine practice. This article describes a multistakeholder process used to develop an educational initiative to raise awareness of best practices to reduce SSIs. The goal was to create a patient-centric educational initiative that involved an active partnership among all stakeholders-medical professional organizations, hospitals/health systems, health insurers, employers and other purchasers, and consumers/patients-to provide the climate necessary to create and sustain a culture of safety.
Moore, Laura J; Moore, Frederick A; Todd, S Rob; Jones, Stephen L; Turner, Krista L; Bass, Barbara L
To document the incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock compared with pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction in the general-surgery population. Retrospective review. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program institutions. General-surgery patients in the 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock. Of 363 897 general-surgery patients, sepsis occurred in 8350 (2.3%), septic shock in 5977 (1.6%), pulmonary embolism in 1078 (0.3%), and myocardial infarction in 615 (0.2%). Thirty-day mortality rates for each of the groups were as follows: 5.4% for sepsis, 33.7% for septic shock, 9.1% for pulmonary embolism, and 32.0% for myocardial infarction. The septic-shock group had a greater percentage of patients older than 60 years (no sepsis, 40.2%; sepsis, 51.7%; and septic shock, 70.3%; P < .001). The need for emergency surgery resulted in more cases of sepsis (4.5%) and septic shock (4.9%) than did elective surgery (sepsis, 2.0%; septic shock, 1.2%) (P < .001). The presence of any comorbidity increased the risk of sepsis and septic shock 6-fold (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-6.2) and increased the 30-day mortality rate 22-fold (odds ratio, 21.8; 95% confidence interval, 17.6-26.9). The incidences of sepsis and septic shock exceed those of pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. The risk factors for mortality include age older than 60 years, the need for emergency surgery, and the presence of any comorbidity. This study emphasizes the need for early recognition of patients at risk via aggressive screening and the rapid implementation of evidence-based guidelines.
Woo, Russell K; Skarsgard, Erik D
Innovation in surgical techniques, technology, and care processes are essential for improving the care and outcomes of surgical patients, including children. The time and cost associated with surgical innovation can be significant, and unless it leads to improvements in outcome at equivalent or lower costs, it adds little or no value from the perspective of the patients, and decreases the overall resources available to our already financially constrained healthcare system. The emergence of a safety and quality mandate in surgery, and the development of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) allow needs-based surgical care innovation which leads to value-based improvement in care. In addition to general and procedure-specific clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider the measurement of quality from the patients' perspective. To this end, the integration of validated Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) into actionable, benchmarked institutional outcomes reporting has the potential to facilitate quality improvement in process, treatment and technology that optimizes value for our patients and health system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hull, Louise; Birnbach, David; Arora, Sonal; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Sevdalis, Nick
To develop a toolkit that covers the clinical, nontechnical, and empathic skills required for effective, safe surgical ward care. Despite the explosion of interest in patient safety, little attention has been placed on the skill set required for safe and effective surgical ward care. Currently, there is a lack of a systematic approach to improving ward care via assessing and improving residents' ward care skills. A comprehensive evidence-based and expert-derived toolkit was developed, including a novel clinical checklist for ward care (Clinical Skills Assessment for Ward Care: C-SAW-C); a novel team assessment scale for wards rounds (Teamwork Skills Assessment for Ward Care: T-SAW-C); and a revised version of a physician-patient interaction scale (Physician-Patient Interaction Global Rating Scale: PP-GIS). Interassessor reliability (κ, intraclass correlation), internal consistency (Cronbach α), and convergent validity (Pearson r correlations) were evaluated statistically in 38 simulated scenarios (during which a patient rapidly deteriorated) involving 185 residents. Excellent interassessor reliability was obtained for C-SAW-C [median κ = 0.89; median intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94], T-SAW-C (median ICC = 0.99), and the revised PP-GIs (κ = 1.00; ICC = 0.98 or higher). Internal consistency was also very high for all team skills assessed by T-SAW-C (Cronbach α range 0.87-0.94 across 6 skills) and the revised PP-GIS (Cronbach α = 0.96)-all P's < 0.001. Significant positive correlations were obtained between the 3 assessments (r = 0.73-0.92, P < 0.001) thus showing evidence for convergent validity. We developed a toolkit that captures comprehensively the skills that are required for safe and effective ward care, including the high-risk situation where a patient decompensates. The toolkit offers a systematic evaluation of the quality and safety of surgical ward care and can be used to train and debrief residents' skills and performance.
McCulloch, Peter; Kreckler, Simon; New, Steve; Sheena, Yezen; Handa, Ashok; Catchpole, Ken
Emergency surgical patients are at high risk for harm because of errors in care. Quality improvement methods that involve process redesign, such as “Lean,” appear to improve service reliability and efficiency in healthcare. Interrupted time series. The emergency general surgery ward of a university hospital in the United Kingdom. Seven safety relevant care processes. A Lean intervention targeting five of the seven care processes relevant to patient safety. 969 patients were admitted during the four month study period before the introduction of the Lean intervention (May to August 2007), and 1114 were admitted during the four month period after completion of the intervention (May to August 2008). Compliance with the five process measures targeted for Lean intervention (but not the two that were not) improved significantly (relative improvement 28% to 149%; P<0.007). Excellent compliance continued at least 10 months after active intervention ceased. The proportion of patients requiring transfer to other wards fell from 27% to 20% (P<0.000025). Rates of adverse events and potential adverse events were unchanged, except for a significant reduction in new safety events after transfer to other wards (P<0.028). Most adverse events and potential adverse events were owing to delays in investigation and treatment caused by factors outside the ward being evaluated. Lean can substantially and simultaneously improve compliance with a bundle of safety related processes. Given the interconnected nature of hospital care, this strategy might not translate into improvements in safety outcomes unless a system-wide approach is adopted to remove barriers to change.
Tam, Vernissia; Zenati, Mazen; Novak, Stephanie; Chen, Yong; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Hogg, Melissa E
Obtaining the proficiency on the robotic platform necessary to safely perform a robotic pancreatoduodenectomy is particularly challenging. We hypothesize that by instituting a proficiency-based robotic training curriculum we can enhance novice surgeons' skills outside of the operating room, leading to a shorter learning curve. A biotissue curriculum was designed consisting of sewing artificial organs to simulate a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ), gastrojejunostomy (GJ), and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ). Three master robotic surgeons performed each biotissue anastomosis to assess validity. Using video review, trainee performance on biotissue drills was evaluated for time, errors and objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) by 2 blinded graders. This study is conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. In total, 14 surgical oncology fellows completed the biotissue curriculum. Fourteen fellows performed 196 anastomotic drills during the first year: 66 (HJ), 64 (GJ), and 66 (PJ). The fellows' performances were analyzed as a group by attempt. The attendings' first attempt outperformed the fellows' first attempt in all metrics for every drill (all p < 0.05). More than 5 analyzed attempts of the HJ, there was improvement in time, errors, and OSATS (all p < 0.01); however, no metric reached attending performance. For the GJ, time, errors, and OSATS all improved more than 5 attempts (all p < 0.01), whereas only errors and OSATS reached proficiency. For the PJ, errors and OSATS both improved over attempts (p < 0.01) and reached proficiency; however, time did not statistically improve nor reach proficiency. The graders scoring correlated for errors and OSATS (p < 0.0001). A pancreatoduodenectomy biotissue curriculum has face and construct validity. The curriculum is feasible and improves errors and technical performance. Time is the most difficult technical parameter to improve. This
Foo, Elizabeth; McDonald, Rod; Savage, Earle; Floyd, Richard; Butler, Anthony; Rumball-Smith, Alistair; Connor, Saxon
Understanding and being able to measure constraints within a health system is crucial if outcomes are to be improved. Current systems lack the ability to capture decision making with regard to tasks performed within a patient journey. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a mobile task management tool on clinical workflow within an acute general surgical service by analysing data capture and usability of the application tool. The Cortex iOS application was developed to digitize patient flow and provide real-time visibility over clinical decision making and task performance. Study outcomes measured were workflow data capture for patient and staff events. Usability was assessed using an electronic survey. There were 449 unique patient journeys tracked with a total of 3072 patient events recorded. The results repository was accessed 7792 times. The participants reported that the application sped up decision making, reduced redundancy of work and improved team communication. The mode of the estimated time the application saved participants was 5-9 min/h of work. Of the 14 respondents, nine discarded their analogue methods of tracking tasks by the end of the study period. The introduction of a mobile task management system improved the working efficiency of junior clinical staff. The application allowed capture of data not previously available to hospital systems. In the future, such data will contribute to the accurate mapping of patient journeys through the health system. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Kawano, Takashi; Taniwaki, Miki; Ogata, Kimiyo; Sakamoto, Miwa; Yokoyama, Masataka
With the aim to optimize surgical safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSCL) in 2008. The SSCL has been piloted in many countries worldwide and shown to improve both safety attitudes within surgical teams and patient outcomes. In the study reported here we investigated whether implementation of the SSCL improved the teamwork and safety climate at a single university hospital in Japan. All surgical teams at the hospital implemented the SSCL in all surgical procedures with strict adherence to the SSCL implementation manual developed by WHO. Changes in safety attitudes were evaluated using the modified operating-room version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). A before and after design was used, with the questionnaire administered before and 3 months after SSCL implementation. Our analysis revealed that the mean scores on the SAQ had significantly improved 3 months after implementation of the SSCL compared to those before implementation. This finding implies that effective implementation of the SSCL could improve patient outcomes in Japan, similar to the findings of the WHO pilot study.
Suresh, S; Schaldenbrand, K; Wallis, B; De Oliveira, G S
Summary The development of analgesic interventions in paediatric surgical patients is often limited by the inherent difficulties of conducting large randomized clinical trials to test interventions in those patients. Regional anaesthesia is a valid strategy to improve postoperative pain in the adult surgical population, but the effects of regional anaesthesia on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric patients are currently not well defined. The main objective of the current review was to systematically evaluate the use of regional anaesthesia techniques to minimize postoperative pain in paediatric patients. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of the regional anaesthesia techniques on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric surgical patients' procedures. Seventy-three studies on 5125 paediatric patients were evaluated. Only few surgical procedures had more than one small randomized controlled trial favouring the use of regional anaesthesia to minimize postoperative pain (ophthalmological surgery, cleft lip repair, inguinal hernia, and urological procedures). Additional evidence is required to support the use of specific regional anaesthesia techniques to improve postoperative pain for several surgical procedures (craniectomy, adenotonsillectomy, appendectomy, cardiac surgery, umbilical hernia repair, upper and lower extremity) in paediatric patients. Currently, only a very limited number of regional anaesthesia techniques have demonstrated significant improvement on postoperative pain outcomes for a restricted number of surgical procedures. More studies are needed in order to establish regional anaesthesia as a valid strategy to improve analgesia in the paediatric surgical population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gross, T; Pretto, M; Aeschbach, A; Marsch, S
Following guidelines pain levels should not exceed a score of 3 on the visual analog scale (VAS 1-10). We were interested in the actual surgical pain management of the postoperative period and the potential influences of a nurse-controlled intravenous morphine administration (NCA) on its quality. Interventional study: interview of patients and nursing staff and examination of records concerning pain treatment following surgery. The interviews were conducted with 110 patients before and 125 patients after the intervention program. Before the intervention, one-half of the patients noted that they were never asked about their pain intensity within the first 24 h after surgery. Only 42% of the records showed at least one VAS documentation. Every fourth individual experienced a pain intensity > 3 without having received a supplementary pain medication. Following the morphine intervention program, documentation of pain scores increased significantly (72%; p < 0.0001) and more patients were familiar with the VAS (64% vs 46%; p < 0.0004). Median maximum as well as actual pain at the time of the interview decreased by one point (VAS). The percentage of patients whose supplementary pain prescription was totally used showed a significant increase (p = 0.035). Following morphine administration, no single individual complained about an undue waiting time in comparison to 15% of patients previously. Even though the morphine intervention project caused more work for the nursing staff, 75% of the personnel were convinced that the procedure was worth this investment. This data revealed a relevant deficiency of surgical pain management. Already basic instructions on pain management can significantly improve this treatment. Assigning additional authority to the nursing staff, such as a nurse-based intravenous opioid administration, can significantly raise the motivation of the personnel as well as the satisfaction of the patients involved.
Shore-Lesserson, L; Reich, D L; DePerio, M
Weight-based heparin and protamine dosing strategies for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) do not take into account interpatient variability in drug sensitivity and may result in bleeding complications. We compared the Hemochron RxDx heparin and protamine titration system with standard weight based management with regard to heparin dose, protamine dose, and perioperative bleeding. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac surgical patients were randomised into four groups. Group 1 received standard heparin and protamine management: Group 2 received heparin and protamine by in vitro titration. Group 3 had the heparin dose titrated, and group 4 had the protamine dose titrated. Coagulation tests, bleeding, and transfusion requirements were measured. The initial heparin bolus predicted by the titration was < 300 U.kg-1 in all patients. Group 2 received a lower heparin bolus for the initiation of bypass but total heparin doses were not different among groups (group 1 = 365 +/- 43, group 2 = 348 +/- 73 U.kg-1, group 3 = 394 +/- 86 U.kg-1, group 4 = 376 +/- 60; P = 0.06). Groups 2 and 4 received a lower initial and a lower total protamine dose (total dose group 1 = 4.03 +/- 0.65 mg.kg-1, group 2 = 3.56 +/- 1.11 mg.kg-1, group 3 = 4.22 +/- 0.90 mg.kg-1, group 4 = 3.38 +/- 0.98 mg.kg-1, P = 0.001). The incidences of incomplete heparin neutralisation (P = 0.14) and heparin rebound (P = 0.1) were not different among groups. Postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements did not differ. In cardiac surgical patients, heparin and protamine titration did predict a lower protamine dose but did not result in a measurable improvement in haemostasis during the perioperative period.
Ravi, Praful; Sood, Akshay; Schmid, Marianne; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D; Sun, Maxine; Klett, Dane E; Varda, Briony; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Kibel, Adam S; Nguyen, Paul L; Trinh, Quoc-Dien
To determine the association between race/ethnicity and perioperative outcomes in individuals undergoing major oncologic and nononcologic surgical procedures in the United States. Prior work has shown that there are significant racial/ethnic disparities in perioperative outcomes after several types of major cardiac, general, vascular, orthopedic, and cancer surgical procedures. However, recent evidence suggests attenuation of these racial/ethnic differences, particularly at academic institutions. We utilized the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify 142,344 patients undergoing one of the 16 major cancer and noncancer surgical procedures between 2005 and 2011. Eighty-five percent of the cohort was white, with black and Hispanic individuals comprising 8% and 4%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, black patients had greater odds of experiencing prolonged length of stay after 10 of the 16 procedures studied (all P < 0.05), though there was no disparity in odds of 30-day mortality after any surgery. Hispanics were more likely to experience prolonged length of stay after 5 surgical procedures (all P < 0.04), and were at greater odds of dying within 30 days after colectomy, heart valve repair/replacement, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (all P < 0.03). Fewer disparities were observed for Hispanics, than for black patients, and also for cancer, than for noncancer surgical procedures. Important racial/ethnic disparities in perioperative outcomes were observed among patients undergoing major cancer and noncancer surgical procedures at American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program institutions. There were fewer disparities among individuals undergoing cancer surgery, though black patients, in particular, were more likely to experience prolonged length of stay.
Kuo, Benjamin J; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo N; Egger, Joseph R; Smith, Emily R; Grant, Gerald A; Haglund, Michael M; Rice, Henry E
OBJECTIVE Existing studies have shown a high overall rate of adverse events (AEs) following pediatric neurosurgical procedures. However, little is known regarding the morbidity of specific procedures or the association with risk factors to help guide quality improvement (QI) initiatives. The goal of this study was to describe the 30-day mortality and AE rates for pediatric neurosurgical procedures by using the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatrics (NSQIP-Peds) database platform. METHODS Data on 9996 pediatric neurosurgical patients were acquired from the 2012-2014 NSQIP-Peds participant user file. Neurosurgical cases were analyzed by the NSQIP-Peds targeted procedure categories, including craniotomy/craniectomy, defect repair, laminectomy, shunts, and implants. The primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality, with secondary outcomes including individual AEs, composite morbidity (all AEs excluding mortality and unplanned reoperation), surgical-site infection, and unplanned reoperation. Univariate analysis was performed between individual AEs and patient characteristics using Fischer's exact test. Associations between individual AEs and continuous variables (duration from admission to operation, work relative value unit, and operation time) were examined using the Student t-test. Patient characteristics and continuous variables associated with any AE by univariate analysis were used to develop category-specific multivariable models through backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS The authors analyzed 3383 craniotomy/craniectomy, 242 defect repair, 1811 laminectomy, and 4560 shunt and implant cases and found a composite overall morbidity of 30.2%, 38.8%, 10.2%, and 10.7%, respectively. Unplanned reoperation rates were highest for defect repair (29.8%). The mortality rate ranged from 0.1% to 1.2%. Preoperative ventilator dependence was a significant predictor of any AE for all procedure groups, whereas
Van de Velde, Sarah; Van Bergen, Tine; Vandewalle, Evelien; Kindt, Nele; Castermans, Karolien; Moons, Lieve; Stalmans, Ingeborg
First, to elucidate the effect of Rho kinase inhibitor, AMA0526, on Human Tenon Fibroblast (HTF) proliferation and transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts. Second, the effects of ROCK inhibition on the wound healing process and surgical outcome were investigated in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. After exposure of HTF to AMA0526 (0.1-25 μM), a water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay and caspase 3/7 activity assay were used to assess its effect on cell proliferation and to elucidate any toxic effects, respectively. Immunohistochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin expression was used to investigate fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in the presence or absence of the ROCK inhibitor. The effect of topical treatment was studied in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. Treatment outcome was studied by performing intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and clinical investigation of the bleb area and survival. Immunohistological analysis for inflammation (CD45), angiogenesis (CD31), and collagen I was performed at day 8, 14, and 30 after surgery (n=5/time point). Separate control groups treated with vehicle were used as control. In vitro results showed that AMA0526 dose dependently inhibited proliferation of HTF (P<0.05) without the induction of caspase 3/7 activity. Incubation of HTF with the AMA0526 inhibited TGF-β1 induced fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. In the rabbit model, topical treatment significantly improved surgical outcome. Compared to vehicle-treated eyes, AMA0526 resulted in increased bleb area (P<0.0001) and prolonged survival (P=0.0025). IOP remained significantly lower throughout the course of the experiment in the AMA0526 group (P<0.0001). Histological evaluation revealed that blebs treated with the ROCK inhibitor were characterized by reduced inflammation, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition at the site of filtration surgery (P<0.05). AMA0526 had profound
Wariyapola, C; Littlehales, E; Abayasekara, K; Fall, D; Parker, V; Hatton, G
Introduction Discharge planning improves patient outcomes, reduces hospital stay and readmission rates, and should involve a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach. The efficacy of MDT meetings in discharge planning was examined, as well as reasons for delayed discharge among vascular surgical inpatients. Methods Dedicated weekly MDT meetings were held on the vascular ward in Royal Derby Hospital for three months. Each patient was presented to the discharge planning meeting and an expected date of discharge was decided prospectively. Patients who were discharged after this date were considered ‘delayed’ and reasons for delay were explored at the next meeting. Results Overall, 193 patients were included in the study. Of these, 42 patients (22%) had a delayed discharge while 29 (15%) had an early discharge. The main reasons for delay were awaiting beds (30%), social (14%) and medical (45%). In 64%, the cause for delay was avoidable. Two-thirds (67%) of all delays were >24 hours. This totalled 115 bed days, of which 67 could have been avoided. However, 32 bed days were saved by early discharge. This equates to a net loss of 35 bed days, at a net cost of £2,936 per month or £35,235 per year. The MDT meetings also improved the quality of discharge planning; the variability between expected and actual discharge dates decreased after the first month. Conclusions Discharge planning meetings help prepare for patient discharge and are most effective with multidisciplinary input. The majority of delayed discharges from hospital are preventable. The main causes are awaiting transfers, social services input and medical reasons (eg falls). There is an obvious financial incentive to improve discharge planning. The efficiency of the MDT at discharge planning improves with time and this should therefore be continued for best results. PMID:26924480
Wariyapola, C; Littlehales, E; Abayasekara, K; Fall, D; Parker, V; Hatton, G
Introduction Discharge planning improves patient outcomes, reduces hospital stay and readmission rates, and should involve a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach. The efficacy of MDT meetings in discharge planning was examined, as well as reasons for delayed discharge among vascular surgical inpatients. Methods Dedicated weekly MDT meetings were held on the vascular ward in Royal Derby Hospital for three months. Each patient was presented to the discharge planning meeting and an expected date of discharge was decided prospectively. Patients who were discharged after this date were considered 'delayed' and reasons for delay were explored at the next meeting. Results Overall, 193 patients were included in the study. Of these, 42 patients (22%) had a delayed discharge while 29 (15%) had an early discharge. The main reasons for delay were awaiting beds (30%), social (14%) and medical (45%). In 64%, the cause for delay was avoidable. Two-thirds (67%) of all delays were >24 hours. This totalled 115 bed days, of which 67 could have been avoided. However, 32 bed days were saved by early discharge. This equates to a net loss of 35 bed days, at a net cost of £2,936 per month or £35,235 per year. The MDT meetings also improved the quality of discharge planning; the variability between expected and actual discharge dates decreased after the first month. Conclusions Discharge planning meetings help prepare for patient discharge and are most effective with multidisciplinary input. The majority of delayed discharges from hospital are preventable. The main causes are awaiting transfers, social services input and medical reasons (eg falls). There is an obvious financial incentive to improve discharge planning. The efficiency of the MDT at discharge planning improves with time and this should therefore be continued for best results.
Perez, Manuela; Perrenot, Cyril; Tran, Nguyen; Hossu, Gabriela; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques
Robotic surgery has witnessed a huge expansion. Robotic simulators have proved to be of major interest in training. Some authors have suggested that prior experience in micro-surgery could improve robotic surgery training. To test micro-surgery as a new approach in training, we proposed a prospective study comparing the surgical performance of micro-surgeons with that of general surgeons on a robotic simulator. 49 surgeons were enrolled; 11 in the micro-surgery group (MSG); 38 n the control group (CG). Performance was evaluated based on five dV-Trainer® exercises. MSG achieved better results for all exercises including exercises requiring visual evaluation of force feed-back, economy of motion, instrument force and position. These results show that experience in micro-surgery could significantly improve surgeons' abilities and their performance in robotic training. So, as micro-surgery practice is relatively cheap, it could be easily included in basic robotic surgery training. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Giles, Kristina A.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Wyers, Mark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.
Objectives Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass are at high risk for surgical site infections (SSI). We examine lower extremity bypasses by graft origin and body mass index (BMI) classification to analyze differences in postoperative mortality and SSI occurrence. Methods The 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was queried to compare perioperative mortality (30-day), overall morbidity, and SSIs after lower extremity arterial bypass for peripheral arterial disease. Bypass was stratified by graft origin as aorto-iliac, femoral, or popliteal. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative, and post-operative occurrences were analyzed. Results There were 7,595 bypasses performed (1,596 aorto-iliac, 5,483 femoral, and 516 popliteal origin). Mortality was similar regardless of bypass origin (2.8%, 2.4%, & 2.7%, P=.57). Surgical site infections occurred in 11% of overall cases (10%, 11%, & 11%, P=.47). Graft failure was significantly associated with postoperative SSI occurrence (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, P<.001) as was postoperative sepsis (OR 6.5, 95%CI 5.1-8.3, P<.001). Independent predictors of mortality were age, aorto-iliac bypass origin, underweight, normal weight, or morbid obesity (compared to overweight and obese), end stage renal disease, poor preoperative functional status, preoperative sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoalbuminemia, and cardiac disease. Independent predictors of SSI were obesity, diabetes, poor preoperative functional status, a history of smoking, and female gender. Conclusions Surgical site infections occur frequently after lower extremity bypass regardless of bypass origin and are associated with early graft failure and sepsis. Obesity predicts postoperative SSI. Mortality risk was greatest in the underweight followed by morbidly obese and normal weight patients, while overweight and mild-moderate obesity were associated with the lowest mortality
McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Porter, Amanda L; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Shepherd, Daniel; Hirshman, Brian R; Carter, Bob S; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Bydon, Mohamad; Meyer, Fredric
A large national surgical registry was used to establish national benchmarks and associated predictors of major neurologic complications (i.e., coma and stroke) after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set between 2007 and 2013 was used for this retrospective cohort analysis. Demographic, comorbidity, and operative characteristics associated with the development of a major neurologic complication (i.e., coma or stroke) were elucidated using a backward selection stepwise logistic regression analysis. This model was subsequently used to fit a predictive score for major neurologic complications. Inclusion criteria were met by 662 patients. Of these patients, 57 (8.61%) developed a major neurologic complication (i.e., coma or stroke) within the 30-day postoperative period. On multivariable analysis, operative time (log odds 0.004 per minute; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002-0.007), age (log odds 0.05 per year; 95% CI, 0.02-0.08), history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (log odds 1.26; 95% CI, 0.43-2.08), and diabetes (log odds 1.15; 95% CI, 0.38-1.91) were associated with an increased odds of major neurologic complications. When patients were categorized according to quartile of a predictive score generated from the multivariable analysis, rates of major neurologic complications were 1.8%, 4.3%, 6.7%, and 21.2%. Using a large, national multi-institutional cohort, this study established representative national benchmarks and a predictive scoring system for major neurologic complications following operative management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The model may assist with risk stratification and tailoring of decision making in surgical candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mu, Yi; Edwards, Jonathan R; Horan, Teresa C; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I; Fridkin, Scott K
The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) has provided simple risk adjustment of surgical site infection (SSI) rates to participating hospitals to facilitate quality improvement activities; improved risk models were developed and evaluated. Data reported to the NHSN for all operative procedures performed from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, were analyzed. Only SSIs related to the primary incision site were included. A common set of patient- and hospital-specific variables were evaluated as potential SSI risk factors by univariate analysis. Some ific variables were available for inclusion. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop the specific risk models by procedure category. Bootstrap resampling was used to validate the models, and the c-index was used to compare the predictive power of new procedure-specific risk models with that of the models with the NHSN risk index as the only variable (NHSN risk index model). From January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, 847 hospitals in 43 states reported a total of 849,659 procedures and 16,147 primary incisional SSIs (risk, 1.90%) among 39 operative procedure categories. Overall, the median c-index of the new procedure-specific risk was greater (0.67 [range, 0.59-0.85]) than the median c-index of the NHSN risk index models (0.60 [range, 0.51-0.77]); for 33 of 39 procedures, the new procedure-specific models yielded a higher c-index than did the NHSN risk index models. A set of new risk models developed using existing data elements collected through the NHSN improves predictive performance, compared with the traditional NHSN risk index stratification.
Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Nishino, Masafumi; Sahara, Shu; Uotani, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Sugimoto, Ken; Yamato, Yu; Togawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Sho; Hoshino, Hironobu; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Furuta, Takahisa
Spinal kyphotic deformity occasionally results in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The effects of acid reflux on the esophagus in kyphotic patients are unclear, however, and it is unknown whether acid reflux, endoscopic GERD, and reflux-related symptoms improve following surgical spinal correction in these patients. Herein, we investigated the characteristics of GERD in kyphotic patients and the improvement in GERD following surgical correction. In 48 patients with severe kyphotic deformity scheduled for surgical spinal correction, we conducted esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 24-h pH monitoring and three questionnaire surveys, including the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG). We repeated these measurements after surgical correction and compared pre- and post-surgery values. Of 48 patients, 70.8% [95% CI: 55.9-83.0%, 34/48] had endoscopically evaluated esophageal mucosal injury. Regarding pH before surgery, 64.9% (CI: 47.5-79.8%, 24/37) had abnormal acid reflux (intraesophageal pH < 4 more than 5% of the time). FSSG score was significantly associated with the severity of GERD, and the positive rate was 52.6% (CI: 35.8-69.0%, 20/38). Following surgical correction, esophageal mucosal injury improved endoscopically in 90% of patients, and median total FSSG score significantly decreased from 8 (0-30) to 5 (0-19) (P = 0.005). Regarding pH after surgery, prevalence of abnormal acid reflux decreased from 66.7% (95% CI: 41.0-86.7%) to 33.3% (95% CI: 13.3-59.0%) (P = 0.045). Surgical spinal correction in kyphosis patients improves not only kyphotic deformity-related disorders but also esophageal mucosal injury, abnormal acid reflux, and reflux-related symptoms. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Predictors of Surgical Site Infection Following Craniotomy for Intracranial Neoplasms: An Analysis of Prospectively Collected Data in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.
McCutcheon, Brandon A; Ubl, Daniel S; Babu, Maya; Maloney, Patrick; Murphy, Meghan; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Mohamad; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Parney, Ian
To determine the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after resection of an intracranial neoplasm using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set and to identify potential risk factors associated with SSI. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File was queried during the period 2006-2013 for patients who underwent a resection for an intracranial neoplasm. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with SSI. Inclusion criteria were met by 12,021 patients. SSI occurred at a rate of 2.04%. SSI was significantly associated with increased rates of return to the operating room (56.1% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and postoperative lengths of stay >30 days (5.3% vs. 1.3%, P < 0.001) on unadjusted bivariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.991, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.982-0.999) and female sex (OR = 0.697, 95% CI = 0.538-0.902) were associated with a reduction in the odds of SSI. Preoperative wound infections (OR = 3.833, 95% CI = 1.834-8.0011) and operative times >4 hours (OR = 1.891, 95% CI = 1.298-2.756) were associated with an increased odds of SSI. Among cases with available chemotherapy data (n = 3504), recent chemotherapy (OR = 3.007, 95% CI = 1.460-6.196) was associated with an increased odds of SSI. This study identified patient risk factors that may assist clinical decision making regarding patient risk stratification, timing of surgery, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with an intracranial neoplasm undergoing craniotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schulman, Carl I; Garcia, George D; Wyckoff, Mary M; Duncan, Robert C; Withum, Kelly F; Graygo, Jill
Acute trauma care is characterized by dynamic situations that require adequate preparation to ensure success for military health professionals. The use of mobile learning in this environment can provide a solution that standardizes education and replaces traditional didactic lectures. A comparative evaluation with a pre-post test design regarding medical shock was delivered via either a didactic lecture or a mobile learning video module to U.S. Army Forward Surgical Team (FST) members. Participants completed a pretest, were randomly assigned to treatment group by FST, and then completed the post-test and scenario assessment. One-hundred and thirteen FST members participated with 53 in the mobile learning group and 60 in the lecture group (control). The percent mean score for the mobile learning group increased from 43.6 to 70 from pretest to post-test, with a scenario mean score of M = 56.2. The percent mean score for the control group increased from 41.5 to 72.5, with a scenario mean score of M = 59.7. The two-way analysis of variance mean score difference was 26.4 for the mobile learning group and 31.0 for the control, F = 2.18, (p = 0.14). Mobile learning modules, coupled with a structured assessment, have the potential to improve educational experiences in civilian and military settings.
Hsiung, Grace E; Abdullah, Fizan
The role of the healthcare organization is shifting and must overcome the challenges of fragmented, costly care, and lack of evidence in practice, to reduce cost, ensure quality, and deliver high-value care. Notable gaps exist within the expected quality and delivery of pediatric healthcare, necessitating a change in the role of the healthcare organization. To realize these goals, the use of collaborative networks that leverage massive datasets to provide information for the development of learning healthcare systems will become increasingly necessary as efforts are made to narrow the gap in healthcare quality for children. By building upon the lessons learned from early collaborative efforts and other industries, operationalizing new technologies, encouraging clinical-community partnerships, and improving performance through transparent pursuit of meaningful goals, pediatric surgery can increase the adoption of best practices by developing collaborative networks that provide evidence-based clinical decision support and accelerate progress toward a new culture of delivering high-quality, high-value, and evidenced-based pediatric surgical care.
Ezra, Navid; Arshanapalli, Ashish; Bednarek, Robert; Akaishi, Satoshi; Somani, Ally-Khan
Scarring following skin surgery is an unavoidable certainty. Scars resulting from Mohs Micrographic Surgery (MMS) can cause both cosmetic and functional problems. Various lasers have been used to treat scars, but the role of the microsecond pulsed 1064 nanometer neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (1064 nm Nd:YAG) in treating surgical scars is not well-defined. We aim to examine the clinical application of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in improving surgical scars. Ten patients who were unhappy with cosmetic or functional outcomes of their surgical scars following MMS were treated with 1-3 sessions of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser to improve their scars. Therapy completion was determined by patient satisfaction with the appearance of their scars and/or resolution of any contractures that formed following surgery. All ten patients were pleased with the improved appearance of their scars. Four patients saw complete resolution of an ectropion or eclabium that formed secondary to scar contractures from MMS. The side effects of laser treatments were limited to 1-2 hours of erythema, and there were no incidences of adverse effects or recurrence of contractures. Our clinical experience with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser provides promising data on improving appearance of and functionality from post-surgical scars.
Fisher, Jason C; Kuenzler, Keith A; Tomita, Sandra S; Sinha, Prashant; Shah, Paresh; Ginsburg, Howard B
Documenting surgical complications is limited by multiple barriers and is not fostered in the electronic health record. Tracking complications is essential for quality improvement (QI) and required for board certification. Current registry platforms do not facilitate meaningful complication reporting. We developed a novel web application that improves accuracy and reduces barriers to documenting complications. We deployed a custom web application that allows pediatric surgeons to maintain case logs. The program includes a module for entering complication data in real time. Reminders to enter outcome data occur at key postoperative intervals to optimize recall of events. Between October 1, 2014, and March 31, 2015, frequencies of surgical complications captured by the existing hospital reporting system were compared with data aggregated by our application. 780 cases were captured by the web application, compared with 276 cases registered by the hospital system. We observed an increase in the capture of major complications when compared to the hospital dataset (14 events vs. 4 events). This web application improved real-time reporting of surgical complications, exceeding the accuracy of administrative datasets. Custom informatics solutions may help reduce barriers to self-reporting of adverse events and improve the data that presently inform pediatric surgical QI. Diagnostic study/Retrospective study. Level III - case control study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dachyar, M.; Christy, E.
To maintain position as a major milk producer, the Indonesian milk industry should do some business development with the purpose of increasing customer service level. One strategy is to create on time release conditions for finished goods which will be distributed to customers and distributors. To achieve this condition, management information systems of finished goods on time release needs to be improved. The focus of this research is to conduct business process improvement using Business Process Reengineering (BPR). The deliverable key of this study is a comprehensive business strategy which is the solution of the root problems. To achieve the goal, evaluation, reengineering, and improvement of the ERP system are conducted. To visualize the predicted implementation, a simulation model is built by Oracle BPM. The output of this simulation showed that the proposed solution could effectively reduce the process lead time and increase the number of quality releases.
Cox, Emily; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Zareinia, Kourosh; Hudon, Mark; Lysack, John T; Sutherland, Garnette R; Dort, Joseph C
The majority of head and neck cancers arise from the oral cavity and oropharynx. Many of these lesions will be amenable to surgical resection using transoral approaches including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). To develop and control TORS tools, precise dimensions of the oral cavity and pharynx are desirable. CT angiograms of 76 patients were analyzed. For the oral cavity, only the maximum length and width were measured, while for the pharynx, the width, length, and areas of the airway were all measured and the volume calculated. A prototype TORS tool was developed and tested based on the findings and dimensions. The design modification of the tool is in progress. The mean male oral cavity width and length were 93.3 ± 4.3 and 77.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively, and the mean male pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 26.5 ± 7.2 mm, 16.2 ± 8.8 mm, 325 ± 149 mm(2), and 28,440 ± 14,100 mm(3), respectively, while the mean female oral cavity width and length were 84.5 ± 12.9 and 71.0 ± 6.3 mm, respectively, and the mean female pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 24.8 ± 5.6 mm, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm, 258 ± 98 mm(2), and 17,660 ± 7700 mm(3), respectively. The developed TORS tool was tested inside the oral cavity of an intubation mannequin. These data will also be used to develop an electronic no-go cone-shape tunnel to improve the safety of the surgical field. Reporting the oral cavity and pharyngeal dimensions is important for design of TORS tools and creating control zones for the workspace of the tool inside the oral cavity.
Klein, Amanda L; Brown, Carlos V R; Aydelotte, Jayson; Ali, Sadia; Clark, Adam; Coopwood, Ben
Our trauma service recently transitioned from a pulmonary intensive care unit (ICU) service to a surgical ICU (SICU) service. We hypothesized that a newly formed SICU service could provide comparable outcomes to the existing pulmonary ICU service. A specific aim of this study was to compare outcomes of trauma patients admitted to the ICU before and after implementation of a SICU service. We performed a retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the ICU of our urban, American College of Surgeons- verified, Level 1 trauma center during a 4-year period (2009-2012). Patients managed by the pulmonary ICU service (2009-2010) were compared with patients managed by a SICU service (2011-2012). The primary outcome was mortality, while secondary outcomes included complications (pulmonary, infectious, cardiac, and thromboembolic), hospital and ICU length of stay, ventilator days, and need for reintubation. There were 2,253 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, 1,124 and 1,129 managed by the pulmonary ICU and SICU services, respectively. When comparing outcomes for SICU and pulmonary ICU patients, there was no difference in mortality (11% vs. 13%, p = 0.41), but patients managed by the SICU service had fewer pulmonary complications (3% vs. 6%, p < 0.001), fewer days on the ventilator (3 vs. 4, p = 0.002), and less often required reintubation after extubation (4% vs. 9%, p < 0.001). Transition from a pulmonary ICU service to a SICU service at our institution was associated with no change in mortality but an improvement in pulmonary complications, ventilator days, and reintubation rates. Trauma centers currently staffed with a pulmonary ICU service should feel comfortable converting to SICU service and should expect comparable or improved outcomes for trauma patients admitted to the ICU. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.
Girsowicz, Elie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Santelmo, Nicola; Massard, Gilbert
A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether surgical stabilization is effective in improving the outcomes of patients with isolated multiple distracted and painful non-flail rib fractures. Of the 356 papers found using a report search, nine presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, group studied, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are given. We conclude that, on the whole, the nine retrieved studies clearly support the use of surgical stabilization in the management of isolated multiple non-flail and painful rib fractures for improving patient outcomes. The interest and benefit was shown not only in terms of pain (McGill pain questionnaire) and respiratory function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity), but also in improved quality of life (RAND 36-Item Health Survey) and reduced socio-professional disability. Indeed, most of the authors justified surgical management based on the fact that the results of surgical stabilization showed improvement in short- and long-term patient outcomes, with fast reduction in pain and disability, as well as lower average wait before recommencing normal activities. Hence, the current evidence shows surgical stabilization to be safe and effective in alleviating post-operative pain and in improving patient recovery, thus enhancing the outcome after isolated multiple rib fractures. However, given the little published evidence, prospective trials are necessary to confirm these encouraging results.
Transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership characteristics of a surgical resident cohort: analysis using the multifactor leadership questionnaire and implications for improving surgical education curriculums.
Horwitz, Irwin B; Horwitz, Sujin K; Daram, Pallavi; Brandt, Mary L; Brunicardi, F Charles; Awad, Samir S
The need for leadership training has become recognized as being highly important to improving medical care, and should be included in surgical resident education curriculums. Surgical residents (n = 65) completed the 5x-short version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as a means of identifying leadership areas most in need of training among medical residents. The leadership styles of the residents were measured on 12 leadership scales. Comparisons between gender and postgraduate year (PGY) and comparisons to national norms were conducted. Of 12 leadership scales, the residents as a whole had significantly higher management by exception active and passive scores than those of the national norm (t = 6.6, P < 0.01, t = 2.8, P < 0.01, respectively), and significantly lower individualized consideration scores than the norm (t = 2.7, P < 0.01). Only one score, management by exception active was statistically different and higher among males than females (t = 2.12, P < 0.05). PGY3-5 had significantly lower laissez-faire scores than PGY1-2 (t = 2.20, P < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed two leadership factors with eigenvalues over 1.0. Hierarchical regression found evidence of an augmentation effect for transformational leadership. Areas of resident leadership strengths and weaknesses were identified. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for identifying specific areas where leadership training would be most beneficial in the educational curriculum. The future use of this instrument could prove valuable to surgical education training programs.
Heart Attack; Cardiac Arrest; Congestive Heart Failure; Atrial Fibrillation; Angina; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Pulmonary Embolism; Respiratory Arrest; Respiratory Failure; Pneumonia; Gastrointestinal Bleed; Stomach Ulcer; Delirium; Stroke; Nerve Injury; Surgical Wound Infection
Chugh, A Jessey; Pace, Jonathan R; Singer, Justin; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Hoffer, Alan; Selman, Warren R; Bambakidis, Nicholas C
OBJECTIVE The field of neurosurgery is constantly undergoing improvements and advances, both in technique and technology. Cerebrovascular neurosurgery is no exception, with endovascular treatments changing the treatment paradigm. Clipping of aneurysms is still necessary, however, and advances are still being made to improve patient outcomes within the microsurgical treatment of aneurysms. Surgical rehearsal platforms are surgical simulators that offer the opportunity to rehearse a procedure prior to entering the operative suite. This study is designed to determine whether use of a surgical rehearsal platform in aneurysm surgery is helpful in decreasing aneurysm dissection time and clip manipulation of the aneurysm. METHODS The authors conducted a blinded, prospective, randomized study comparing key effort and time variables in aneurysm clip ligation surgery with and without preoperative use of the SuRgical Planner (SRP) surgical rehearsal platform. Initially, 40 patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups: one in which surgery was performed after use of the SRP (SRP group) and one in which surgery was performed without use of the SRP (control group). All operations were videotaped. After exclusion of 6 patients from the SRP group and 9 from the control group, a total of 25 surgical cases were analyzed by a reviewer blinded to group assignment. The videos were analyzed for total microsurgical time, number of clips used, and number of clip placement attempts. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated and compared between groups. RESULTS The mean (± SD) amount of operative time per clip used was 920 ± 770 seconds in the SRP group and 1294 ± 678 seconds in the control group (p = 0.05). In addition, the mean values for the number of clip attempts, total operative time, ratio of clip attempts to clips used, and time per clip attempt were all lower in the SRP group, although the between-group differences were not statistically significant
Wei, Yongxu; Yang, Wenlei; Zhao, Weiguo; Pu, Chunhua; Li, Ning; Cai, Yu; Shang, Hanbing
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether intraoperative monitoring of lateral spread response (LSR) improves the efficacy of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). METHODS In this prospective study, patients undergoing MVD for HFS were assigned to one of 2 groups, Group A (MVD with intraoperative LSR monitoring) or Group B (MVD without LSR monitoring). Clinical outcome at 12 months after surgery was assessed through telephone survey. Data analysis was performed to investigate the effect of intraoperative LSR monitoring on efficacy of MVD. RESULTS A total of 283 patients were enrolled in the study, 145 in Group A and 138 in Group B. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to the percentage of patients who had spasm relief at either 1 week (Group A 87.59% vs Group B 83.33%; p = 0.317) or 1 year (93.1% vs 94.2%; p = 0.809) after surgery. A clear-cut elimination of LSR during surgery was observed in 131 (90.34%) of 145 patients; LSR persisted in 14 patients (9.66%) at the end of the surgical procedure. Disappearance of LSR correlated with spasm-free status at 1 week postoperatively (p = 0.017) but not at 1 year postoperatively (p = 0.249). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative LSR monitoring does not appear to provide significant benefit with respect to the outcome of MVD for HFS in skilled hands. Persistence of LSR does not always correlate with poor outcome, and LSR elimination should not be pursued in all patients after verification of complete decompression.
Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Di Naro, Edoardo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Candeloro, Ilario; Sturla, Davide; Ghezzi, Fabio
This study aimed to evaluate the impact on perioperative and medium-term oncologic outcomes of the implementation of laparoscopy into a preexisting oncologic setting. Data from consecutive 736 patients undergoing surgery for apparent early stage gynecological malignancies (endometrial, cervical, and adnexal cancers) between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Complications were graded per the Accordion classification. Survival outcomes within the first 5 years were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. Overall, 493 (67%), 162 (22%), and 81 (11%) had surgery for apparent early stage endometrial, cervical, and adnexal cancer. We assisted at an increase of the number of patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy through the years (from 10% in the years 2000-2003 to 82% in years 2008-2011; P < 0.001 for trend); while the need to perform open surgery decreased dramatically (from 83% to 10%; P < 0.001). Vaginal approach was nearly stable over the years (from 7% to 8%; P = 0.76). A marked reduction in estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, blood transfusions as well as grade greater than or equal to 3 postoperative complications over the years was observed (P < 0.001). Surgical radicality assessed lymph nodes count was not influenced by the introduction of laparoscopic approach (P > 0.05). The introduction of laparoscopy did not adversely affect medium-term (within 5 years) survival outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for apparent early stage cancers of the endometrium, uterine cervix, and adnexa (P > 0.05 log-rank test). The introduction of laparoscopy into a preexisting oncologic service allows an improvement of standard of care due to a gain in perioperative results, without detriments of medium-term oncologic outcomes.
Liu, Jason B; Berian, Julia R; Ban, Kristen A; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Angelos, Peter; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Hoyt, David B; Hall, Bruce L; Ko, Clifford Y
To determine whether concurrently performed operations are associated with an increased risk for adverse events. Concurrent operations occur when a surgeon is simultaneously responsible for critical portions of 2 or more operations. How this practice affects patient outcomes is unknown. Using American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data from 2014 to 2015, operations were considered concurrent if they overlapped by ≥60 minutes or in their entirety. Propensity-score-matched cohorts were constructed to compare death or serious morbidity (DSM), unplanned reoperation, and unplanned readmission in concurrent versus non-concurrent operations. Multilevel hierarchical regression was used to account for the clustered nature of the data while controlling for procedure and case mix. There were 1430 (32.3%) surgeons from 390 (77.7%) hospitals who performed 12,010 (2.3%) concurrent operations. Plastic surgery (n = 393 [13.7%]), otolaryngology (n = 470 [11.2%]), and neurosurgery (n = 2067 [8.4%]) were specialties with the highest proportion of concurrent operations. Spine procedures were the most frequent concurrent procedures overall (n = 2059/12,010 [17.1%]). Unadjusted rates of DSM (9.0% vs 7.1%; P < 0.001), reoperation (3.6% vs 2.7%; P < 0.001), and readmission (6.9% vs 5.1%; P < 0.001) were greater in the concurrent operation cohort versus the non-concurrent. After propensity score matching and risk-adjustment, there was no significant association of concurrence with DSM (odds ratio [OR] 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.21), reoperation (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.96-1.40), or readmission (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.99-1.29). In these analyses, concurrent operations were not detected to increase the risk for adverse outcomes. These results do not lessen the need for further studies, continuous self-regulation and proactive disclosure to patients.
Kulendran, M; Liasis, L; Qurashi, K; Sen, M; Gould, S
Introduction Emergency surgery is changing rapidly with a greater workload, early subspecialisation and centralisation of emergency care. We describe the impact of a novel emergency surgical unit (ESU) on the definitive management of patients with gallstone pancreatitis (GSP). Methods A comparative audit was undertaken for all admissions with GSP before and after the introduction of the ESU over a six-month period. The impact on compliance with British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines was assessed. Results Thirty-five patients were treated for GSP between December 2013 and May 2014, after the introduction of the ESU. This was twice the nationally reported average for a UK trust over a six-month period. All patients received definitive management for their GSP and 100% of all suitable patients received treatment during the index admission or within two weeks of discharge. This was a significantly greater proportion than that prior to the introduction of the ESU (57%, p=0.0001) as well as the recently reported national average (34%). The mean length of total inpatient stay was reduced significantly after the ESU was introduced from 13.7 ± 4.7 days to 7.8 ± 2.1 days (p=0.03). The mean length of postoperative stay also fell significantly from 6.7 ± 2.6 days to 1.8 ± 0.8 days (p=0.001). Conclusions A dedicated ESU following national recommendations for emergency surgery care by way of using dedicated emergency surgeons and a streamlined protocol for common presentations has been shown by audit of current practice to significantly improve the management of patients presenting to a busy district general hospital with GSP. PMID:26263941
Suter, Michel; Donadini, Andrea; Calmes, Jean-Marie; Romy, Sébastien
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is one of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures for morbidly obese patients. It is associated with effective long-term weight loss, but can lead to significant complications, especially at the gastrojejunostomy (GJS). All the patients undergoing laparoscopic RYGBP at one of our two institutions were included in this study. The prospectively collected data were reviewed retrospectively for the purpose of this study, in which we compared two different techniques for the construction of the GJS and their effects on the incidence of complications. In group A, anastomosis was performed on the posterior aspect of the gastric pouch. In group B, it was performed across the staple line used to form the gastric pouch. A 21-mm circular stapler was used in all patients. A total of 1,128 patients were included between June 1999 and September 2009-639 in group A and 488 in group B. Sixty patients developed a total of 65 complications at the GJS, with 14 (1.2%) leaks, 42 (3.7%) strictures, and 9 (0.8%) marginal ulcers. Leaks (0.2% versus 2%, p = 0.005) and strictures (0.8% versus 5.9%, p < 0.0001) were significantly fewer in group B than in group A. Improved surgical technique, as we propose, with the GJS across the staple line used to form the gastric pouch, significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic complications at the GJS. A circular 21-mm stapler can be used with a low complication rate, and especially a low stricture rate. Additional methods to limit complications at the GJS are probably not routinely warranted.
Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Massenburg, Benjamin B; Rozehnal, John M; Ingargiola, Michael J; Hernandez Rosa, Jonatan; Taub, Peter J
The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for free flap failure among various anatomically based free flap subgroups. The 2005 to 2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for patients undergoing microvascular free tissue transfer based on current procedural terminology codes. Univariate analysis was performed to identify any association between flap failure and the following factors: age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, intraoperative transfusion, functional health status, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, operative time, and flap location. Factors yielding a significance of P < 0.20 were included in multivariate logistic regression models in order to identify independent risk factor significance for flap failure. Furthermore, patients were stratified based on recipient site (breast, head and neck, trunk, or extremity), and analysis was repeated in order to identify risk factors specific to each location. A total of 1921 of 2103 patients who underwent microvascular free flap reconstruction met inclusion criteria. Multivariate logistic regression identified BMI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, P = 0.004) and male gender (AOR = 2.16, P = 0.033) as independent risk factors for flap failure. Among the "breast flaps" subgroup, BMI (AOR = 1.075, P = 0.012) and smoking (AOR = 3.35, P = 0.02) were independent variables associated with flap failure. In "head and neck flaps," operative time (AOR = 1.003, P = 0.018) was an independent risk factor for flap failure. No independent risk factors were identified for the "extremity flaps" or "trunk flaps" subtypes. BMI, smoking, and operative time were identified as independent risk factors for free flap failure among all flaps or within flap subsets.
Cohen, Mark E; Liu, Yaoming; Ko, Clifford Y; Hall, Bruce L
The American College of Surgeons, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) surgical quality feedback models are recalibrated every 6 months, and each hospital is given risk-adjusted, hierarchical model, odds ratios that permit comparison to an estimated average NSQIP hospital at a particular point in time. This approach is appropriate for "relative" benchmarking, and for targeting quality improvement efforts, but does not permit evaluation of hospital or program-wide changes in quality over time. We report on long-term improvement in surgical outcomes associated with participation in ACS NSQIP. ACS NSQIP data (2006-2013) were used to create prediction models for mortality, morbidity (any of several distinct adverse outcomes), and surgical site infection (SSI). For each model, for each hospital, and for year of first participation (hospital cohort), hierarchical model observed/expected (O/E) ratios were computed. The primary performance metric was the within-hospital trend in logged O/E ratios over time (slope) for mortality, morbidity, and SSI. Hospital-averaged log O/E ratio slopes were generally negative, indicating improving performance over time. For all hospitals, 62%, 70%, and 65% of hospitals had negative slopes for mortality, morbidity, and any SSI, respectively. For hospitals currently in the program for at least 3 years, 69%, 79%, and 71% showed improvement in mortality, morbidity, and SSI, respectively. For these hospitals, we estimate 0.8%, 3.1%, and 2.6% annual reductions (with respect to prior year's rates) for mortality, morbidity, and SSI, respectively. Participation in ACS NSQIP is associated with reductions in adverse events after surgery. The magnitude of quality improvement increases with time in the program.
Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Shen, Chan; Hu, Jim C
The aim of this study was to examine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and hospital profit margins. This study used hospital annual utilization data, annual financial data, and discharge data for year 2011 from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We first performed bivariate analysis to compare mean profit margin by hospital and market characteristics and to examine whether these characteristics differed between hospitals that had one or more robotic surgical systems in 2011 and those that did not. We applied the t test and the F test to compare mean profit margin between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. We then conducted multilevel logistic regression to determine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and having a positive profit margin after controlling for other hospital and market characteristics and accounting for possible correlation among hospitals located within the same market. The study sample included 167 California hospitals with valid financial information. Hospitals with robotic surgical systems tended to report more favorable profit margins. However, multilevel logistic regression showed that this relationship (an association, not causality) became only marginally significant (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2; P = 0.053) after controlling for other hospital characteristics, such as ownership type, teaching status, bed size, and surgical volumes, and market characteristics, such as total number of robotic surgical systems owned by other hospitals in the same market area. As robotic surgical systems become widely disseminated, hospital decision makers should carefully evaluate the financial and clinical implications before making a capital investment in this technology. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duschek, Nikolaus; Assadian, Afshin; Lamont, Peter M; Klemm, Klaus; Schmidli, Jürg; Mendel, Herbert; Eckstein, Hans-Henning
Vascular surgeons perform numerous highly sophisticated and delicate procedures. Due to restrictions in training time and the advent of endovascular techniques, new concepts including alternative environments for training and assessment of surgical skills are required. Over the past decade, training on simulators and synthetic models has become more sophisticated and lifelike. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a 3-day intense training course in open vascular surgery on both specific and global vascular surgical skills. Prospective observational cohort analysis with various parameter measurements of both surgical skills and the technical quality of the finished product, performed before and after 3 days of simulator training of 10 participants (seven male and three female) in a vascular surgery training course. The simulator model used was a conventional carotid endarterectomy with a Dacron patch plasty on a lifelike carotid bench model under pulsatile pressure. The primary end points were assessment of any changes in the participants' surgical skills and in the technical quality of their completed carotid patches documented by procedure-based assessment forms. Scores ranging from 1 (inadequate) to 5 (excellent) were compared by a related-sample Wilcoxon signed test. Interobserver reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha (CA). A significant improvement in surgical skills tasks was observed (P < .001). The mean score increased significantly by 21.5% from fair (3.43 ± 0.93) to satisfactory (4.17 ± 0.69; P < .001). The mean score for the quality of the carotid patch increased significantly by 0.96 (27%) from fair (3.55 ± 0.87) to satisfactory (4.51 ± 0.76; P < .01). The median interassessor reliability for the quality of the carotid patch was acceptable (CA = 0.713) and for surgical skills was low (CA = 0.424). This study shows that lifelike simulation featuring pulsatile flow can increase surgical skills and technical quality in a highly
Torensma, Bart; Martini, Chris H.; Boon, Martijn; Olofsen, Erik; in ‘t Veld, Bas; Liem, Ronald S. L.; Knook, Mireille T. T.; Swank, Dingeman J.; Dahan, Albert
Background It remains unknown whether the administration of a deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during bariatric surgery improves surgical conditions and patient outcome. The authors studied the effect of deep versus moderate NMB in laparoscopic bariatric surgery on surgical conditions and postoperative pain. Methods and Results One hundred patients scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery were randomized to a deep NMB (post-tetanic-count 2–3) or a moderate NMB (train-of-four 1–2). The quality of the surgical field was scored using the Leiden-Surgical Rating Scale (L-SRS), a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (extremely poor conditions) to 5 (optimal conditions). Three surgeons scored the L-SRS at 10-min intervals during surgery; postoperative pain scores were obtained in the postanesthesia-care-unit (PACU) and on the ward. Mean (95% confidence interval) L-SRS scores in moderate NMB 4.2 (4.0–4.4) versus 4.8 (4.7–4.9) in deep NMB (p < 0.001). Moderate NMB resulted in 17% of scores at L-SRS scores of 1–3, while deep NMB resulted in 100% scores at the high end of the L-SRS (4–5). Deep NMB led to improved pain scores in the PACU (4.6 (4.2–4.9) versus 3.9 (3.6–4.4), p = 0.03) and reduced shoulder pain on the ward (1.8 (1.5–2.1) versus 1.3 (1.1–1.5), p = 0.03). A composite score of pain and opioid use in the PACU favoured deep NMB (p = 0.001). Conclusions In bariatric surgery, deep relaxation has advantages for surgeon and patient. Compared to moderate NMB, deep NMB produced stable and improved surgical conditions with less postoperative pain. PMID:27936214
Schuetz, Philipp; Huber, Andreas; Müller, Beat; Maisano, Francesco; Taramasso, Maurizio; Moarof, Igal; Obeid, Slayman; Stähli, Barbara E.; Cahenzly, Martin; Binder, Ronald K.; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Kim, Won-Keun; Hamm, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas F.
Background Conventional surgical risk scores lack accuracy in risk stratification of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Elevated levels of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) levels are associated with adverse outcome not only in patients with manifest chronic disease states, but also in the general population. Objectives We investigated the predictive value of MR-proADM for mortality in an unselected contemporary TAVR population. Methods We prospectively included 153 patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVR from September 2013 to August 2014. This population was compared to an external validation cohort of 205 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR. The primary endpoint was all cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 258 days, 17 out of 153 patients who underwent TAVR died (11%). Patients with MR-proADM levels above the 75th percentile (≥ 1.3 nmol/l) had higher mortality (31% vs. 4%, HR 8.9, 95% CI 3.0–26.0, P < 0.01), whereas patients with EuroSCORE II scores above the 75th percentile (> 6.8) only showed a trend towards higher mortality (18% vs. 9%, HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.8–5.6, P = 0.13). The Harrell’s C-statistic was 0.58 (95% CI 0.45–0.82) for the EuroSCORE II, and consideration of baseline MR-proADM levels significantly improved discrimination (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–0.92, P = 0.01). In bivariate analysis adjusted for EuroSCORE II, MR-proADM levels ≥1.3 nmol/l persisted as an independent predictor of mortality (HR 9.9, 95% CI (3.1–31.3), P <0.01) and improved the model’s net reclassification index (0.89, 95% CI (0.28–1.59). These results were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. Conclusions Our study identified MR-proADM as a novel predictor of mortality in patients undergoing TAVR. In the future, MR-proADM should be added to the commonly used EuroSCORE II for better risk stratification of patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis. PMID
Huntley, Colin; Chou, David; Doghramji, Karl; Boon, Maurits
Drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for preoperative evaluation of the specific site and character of upper airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aim to assess the impact DISE has on customizing the surgical plan and evaluate its role in surgical success. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing surgery for OSA. We compared those patients undergoing preoperative DISE to those that did not to assess procedures performed and surgical outcomes. We found 87 patients undergoing surgery for OSA who had postoperative polysomnogram results. Of the group undergoing preoperative DISE, 8% had multilevel surgery. This compared to 59.5% in those not undergoing DISE ( p = .0004). The success rate of patients who had preoperative DISE was 86% compared to 51.4% in those who did not have preoperative DISE ( p < .001). We found no difference in age, gender, preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen nadir, Epworth sleepiness scale score (ESS), body mass index (BMI) and postoperative oxygen nadir, ESS, or BMI in the DISE and no DISE cohorts. The addition of DISE to our preoperative workup has contributed to a decreased rate of multilevel surgery and increased rate of surgical success through identification of the individual patient's OSA architecture and customization of the surgical plan.
Levin, Barry P; Rubinstein, Sergio; Rose, Louis F
Successful dental implant therapy in the maxillary anterior dentition requires meticulous attention to surgical and prosthodontic measures. Proper diagnosis, extraction technique, implant selection, and placement significantly impact outcomes. Respect of hard and soft tissue physiology following tooth loss and implant placement requires specific steps be taken. Management tissue contours properly, via regenerative therapy, results in successful framing of the restoration. Provisionalization and definitive restorative therapy also impacts the level of esthetic success. The contours of the temporary abutment and crown develop soft tissue contours for the final restoration. Overcontouring can lead to soft tissue recession and mucosal asymmetry. Design of the definitive crown(s) is crucial for long-term maintenance of esthetically acceptable results. Visualizing the outcome of treatment prior to its inception, following specific surgical and restorative guidelines, increases the likelihood of success. This article demonstrates the importance of proper surgical and prosthetic principles in achieving esthetic implant results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ganni, Sandeep; Botden, Sanne M B I; Schaap, Dennis P; Verhoeven, Bas H; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J
To establish whether a systematized approach to self-assessment in a laparoscopic surgical skills course improves accordance between expert- and self-assessment. A systematic training course in self-assessment using Competency Assessment Tool was introduced into the normal course of evaluation within a Laparoscopic Surgical Skills training course for the test group (n = 30). Differences between these and a control group (n = 30) who did not receive the additional training were assessed. Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (n = 27), and GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, India (n = 33). Sixty postgraduate year 2 and 3 surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills grade 1 level 1 curriculum were invited to participate. The test group (n = 30) showed better accordance between expert- and self-assessment (difference of 1.5, standard deviation [SD] = 0.2 versus 3.83, SD = 0.6, p = 0.009) as well as half the number (7 versus 14) of cases of overreporting. Furthermore, the test group also showed higher overall mean performance (mean = 38.1, SD = 0.7 versus mean = 31.8, SD = 1.0, p < 0.001) than the control group (n = 30). The systematic approach to self-assessment can be viewed as responsible for this and can be seen as "reflection-before-practice" within the framework of reflective practice as defined by Donald Schon. Our results suggest that "reflection-before-practice" in implementing self-assessment is an important step in the development of surgical skills, yielding both better understanding of one's strengths and weaknesses and also improving overall performance. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in SurgeryThe Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Justin B; Carroll, Cathy; Tenenbaum, Marissa M; Myckatyn, Terence M
The most common cause of surgical readmission after breast implant surgery remains infection. Six causative organisms are principally involved: Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Propionibacterium, and Corynebacterium. The authors investigated the infection patterns and antibiotic sensitivities to characterize their local microbiome and determine ideal antibiotic selection. A retrospective review of 2285 consecutive implant-based breast procedures was performed. Included surgical procedures were immediate and delayed breast reconstruction, tissue expander exchange, and cosmetic augmentation. Patient demographics, chemotherapy and/or irradiation status, implant characteristics, explantation reason, time to infection, microbiological data, and antibiotic sensitivities were reviewed. Forty-seven patients (2.1 percent) required inpatient admission for antibiotics, operative explantation, or drainage by interventional radiology. The infection rate varied depending on surgical procedure, with the highest rate seen in mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction (6.1 percent). The mean time to explantation was 41 days. Only 50 percent of infections occurred within 30 days of the indexed National Surgical Quality Improvement Program operation. The most commonly isolated organisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (27 percent), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (25 percent), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (7 percent), Pseudomonas (7 percent), and Peptostreptococcus (7 percent). All Gram-positive organisms were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, tetracycline, and doxycycline; all Gram-negative organisms were sensitive to gentamicin and cefepime. Empiric antibiotics should be vancomycin (with the possible inclusion of gentamicin) based on their broad effectiveness against the authors' unique microbiome. Minor infections should be treated with tetracycline or doxycycline as a second-line agent. National Surgical Quality
Koishi, Takeshi; Ushiki, Suguru; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Hayashi, Hideki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi
We propose a new projector-based augmented reality (PBAR) system which can project the image of forceps and a surgical target simultaneously for support of laparoscopic surgery. A compensation method of an error arisen from motion of a body is also proposed to improve the quality of the projection images. It is shown that the system is significant for the forceps insertion by the experiments using the dry-box.
Laing, Grant L; Bruce, J L; Clarke, Damian Luiz
We used modern error theory to develop a tick-box admission form for emergency surgical patients. The tick boxes were designed to actively direct care down appropriate clinical algorithms by encouraging staff to make decisions based on recorded clinical data. To audit the effect of these tick-box forms on the quality of documentation and of the resuscitation process. We designed and implemented a standardised tick-box admission form, and audited its impact by comparing 100 emergency surgical admissions before the intervention with 100 thereafter. We assessed the quality of the documentation in both groups and analysed the effect of use of the tick-box admission form and the decision nodes on the clinical behaviour of the admitting clinicians. The introduction of standardised tick-box admission forms dramatically improved the quality of documentation of acute surgical admissions. However, the impact of the decision nodes on clinical behaviour was less obvious. We demonstrated a tendency to cognitive dissonance in that, even though clinicians recorded abnormal physiological data, they did not consistently interpret this information correctly. Although the use of tick-box admission forms improves the quality of documentation, the impact on clinical behaviour is less certain. Quality improvement is a multifactorial endeavour, and without a pervasive culture of patient safety, tick-boxes alone may well be ineffective.
Rogers, David A.; Elstein, Arthur S.; Bordage, Georges
Objective To examine the first decade of experience with minimal access surgery, with particular attention to issues of training surgeons already in practice, and to provide a set of recommendations to improve technical training for surgeons in practice. Summary Background Data Concerns about the adequacy of training in new techniques for practicing surgeons began almost immediately after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The concern was restated throughout the following decade with seemingly little progress in addressing it. Methods A preliminary search of the medical literature revealed no systematic review of continuing medical education for technical skills. The search was broadened to include educational, medical, and psychological databases in four general areas: surgical training curricula, continuing medical education, learning curve, and general motor skills theory. Results The introduction and the evolution of minimal access surgery have helped to focus attention on technical skills training. The experience in the first decade has provided evidence that surgical skills training shares many characteristics with general motor skills training, thus suggesting several ways of improving continuing medical education in technical skills. Conclusions The educational effectiveness of the short-course type of continuing medical education currently offered for training in new surgical techniques should be established, or this type of training should be abandoned. At present, short courses offer a means of introducing technical innovation, and so recommendations for improving the educational effectiveness of the short-course format are offered. These recommendations are followed by suggestions for research. PMID:11176120
Rolston, John D; Han, Seunggu J; Chang, Edward F
The American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) provides a rich database of North American surgical procedures and their complications. Yet no external source has validated the accuracy of the information within this database. Using records from the 2006 to 2013 NSQIP database, we used two methods to identify errors: (1) mismatches between the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code that was used to identify the surgical procedure, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) post-operative diagnosis: i.e., a diagnosis that is incompatible with a certain procedure. (2) Primary anesthetic and CPT code mismatching: i.e., anesthesia not indicated for a particular procedure. Analyzing data for movement disorders, epilepsy, and tumor resection, we found evidence of CPT code and postoperative diagnosis mismatches in 0.4-100% of cases, depending on the CPT code examined. When analyzing anesthetic data from brain tumor, epilepsy, trauma, and spine surgery, we found evidence of miscoded anesthesia in 0.1-0.8% of cases. National databases like NSQIP are an important tool for quality improvement. Yet all databases are subject to errors, and measures of internal consistency show that errors affect up to 100% of case records for certain procedures in NSQIP. Steps should be taken to improve data collection on the frontend of NSQIP, and also to ensure that future studies with NSQIP take steps to exclude erroneous cases from analysis.
from this study that if the fungal infec- 5. Spebar. M. J.. Pruitt. B. A.: Candidiasis in the hurned patient. J. tion can be recognized and surgically excised, the mor- Trauma. 21: 237-239, 1981. .• I’i I/ A,/* Di:; t iA . _
Haskins, I N; Rosen, M J; Prabhu, A S; Amdur, R L; Rosenblatt, S; Brody, F; Krpata, D M
Umbilical hernias present commonly during pregnancy secondary to increased intra-abdominal pressure. As a result, umbilical hernia incarceration or strangulation may affect pregnant females. The purpose of this study is to detail the operative management and 30-day outcomes of umbilical hernias in pregnant patients using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). All female patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair during pregnancy were identified within the ACS-NSQIP. Preoperative patient variables, intraoperative variables, and 30-day patient morbidity and mortality outcomes were investigated using a variety of statistical tests. A total of 126 pregnant patients underwent umbilical hernia repair from 2005 to 2014; 73 (58%) had incarceration or strangulation at the time of surgical intervention. The majority of patients (95%) underwent open umbilical hernia repair. Superficial surgical site infection was the most common morbidity in patients undergoing open umbilical hernia repair. Based on review of the ACS-NSQIP database, the incidence of umbilical hernia repair during pregnancy is very low; however, the majority of patients required repair for incarceration of strangulation. When symptoms develop, these hernias can be repaired with minimal 30-day morbidity to the mother. Additional studies are needed to determine the long-term recurrence rate of umbilical hernia repairs performed in pregnant patients and the effects of surgical intervention and approach on the fetus.
Agnoletti, Vanni; Buccioli, Matteo; Padovani, Emanuele; Corso, Ruggero M; Perger, Peter; Piraccini, Emanuele; Orelli, Rebecca Levy; Maitan, Stefano; Dell'amore, Davide; Garcea, Domenico; Vicini, Claudio; Montella, Teresa Maria; Gambale, Giorgio
European Healthcare Systems are facing a difficult period characterized by increasing costs and spending cuts due to economic problems. There is the urgent need for new tools which sustain Hospitals decision makers work. This project aimed to develop a data recording system of the surgical process of every patient within the operating theatre. The primary goal was to create a practical and easy data processing tool to give hospital managers, anesthesiologists and surgeons the information basis to increase operating theaters efficiency and patient safety. The developed data analysis tool is embedded in an Oracle Business Intelligence Environment, which processes data to simple and understandable performance tachometers and tables. The underlying data analysis is based on scientific literature and the projects teams experience with tracked data. The system login is layered and different users have access to different data outputs depending on their professional needs. The system is divided in the tree profile types Manager, Anesthesiologist and Surgeon. Every profile includes subcategories where operators can access more detailed data analyses. The first data output screen shows general information and guides the user towards more detailed data analysis. The data recording system enabled the registration of 14.675 surgical operations performed from 2009 to 2011. Raw utilization increased from 44% in 2009 to 52% in 2011. The number of high complexity surgical procedures (≥120 minutes) has increased in certain units while decreased in others. The number of unscheduled procedures performed has been reduced (from 25% in 2009 to 14% in 2011) while maintaining the same percentage of surgical procedures. The number of overtime events decreased in 2010 (23%) and in 2011 (21%) compared to 2009 (28%) and the delays expressed in minutes are almost the same (mean 78 min). The direct link found between the complexity of surgical procedures, the number of unscheduled procedures
Background European Healthcare Systems are facing a difficult period characterized by increasing costs and spending cuts due to economic problems. There is the urgent need for new tools which sustain Hospitals decision makers work. This project aimed to develop a data recording system of the surgical process of every patient within the operating theatre. The primary goal was to create a practical and easy data processing tool to give hospital managers, anesthesiologists and surgeons the information basis to increase operating theaters efficiency and patient safety. Methods The developed data analysis tool is embedded in an Oracle Business Intelligence Environment, which processes data to simple and understandable performance tachometers and tables. The underlying data analysis is based on scientific literature and the projects teams experience with tracked data. The system login is layered and different users have access to different data outputs depending on their professional needs. The system is divided in the tree profile types Manager, Anesthesiologist and Surgeon. Every profile includes subcategories where operators can access more detailed data analyses. The first data output screen shows general information and guides the user towards more detailed data analysis. The data recording system enabled the registration of 14.675 surgical operations performed from 2009 to 2011. Results Raw utilization increased from 44% in 2009 to 52% in 2011. The number of high complexity surgical procedures (≥120 minutes) has increased in certain units while decreased in others. The number of unscheduled procedures performed has been reduced (from 25% in 2009 to 14% in 2011) while maintaining the same percentage of surgical procedures. The number of overtime events decreased in 2010 (23%) and in 2011 (21%) compared to 2009 (28%) and the delays expressed in minutes are almost the same (mean 78 min). The direct link found between the complexity of surgical procedures, the number
Montroy, Joshua; Breau, Rodney H.; Cnossen, Sonya; Witiuk, Kelsey; Binette, Andrew; Ferrier, Taylor; Lavallée, Luke T.; Fergusson, Dean A.; Schramm, David
Background The American College of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) is the first nationally validated, risk-adjusted, outcomes-based program to measure and compare the quality of surgical care across North America. Participation in this program may provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of adverse events related to surgery. Study Design A systematic review of the literature was performed. MedLine, EMBASE and PubMed were searched for studies relevant to NSQIP. Patient characteristics, intervention, and primary outcome measures were abstracted. The intervention was participation in NSQIP and monitoring of Individual Site Summary Reports with or without implementation of a quality improvement program. The outcomes of interest were change in peri-operative adverse events and mortality represented by pooled risk ratios (pRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Eleven articles reporting on 35 health care institutions were included. Nine (82%) of the eleven studies implemented a quality improvement program. Minimal improvements in superficial (pRR 0.81; 95% CI 0.72–0.91), deep (pRR 0.82; 95% CI0.64–1.05) and organ space (pRR 1.15; 95% CI 0.96–1.37) infections were observed at centers that did not institute a quality improvement program. However, centers that reported formal interventions for the prevention and treatment of infections observed substantial improvements (superficial pRR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39–0.77; deep pRR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.75, and organ space pRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50–0.71). Studies evaluating other adverse events noted decreased incidence following NSQIP participation and implementation of a formal quality improvement program. Conclusions These data suggest that NSQIP is effective in reducing surgical morbidity. Improvement in surgical quality appears to be more marked at centers that implemented a formal quality improvement program directed at the reduction of specific morbidities. PMID:26812596
Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; Sipaul, Fabian; El Maaytah, Mohammed; Nouraei, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Singh, Sandeep; Hopper, Colin; Wright, Anthony
Background Nasal bleeding remains one of the most common Head & Neck Surgical (Ear Nose and Throat [ENT]/Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery [OMFS]) emergencies resulting in hospital admission. In the majority of cases, no other intervention is required other than nasal packing, and it was felt many cases could ideally be managed at home, without further medical interference. A limited but national telephone survey of accident and emergency departments revealed that early discharge practice was identified in some rural areas and urban departments (where adverse socio-demographic factors resulted in poor patient compliance to admission or follow up), with little adverse patient sequelae. A simple nasal packing protocol was also identified. The aim of this audit was to determine if routine nasal haemorrhage (epistaxis) can be managed at home with simple nasal packing; a retrospective and prospective audit. Ethical committee approval was obtained. Similar practice was identified in other UK accident and emergency centres. Literature was reviewed and best practice identified. Regional consultation and feedback with regard to prospective changes and local applicability of areas of improved practice mutually agreed upon with involved providers of care. Methods Retrospective: The Epistaxis admissions for the previous four years during the same seven months (September to March). Prospective: 60consecutive patients referred with a diagnosis of Nasal bleeding over a seven month time course (September to March). All patients were over 16, not pregnant and gave fully informed counselled consent. New Guidelines for the management of nosebleeds, nasal packing protocols (with Netcel®) and discharge policy were developed at the Hospital. Training of accident and emergency and emergency ENT staff was provided together with access to adequate examination and treatment resources. Detailed patient information leaflets were piloted and developed for use. Results Previously all patients
Brewer, Zachary E; Fann, Hutchinson C; Ogden, W David; Burdon, Thomas A; Sheikh, Ahmad Y
It is speculated that, in operative environments, real-time visualization of the trainee's viewpoint by the instructor may improve performance and teaching efficacy. We hypothesized that introduction of a wearable surgical visualization system allowing the instructor to visualize otherwise "blind" areas in the operative field could improve trainee performance in a simulated operative setting. A total of 11 surgery residents (4 in general surgery training and 7 in an integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgery program) participated in the study. Google (Mountain View, CA) Glass hardware running proprietary software from CrowdOptic (San Francisco, CA) was utilized for creation of the wearable surgical visualization system. Both the learner and trainer wore the system, and video was streamed from the learner's system in real time to the trainer, who directed the learner to place needles in a simulated operative field. Subjects placed a total of 5 needles in each of 4 quadrants. A composite error score was calculated based on the accuracy of needle placement in relation to the intended needle trajectories as described by the trainer. Time to task completion (TTC) was also measured and participants completed an exit questionnaire. All residents completed the protocol tasks and the survey. Introduction of the wearable surgical visualization system did not affect mean time to task completion (278 ± 50 vs. 282 ± 69 seconds, p = NS). However, mean composite error score fell significantly once the wearable system was deployed (18 ± 5 vs. 15 ± 4, p < 0.05), demonstrating improved accuracy of needle placement. Most of the participants deemed the device unobtrusive, easy to operate, and useful for communication and instruction. This study suggests that wearable surgical visualization systems allowing for adoption of the learner's perspective may be a useful educational adjunct in the training of surgeons. Further evaluations of the efficacy of wearable technology in the
Bobadilla, Joseph L; Roe, Cathy S; Estes, Patricia; Lackey, Jennifer; Steltenkamp, Carol L
The implementation of electronic health records is a challenging, complex process requiring significant resources. The temptation is to convert a paper process into electronic format. This strategy fosters a familiar product to the users but is fraught with pitfalls. We chose to utilize the opportunity of the implementation of an enterprise-wide ambulatory electronic health record to foster an overreaching clinical and operational improvement project in a multispecialty surgical ambulatory clinic practice. We interrogated every aspect of the practice: clinic design, scheduling, physical space, staffing, and clinical and operational workflows. We present here the results of a 3-year process improvement.
Atkinson, Katherine M; Westeinde, Jacqueline; Ducharme, Robin; Wilson, Sarah E; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha; Hawken, Steven; Wilson, Kumanan
Mobile applications have the potential to influence vaccination behavior, including on-time vaccination. We sought to determine whether the use of a mobile immunization app was associated with the likelihood of reporting on-time vaccination in a cohort of 50 childbearing women. In this pilot study, we describe participant reported app use, knowledge, attitudes or beliefs regarding pediatric vaccination and technology readiness index (TRI) scores. To explore if app use is associated with change in attitudes, beliefs or behavior, participants were instructed complete a baseline survey at recruitment then download the app. A follow up survey followed 6-months later, reexamining concepts from the first survey as well as collecting participant TRI scores. Changes in Likert scores between pre and post survey questions were compared and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between TRI score and select survey responses. Thirty-two percent of participants perceived that the app made them more likely to vaccinate on time. We found some individuals' attitudes toward vaccines improved, some became less supportive and in others there was no change. The mean participant TRI score was 3.25(IQR 0.78) out of a maximum score of 5, indicating a moderate level of technological adoption among the study cohort population. While the app was well received, these preliminary results showed participant attitudes toward vaccination moved dichotomously. Barriers to adoption remain in both usability and accessibility of mobile solutions, which are in part dependent on the user's innate characteristics such as technology readiness.
Rustemeyer, Jan; Gregersen, Johanne
The objective of this prospective study was to assess changes of Quality of Life (QoL) in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Questionnaires were based on the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP, items OH-1-OH-14) and three additional questions (items AD-1-3), and were completed by patients (n=50; mean age 26.9±9.9 years) on average 9.1±2.4 months before surgery, and 12.1±1.4 months after surgery, using a scoring scale. Item scores describing functional limitation, physical pain, physical disability and chewing function did not change significantly, whereas item scores covering psychological discomfort and social disability domains revealed significant decreases following surgery. AD-2 "dissatisfying aesthetics" revealed the greatest difference between pre- and post-surgical scores (p<0.001). If there was a perception of aesthetic improvement of facial features post-surgery, the benefit in QoL was generally high. The significant correlation of the pre- to post-surgical changes of item OH-5 "self conscious" to nearly all other item changes suggested that OH-5 was the most sensitive indicator for post-surgical improvement of QoL. Psychological factors and aesthetics exerted a strong influence on the patients' QoL, and determined major changes more than functional aspects did. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Kawabata, Yuya; Kataoka, Kota; Kasuyama, Kenta; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4-5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p < 0.05). The HW group also exhibited an increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity at four weeks, compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Drinking HW enhanced the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis.
Waydhas, Christian; Taeger, Georg; Zettl, Ralph; Oberbeck, Reiner; Nast-Kolb, Dieter
Students' knowledge before and preparation for courses with practical skills training or bedside teaching may be insufficient and reduce efficiency of teaching time at the bedside and in skills training. To study the effect of a new curriculum on students' preparation for courses, a quasi-randomized study was conducted. All medical students were included who participated in the surgical examination course during a period of four semesters. In the intervention group, specified topics for every session, a course book describing only those procedures relevant for the course and a foregoing case-based active learning session were introduced as compared to the traditional way of teaching the surgical examination course. For evaluation a questionnaire for the students was used. A total of 614 questionnaires (return rate 79.6%) were included in the analysis. Student as well as teacher preparation significantly improved in the intervention group from 34.8 to 73.6% and 46.1 to 73.0%, respectively. The case-based learning session and the course book were considered helpful by 77.7 and 96.4% of the students, respectively. The introduction of a timetable with specified topics for every session, a course book and a foregoing case-based learning session significantly improved student preparation for the surgical clinical examination course.
Madani, Amin; Watanabe, Yusuke; Townsend, Nicole; Pucher, Philip H; Robinson, Thomas N; Egerszegi, Patricia E; Olasky, Jaisa; Bachman, Sharon L; Park, Chan W; Amin, Nalin; Tang, David T; Haase, Erika; Bardana, Davide; Jones, Daniel B; Vassiliou, Melina; Fried, Gerald M; Feldman, Liane S
Energy devices can result in devastating complications to patients. Yet, they remain poorly understood by trainees and surgeons. A single-institution pilot study suggested that structured simulation improves knowledge of the safe use of electrosurgery (ES) among trainees (Madani et al. in Surg Endosc 28(10):2772-2782, 2014). The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent to which the addition of this structured bench-top simulation improves ES knowledge across multiple surgical training programs. Trainees from 11 residency programs in Canada, the USA and UK participated in a 1-h didactic ES course, based on SAGES' Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy™ (FUSE) curriculum. They were then randomized to one of two groups: an unstructured hands-on session where trainees used ES devices (control group) or a goal-directed hands-on training session (Sim group). Pre- and post-curriculum (immediately and 3 months after) knowledge of the safe use of ES was assessed using separate examinations. Data are expressed as mean (SD) and N (%), *p < 0.05. A total of 289 (145 control; 144 Sim) trainees participated, with 186 (96 control; 90 Sim) completing the 3-month assessment. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Total score on the examination improved from 46% (10) to 84% (10)* for the entire cohort, with higher post-curriculum scores in the Sim group compared with controls [86% (9) vs. 83% (10)*]. All scores declined after 3 months, but remained higher in the Sim group [72% (18) vs. 64% (15)*]. Independent predictors of 3-month score included pre-curriculum score and participation in a goal-directed simulation. This multi-institutional study confirms that a 2-h curriculum based on the FUSE program improves surgical trainees' knowledge in the safe use of ES devices across training programs with various geographic locations and resident volumes. The addition of a structured interactive bench-top simulation component further improved learning.
Cavuoto, Lora A; Hussein, Ahmed A; Vasan, Vivek; Ahmed, Youssef; Durrani, Ayesha; Khan, Saira; Cole, Adam; Wang, Derek; Kozlowski, Justen; Ahmad, Basim; Guru, Khurshid A
To investigate the cognitive and physical workload experienced by each operating room team member for different types of urologic procedures. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, surgical fellows, bedside assistants, circulating nurses, and scrub nurses completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index questionnaire for various urologic robot-assisted surgery procedures. A total of 338 questionnaires from 55 unique individuals were collected. Workload differences by role, type of procedure, and surgery duration were analyzed using analysis of variance for each of the 6 domains of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The effects of trainees' participation on their perceived workload and the workloads of the lead surgeon and bedside assistant were analyzed with correlation. The role of the surgical team was significant for all the scales of workload, and there was a main effect type of surgery on temporal demand and frustration. Frustration was higher for prostatectomy in comparison to cystectomy for the trainee surgeon. On the other hand, it was lower for the anesthesiologist, bedside assistant, and the circulating nurse. There was no effect of procedural complexity on workload. Regardless of surgical complexity, the trainees performed approximately 40% of the procedure without significantly impacting their perceived workload. This study provides an analysis of variations and contributors to workload parameters and serves as a platform to optimize team members' workload during robot-assisted surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Haas, Barbara; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Amaral, Andre C; Coburn, Natalie; Nathens, Avery B
This ethnography explores communication around critically ill surgical patients in three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada. A boundary framework is used to articulate how surgeons', intensivists', and nurses' communication practices shape and are shaped by their respective disciplinary perspectives and experiences. Through 50 hours of observations and 43 interviews, these health care providers are found to engage in seven communication behaviors that either mitigate or magnify three contested symbolic boundaries: expertise, patient ownership, and decisional authority. Where these boundaries are successfully mitigated, experiences of collaborative, high-quality patient care are produced; by contrast, boundary magnification produces conflict and perceptions of unsafe patient care. Findings reveal that high quality and safe patient care are produced through complex social and cultural interactions among surgeons, intensivists, and nurses that are also expressions of knowledge and power. This enhances our understanding of why current quality improvement efforts targeting communication may be ineffective. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Liu, Kevin X; Devine, Christopher A; Chavakula, Vamsidhar; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F
OBJECT Although the length of hospital stay is often used as a measure of quality of care, data evaluating the predictors of extended hospital stay after craniotomy for tumor are limited. The goals of this study were to use multivariate regression to examine which preoperative characteristics and postoperative complications predict a prolonged hospital stay and to assess the impact of length of stay on unplanned hospital readmission. METHODS Data were extracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2007 to 2013. Patients who underwent craniotomy for resection of a brain tumor were included. Stratification was based on length of hospital stay, which was dichotomized by the upper quartile of the interquartile range (IQR) for the entire population. Covariates included patient age, sex, race, tumor histology, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, functional status, preoperative laboratory values, preoperative neurological deficits, operative time, and postoperative complications. Multivariate logistic regression with forward prediction was used to evaluate independent predictors of extended hospitalization. Thereafter, hierarchical multivariate logistic regression assessed the impact of length of stay on unplanned readmission. RESULTS The study included 11,510 patients. The median hospital stay was 4 days (IQR 3-8 days), and 27.7% (n = 3185) had a hospital stay of at least 8 days. Independent predictors of extended hospital stay included age greater than 70 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28%-1.83%, p < 0.001); African American (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.44%-2.14%, p < 0.001) and Hispanic (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.36%-2.08%) race or ethnicity; ASA class 3 (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34%-1.73%) or 4-5 (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.82%-2.62%) designation; partially (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.61%-2.35%) or totally dependent (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.95%-5.55%) functional status; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.16%-1.84%); hematological
Lombardo, Sarah; Baum, Kerry; Filho, Jorge DeAmorim; Nirula, Ram
Celiotomy is the most common approach for refractory small bowel obstruction (SBO). Small reviews suggest that a laparoscopic approach is associated with shorter stay and less morbidity. Given the limitations of previous studies, we sought to evaluate outcomes of laparoscopic (L) compared with open (O) adhesiolysis for SBO, using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Patients from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005 to 2009 database who underwent surgery for SBO were stratified based on surgical approach. A propensity score to undergo L instead of O was calculated based on demographics, comorbidities, physiology, and laboratory values. Logistic regression was then used to determine differences in outcomes between those propensity score-matched patients who actually underwent L compared with O surgery. There were 6,762 patients who underwent adhesiolysis. The propensity score-matching process created 222 matched patients in L and O groups. Laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower rates of any complication (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.60), including superficial site infections (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.49), intraoperative transfusion (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.90), and shorter hospital stay (4 days vs. 10 days; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in operative time, rates of reoperation within 30 days, or mortality. Laparoscopic treatment of SBO is associated with lower rates of postoperative morbidity compared with laparotomy as well as shorter hospital stay. Laparoscopic treatment of surgical SBO is not associated with higher rates of early reoperation and seems to be associated with lower resource use. Therapeutic study, level IV.
Aiken, Alexander M; Wanyoro, Anthony K; Mwangi, Jonah; Juma, Francis; Mugoya, Isaac K; Scott, J Anthony G
In low-income countries, Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is a common form of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method of preventing these infections, if given immediately before the start of surgery. Although several studies in Africa have compared pre-operative versus post-operative prophylaxis, there are no studies describing the implementation of policies to improve prescribing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in African hospitals. We conducted SSI surveillance at a typical Government hospital in Kenya over a 16 month period between August 2010 and December 2011, using standard definitions of SSI and the extent of contamination of surgical wounds. As an intervention, we developed a hospital policy that advised pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and discouraged extended post-operative antibiotics use. We measured process, outcome and balancing effects of this intervention in using an interrupted time series design. From a starting point of near-exclusive post-operative antibiotic use, after policy introduction in February 2011 there was rapid adoption of the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (60% of operations at 1 week; 98% at 6 weeks) and a substantial decrease in the use of post-operative antibiotics (40% of operations at 1 week; 10% at 6 weeks) in Clean and Clean-Contaminated surgery. There was no immediate step-change in risk of SSI, but overall, there appeared to be a moderate reduction in the risk of superficial SSI across all levels of wound contamination. There were marked reductions in the costs associated with antibiotic use, the number of intravenous injections performed and nursing time spent administering these. Implementation of a locally developed policy regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an achievable quality improvement target for hospitals in low-income countries, and can lead to substantial benefits for individual patients and the institution.
O'Hanlon, M; McKenna, C; Carton, E; Diviney, D; Costello, M R; O'Sullivan, L; Fitzsimons, J; Toland, L; Dornikova, G; Curran, R; McCann, C; O'Sullivan, L; Doherty, T; Crowley, C; O'Coigligh, S
Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are used extensively by hospitals as a basis for quality improvement. A 30-day post-discharge SSI programme for Caesarean section operations has been implemented in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital since 2011. It has been shown that skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis are key factors in the prevention of SSI. Using quality improvement methodology, an infection prevention bundle was introduced to address these two factors. Skin antisepsis was changed from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine-alcohol. Compliance with choice of antibiotic prophylaxis increased from 89.6% in 2014 to 98.5% in 2015. Compliance with timing also improved. The SSI rate of 7.5% was the lowest recorded to date, with the majority of SSIs (64%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. The level of variation was also reduced. However, the continued presence of variation and possibility of lower infection rates from the literature imply that further improvements are required.
McCahill, Laurence E; Ahern, John W; Gruppi, Linda A; Limanek, James; Dion, Gail A; Sussman, Jessica A; McCaffrey, Christina B; Leary, Diane B; Lesage, Margaret B; Single, Richard M
The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services instituted standardized reporting of measures aimed at surgical infection prevention (SIP). The complexity and number of medical personnel involved in antibiotic administration requires multiple disciplines to successfully improve compliance. Survey study. Tertiary care university hospital. All patients undergoing the following operations from July 2004 through December 2005 were monitored for compliance with SIP: (1) coronary artery bypass graft, (2) other cardiac, (3) vascular, (4) hysterectomy, (5) colon resection, (6) hip arthroplasty, and (7) knee arthroplasty. A team including a surgeon, an anesthesiologist, nurses (preoperative, operating room, and floor), a pharmacist, a hospital infection control committee member, and quality improvement and operations specialists was created in July 2004. Hospital guidelines for SIP were defined, personnel roles defined and processes standardized, and communication/education for health care professionals was enhanced. Compliance with 3 SIP measures over 3 consecutive periods of 6 months each: (1) percentage of patients receiving antibiotics within 1 hour of incision, (2) percentage of patients with appropriately selected antibiotics, and (3) percentage of patients with antibiotics discontinued within 24 hours of operation end time. One thousand seventy-two patients were monitored. Measure 1 compliance improved from 72.25% to 83.78% (P<.001, Cochran-Armitage trend test); improvement or high performance (>90% compliance) was demonstrated in 5 of 7 services. Measure 2 compliance remained uniformly high (approximately 98%). Measure 3 compliance improved from 54.5% to 87.16% (P<.001); improvement was seen in 5 of 7 services. The clearly defined roles of a cross-disciplinary team and the process improvements discussed in this article can easily be implemented in other institutions. These elements were integral to our success in improving the timely delivery and discontinuation of
McDanel, Deanna L; Azar, Antoine E; Dowden, Amy M; Murray-Bainer, Samantha; Noiseux, Nicolas O; Willenborg, Melissa; Clark, Charles R; Callaghan, John J; Haleem, Ambar
The reliability of patient-reported penicillin allergies has been disputed. A Drug Allergy Clinic (DAC) was established at our institution in combination with an electronic best practice alert (BPA) in the Orthopedic Clinic. Joint arthroplasty patients with a reported history of beta-lactam allergy (HOBA) were preoperatively referred via the BPA to the DAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of beta-lactam allergy screening in enabling the surgical team to optimize antimicrobial prophylaxis. Between February 2013 and May 2015, 161 patients with a HOBA were referred to the DAC where they underwent penicillin skin testing (PST), a drug challenge to a beta-lactam antibiotic, and/or had no intervention depending on the history obtained. PST was performed on 140 of 161 (87%) patients. A negative PST was noted in 139 (99%) patients, indicating no penicillin allergy. Cefazolin was safe to use in 145 (90%) patients evaluated. Significantly more patients evaluated in the DAC vs those not seen got cefazolin in any surgical prophylaxis regimen (90% vs 77%) without any adverse perioperative reactions. Concurrently, the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics was significantly less in the patients evaluated vs not evaluated (16% vs 27%). The overall use of cefazolin in orthopedic surgeries in patients with HOBA was >84% over the course of the study period. Beta-lactam allergy screening using a BPA and a DAC promotes the use of standard surgical prophylaxis with cefazolin. Joint arthroplasty surgeons should consider implementing allergy screening programs to promote antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrod, Philip J J; Awad, Sherif; Redfern, Andrew; Morgan, Linda; Lobo, Dileep N
Up to 30% of surgical inpatients develop complications related to fluid and electrolyte therapy. We sought to study the occurrence of hypo- and hypernatraemia in these patients to inform current standards of care. This prospective audit took place over 80 days in a university hospital. Patients with a serum sodium concentration less than 130 or greater than 150 mmol/l were included. Daily intakes of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-), and fluid balance were recorded before and after development of dysnatraemia. Fluid balance charts were assessed, as was the presence of documented patient weights. Patients were followed up until one of these milestones was reached: normonatraemia, death, or hospital discharge. During the study period 55 (4%) of the 1,383 surgical admissions met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen patients had hypernatraemia, 13 (87%) of whom were identified on ICU/HDU. In the days preceding the hypernatraemia, patients received (in mmol/day) a median (IQR) of 157 (76-344) Na(+), 38 (6-65) K(+), 157 (72-310) Cl(-), and 1.96 (1.13-2.96) L water. In the days preceding the hyponatraemia, patients received 50 (0-189) Na(+), 0 (0-10) K(+), 56 (0-188) Cl(-), and 1.45 (0-2.60) L water. Before the dysnatraemias only 28% of fluid balance charts were completed accurately. During the audit 42% of patients were not weighed. Dysnatraemic patients had a higher hospital mortality rate than those who did not develop dysnatraemia (12.7 vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001). Four percent of surgical inpatients developed dysnatraemias, which were associated with increased mortality. Fluid balance documentation was suboptimal and daily weights were not measured routinely, even in patients with severe electrolyte derangements.
Optical correction is the basis of optometry. Optimized visual quality through optical correction is more challenging and more scientific as visual quality is becoming more closely related to social integration and development. There are many visual quality problems associated with various non-surgical optical correction methods in different aspects and degrees. This article discusses in depth some of the problems regarding optical correction with spectacles for different age groups, from children to seniors. The use of soft contact lenses, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses, and orthokeratology lenses is also evaluated. Moreover, some suggestions and recommendations on promoting visual quality through optical correction are provided.
Harper, C Mark
The practice of sea bathing for its health benefits was popularised by Richard Russell in Regency Brighton during the 18th Century. Although the cures he claimed it could effect seem a little far-fetched today, as with many historical remedies, there is much to be gained from revisiting such theories in the light of modern medical research. In this paper I will draw parallels between the surgical stress response and the response to cold exposure and hypothesise how a programme of sea bathing may be used to enhance postoperative recovery and reduce preoperative complications.
Agodi, Antonella; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Barchitta, Martina; Adornetto, Veronica; Cocuzza, Aldo; Latino, Rosalia; Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Cataldo, Antonio
The aims of the present study were to: (1) assess surgical site infection (SSI) incidence in a cohort of surgical patients and (2) estimate the compliance with national guidelines for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). SSIs, among the most common health care-associated infections, are an important target for surveillance and an official priority in several European countries. SSI commonly complicates surgical procedures in older people and is associated with substantial attributable mortality and costs. The implementation of PAP guidelines is difficult among surgeons, and failure to comply with the standard of care has been widely reported. A 12-month prospective survey was performed in accordance with the methods, protocols, and definitions of the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. The compliance of the current PAP practices with the published national guidelines was assessed. A total of 249 patients were enrolled. The cumulative SSI incidence was 3.2 per 100 operative procedures. Cumulative compliance for PAP was 12.4%. Overall, only infection risk index ≥ 1 was confirmed as a significant risk factor for SSI (odds ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-42.59; P = 0.045). When only older patients (age >65 years) were considered, no significant risk factors for SSI were identified. Our study indicates an overall inadequate compliance with PAP recommendations, thus highlighting the need to develop multimodal and targeted intervention programs to improve compliance with PAP guidelines.
Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437
Kawabori, Masahito; Kuroda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Naoki; Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Tamaki, Nagara
Headache is one of the major clinical presentations in pediatric Moyamoya disease. However, the clinical features and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the clinical feature of headache in pediatric Moyamoya disease and the effect of surgical revascularization. This study included 29 pediatric patients who underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and indirect bypass for Moyamoya disease. Their medical records were precisely evaluated to identify the clinical features of their headache. The findings on magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography also were analyzed. Preoperative headache was documented in 11 (38%) of 29 patients. The majority of them complained of severe headache in the frontal or temporal region in the morning. Headache was significantly related to more advanced disease stage and to the decreases in cerebral blood flow and its reactivity to acetazolamide. Surgical revascularization completely resolved headache in all 11 patients. These findings strongly suggest that disturbed cerebral hemodynamics may play key roles in developing severe headache in pediatric Moyamoya disease. STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranial synangiosis may be effective procedures to rapidly resolve headache by widely supplying collateral blood flow to the operated hemispheres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jia-zi, Shi; Xiao, Zhai; Jun-hui, Li; Chun-yu, Xue; Hong-da, Bi
Abstract Management of large tissue defects resulting from local wide resection of perianal is a clinical challenge for surgeons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) following skin grafting on perianal surgical wound healing. Included in this study were 12 patients with perianal tumors who received skin grafting after perianal tumor resection between December 2012 and December 2014. A self-designed negative pressure drainage device was then applied to maintain a standard negative pressure at −150 mm Hg and removed on day 8 postoperation. The outcome was recorded immediately after NPWT and at 6-month follow-up. All skin grafts survived without infection, hematoma, and necrosis in all 12 patients. No tumor recurrence was detected during 6-month follow-up. Natural folds were observed around the anus. All patients showed normal bowel movements. NPWT following skin grafting was effective for perianal surgical wound healing and infection prevention, thus benefiting anatomical and functional recovery of the anus. PMID:27583890
Vázquez-González, A; Luque-Ramírez, J M; Del Nozal-Nalda, M; Barroso-Gutierrez, C; Román-Fuentes, M; Vilaplana-Garcia, A
To determine the percentage of verification of a Surgical Safety Checklist and improvements made. Quasi-experimental study in 28 Clinical Management Units with surgical activity in the University Hospital Virgen del Rocio (HUVR) and University Hospital Virgen Macarena (HUVM). A situation analysis was made to estimate the completing of a Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC), after which a new system of completing the SSC was introduced as an element of improvement, which included a reusable vinyl board. Subsequently, the prevalence over two periods was calculated, to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. A total 1,964 SSC were reviewed in the HUVR-HUVM in June (baseline), and in December 2013 and June 2014. A percentage completion of 65.8%, 86.2%, and 88% was obtained in the HUVR, and 70.9%, 77.2%, and 75% in the HUVM, respectively. Of these SSC, 15.1% (baseline) were completed entirely in the HUVR, increasing to 36.6% (P<.001), and 89.8% (P<.001) in the last measurement. In the HUVM, 15.6% (baseline) were fully completed, increasing to 18.3% (P=.323), and 29.4% (P=.001) in the last measurement. The percentage of completion of SSC obtained is around 80%, and is similar to that reported in the literature. The re-design of the SSC procedure, including the use of a vinyl board, the designation of SSC coordinator role, and professional staff training, is effective for improve outcomes in terms of completing the SSC, and quality of the completion. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Atkinson, Katherine M.; Westeinde, Jacqueline; Ducharme, Robin; Wilson, Sarah E.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Crowcroft, Natasha; Hawken, Steven; Wilson, Kumanan
ABSTRACT Mobile applications have the potential to influence vaccination behavior, including on-time vaccination. We sought to determine whether the use of a mobile immunization app was associated with the likelihood of reporting on-time vaccination in a cohort of 50 childbearing women. In this pilot study, we describe participant reported app use, knowledge, attitudes or beliefs regarding pediatric vaccination and technology readiness index (TRI) scores. To explore if app use is associated with change in attitudes, beliefs or behavior, participants were instructed complete a baseline survey at recruitment then download the app. A follow up survey followed 6-months later, reexamining concepts from the first survey as well as collecting participant TRI scores. Changes in Likert scores between pre and post survey questions were compared and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between TRI score and select survey responses. Thirty-two percent of participants perceived that the app made them more likely to vaccinate on time. We found some individuals' attitudes toward vaccines improved, some became less supportive and in others there was no change. The mean participant TRI score was 3.25(IQR 0.78) out of a maximum score of 5, indicating a moderate level of technological adoption among the study cohort population. While the app was well received, these preliminary results showed participant attitudes toward vaccination moved dichotomously. Barriers to adoption remain in both usability and accessibility of mobile solutions, which are in part dependent on the user's innate characteristics such as technology readiness. PMID:27322109
Semel, Marcus E; Resch, Stephen; Haynes, Alex B; Funk, Luke M; Bader, Angela; Berry, William R; Weiser, Thomas G; Gawande, Atul A
Use of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist has been associated with a significant reduction in major postoperative complications after inpatient surgery. We hypothesized that implementing the checklist in the United States would generate cost savings for hospitals. We performed a decision analysis comparing implementation of the checklist to existing practice in U.S. hospitals. In a hospital with a baseline major complication rate after surgery of at least 3 percent, the checklist generates cost savings once it prevents at least five major complications. Using the checklist would both save money and improve the quality of care in hospitals throughout the United States.
Robinson, William P; Doucet, Danielle R; Simons, Jessica P; Wyman, Allison; Aiello, Francesco A; Arous, Elias; Schanzer, Andres; Messina, Louis M
Surgical skills and simulation courses are emerging to meet the demand for vascular simulation training for vascular surgical skills, but their educational effect has not yet been described. We sought to determine the effect of an intensive vascular surgical skills and simulation course on the procedural knowledge and self-rated procedural competence of vascular trainees and to assess participant feedback regarding the course. Participants underwent a 1.5-day course covering open and endovascular procedures on high-fidelity simulators and cadavers. Before and after the course, participants completed a written test that assessed procedural knowledge concerning index open vascular and endovascular procedures. Participants also assessed their own procedural competence in open and endovascular procedures on a 5-point Likert scale (1: no ability to perform, 5: performs independently). Scores before and after the course were compared among postgraduate year (PGY) 1-2 and PGY 3-7 trainees. Participants completed a survey to rate the relevance and realism of open and endovascular simulations. Fifty-eight vascular integrated residents and vascular fellows (PGY 1-7) completed the course and all assessments. After course participation, procedural knowledge scores were significantly improved among PGY 1-2 residents (50% correct before vs 59% after; P < .0001) and PGY 3-7 residents (52% correct before vs 63% after; P = .003). Self-rated procedural competence was significantly improved among PGY 1-2 (2.2 ± 0.1 before vs 3.1 ± 0.1 after; P < .0001) and PGY 3-7 (3.0 ± 0.1 before vs 3.7 ± 0.1 after; P ≤ .0001). Self-rated procedural competence significantly improved for both endovascular (2.4 ± 0.1 before vs 3.3 ± 0.1 after; P < .0001) and open procedures (2.7 ± 0.1 before vs 3.5 ± 0.1 after; P < .0001). More than 93% of participants reported they were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the relevance and realism of the open and endovascular simulations
Elsamadicy, Aladine; Reiser, Elizabeth; Ziegler, Cole; Freischlag, Kyle; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A.
Background The primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the complications profile as well as long-term clinical outcomes between patients undergoing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) procedure with and without the use of an intra-operative microscope. Methods One hundred and forty adult patients (non-microscope cohort: 81; microscope cohort: 59) undergoing ACDF at a major academic medical center were included in this study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, surgical and clinical outcome data. All patients had prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients completed the neck disability index (NDI), short-form 12 (SF-12) and visual analog pain scale (VAS) before surgery, then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Clinical outcomes and complication rates were compared between both patient cohorts. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean ± standard deviation duration of surgery was longer in the microscope cohort (microscope: 169±34 minutes vs. non-microscope: 98±42 minutes, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between cohorts in the incidence of nerve root injury (P=0.99) or incidental durotomy (P=0.32). At 3 months post-operatively, both cohorts demonstrated similar improvement in VAS-neck pain (P=0.69), NDI (P=0.86), SF-12 PCS (P=0.84) and SF-12 MCS (P=0.75). At 2-year post-operatively, both the microscope and non-microscope cohorts demonstrated similar improvement from base line in NDI (microscope: 13.52±25.77 vs. non-microscope: 19.51±27.47, P<0.18), SF-12 PCS (microscope: 4.15±26.39 vs. non-microscope: 11.98±22.96, P<0.07), SF-12 MCS (microscope: 9.47±32.38 vs. non-microscope: 16.19±30.44, P<0.21). Interestingly at 2 years, the change in VAS neck pain score was significantly different between cohorts (microscope: 2.22±4.00 vs. non-microscope: 3.69±3.61, P<0.02). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the
Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine; Reiser, Elizabeth; Ziegler, Cole; Freischlag, Kyle; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A
The primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the complications profile as well as long-term clinical outcomes between patients undergoing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) procedure with and without the use of an intra-operative microscope. One hundred and forty adult patients (non-microscope cohort: 81; microscope cohort: 59) undergoing ACDF at a major academic medical center were included in this study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, surgical and clinical outcome data. All patients had prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients completed the neck disability index (NDI), short-form 12 (SF-12) and visual analog pain scale (VAS) before surgery, then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Clinical outcomes and complication rates were compared between both patient cohorts. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean ± standard deviation duration of surgery was longer in the microscope cohort (microscope: 169±34 minutes vs. non-microscope: 98±42 minutes, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between cohorts in the incidence of nerve root injury (P=0.99) or incidental durotomy (P=0.32). At 3 months post-operatively, both cohorts demonstrated similar improvement in VAS-neck pain (P=0.69), NDI (P=0.86), SF-12 PCS (P=0.84) and SF-12 MCS (P=0.75). At 2-year post-operatively, both the microscope and non-microscope cohorts demonstrated similar improvement from base line in NDI (microscope: 13.52±25.77 vs. non-microscope: 19.51±27.47, P<0.18), SF-12 PCS (microscope: 4.15±26.39 vs. non-microscope: 11.98±22.96, P<0.07), SF-12 MCS (microscope: 9.47±32.38 vs. non-microscope: 16.19±30.44, P<0.21). Interestingly at 2 years, the change in VAS neck pain score was significantly different between cohorts (microscope: 2.22±4.00 vs. non-microscope: 3.69±3.61, P<0.02). Our study demonstrates that the intra-operative use of a microscope does
Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; Rathod, Rahul; Yamauchi, Haruo; Gooty, Vasu; Tang, Alexander; Kural, Mehmet H.; Billiar, Kristen L.; Gaudette, Glenn; del Nido, Pedro J.
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot account for the majority of cases with late onset right ventricle (RV) failure. A new surgical procedure placing an elastic band in the right ventricle is proposed to improve RV function measured by ejection fraction. A multiphysics modeling approach is developed to combine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, modeling, tissue engineering and mechanical testing to demonstrate feasibility of the new surgical procedure. Our modeling results indicated that the new surgical procedure has the potential to improve right ventricle ejection fraction by 2–7% which compared favorably with recently published drug trials to treat LV heart failure. PMID:23667272
Shih, Terry; Nicholas, Lauren H; Thumma, Jyothi R; Birkmeyer, John D; Dimick, Justin B
We sought to determine whether the changes in incentive design in phase 2 of Medicare's flagship pay-for-performance program, the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (HQID), reduced surgical mortality or complication rates at participating hospitals. The Premier HQID was initiated in 2003 to reward high-performing hospitals. The program redesigned its incentive structure in 2006 to also reward hospitals that achieved significant improvement. The impact of the change in incentive structure on outcomes in surgical populations is unknown. We examined discharge data for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass (CABG), hip replacement, and knee replacement at Premier hospitals and non-Premier hospitals in Hospital Compare from 2003 to 2009 in 12 states (n = 861,411). We assessed the impact of incentive structural changes in 2006 on serious complications and 30-day mortality. In these analyses, we adjusted for patient characteristics using multiple logistic regression models. To account for improvement in outcomes over time, we used difference-in-difference techniques that compare trends in Premier versus non-Premier hospitals. We repeated our analyses after stratifying hospitals into quintiles according to risk-adjusted mortality and serious complication rates. After restructuring incentives in 2006 in Premier hospitals, there were lower risk-adjusted mortality and complication rates for both cardiac and orthopedic patients. However, after accounting for temporal trends in non-Premier hospitals, there were no significant improvements in mortality for CABG [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.28] or joint replacement (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.58-1.12). Similarly, there were no significant improvements in serious complications for CABG (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.97-1.14) or joint replacement (OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23). Analysis of the "worst" quintile hospitals that were targeted in the incentive structural changes also did not reveal
Berrisford, Richard G; Wilson, Iain H; Davidge, Mike; Sanders, David
There is a significant global burden of preventable morbidity and mortality after surgery caused by avoidable adverse events. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, despite evidence for its efficacy, is not reliably and consistently prescribed, and is currently a serious concern for patient safety. The aim of this study was to prospectively audit errors captured by an extended surgical time out checklist and relate them to the introduction of a safety culture. The use of an extended surgical time out checklist was prospectively audited, in consecutive patients in one operating theatre over a period of two years. Errors captured were analysed and related to other improvements to safety culture; human factors training, debriefing and regular departmental meetings. Time out was performed in 959 patients of 990 (96.8%) undergoing thoracic surgery. Performance was consistent over time. Errors were categorized as VTE prophylaxis (n = 53, 6%), blood products (n = 11), clerical (n = 5), imaging (n = 2) and miscellaneous (n = 2). After a lag period of 15 months, during which the team underwent human factors training, introduced debriefing and escalated VTE prophylaxis to regular departmental meetings, VTE prophylaxis errors were substantially reduced. The temporal relationship between error capture and error elimination is explored. Use of checklists alongside appropriate human factors training, debriefing and regular multidisciplinary communication can substantially improve VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery.
Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M
Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.
Glen, Peter; Earl, Naomi; Gooding, Felix; Lucas, Emily; Sangha, Nicole; Ramcharitar, Steve
Clinical documentation is an integral part of the healthcare professional's job. Good record keeping is essential for patient care, accurate recording of consultations and for effective communication within the multidisciplinary team. Within the surgical department at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon, the case notes were deemed to be bulky and cumbersome, inhibiting effective record keeping, potentially putting patients' at risk. The aim of this quality improvement project was therefore to improve the standard of documentation, the labelling of notes and the overall filing. A baseline audit was firstly undertaken assessing the notes within the busiest surgical ward. A number of variables were assessed, but notably, only 12% (4/33) of the case notes were found to be without loose pages. Furthermore, less than half of the pages with entries written within the last 72 hours contained adequate patient identifiers on them. When assessing these entries further, the designation of the writer was only recorded in one third (11/33) of the cases, whilst the printed name of the writer was only recorded in 65% (21/33) of the entries. This project ran over a 10 month period, using a plan, do study, act methodology. Initial focus was on simple education. Afterwards, single admission folders were introduced, to contain only information required for that admission, in an attempt to streamline the notes and ease the filing. This saw a global improvement across all data subsets, with a sustained improvement of over 80% compliance seen. An educational poster was also created and displayed in clinical areas, to remind users to label their notes with patient identifying stickers. This saw a 4-fold increase (16%-68%) in the labelling of notes. In conclusion, simple, cost effective measures in streamlining medical notes, improves the quality of documentation, facilitates the filing and ultimately improves patient care. PMID:26734440
Glen, Peter; Earl, Naomi; Gooding, Felix; Lucas, Emily; Sangha, Nicole; Ramcharitar, Steve
Clinical documentation is an integral part of the healthcare professional's job. Good record keeping is essential for patient care, accurate recording of consultations and for effective communication within the multidisciplinary team. Within the surgical department at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon, the case notes were deemed to be bulky and cumbersome, inhibiting effective record keeping, potentially putting patients' at risk. The aim of this quality improvement project was therefore to improve the standard of documentation, the labelling of notes and the overall filing. A baseline audit was firstly undertaken assessing the notes within the busiest surgical ward. A number of variables were assessed, but notably, only 12% (4/33) of the case notes were found to be without loose pages. Furthermore, less than half of the pages with entries written within the last 72 hours contained adequate patient identifiers on them. When assessing these entries further, the designation of the writer was only recorded in one third (11/33) of the cases, whilst the printed name of the writer was only recorded in 65% (21/33) of the entries. This project ran over a 10 month period, using a plan, do study, act methodology. Initial focus was on simple education. Afterwards, single admission folders were introduced, to contain only information required for that admission, in an attempt to streamline the notes and ease the filing. This saw a global improvement across all data subsets, with a sustained improvement of over 80% compliance seen. An educational poster was also created and displayed in clinical areas, to remind users to label their notes with patient identifying stickers. This saw a 4-fold increase (16%-68%) in the labelling of notes. In conclusion, simple, cost effective measures in streamlining medical notes, improves the quality of documentation, facilitates the filing and ultimately improves patient care.
Thirukumaran, Caroline Pinto; Dolan, James G; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Panzer, Robert J; Friedman, Bruce
Objective To examine the impact of electronic health record (EHR) deployment on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Data Sources SCIP Core Measure dataset from the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program (March 2010 to February 2012). Study Design One-group pre- and post-EHR logistic regression and difference-in-differences analyses. Principal Findings Statistically significant short-term declines in scores were observed for the composite, postoperative removal of urinary catheter and post–cardiac surgery glucose control measures. A statistically insignificant improvement in scores for these measures was noted 3 months after EHR deployment. Conclusion The transition to an EHR appears to be associated with a short-term decline in quality. Implementation strategies should be developed to preempt or minimize this initial decline. PMID:24965357
Thirukumaran, Caroline Pinto; Dolan, James G; Reagan Webster, Patricia; Panzer, Robert J; Friedman, Bruce
To examine the impact of electronic health record (EHR) deployment on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. SCIP Core Measure dataset from the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program (March 2010 to February 2012). One-group pre- and post-EHR logistic regression and difference-in-differences analyses. Statistically significant short-term declines in scores were observed for the composite, postoperative removal of urinary catheter and post-cardiac surgery glucose control measures. A statistically insignificant improvement in scores for these measures was noted 3 months after EHR deployment. The transition to an EHR appears to be associated with a short-term decline in quality. Implementation strategies should be developed to preempt or minimize this initial decline. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Ferraro, Federica; Piselli, Pierluca; Pittalis, Silvia; Ruscitti, Luca E; Cimaglia, Claudia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Puro, Vincenzo
Surgical site infections (SSI) after caesarean section (CS) represent a substantial health system concern. Surveying SSI has been associated with a reduction in SSI incidence. We report the findings of three (2008, 2011 and 2013) regional active SSI surveillances after CS in community hospital of the Latium region determining the incidence of SSI. Each CS was surveyed for SSI occurrence by trained staff up to 30 post-operative days, and association of SSI with relevant characteristics was assessed using binomial logistic regression. A total of 3,685 CS were included in the study. A complete 30 day post-operation follow-up was achieved in over 94% of procedures. Overall 145 SSI were observed (3.9% cumulative incidence) of which 131 (90.3%) were superficial and 14 (9.7%) complex (deep or organ/space) SSI; overall 129 SSI (of which 89.9% superficial) were diagnosed post-discharge. Only higher NNIS score was significantly associated with SSI occurrence in the regression analysis. Our work provides the first regional data on CS-associated SSI incidence, highlighting the need for a post-discharge surveillance which should assure 30 days post-operation to not miss data on complex SSI, as well as being less labour intensive.
Wu, Weifei; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Chen, Aihua; Wu, Yongde; Yang, Zong
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to visualize peripheral nerves, but the microstructure of compressed nerve roots can be assessed using DTI. However, there are no data regarding the association among microstructural changes evaluated using DTI, the symptoms assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the duration of symptoms after surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Thirty patients with unilateral radiculopathy were investigated using DTI. The changes in the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as well as the correlation between these changes and the severity and duration of the clinical symptoms were investigated before and at least one month after surgery. The FA values were significantly increased after surgical treatment (p < 0.0001). Both the ADC and ODI values were noticeably decreased (p < 0.0001). A strong positive correlation between the preoperative and postoperative DTI parameters (p < 0.0001) as well as between the preoperative ODI and postoperative ODI/ODI changes (p < 0.0001) were found. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the changes in the DTI parameters and changes in the ODI (p < 0.0001). This preliminary study suggests it may be possible to use DTI to diagnose, quantitatively evaluate and follow-up patients with LDH. PMID:28294192
Viceconti, M; Lattanzi, R; Antonietti, B; Paderni, S; Olmi, R; Sudanese, A; Toni, A
The present study is aimed to compare accuracy and the repeatability in planning total hip replacements with the conventional templates on radiographs to that attainable on the same clinical cases when using CT-based planning software. The sizes of the cementless components planned with new computer aided preoperative planning system called Hip-Op and with standard templates were compared to those effectively implanted. The study group intentionally included only difficult clinical cases. The most common aetiology was congenital dysplasia of hip (65.6%). The Hip-Op planning system allowed the surgeons to obtain a preoperative planning more accurate than with templates, especially for the socket. Assuming correct a size planned one calliper above or below that implanted the accuracy increased from 83% for the stem and 69% for the socket when using templates to 86% for the stem and 93% for the socket when using the Hip-Op system. The repeatability of the Hip-Op system was found comparable to that of the template procedure, which is much more familiar to the surgeons. Furthermore, the repeatability of the preoperative planning with the Hip-Op system was consistent between surgeons, independently from their major or minor experience. The study clearly shows the advantages of a three-dimensional computer-based preoperative planning over the traditional template planning, especially when deformed anatomies are involved. The surgical planning performed with the Hip-Op system is accurate and repeatable, especially for the socket and for less experienced surgeons.
Jester; Wittgrove; Clark
BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo bariatric surgery sometimes experience late onset or weight gain, when they lapse into negative eating patterns, which adversely affect weight management. Long-term weight management is a process, with a surgical foundation, and requiring adjunctive strategies for best results. We sought to determine if appetite suppressant medications could be safely incorporated into a comprehensive program of weight management. METHODS: Subjects were at least 18 months postoperative, were accessible for weekly follow-up, and weighed at least 9 kg more than their ideal body weight. Phentermine and fenfluramine were prescribed in combination, at the lowest dose necessary to achieve comfortable appetite suppression. RESULTS: Weight losses ranged from 4.5 to 22.7 kg, over a 12-week course of treatment, corresponding to 8-65% of excess body weight. Most side-effects were minor, and did not require cessation of treatment. Two patients discontinued treatment due to side-effects which were unacceptable to them. CONCLUSION: Phentermine and fenfluramine are a safe and useful adjunct to a comprehensive program of weight management.
van Rijsingen, Margit C J; Vossen, Robin; van Huystee, Barbara E W L; Gorgels, Wim J M J; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P
Due to a rapid increase in the incidence of skin cancer, it seems inevitable that general practitioners (GPs) will play a larger role in skin cancer care. To assess surgical procedures used by GPs in skin tumour management. We performed a retrospective study of 1,898 pathology reports of skin tumours excised by GPs in 2009. In 22.9% no diagnosis was provided on the application form. Mostly, once-off excisions (no preceding biopsy) were performed, 7% of the excised lesions were malignant, and 35% of incisions were incomplete. Excisions in the face and neck region were incomplete in 65.4%; 22% of melanomas were biopsied or shaved. This study underlines the difficulties in skin tumour management in primary care. To stimulate adequate resource use, the number of excisions of benign lesions could be lowered, and pretreatment biopsy in non-melanoma skin cancer management should be encouraged. GPs should be aware of their limitations and consider referral of high-risk malignancies.
Surgical operative performance is currently assessed by audit of morbidity, mortality and, especially in patients with cancer, in terms of long-term outcome. Its chief merit is the identification of problems and sub-optimal results by individual surgeons/centres. There is one aspect of audit that constitutes its intrinsic weakness, the verdict on performance it gives is always retrospective--the problem is identified because of the bad results thrown up by analysis of the data. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that surgeons might exclude patients with potentially curative conditions because of increased operative risk due to co-morbid disease from major surgery because of a fear, conscious or otherwise, of comparative under-performance. There is a methodology in established use by industry that is both prospective and prescriptive in ensuring optimal performance--human reliability assessment (HRA), which can be translated into clinical practice. This paper explains the nature of HRA and reports on its initial use in surgery. PMID:10743422
Ergül, Z; Kulaçoğlu, H; Sen, T; Esmer, A F; Güller, M; Güneri, G; Elhan, A
Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operations in a junior surgical resident's postgraduate training. Short recall courses can improve junior residents' anatomy knowledge and results in better surgical outcomes. We aimed to investigate the effect of a short course on anatomical competency during inguinal hernia repairs. During the first 25 inguinal hernia repairs, two junior residents were asked to identify iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and genital branch of genitofemoral nerves. Then, the residents were given a short recall course by anatomists. Afterwards, the participants were taken into an in-vivo anatomy test again. The same parameters were recorded in another 25 inguinal hernia repairs. In addition to the nerve identification records, case characteristics [body mass index (BMI < or = 25 vs. >25), hernia type (indirect vs. direct), and anesthesia used (general or regional vs. local)] were recorded. Anatomy education had a clear impact on the correct identification rates for the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves. The rates increased from 70% to 90% and above. Correct identification rate for the three nerves together significantly increased from 16 to 52% following anatomy education (P = 0.006). All three nerves were identified with significantly higher success rates after anatomy education. The increase in the success rate for identification of the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve was 4-fold. Short anatomy courses in specific subjects for junior surgical residents given by formal anatomists may be effective during postgraduate education. The benefit obtained in the present study for the inguinal region nerves may be expanded to more important anatomical structures, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerve in a thyroidectomy, or more complex subjects.
Watkins, Terri; Whisman, Lynn; Booker, Pamela
Evaluate continuous vital sign surveillance as a tool to improve patient safety in the medical/surgical unit. Failure-to-rescue is an important measure of hospital quality. Patient deterioration is often preceded by changes in vital signs. However, continuous multi-parameter vital sign monitoring may decrease patient safety with an abundance of unnecessary alarms. Prospective observational study at two geographically disperse hospitals in a single hospital system. A multi-parameter vital sign monitoring system was installed in a medical/surgical unit in Utah and one in Alabama providing continuous display of SpO2, heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate on a central station. Alarm thresholds and time to alert annunciations were set based on prior analysis of the distribution of each vital sign. At the end of 4 weeks, nurses completed a survey on their experience. An average alert per patient, per day was determined retrospectively from the saved vital signs data and knowledge of the alarm settings. Ninety-two per cent of the nurses agreed that the number of alarms and alerts were appropriate; 54% strongly agreed. On average, both units experienced 10·8 alarms per patient, per day. One hundred per cent agreed the monitor provided valuable patient data that increased patient safety; 79% strongly agreed. Continuous, multi-parameter patient monitoring could be performed on medical/surgical units with a small and appropriate level of alarms. Continuous vital sign assessment may have initiated nursing interventions that prevented failure-to-rescue events. Nurses surveyed unanimously agreed that continuous vital sign surveillance will help enhance patient safety. Nursing response to abnormal vital signs is one of the most important levers in patient safety, by providing timely recognition of early clinical deterioration. This occurs through diligent nursing surveillance, involving assessment, interpretation of data, recognition of a problem and meaningful
de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo
The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982
de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo
The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects.
Rohatgi, Nidhi; Loftus, Pooja; Grujic, Olgica; Cullen, Mark; Hopkins, Joseph; Ahuja, Neera
The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a surgical comanagement (SCM) hospitalist program on patient outcomes at an academic institution. Prior studies may have underestimated the impact of SCM due to methodological shortcomings. This is a retrospective study utilizing a propensity score-weighted intervention (n = 16,930) and control group (n = 3695). Patients were admitted between January 2009 to July 2012 (pre-SCM) and September 2012 to September 2013 (post-SCM) to Orthopedic or Neurosurgery at our institution. Using propensity score methods, linear regression, and a difference-in-difference approach, we estimated changes in outcomes between pre and post periods, while adjusting for confounding patient characteristics. The SCM intervention was associated with a significant differential decrease in the proportion of patients with at least 1 medical complication [odds ratio (OR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.96; P = 0.008), the proportion of patients with length of stay at least 5 days (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.67-0.84; P < 0.001), 30-day readmission rate for medical cause (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.81; P < 0.001), and the proportion of patients with at least 2 medical consultants (OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.49-0.63; P < 0.001). There was no significant change in patient satisfaction (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 0.87-1.33; P = 0.507). We estimated average savings of $2642 to $4303 per patient in the post-SCM group. The overall provider satisfaction with SCM was 88.3%. The SCM intervention reduces medical complications, length of stay, 30-day readmissions, number of consultants, and cost of care.
Bauer, Natasha Johan
Novel research has revealed that the relative risk of death increased by 10% and 15% for admissions on a Saturday and Sunday, respectively. With an imminent threat of 7-day services in the National Health Service, including weekend operating lists, handover plays a pivotal role in ensuring patient safety is paramount. This audit evaluated the quality, efficiency, and safety of surgical handover of pre- and postoperative cardiothoracic patients in a tertiary center against guidance on Safe Handover published by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the British Medical Association. A 16-item questionnaire prospectively audited the nature, time and duration of handover, patient details, operative history and current clinical status, interruptions during handover, and difficulties cross-covering specialties over a month. Just over half (52%) of the time, no handover took place. The majority of handovers (64%) occurred over the phone; two-thirds of these were uninterrupted. All handovers were less than 10 minutes in duration. About half of the time, the senior house officer had previously met the registrar involved in the handover, but the overwhelming majority felt it would facilitate the handover process if they had prior contact. Patient details handed over 100% of the time included name, ward, and current clinical diagnosis. A third of the time, the patient's age, responsible consultant, and recent operations or procedures were not handed over, potentially compromising future management due to delays and lack of relevant information. Perhaps the most revealing result was that the overall safety of handover was perceived to be five out of ten, with ten being very safe with no aspects felt to impact negatively on optimal patient care. These findings were presented to the department, and a handover proforma was implemented. Recommendations included the need for a new face-to-face handover. A reaudit will evaluate the effects of these changes.
Lawson, Elise H; Hall, Bruce Lee; Ko, Clifford Y
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the focus of numerous quality improvement initiatives because they are a common and costly cause of potentially preventable patient morbidity. Superficial and deep/organ-space SSIs differ in terms of anatomical location and clinical severity. To identify risk factors that are uniquely predictive of superficial vs deep/organ-space SSIs occurring after colectomy procedures. Retrospective cohort study. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients undergoing colectomy procedures in 2011 were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Colectomy procedures. We compared rates of superficial SSI and deep/organ-space SSI associated with perioperative variables of interest: demographics; preoperative clinical severity, risk factors, and comorbidities and variables related to the hospitalization or procedure. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify risk-adjusted predictors of each SSI type. Among 27 011 patients identified from 305 hospitals, 6.2% developed a superficial SSI and 4.7% developed a deep/organ-space SSI. Risk factors common to the occurrence of both SSI types were identified: open surgery (vs laparoscopic) and current smoker. Risk factors with differential effects on each SSI type included specific postoperative diagnoses, disseminated cancer, and irradiation therapy, which were all associated with increased odds of deep/organ-space SSI only. The graded relationship between increasing body mass index and SSI occurrence appeared to be stronger for superficial SSI. Risk factors for superficial SSI and deep/organ-space SSI vary in terms of magnitude and significance, suggesting that these SSI types are somewhat different disease processes. Groups interested in preventing SSIs might improve success by considering these SSI types independently for root-cause analyses and development of best practices and interventions.
Huang, Daoxiang; Lin, Chao; Wen, Xuejun; Gu, Shuying; Zhao, Peng
This study aims to develop a novel device with nanofiber membrane capable of sustained release of temozolomide (TMZ) and neuron growth factor (NGF). An improved bio-availability of TMZ and NGF in surroundings proximal to the device was expected to be attained for a prolonged period of time. The device was developed by integrating TMZ-doped polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber (TP) membrane and NGF-coated PCL (NGFP) membrane using sodium alginate hydrogel. TP was prepared by direct electrospinning of TMZ/PCL. NGFP membrane was developed by layer-by-layer assembling technology. The incorporation of TMZ-doped nanofiber and NGFP nanofiber in the device was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The number of NGF layer in NGF-coated PCL membrane could be readily measured with energy spectrum analysis. The in vitro release study showed that TP-NGFP-TP membrane could efficiently liberate TMZ to inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells, and sufficient NGF to induce the differentiation of PC12 neuron cells over four weeks. Such TP-NGFP-TP membrane device can be employed as a tampon to fill up surgical residual cavity and afford residual glioma removal, structural support, hemostasis, and local neural tissue reconstruction in the surgical treatment of glioma. The study opens a horizon to develop multifunctional biomaterial device for maximized glioma treatment efficacy. PMID:27548322
Huang, Daoxiang; Lin, Chao; Wen, Xuejun; Gu, Shuying; Zhao, Peng
This study aims to develop a novel device with nanofiber membrane capable of sustained release of temozolomide (TMZ) and neuron growth factor (NGF). An improved bio-availability of TMZ and NGF in surroundings proximal to the device was expected to be attained for a prolonged period of time. The device was developed by integrating TMZ-doped polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber (TP) membrane and NGF-coated PCL (NGFP) membrane using sodium alginate hydrogel. TP was prepared by direct electrospinning of TMZ/PCL. NGFP membrane was developed by layer-by-layer assembling technology. The incorporation of TMZ-doped nanofiber and NGFP nanofiber in the device was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The number of NGF layer in NGF-coated PCL membrane could be readily measured with energy spectrum analysis. The in vitro release study showed that TP-NGFP-TP membrane could efficiently liberate TMZ to inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells, and sufficient NGF to induce the differentiation of PC12 neuron cells over four weeks. Such TP-NGFP-TP membrane device can be employed as a tampon to fill up surgical residual cavity and afford residual glioma removal, structural support, hemostasis, and local neural tissue reconstruction in the surgical treatment of glioma. The study opens a horizon to develop multifunctional biomaterial device for maximized glioma treatment efficacy.
Raparla, Neha; Davis, Diane; Shumaker, Daria; Kumar, Anagha; Hafiz, Shabnam; Sava, Jack; Adams, Katie; Fitzgibbons, Shimae C
Inter-professional collaboration is an integral component of a successful healthcare team. We sought to evaluate the impact of nursing student participation in a one-day intensive inter-professional education (IPE) training session with surgical interns on participant attitudes toward inter-professional collaboration. Following IRB approval, pre and post IPE session survey responses were compared to determine the impact on participant attitudes toward inter-professional collaboration. Pre and post session semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analyzed to identify relevant themes. Surgical interns (n = 38) more than nursing students (n = 11), demonstrated a measurable improvement in attitude towards 'collaboration and shared education' (interns: median score pre = 26, post = 28, p = 0.0004; nursing student: median score pre = 27, post = 28, p = 0.02). Qualitative analysis of interviews identified major themes that supplemented this finding. An eight hour, one day IPE session has a positive impact on collaborative attitudes and supports the case for increased inter-professional education amongst interns and nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lorenzo, Cobianchi; Andrea, Peloso; Barbara, Vischioni; Denis, Panizza; Rosaria, Fiore Maria; Piero, Fossati; Viviana, Vitolo; Alberto, Iannalfi; Mario, Ciocca; Brugnatelli, Silvia; Tommaso, Dominioni; Bugada, Dario; Marcello, Maestri; Mario, Alessiani; Francesca, Valvo; Roberto, Orecchia; Paolo, Dionigi
Sacral chordoma (SC) is a neoplasm arising from residual notochordal cells degeneration. SC is difficult to manage mainly because of anatomic location and tendency to extensive spread. Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is highly precise to selectively deliver high biological effective dose to the tumor target sparing the anatomical structure on its path even if when SC is contiguous to the intestine, and a surgical spacer might be an advantageous tool to create a distance around the target volume allowing radical curative dose delivery with a safe dose gradient to the surrounding organs. This paper describes a double approach-open and hand-assisted laparoscopic-for a silicon spacer placement in patients affected by sacral chordoma undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy. Six consecutive patients have been enrolled for surgical spacer placement-open (three) or hand-assisted (three)-prior carbon ion radiotherapy treatment in order to increase efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy minimizing its side effects. Results showed that silicon spacer placement for SC treatment is feasible both via laparoscopic and laparotomic approach. Its use might improve CIRT safety and thus efficacy for SC treatment.
Paxton, Elizabeth W.; Fisher, David; Li, Robert A.; Barber, Thomas C.; Singh, Jasvinder A.
This study compared the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgical outcomes of patients who had bariatric surgery prior to TJA to TJA patients who were candidates but did not have bariatric surgery. Patients were retrospectively grouped into: Group 1 (n=69), those with bariatric surgery >2 years prior to TJA, Group 2 (n=102), those with surgery within 2 years of TJA, and Group 3 (n=11,032), those without bariatric surgery. In Group 1, 2.9% (95%CI 0.0–6.9%) had complications within 1 year compared to 5.9% (95%CI 1.3–10.4%) in Group 2, and 4.1% (95%CI 3.8–4.5%) in Group 3. 90-day readmission (7.2%, 95%CI 1.1–13.4%) and revision density (3.4/100 years of observation) was highest in Group 1. Bariatric surgery prior to TJA may not provide dramatic improvements in post-operative TJA surgical outcomes. PMID:24674730
Berger, Nicholas G; Chou, Raymond; Toy, Elliot S; Ludwig, Kirk A; Ridolfi, Timothy J; Peterson, Carrie Y
Enhanced recovery pathways have decreased length of stay after colorectal surgery. Loop ileostomy closure remains a challenge, because patients experience high readmission rates, and validation of enhanced recovery pathways has not been demonstrated. This study examined a protocol whereby patients were discharged on the first postoperative day and instructed to advance their diet at home with close telephone follow-up. The hypothesis was that patients can be safely discharged the day after loop closure, leading to shorter length of stay without increased rates of readmission or complications. Patients undergoing loop ileostomy closure were queried from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and compared with a single institution (2012-2015). Length of stay, 30-day readmission, and 30-day morbidity data were analyzed. The study was conducted at a tertiary university department. The study includes 1602 patients: 1517 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database and 85 from a single institution. Length of stay and readmission rates were measured. Median length of stay was less at the single institution compared with control (2 vs 4 d; p < 0.001). Thirty-day readmission (15.3% vs 10.4%; p = 0.15) and overall 30-day complications (15.3% vs 16.7%; p = 0.73) were similar between cohorts. Estimated adjusted length of stay was less in the single institution (2.93 vs 5.58 d; p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the odds of readmission (p = 0.22). The main limitations of this study include its retrospective nature and limitations of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Next-day discharge with protocoled diet advancement and telephone follow-up is acceptable after loop ileostomy closure. Patients can benefit from decreased length of stay without an increase in readmission or complications. This has the potential to change the practice of postoperative management of loop ileostomy closure, as
Salem, Shebl E; Proudman, Chris J; Archer, Debra C
Perioperative lidocaine treatment is commonly used in horses that undergo surgical treatment of colic, to prevent or treat postoperative ileus and reduce the effects of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury. However, its clinical efficacy has not been evaluated in a large population of horses undergoing small intestinal surgery. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether systemic lidocaine administration reduced the prevalence, volume and duration of postoperative reflux and improved rates of survival following surgical treatment of small intestinal lesions. Data were collected as a part of two prospective studies investigating postoperative survival of surgical colic patients admitted to a UK equine referral hospital during the periods 2004-2006 and 2012-2014. Kaplan-Meier plots of cumulative probability of survival and the log-rank test were used to compare survival between horses that did or did not receive lidocaine. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the total reflux volume and duration of reflux between the groups. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify pre- and intraoperative risk factors for non-survival. Data from 318 horses were included in the final analysis. The overall prevalence of postoperative reflux was 24.5 %. This was significantly higher (34.8 %) in horses admitted in 2012-2014 compared to the 2004-2006 cohort (16.7). Perioperative lidocaine treatment had no effect on total reflux volume, duration of reflux or rates of postoperative survival nor was it a risk factor associated with altered postoperative survival. Variables identified to be associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality included packed cell volume on admission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03 95 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.004-1.06, p = 0.024), heart rate on admission (HR 1.014, 95 % CI 1.004-1.024, p =0.008) and duration of surgery (HR 1.007, 95 % CI 1.002-1.01, p = 0.008). Lidocaine therapy had no
Jacups, Susan P; Newman, Denise; Dean, Deborah; Richards, Ann; McConnon, Kate M
On a background of high rates of severe otitis media (OM) with associated hearing loss, children from the Torres Strait and Cape York region requiring ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, faced waiting times exceeding three years. After numerous clinical safety incidents were raised, indicating a failure of the current system to deliver appropriate care, the governing Hospital and Health service opted to deliver surgical care through an alternate process. ENT surgeries were performed on 16 consented children from two remote locations via the private health care system, funded by a health provider partnership. We examined the collaboration processes alongside clinical findings from this ENT surgery. Collated patient data, included patient demographics, clinical and audiometry presentation features were reviewed and compared pre and post-operatively. Cost savings associated with the use of TeleHealth post-operatively were briefly examined. Surgeries were successfully completed in all 16 children. The reported mean waitlist time for ENT surgery was 1.2 years. Pre-surgery pure-tone average hearing thresholds were reported at left: 30.9 dB, right: 38.2 dB. The majority of presentations were for bilateral OM with Effusion (69%). Post-surgical follow up indicated successful clinical outcomes in 80% of patients and successful hearing outcomes in 88% of patients. Mean difference pure-tone average hearing thresholds, left: 8.4 dB and right: 11.2 dB. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported improved hearing and breathing. The use of TeleHealth for post-operative review enabled a minimum cost saving of AUD$21,664 for these 16 children. Overall, a high level of staffing resources was required to successfully coordinate this intense surgical activity. This innovative approach to a health system crisis enabled successful ENT surgical and hearing outcomes in 16 children, whose waitlisted time grossly exceeded state health recommendations. Using private health facilities
Dunn, B E; Choi, H; Almagro, U A; Recla, D L; Krupinski, E A; Weinstein, R S
To determine whether diagnostic concordance, case deferral rate, and/or time required to review slides changed significantly as telepathologists gained additional experience using a hybrid dynamic/store-and-forward (HDSF) telepathology (TP) system on the 2000 cases following an initial 200 consecutive surgical cases, previously reported. Gross surgical pathology specimens were prepared by specially trained personnel in Iron Mountain, Michigan. For TP, glass slides were placed on the stage of a robotic microscope at the Iron Mountain VAMC (remote site); control of the motorized microscope was then transferred to a pathologist located 220 miles away at the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, VAMC (host site). For each case, a telepathologist had the option of either rendering a diagnosis or deferring the case for later analysis by conventional light microscopy (LM). After the slides were read by TP and a surgical pathology report had been generated (for nondeferred cases), the slides were transported to Milwaukee, where they were reexamined by the same pathologist, now using LM. When there was disagreement between the TP and LM diagnosis, a supplemental or revised report was issued, and the referring physician was notified by telephone immediately. All supplemental and revised reports were reviewed by a third pathologist in the group. The slides were then reviewed by the pathology group practice or, when there was no consensus, by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology to establish a "truth" diagnosis. To determine changes in telepathologist performance with experience after the initial start-up of the service, their performance in handling 10 consecutive sets of 200 surgical pathology cases was analyzed. Concordance rates for clinically significant TP and LM diagnoses were high for all 10 sets, ranging from 99% to 100%. Comparing the first set (Cases 201-400) with the last set (Cases 2001-2200), viewing times per case were reduced from 10.26 min to 3. 58 min. Viewing times per
Inge, Thomas H; Miyano, Go; Bean, Judy; Helmrath, Michael; Courcoulas, Anita; Harmon, Carroll M; Chen, Mike K; Wilson, Kimberly; Daniels, Stephen R; Garcia, Victor F; Brandt, Mary L; Dolan, Lawrence M
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, all well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Surgical weight loss has resulted in a marked reduction of these risk factors in adults. We hypothesized that gastric bypass would improve parameters of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eleven adolescents who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at 5 centers were included. Anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical measures and surgical complications were analyzed. Similar measures from 67 adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated medically for 1 year were also analyzed. Adolescents who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were extremely obese (mean BMI of 50 +/- 5.9 kg/m(2)) with numerous cardiovascular risk factors. After surgery there was evidence of remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus in all but 1 patient. Significant improvements in BMI (-34%), fasting blood glucose (-41%), fasting insulin concentrations (-81%), hemoglobin A1c levels (7.3%-5.6%), and insulin sensitivity were also seen. There were significant improvements in serum lipid levels and blood pressure. In comparison, adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were followed during 1 year of medical treatment demonstrated stable body weight (baseline BMI: 35 +/- 7.3 kg/m(2); 1-year BMI: 34.9 +/- 7.2 kg/m(2)) and no significant change in blood pressure or in diabetic medication use. Medically managed patients had significantly improved hemoglobin A1c levels over 1 year (baseline: 7.85% +/- 2.3%; 1 year: 7.1% +/- 2%). Extremely obese diabetic adolescents experience significant weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Improvements in insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and cardiovascular risk factors support Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as an intervention that improves the health of these adolescents. Although the long-term efficacy of Roux
Chang, Dong-Gune; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lim, Dong-Ju; Ha, Kee-Yong; Suk, Se-Il
A retrospective comparative study. To evaluate the shoulder balance resulting from the correction of double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) comparing rod derotation (RD) with direct vertebral rotation (DVR) and RD only after pedicle screw instrumentations. This is the first report on the effect of DVR on the shoulder balance using segmental pedicle screw instrumentation in the treatment of double thoracic AIS with minimum 5-year follow-up. Patients with double thoracic AIS (n = 57) were treated by fusing both thoracic curves with RD and DVR (n=35), or RD (n=22) methods and retrospectively studied with a minimum 5 years of follow-up. In the RD with DVR group, the preoperative proximal thoracic curve of 40.2° improved to 17.9° postoperatively and 19.9° at the last follow-up. In the RD group, the preoperative proximal thoracic curve of 37.5° improved to 22.4° postoperatively and 23.2° at the last follow-up. In the RD with DVR group, the preoperative distal thoracic curve of 56.6° improved to 16.1° postoperatively and 16.7° at the last follow-up. In the RD group, the preoperative distal thoracic curve of 50.6° improved to 17.8° postoperatively and 18.2° at the last follow-up. In the RD with DVR group, the average preoperative shoulder height difference of 16.3 mm had improved to 7.2 mm postoperatively and was 7.0 mm at the last follow-up. In the RD group, the average preoperative shoulder height difference of 15.1 mm had changed to 7.5 mm postoperatively and was 7.3 mm at the last follow-up. Shoulder balance had not significantly improved even with additional correction method of DVR using segmental pedicle screw instrumentation in double thoracic AIS. The proximal thoracic curve was rigid and corrected less in both groups. Therefore, less correction of the distal thoracic curve effectively achieves better shoulder balance. 3.
Brekke, Andrew; Elfenbein, Dawn M; Madkhali, Tariq; Schaefer, Sarah C; Shumway, Cindy; Chen, Herbert; Schneider, David F; Sippel, Rebecca S; Balentine, Courtney
Little is known about care coordination and communication with outpatient endocrine surgery patients. This study evaluated phone calls between office nurses and surgical patients to identify common issues addressed and their effect on patient care. Qualitative analysis of preoperative and postoperative phone conversations between office nurses and endocrine surgery patients. We identified 183 thyroidectomy patients with 38% contacting our office before surgery and 54% within 30 days after surgery. Common reasons for preoperative calls included questions about preoperative evaluation (21%), medications (18%), and insurance and/or work paperwork (12%). Postoperatively, common topics included medications (23%), laboratory results (23%), and concerns about wounds (12%). Nursing staff prevented unnecessary readmission in 7 patients (4%) whereas appropriately referring 16 (9%) for early evaluation. Patients frequently contact their surgeons before and after endocrine surgery cases. Our findings suggest several areas for improving communication with patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moreno, Mauricio A; Lewin, Jan S; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Bishop Leone, Julie K; Barringer, Denise A; Reece, Gregory P
We describe a minimally invasive surgical technique, tracheostomaplasty, to overcome anatomical deformities of the stoma that preclude successful retention of a stoma button for hands free tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 21 patients who underwent tracheostomaplasty after laryngectomy to accommodate an intraluminal valve attachment for hands-free TE speech. Sixteen men and 5 women (median age, 65 years; median follow-up, 27.7 months) underwent tracheostomaplasty; 6 patients developed a mild cellulitis that required therapy and 5 patients required a minor revision surgery. At last follow-up, 15 (71%) patients successfully achieved hands-free TE speech using an intraluminal stoma button. Three patients only retained the intraluminal device to facilitate digital occlusion. Tracheostomaplasty failed in 3 patients because of granulation tissue formation or stomal stenosis. Tracheostomaplasty is a successful technique to improve intraluminal retention of a stoma button for hands-free TE speech in laryngectomy patients.
Buchanan, R A; Rigney, E D; Williams, J M
The influence of nitrogen-ion implantation on the wear-accelerated corrosion behavior of surgical Ti-6Al-4V was studied. Nonpassivated and prepassivated unimplanted Ti-6Al-4V specimens were employed as controls for comparison. Corrosion rates as a function of time at open-circuit corrosion potentials were electrochemically measured in saline and serum solutions under both static and wear conditions. The wear parameters simulated those of a total artificial hip under average walking conditions. The results indicated that prepassivation of the control material was beneficial under static-corrosion conditions, but not under wear-corrosion conditions. The nitrogen-ion implantation process was found to significantly improve the material's resistance to wear-accelerated corrosion in both saline and serum solutions.
Scalise, Alessandro; Calamita, Roberto; Tartaglione, Caterina; Pierangeli, Marina; Bolletta, Elisa; Gioacchini, Matteo; Gesuita, Rosaria; Di Benedetto, Giovanni
Advances in preoperative care, surgical techniques and technologies have enabled surgeons to achieve primary closure in a high percentage of surgical procedures. However, often, underlying patient comorbidities in addition to surgical-related factors make the management of surgical wounds primary closure challenging because of the higher risk of developing complications. To date, extensive evidence exists, which demonstrate the benefits of negative pressure dressing in the treatment of open wounds; recently, Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (INPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ (KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX) and Pico (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA) systems has been the focus of a new investigation on possible prophylactic measures to prevent complications via application immediately after surgery in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. A systematic review was performed to evaluate INPWT's effect on surgical sites healing by primary intention. The primary outcomes of interest are an understanding of INPWT functioning and mechanisms of action, extrapolated from animal and biomedical engineering studies and incidence of complications (infection, dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, skin and fat necrosis, skin and fascial dehiscence or blistering) and other variables influenced by applying INPWT (re-operation and re-hospitalization rates, time to dry wound, cost saving) extrapolated from human studies. A search was conducted for published articles in various databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus Database from 2006 to March 2014. Supplemental searches were performed using reference lists and conference proceedings. Studies selection was based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and data extraction regarding study quality, model investigated, epidemiological and clinical characteristics and type of surgery, and the outcomes were applied to all the articles included. 1 biomedical engineering study, 2 animal studies, 15
Dolan, R.; Broadbent, P.
Objectives Ward round documentation provides one of the most important means of communication between healthcare professionals. We aimed to establish if the use of a problem based standardised proforma can improve documentation in acute surgical receiving. Methods Gold standards were established using the RCSE record keeping guidelines. We audited documentation for seven days using the following headings: patient name/identification number, subjective findings, objective findings, clinical impression/diagnosis, plan, diet status, discharge decision, discharge planning, signature, and grade. After the initial audit cycle, a ward round proforma was introduced using the above headings and re-audited over a seven day period. Results The pre-intervention arm contained 50 patients and the post intervention arm contained 47. The following headings showed an improvement in documentation compliance to 100%: patient name/identification number vs 96%, subjective findings vs 84%, objective findings vs 48%, plan vs 98%, signature vs 96%, and grade vs 62%. Documentation of the clinical impression/diagnosis improved to 98% vs 30%, diet status rose to 83% vs 16%, discharge decision to 66% vs 16%, and discharge planning to 40% vs 20%. Conclusions Standardised proformas improve the documentation of post-take ward round notes. This helps to clarify the onward management plan for all aspects of a patient's care and will help avoid adverse events and litigation. This should improve the quality and safety of Patient Care. PMID:26858834
Dolan, R; Broadbent, P
Ward round documentation provides one of the most important means of communication between healthcare professionals. We aimed to establish if the use of a problem based standardised proforma can improve documentation in acute surgical receiving. Gold standards were established using the RCSE record keeping guidelines. We audited documentation for seven days using the following headings: patient name/identification number, subjective findings, objective findings, clinical impression/diagnosis, plan, diet status, discharge decision, discharge planning, signature, and grade. After the initial audit cycle, a ward round proforma was introduced using the above headings and re-audited over a seven day period. The pre-intervention arm contained 50 patients and the post intervention arm contained 47. The following headings showed an improvement in documentation compliance to 100%: patient name/identification number vs 96%, subjective findings vs 84%, objective findings vs 48%, plan vs 98%, signature vs 96%, and grade vs 62%. Documentation of the clinical impression/diagnosis improved to 98% vs 30%, diet status rose to 83% vs 16%, discharge decision to 66% vs 16%, and discharge planning to 40% vs 20%. Standardised proformas improve the documentation of post-take ward round notes. This helps to clarify the onward management plan for all aspects of a patient's care and will help avoid adverse events and litigation. This should improve the quality and safety of Patient Care.
Tortora, Giuseppe; Glass, Paul; Wood, Nathan; Aksak, Burak; Menciassi, Arianna; Sitti, Metin; Riviere, Cameron
HeartLander is a medical robot proposed for minimally invasive epicardial intervention on the beating heart. To date, all prototypes have used suction to gain traction on the epicardium. Gecko-foot-inspired micro-fibers have been proposed for repeatable adhesion to surfaces. In this paper, a method for improving the traction of HeartLander on biological tissue is presented. The method involves integration of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives on the inner surfaces of the suction chambers of HeartLander. Experiments have been carried out on muscle tissue ex vivo assessing the traction performance of the modified HeartLander with bio-inspired adhesive. The adhesive fibers are found to improve traction on muscle tissue by 57.3 %.
Reznick, David; Niazov, Lora; Holizna, Eric; Siperstein, Allan
The goal of this study was to examine how industrial process improvement techniques could help streamline the preoperative workup. Lean process improvement was used to streamline patient workup at an endocrine surgery service at a tertiary medical center utilizing multidisciplinary collaboration. The program consisted of several major changes in how patients are processed in the department. The goal was to shorten the wait time between initial call and consult visit and between consult and surgery. We enrolled 1,438 patients enrolled in the program. The wait time from the initial call until consult was reduced from 18.3 ± 0.7 to 15.4 ± 0.9 days. Wait time from consult until operation was reduced from 39.9 ± 1.5 to 33.9 ± 1.3 days for the overall practice and to 15.0 ± 4.8 days for low-risk patients. Patient cancellations were reduced from 27.9 ± 2.4% to 17.3 ± 2.5%. Overall patient flow increased from 30.9 ± 5.1 to 52.4 ± 5.8 consults per month (all P < .01). Utilizing process improvement methodology, surgery patients can benefit from an improved, streamlined process with significant reduction in wait time from call to initial consult and initial consult to surgery, with reduced cancellations. This generalized process has resulted in increased practice throughput and efficiency and is applicable to any surgery practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bihorac, Azra; Brennan, Meghan; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Bozorgmehri, Shahab; Efron, Philip A.; Moore, Frederick A.; Segal, Mark S; Hobson, Charles E
Objective In a single-center cohort of surgical patients we assessed the association between postoperative change in serum creatinine (sCr) and adverse outcomes and compared the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP)’s definition for acute kidney injury (NSQIP-AKI) with consensus RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney) and KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) definitions. Design Retrospective single center cohort. Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Patients 27,841 adult patients with no previous history of chronic kidney disease undergoing major surgery. Intervention RIFLE defines AKI as change in sCr greater than or equal to 50% while KDIGO uses 0.3 mg/dl change from the reference sCr. Since NSQIP defines AKI as sCr change > 2mg/dl, it may underestimate the risk associated with less severe AKI. Measurements The optimal discrimination limits (ODL) for both percent and absolute sCr changes were calculated by maximizing sensitivity and specificity along the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for postoperative complications and mortality. Main Results Although prevalence of RIFLE-AKI was 37%, only 7% of RIFLE-AKI patients would be diagnosed with AKI using the NSQIP definition. In multivariable logistic models patients with RIFLE or KDIGO-AKI had a 10 times higher odds of dying compared to patients without AKI. The ODLs for change in sCr associated with adverse postoperative outcomes were as low as 0.2 mg/dl while the NSQIP discrimination limit of 2.0 mg/dl had low sensitivity (0.05 – 0.28). Conclusion Current ACS NSQIP definition underestimates the risk associated with mild and moderate AKI otherwise captured by the consensus RIFLE and KDIGO criteria. PMID:23928835
Rostami, Rezvan; Mittal, Shivam Om; Radmand, Reza; Jabbari, Bahman
Cancer patients who undergo surgery or radiation can develop persistent focal pain at the site of radiation or surgery. Twelve patients who had surgery or radiation for local cancer and failed at least two analgesic medications for pain control were prospectively enrolled in a research protocol. Patients were injected up to 100 units of incobotulinum toxin A (IncoA) intramuscularly or subcutaneously depending on the type and location of pain (muscle cramp or neuropathic pain). Two patients passed away, one dropped out due to a skin reaction and another patient could not return for the follow up due to his poor general condition. All remaining 8 subjects (Age 31–70, 4 female) demonstrated significant improvement of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (3 to 9 degrees, average 3.9 degrees) and reported significant satisfaction in Patients’ Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC) (7 out of 8 reported the pain as much improved). Three of the 8 patients reported significant improvement of quality of life. PMID:26771640
Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Jigong; Zhu, Zhenan; Dai, Kerong; Zhao, Jie
A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch and knee flexion during standing in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases and to examine the effects of surgical correction of the PI-LL mismatch on knee flexion. Only several studies focused on knee flexion as a compensatory mechanism of the PI-LL mismatch. Little information is currently available on the effects of lumbar correction on knee flexion in patients with the PI-LL mismatch. A group of patients with lumbar degenerative diseases were divided into PI-LL match group (PI-LL ≤ 10°) and PI-LL mismatch group (PI-LL > 10°). A series of radiographic parameters and knee flexion angle (KFA) were compared between the two groups. The PI-LL mismatch group was further subdivided into operative and nonoperative group. The changes in KFA with PI-LL were examined. The PI-LL mismatch group exhibited significantly greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic tilt (PT) and KFA, and smaller LL, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sacral slope than the PI-LL match group. PI-LL, LL, PI, SVA, and PT were significantly correlated with KFA in the PI-LL mismatch group. From baseline to 6-month follow-up, all variables were significantly different in the operative group with the exception of PI, although there was no significant difference in any variable in the nonoperative group. The magnitude of surgical correction in the PI-LL mismatch was significantly correlated with the degree of spontaneous changes in KFA, PT, and TK. The PI-LL mismatch would contribute to compensatory knee flexion during standing in patients with lumbar degenerative disease. Surgical correction of the PI-LL mismatch could lead to a spontaneous improvement of compensatory knee flexion. The degree of improvement in knee flexion depends in part on the amount of correction in the PI-LL mismatch. 3.
Lipiski, Miriam; Arras, Margarete; Jirkof, Paulin; Cesarovic, Nikola
Balanced anesthesia allows for a reduced dosage of each component, while inducing general anesthesia of sufficient depth with potentially fewer side effects. Here, we compare two anesthetic protocols combining sevoflurane anesthesia with pre-medication (ketamine [K] or fentanyl-midazolam [FM]) to a sevoflurane monoanesthesia (S) concerning their ability to provide reliable anesthesia suitable for moderate surgery in laboratory mice. Twenty-one female C57BL/6J mice assigned randomly to one of three protocols underwent a 50-min anesthesia and a sham embryo transfer. Heart rate and core body temperature were continuously recorded by telemetry intra-operatively and for three days pre- and three days post-surgery. Intra-operative respiratory rate was determined by counting thorax movements. Body weight, food, and water intake were measured daily for three days pre- and three days post-surgery. The heart rate in the KS group remained at baseline level throughout the 50-min of anesthesia and surgery. FMS caused a lower heart rate and S alone caused a higher heart rate compared to baseline values. Intra-operative body temperature was at baseline levels in all groups. A decreased respiratory rate was observed in all groups compared to baseline values obtained from resting mice of the same strain, sex and age-distribution. Surgical stimuli induced no significant changes in heart rate and respiratory rate in the KS or FMS group but significant respiratory alteration in the S group compared to baseline values obtained 10 s before applying the stimulus. Post-operative heart rate was above baseline values in all groups; with a significant deviation in the S group. There were no changes in body weight, food, and water intake. In summary, FMS was superior to KS and S for moderate surgery in laboratory mice resulting in less inter-individual variability in response to painful stimuli. Fentanyl and midazolam reduced the depressant effect of sevoflurane on the respiratory rate and
Puvaneswaralingam, Shobitha; Ross, Daniella
Transferring patients from the ward of their specialty or consultant is described as boarding. 1 Boarding patients is becoming increasingly prevalent due to greater pressure on hospital capacity. This practice compromises patient safety through delayed investigations, prolonged hospital stays, and increased risk of hospital-acquired infections. 1 2 We evaluated how regularly boarded patients were reviewed, and how effectively information regarding their management was communicated from their primary specialty to ward staff. We aimed to improve the frequency of patient reviews by ensuring that each patient was reviewed every weekday and increase communication between primary specialty, and medical and nursing teams by 20% from baseline during the data collection period. The project was based in the Otolaryngology ward in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, where there was a high prevalence of boarded patients. Baseline data showed a clear deficit in communication between the primary specialty and ward staff with only 31% of patient reviews being communicated to ward doctors. We designed and implemented a communication tool, in the form of a sticker, to be inserted into patients' medical notes for use by the primary specialty. Implementation of the sticker improved communication between teams as stickers were completed in 93% of instances. In 88% of patient reviews, the junior doctor was informed of the management plan, showing a large increase from baseline. Through PDSA cycles, we aimed to increase the sustainability and reliability of the sticker; however, we faced challenges with sustainability of sticker insertion. We aim to engage more stakeholders to raise awareness of the problem, brainstorm solutions together, and review the production and implementation of stickers with senior hospital management to discuss the potential use of this tool within practice. There is potentially a large scope for utilisation of this communication tool on a local level, which we hope
Puvaneswaralingam, Shobitha; Ross, Daniella
Transferring patients from the ward of their specialty or consultant is described as boarding. 1 Boarding patients is becoming increasingly prevalent due to greater pressure on hospital capacity. This practice compromises patient safety through delayed investigations, prolonged hospital stays, and increased risk of hospital-acquired infections. 1 2 We evaluated how regularly boarded patients were reviewed, and how effectively information regarding their management was communicated from their primary specialty to ward staff. We aimed to improve the frequency of patient reviews by ensuring that each patient was reviewed every weekday and increase communication between primary specialty, and medical and nursing teams by 20% from baseline during the data collection period. The project was based in the Otolaryngology ward in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, where there was a high prevalence of boarded patients. Baseline data showed a clear deficit in communication between the primary specialty and ward staff with only 31% of patient reviews being communicated to ward doctors. We designed and implemented a communication tool, in the form of a sticker, to be inserted into patients' medical notes for use by the primary specialty. Implementation of the sticker improved communication between teams as stickers were completed in 93% of instances. In 88% of patient reviews, the junior doctor was informed of the management plan, showing a large increase from baseline. Through PDSA cycles, we aimed to increase the sustainability and reliability of the sticker; however, we faced challenges with sustainability of sticker insertion. We aim to engage more stakeholders to raise awareness of the problem, brainstorm solutions together, and review the production and implementation of stickers with senior hospital management to discuss the potential use of this tool within practice. There is potentially a large scope for utilisation of this communication tool on a local level, which we hope
Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; El-Tinay, Omer F; Khairy, Gamal A; Mofti, Safdar S; Anjum, Muhammad N
To improve the psychometric properties of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and elevate staff motivation. The OSCE was conducted in May 2006 at the Department of Surgery, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as a pilot study for 95 students split over 2 consecutive days lasting 120 minutes each day. There were 15 actual stations on each day consisting of 10 stations that addressed problem solving skills, and 5 addressed clinical skills testing. The stability of the OSCE measured by Cronbach's alpha on day one was 0.87, and 0.88 on day 2. The internal consistency of the OSCE measured by Carmine's theta on day one was 0.76, and 0.79 on day 2. Overall, OSCE's reliability for each day was high (r=0.8), without a significant difference between the 2 days. Credibility and comprehensiveness of the the OSCE were considered good by both staff and students. Accuracy of the OSCE measured by Pearson's correlation with multiple choice question scores was 0.65. Feasibility of the OSCE has also improved remarkably compared with previous OSCEs. The OSCE proved to be highly reliable, and a valid format when more problem solving skills testing has been emphasized for the final year surgical clerkship. Feasibility has also improved remarkably after using this strategy, marked by more staff participation and enthusiasm.
Elena, Beretta; Andrea, Franzini; Roberto, Cordella; Vittoria, Nazzi; Grazia, Valentini Laura; Angelo, Franzini
Secondary intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome associated with the reduction of the cerebrospinal fluid volume and dural continuity violation. The main symptoms are orthostatic headache associated with nausea, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness and tinnitus. The treatment is usually non-specific. The authors describe the case of a 37-years-old woman who developed secondary intracranial hypotension caused by lumbosacral iatrogenic dural ectasia following de-tethering surgery. An orthostatic headache was the mainstay of her clinical picture and it was confirmed by intracranial pressure monitoring. Conservative treatment including spinal blood patch improved symptoms for a limited amount of time (less than 1 month). Altered compliance of the dural spinal sac was suspected. Therefore thecal sac remodeling by placing autologous fat at the level of the dural ectasia was performed improving the symptoms for 2 years. Volumetric reduction of the epidural space may be considered as a valuable therapeutic option in case of intracranial hypotension that is unresponsive to medical treatments and spinal blood patch, and when an altered compliance of the dural sac is hypothesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Mikuma, N; Sato, Y; Yokoo, A; Adachi, H
We report our experience of urinary reconstruction with ileal neobladder, and nerves-paring radical cystoprostatectomy or radical prostatectomy in an attempt to improve quality of life (QOL) in patients following surgery. While the ileal neobladder is not always indicated for patients who require cystectomy for invasive bladder carcinoma, voiding through the urethra in this urinary reconstruction contributes to improvement of post-cystectomy QOL. Daytime continence is achieved in 90% of patients. However, nighttime incontinence was found in 30%, which indicates a need for further refinement of the operative procedures or more investigations into the mechanism of continence in this condition. Recovery of erectile function following nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy or prostatectomy was found in 50% of the patients who received this procedure. Subjective and objective erectile capacity before operation partly determine post-operative erectile function. Several patients whose post-operative erectile function was recovered had not had sexual intercourse after surgery. Anxiety about the disease, still inadequate penile rigidity and a non-cooperative attitude of the sexual partner were involved in the results, suggesting that more careful care and counseling before and after operation are required.
Novais, Eduardo N; Heyworth, Benton E; Stamoulis, Caterina; Sullivan, Kristen; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo
The surgical dislocation of the hip (SDH) approach has gained popularity in the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) secondary to pediatric hip disorders. However, it has been suggested that SDH may preclude a return to previous levels of function in athletes. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the level of activity and pain in young athletes before and after open hip surgery through an SDH approach for the treatment of FAI; (2) to investigate how clinical improvement correlates with physical activity; (3) to determine whether articular cartilage injury and the complexity of surgical procedures are associated with improvement in activity level and pain. SDH was utilized in 29 young athletes treated for symptomatic FAI (20 males 9 females, age range 12.7 to 20.7 years (mean age, 17 y)). Evaluation included sport(s) played, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) physical activity level, and clinical outcome in terms of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)-Pain scores. Intraoperative articular cartilage status and anteroposterior pelvic and lateral hip radiographs were assessed. All patients had regularly participated in one or more of 13 distinct sports. The median UCLA score increased with marginal significance (P=0.057) after surgery. Change in the level of pain from preoperatively to postoperatively, as measured by the WOMAC-Pain subscale, was found to be statistically significant (P=0.0024). A statistically significant correlation between changes in UCLA and WOMAC was estimated (ρ=-0.61, P≤0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between change in UCLA and the addition of a second procedure other than femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty. Finally, no statistically significant correlation was found between severity of cartilage injury and change in UCLA or WOMAC scores. The femoral α-angle improved an average of 22.7 degrees (P<0.001) after surgery. Pain relief and maintenance or
Müller-Stich, Beat P; Löb, Nicole; Wald, Diana; Bruckner, Thomas; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Kadmon, Martina; Büchler, Markus W; Fischer, Lars
Three-dimensional (3D) presentations enhance the understanding of complex anatomical structures. However, it has been shown that two dimensional (2D) "key views" of anatomical structures may suffice in order to improve spatial understanding. The impact of real 3D images (3Dr) visible only with 3D glasses has not been examined yet. Contrary to 3Dr, regular 3D images apply techniques such as shadows and different grades of transparency to create the impression of 3D.This randomized study aimed to define the impact of both the addition of key views to CT images (2D+) and the use of 3Dr on the identification of liver anatomy in comparison with regular 3D presentations (3D). A computer-based teaching module (TM) was used. Medical students were randomized to three groups (2D+ or 3Dr or 3D) and asked to answer 11 anatomical questions and 4 evaluative questions. Both 3D groups had animated models of the human liver available to them which could be moved in all directions. 156 medical students (57.7% female) participated in this randomized trial. Students exposed to 3Dr and 3D performed significantly better than those exposed to 2D+ (p < 0.01, ANOVA). There were no significant differences between 3D and 3Dr and no significant gender differences (p > 0.1, t-test). Students randomized to 3D and 3Dr not only had significantly better results, but they also were significantly faster in answering the 11 anatomical questions when compared to students randomized to 2D+ (p < 0.03, ANOVA). Whether or not "key views" were used had no significant impact on the number of correct answers (p > 0.3, t-test). This randomized trial confirms that regular 3D visualization improve the identification of liver anatomy.
Khullar, Shelley M.; Brodin, P.; Barkvoll, P.; Haanoes, H. R.
The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage following removal of 3rd molar teeth or saggital split osteotomy has been reported as high as up to 5.5% and 100% respectively. Sensory aberrations in the IAN persisting for longer than 6 months leave some degree of permanent defect. Low level laser treatment (LLL) has a reported beneficial effect on regeneration of traumatically injured nerves. The purpose of this double blind clinical trial was to examine the effects of LLL using a GaAlAs laser (820 nm, Ronvig, Denmark) on touch and temperature sensory perception following a longstanding post surgical IAN injury. Thirteen patients were divided into two groups, one of which received real LLL (4 by 6 J per treatment along the distribution of the IAN to a total of 20 treatments during a time period between 36 - 69 days) and the other equivalent placebo LLL. The degree of mechanoreceptor injury as assessed by Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (North Coast Medical, USA) were comparable in the two groups prior to treatment (p equals 0.9). Subsequent to LLL the real laser treatment group showed a significant improvement in mechanoreceptor sensory testing (p equals 0.01) as manifested by a decrease in load threshold (g) necessary to elicit a response from the most damaged area. The placebo LLL group showed no significant improvement, In addition, the real LLL group reported a subjective improvement in sensory function too. The degree of thermal sensitivity disability as assessed using a thermotester (Philips, Sweden) was comparable between the two groups prior to LLL p equals 0.5). However, there was no significant improvement in thermal sensitivity post LLL for either the real or placebo laser treated groups. In conclusion, GaAlAs LLL can improve mechanoreceptor perception in longstanding sensory aberration in the IAN.
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...
Taylor, Lauren J; Nabozny, Michael J; Steffens, Nicole M; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Brasel, Karen J; Johnson, Sara K; Zelenski, Amy; Rathouz, Paul J; Zhao, Qianqian; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Campbell, Toby C; Schwarze, Margaret L
Although many older adults prefer to avoid burdensome interventions with limited ability to preserve their functional status, aggressive treatments, including surgery, are common near the end of life. Shared decision making is critical to achieve value-concordant treatment decisions and minimize unwanted care. However, communication in the acute inpatient setting is challenging. To evaluate the proof of concept of an intervention to teach surgeons to use the Best Case/Worst Case framework as a strategy to change surgeon communication and promote shared decision making during high-stakes surgical decisions. Our prospective pre-post study was conducted from June 2014 to August 2015, and data were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. The data were drawn from decision-making conversations between 32 older inpatients with an acute nonemergent surgical problem, 30 family members, and 25 surgeons at 1 tertiary care hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. A 2-hour training session to teach each study-enrolled surgeon to use the Best Case/Worst Case communication framework. We scored conversation transcripts using OPTION 5, an observer measure of shared decision making, and used qualitative content analysis to characterize patterns in conversation structure, description of outcomes, and deliberation over treatment alternatives. The study participants were patients aged 68 to 95 years (n = 32), 44% of whom had 5 or more comorbid conditions; family members of patients (n = 30); and surgeons (n = 17). The median OPTION 5 score improved from 41 preintervention (interquartile range, 26-66) to 74 after Best Case/Worst Case training (interquartile range, 60-81). Before training, surgeons described the patient's problem in conjunction with an operative solution, directed deliberation over options, listed discrete procedural risks, and did not integrate preferences into a treatment recommendation. After training, surgeons using Best Case/Worst Case clearly presented a choice between
Taylor, Lauren J; Nabozny, Michael J; Steffens, Nicole M; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Brasel, Karen J; Johnson, Sara K; Zelenski, Amy; Rathouz, Paul J.; Zhao, Qianqian; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Campbell, Toby C; Schwarze, Margaret L
Importance Although many older adults prefer to avoid burdensome interventions with limited ability to preserve their functional status, aggressive treatments, including surgery, are common near the end of life. Shared decision making is critical to achieve value-concordant treatment decisions and minimize unwanted care. However, communication in the acute inpatient setting is challenging. Objective To evaluate the proof of concept of an intervention to teach surgeons to use the Best Case/Worst Case framework as a strategy to change surgeon communication and promote shared decision making during high-stakes surgical decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants Our prospective pre-post study was conducted from June 2014 to August 2015 and data were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. The data were drawn from decision-making conversations between 32 older inpatients with an acute nonemergent surgical problem, 30 family members, and 25 surgeons at 1 tertiary care hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. Intervention A 2-hour training session to teach each study-enrolled surgeon to use the Best Case/Worst Case communication framework. Main Outcome and Measures We scored conversation transcripts using OPTION 5, an observer measure of shared decision making, and used qualitative content analysis to characterize patterns in conversation structure, description of outcomes and deliberation over treatment alternatives. Results The study participants were patients aged 68 to 95 years (n=32), 44% of whom had 5 or more comorbid conditions; family members of patients (n=30); and surgeons (n=17). The median OPTION 5 score improved from 41 pre-intervention (interquartile range 26–66) to 74 after Best Case/Worst Case training (interquartile range 60–81). Before training, surgeons described the patient’s problem in conjunction with an operative solution, directed deliberation over options, listed discrete procedural risks and did not integrate preferences into a treatment
Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Jolly, Shruti
Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.
Bhayani, Neil H.; Hyder, Omar; Frederick, Wayne; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolgang, Christopher L.; Hirose, Kenzo; Edil, Barish; Herman, Joseph M.; Choti, Michael A.; Pawlik, Timothy M.
Background The problem of obesity has risen to epidemic levels in the United States. A subset of patients with obesity will have metabolic syndrome. We sought to examine the impact of metabolic syndrome on the risk of morbidity and mortality among a large cohort of patients who underwent hepatic resection. Methods Patients included in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset who underwent hepatic resection between January 2005 and December 2008 were identified. Data on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, operative details, as well as postoperative complications and mortality were collected and analyzed. Patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 who also had hypertension and diabetes were defined as having metabolic syndrome. Results A total of 3,973 patients who underwent a liver resection were identified. Overall mean body mass index was 28 kg/m2; 31.7% patients were obese (>30 kg/m2). Of the patients who were obese, 256 (20%) had metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome were less likely to have had a major hepatectomy (≥hemi-hepatectomy, 36% vs 43%; P = .01) but had a greater mean number of red blood cell transfusions (1.6 vs 1; P = .02). The incidence of postoperative complications after hepatectomy was 23%. Patients with metabolic syndrome had a greater risk for reintubation (odds ratio [OR] 1.9; P = .02), >48 hours ventilator dependence (OR 2.0; P = .003), myocardial infarction (OR 5.5; P = .01) and superficial surgical-site infections (OR 1. 7; P = .02) compared with nonmetabolic patients. Overall postoperative mortality was 3 %. Metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of postoperative death (OR 2.7; P = .001). Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with a greater risk of perioperative complications. In addition, patients with metabolic syndrome had greater than a 2-fold increased risk of death after hepatic resection. PMID:22828143
Kunze, Kyle N.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Prachand, Vivek N.
Thirteen percent of the world's population suffers from obesity and 39% from being overweight, which correlates with an increase in numerous secondary metabolic complications, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and results in significant weight loss and the amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities through changes in enteroendocrine activity, caloric intake, and alterations in gut microbiota composition. The circadian system has recently been found to be a critical regulatory component in the control of metabolism and, thus, may potentially play an important role in inappropriate weight gain. Indeed, some behaviors and lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of obesity are also risk factors for misalignment in the circadian clock system and for the metabolic syndrome. It is thus possible that alterations in peripheral circadian clocks in metabolically relevant tissues are a contributor to the current obesity epidemic. As such, it is plausible that postsurgical alterations in central circadian alignment, as well as peripheral gene expression in metabolic tissues may represent another mechanism for the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery may represent an opportunity to identify changes in the circadian expression of clock genes that have been altered by environmental factors, allowing for a better understanding of the mechanism of action of surgery. These studies could also reveal an overlooked target for behavioral intervention to improve metabolic outcomes following bariatric surgery. PMID:27465735
Dearani, Joseph A; Neirotti, Rodolfo; Kohnke, Emily J; Sinha, Kingshuk K; Cabalka, Allison K; Barnes, Roxann D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Cushing, John C
This article reviews a systematic approach to the design and support of pediatric cardiac surgery programs in the developing world with the guidance and strategies of Children's HeartLink, an experienced non-government organization for more than 40 years. An algorithm with criteria for the selection of a partner site is outlined. A comprehensive education strategy from the physician to the allied health care provider is the mainstay for successful program development. In a partner program, the road to successful advancement and change depends on many factors, such as government support, hospital administration support, medical staff leadership, and a committed and motivated faculty with requisite skills, incentives, and resources. In addition to these factors, it is essential that the development effort includes considerations of environment (eg, governmental support, regulatory environment, and social structure) and health system (elements related to affordability, access, and awareness of care) that impact success. Partner programs should be willing to initiate a clinical database with the intent to analyze and critique their results to optimize quality assurance and improve outcomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arbos, M A; Ferrando, J M; Quiles, M T; Vidal, J; López-Cano, M; Gil, J; Manero, J M; Peña, J; Huguet, P; Schwartz-Riera, S; Reventós, J; Armengol, M
Prosthetic meshes are used as the standard of care in abdominal wall hernia repair. However, hernia recurrences and side effects remain unsolved problems. The demand by health care providers for increasingly efficient and cost-effective surgery encourages the development of newer strategies to improve devices and outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether l-arginine administration was able to ameliorate long-term polypropylene prostheses incorporation into the abdominal wall of Sprague-Dawley rats. Meshes were placed on-lay and continuous l-arginine was administered. In vivo biocompatibility was studied at 7, 25 and 30 days post-implantation. Effectively, l-arginine administration in combination with mesh triggered subtle changes in ECM composition that impinged on critical biochemical and structural features. Lastly, tensile strength augmented and stiffness decreased over the control condition. This could help to restructure the mechanical load transfer from the implant to the brittle surrounding tissues, i.e., impact load and fatigue load associated with mechanical tensions could be distributed between the mesh and the restored tissue in a more balanced manner, and ultimately help to reduce the incidence of loosening, recurrences, and local wound complications. Since the newly formed tissue is more mechanically stable, this approach could eventually be introduced to human hernia repair.
Background Rats are widely used in modeling orthotopic lung transplantation. Recently the introduction of the cuff technique has greatly facilitated the anastomosing procedure used during the transplant. However, the procedure is still associated with several drawbacks including twisting of blood vessels, tissue injury and the extensive time required for the procedure. This study was performed to optimize the model of rat lung transplantation (LT) with the cuff technique. Methods A total of 42 adult Lewis rats received orthotopic LT with our newly modified procedures. The modified procedures were based on the traditional procedure and incorporated improvements involving orotracheal intubation; a cuff without a tail; conservative dissection in the hilum; preservation of the left lung during anastomosis; successive anatomizing of the bronchus, the pulmonary vein, and the pulmonary artery; and one operator. Results Transplants were performed in 42 rats with a successful rate of 95.23% (40/42). The mean duration for the complete procedure was 82.93 ± 14.56 minutes. All anastomoses were completed in one attempt without vessel laceration, twisting or angulation. In our study, two animals died within three days and one animal died ten days after the operation. All grafts were well inflated with robust blood perfusion and functioned normally as demonstrated by blood gas analysis. Conclusions We have developed a modified orthotopic LT technique that can be easily performed while overcoming major drawbacks. The modified technique has many advantages, such as easy graft implanting, shortened operation time, fewer complications and high reproducibility. PMID:23295132
El Chaar, Maher; Claros, Leonardo; Ezeji, George C; Miletics, Maureen; Stoltzfus, Jill
The number of laparoscopic bariatric procedures being performed in the USA has increased dramatically in the past decade. Because of limited health-care resources, hospital administrators and insurance carriers are placing emphasis on length of stay and patient outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a clinical pathway in managing patients undergoing bariatric surgery in a Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) accredited center. The setting was a university hospital in USA. A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on patients undergoing bariatric surgery at St Luke's University was performed. Patients included underwent either a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric Bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Patients were subjected to a clinical protocol and discharged when discharge criteria were met. The primary outcomes were length of stay, 30 day readmission, complication, and reoperation rates. A cost analysis of the savings accrued was also performed. Two hundred twenty-nine patients were included in our analysis (80.4% females and 19.6% males). Seventy-one patients (31%) underwent LSG, and 158 patients (69%) underwent LRYGB. The average length of stay was 32.45 h (range 24-72 h). The 30-day readmission rate was 3.0% (7/229 patients). The 30 day complication rate (including intervention, reintubation, and reoperation) was 2.6% (6/229). The 30 day mortality rate was 0. The average prospective cost savings were $2,016 and $1,209 per LRYGB and LSG patient, respectively. Our bariatric surgery clinical protocol is feasible and safe with substantial prospective cost savings at St Luke's University and Health Network. Patients subjected to our protocol have low readmission and complication rates. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the benefit of this innovative new protocol in bariatric surgery.
Archer, Kristin R; Motzny, Nicole; Abraham, Christine M; Yaffe, Donna; Seebach, Caryn L; Devin, Clinton J; Spengler, Dan M; McGirt, Matthew J; Aaronson, Oran S; Cheng, Joseph S; Wegener, Stephen T
Fear of movement is a risk factor for poor postoperative outcomes in patients following spine surgery. The purposes of this case series were: (1) to describe the effects of a cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy (CBPT) intervention in patients with high fear of movement following lumbar spine surgery and (2) to assess the feasibility of physical therapists delivering cognitive-behavioral techniques over the telephone. Eight patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar degenerative condition completed the 6-session CBPT intervention. The intervention included empirically supported behavioral self-management, problem solving, and cognitive restructuring and relaxation strategies and was conducted in person and then weekly over the phone. Patient-reported outcomes of pain and disability were assessed at baseline (6 weeks after surgery), postintervention (3 months after surgery), and at follow-up (6 months after surgery). Performance-based outcomes were tested at baseline and postintervention. The outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory, Oswestry Disability Index, 5-Chair Stand Test, and 10-Meter Walk Test. Seven of the patients demonstrated a clinically significant reduction in pain, and all 8 of the patients had a clinically significant reduction in disability at 6-month follow-up. Improvement on the performance-based tests also was noted postintervention, with 5 patients demonstrating clinically meaningful change on the 10-Meter Walk Test. The findings suggest that physical therapists can feasibly implement cognitive-behavioral skills over the telephone and may positively affect outcomes after spine surgery. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the results of this case series and the efficacy of the CBPT intervention. Clinical implications include broadening the availability of well-accepted cognitive-behavioral strategies by expanding implementation to physical therapists and through a telephone delivery model.
Edelman, Eric R; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; de Korte, Marcel J M; van Merode, Godefridus G; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A
For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT). We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT). TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related benefits.
Williams, J.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Rigney, E.D. Jr.
The effects of ion implantations of either nitrogen or carbon on the corrosive-wear performance of surgical Ti-6A1-4V alloy were investigated. In vitro tests made use of an apparatus which could produce certain chemical and mechanical aspects of a sliding interface such as that which occurs between alloy and polyethylene components of an artificial hip (or knee) joint. Cylindrical samples of the Ti alloy were rotated between loaded, conforming pads made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) while these test components were immersed either in a saline solution or a saline solution with bovine serum added. During the tests open-circuit corrosion currents for the alloy were measured by the Tafel extrapolation technique. Profilometry studies were done before and after the tests. Alloy samples implanted with either nitrogen or carbon remained as-new for all test conditions. Unimplanted control samples were severely scored. Corrosion currents as measured under the mechanical action were reduced by a factor of approximately one hundred by the ion implantation treatments. It is concluded that nitrogen or carbon ion implantation produces a marked improvement in the corrosive wear performance of the alloy in these tests. It is inferred that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism of material removal. In addition, apparently owing to reduction of wear debris in the sliding interface, ion treatment of the alloy greatly improves wear performance of the mating UHMWPE component. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Khalafvand, S S; Zhong, L; Ng, E Y K
Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) is designed to normalize distorted ventricular shape and size in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and akinetic and dyskinetic segments. This study is aimed to quantify the characteristics of LV as a pump for a case before and after SVR, which is followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesize that SVR+CABG improves heart flow. A patient with heart failure had magnetic resonance (MR) scans before and 4 months after SVR. LV endocardial geometries were semi-automated segmented and reconstructed using our customized algorithm. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of Navier-Stokes equations was solved to derive the flow patterns and calculate pressure differences in LV. After SVR, LV ejection fraction increased from 34% to 48% in patient but was still lower than normal (70%). Second, LV vortices were stronger than pre-surgery but still weaker than normal. The maximum pressure differences between ventricular base and apex increased from 180 to 400 Pa during diastole, from 252 to 560 Pa during systole, respectively. As anticipated, SVR reduced LV volumes and augmented LV ejection fraction. Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling suggests that improved diastolic and systolic ventricular function after SVR is associated with changes in intraventricular blood flow. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Iwao, Kamizato; Masataka, Deie; Kohei, Fukuhara
Introduction. Chronic functional instability—characterized by repeated ankle inversion sprains and a subjective sensation of instability—is one of the most common residual disabilities after an inversion sprain. However, whether surgical reconstruction improves sensorimotor control has not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to assess functional improvement of chronic ankle instability after surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament. Materials and Methods. We performed 10 cases in the intervention group and 20 healthy individuals as the control group. Before and after surgical reconstruction, we evaluated joint position sense and functional ankle instability by means of a questionnaire. Results and Discussion. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups before surgical reconstruction. Three months after surgery in the intervention group, the joint position sense was significantly different from those found preoperatively. Before surgery, the mean score of functional ankle instability in the intervention group was almost twice as low. Three months after surgery, however, the score significantly increased. The results showed that surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament was effective not only for improving mechanical retensioning but also for ameliorating joint position sense and functional ankle instability. PMID:25401146
Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.
Kohlmeier, Carsten; Behrens, Peter; Böger, Andreas; Ramachandran, Brinda; Caparso, Anthony; Schulze, Dirk; Stude, Philipp; Heiland, Max; Assaf, Alexandre T
The ATI SPG microstimulator is designed to be fixed on the posterior maxilla, with the integrated lead extending into the pterygopalatine fossa to electrically stimulate the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) as a treatment for cluster headache. Preoperative surgical planning to ensure the placement of the microstimulator in close proximity (within 5 mm) to the SPG is critical for treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to improve the surgical procedure by navigating the initial dissection prior to implantation using a passive optical navigation system and to match the post-operative CBCT images with the preoperative treatment plan to verify the accuracy of the intraoperative placement of the microstimulator. Custom methods and software were used that result in a 3D rotatable digitally reconstructed fluoroscopic image illustrating the patient-specific placement with the ATI SPG microstimulator. Those software tools were preoperatively integrated with the planning software of the navigation system to be used intraoperatively for navigated placement. Intraoperatively, the SPG microstimulator was implanted by completing the initial dissection with CT navigation, while the final position of the stimulator was verified by 3D CBCT. Those reconstructed images were then immediately matched with the preoperative CT scans with the digitally inserted SPG microstimulator. This method allowed for visual comparison of both CT scans and verified correct positioning of the SPG microstimulator. Twenty-four surgeries were performed using this new method of CT navigated assistance during SPG microstimulator implantation. Those results were compared to results of 21 patients previously implanted without the assistance of CT navigation. Using CT navigation during the initial dissection, an average distance reduction of 1.2 mm between the target point and electrode tip of the SPG microstimulator was achieved. Using the navigation software for navigated implantation and matching the
Tay, Gerald; Ferrell, Jay; Andersen, Peter
The utilization of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in patients with trismus is limited because of poor surgical exposure. This report is about a 46-year-old man with a recurrent right base of tongue cancer who had severe postradiation trismus. We performed a midline mandibular osteotomy without a lip split and this resulted in a markedly improved surgical exposure. He underwent a TORS resection of the right base of the tongue with no significant complications. The midline mandibular osteotomy significantly improved the surgical exposure and facilitated exposure for TORS in a patient who otherwise would not be able to undergo TORS. Utilization of a midline mandibular osteotomy allowed for increased exposure for TORS in a patient with limited mouth opening from postradiation trismus. Postoperative hemorrhage remains a significant concern and appropriate measures to mitigate the catastrophic consequences of this should be considered. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tepas, Joseph J; Celso, Brian G; Leaphart, Cynthia L; Graham, Darrell
The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program is becoming a core methodology to define performance as a ratio of observed to expected events. We hypothesized that application of this using International Classification of Injury Severity Score (ICISS) for individual patient risk stratification to a group of hospitals contributing data to the National Pediatric Trauma Registry (NPTR) would apply objective evidence of actual injuries to define an expected standard and identify performance outliers. Using a blinded code, children entered into phase III of the NPTR were aggregated by treating hospital. Individual patient ICISS survival probability (Ps) were calculated using survival risk ratios (SRR) derived from the phase II NPTR dataset (n = 53,253). For each center, sample size, observed mortality, and ICISS Ps were calculated. Probability of mortality (Pm) was computed as 1 - Ps. Logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for mortality. Logit transformation of Pm was performed to adjust for the skew of minor injury in children and reduce overestimation of low Pm fatalities. Mean Pm was computed for each center and multiplied by its volume to determine expected frequency. Observed to expected ratio (O/E) and 95% confidence interval were calculated to define expected performance and outliers above or below 1 SD of the mean O/E. Patients treated at 30 pediatric trauma centers (mean volume = 451 +/- 258/patients per center) were evaluated. Mean O/E was 1.001 with SD = 0.404. Twenty-two centers fell within the reference range; O/E of 12 centers exceeded 1, suggesting performance below expectation. Trauma center volume, as reflected by sample, did not correlate to O/E performance. Application of ICISS Ps from a national pediatric benchmark population simplifies determination of expected mortality necessary to compute the expected component of National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Analysis of these ratios of
Qiu, Jianguo; Chen, Shuting; Wu, Hong
Surgical resection represents the main curative treatment for giant hepatic haemangioma (GHH). The aim of this study was to compare the respective outcomes of hepatic enucleation (HE) and hepatic resection (HR) for GHH. Giant hepatic haemangioma was defined as haemangioma of 5-15 cm in size. A prospectively maintained database consisting of a series of consecutive patients who underwent HE or HR of GHH from January 2004 to December 2013 was analysed. Hepatic enucleation was performed in 386 (52.9%) patients and HR in 344 (47.1%) of a final cohort of 730 patients. The median size of GHH was similar in the HR and HE groups (9.8 and 10.6 cm, respectively; P = 0.752). The HE group had a shorter median operative time (150 min versus 240 min; P = 0.034), shorter median hospital stay (5.7 days versus 8.6 days; P < 0.001), lower median blood loss (400 ml versus 860 ml; P < 0.001), and fewer complications (17.6% versus 28.2%; P < 0.001) than the HR group. Quality of life scores in both the HR and HE groups significantly improved compared with preoperative levels and were similar to those found in healthy Chinese individuals following surgery, confirming the efficacy of both treatments. Hepatic enucleation was associated with favourable operative outcomes compared with HR and is a safe and effective alternative to partial hepatectomy for GHH. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Qin, Yang; Gu, Jian W.
Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and increased resistance to CSF outflow are considered to be associated with aging, and are also characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These changes probably result in a decrease in the efficiency of the mechanism by which CSF removes toxic molecules such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau from the interstitial fluid space. Soluble Aβ is potently neurotoxic and dysfunctional in CSF circulation and can accelerate the progression of AD. Current therapies for AD exhibit poor efficiency; therefore, a surgical method to improve the homeostasis of CSF is worthy of investigation. To achieve this, we conceived a novel device, which consists of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, an injection port and a portable infusion pump. Artificial CSF (ACSF) is pumped into the ventricles and the ACSF composition, infusion modes and pressure threshold of shunting can be adjusted according to the intracranial pressure and CSF contents. We hypothesize that this active treatment for CSF circulation dysfunction will significantly retard the progression of AD. PMID:27853433
Hussain, Timon; Savariar, Elamprakash N.; Diaz-Perez, Julio A.; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.
Background We evaluated the use of intraoperative fluorescence guidance by enzymatically cleavable ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptide (RACPPPLGC(Me)AG) containing Cy5 as a fluorescent donor and Cy7 as a fluorescent acceptor for salivary gland cancer surgery in a mouse model. Methods Surgical resection of small parotid gland cancers in mice was performed with fluorescence guidance or white light (WL) imaging alone. Tumor identification accuracy, operating time and tumor free survival were compared. Results RACPP guidance aided tumor detection (positive histology in 90% (27/30) vs. 48% (15/31) for WL, p<0.001). A ~25% ratiometric signal increase as the threshold to distinguish between tumor and adjacent tissue, yielded >90% detection sensitivity and specificity. Operating time was reduced by 54% (p<0.001), tumor free survival was increased with RACPP guidance (p=0.025). Conclusions RACPP provides real-time intraoperative guidance leading to improved survival. Ratiometric signal thresholds can be set according to desired detection accuracy levels for future RACPP applications. PMID:25521629
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the powered surgical instrument for improvement in the appearance of cellulite into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.
Ellis, Ryan; Izzuddin Mohamad Nor, Ahmad; Pimentil, Iona; Bitew, Zebenaye; Moore, Jolene
Development of surgical and anaesthetic care globally has been consistently reported as being inadequate. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery highlights the need for action to address this deficit. One such action to improve global surgical safety is the introduction of the WHO Surgical Checklist to Operating Rooms (OR) around the world. The checklist has a growing body of evidence supporting its ability to assist in the delivery of safe anaesthesia and surgical care. Here we report the introduction of the Checklist to a major Ethiopian referral hospital and low-resource setting and highlight the success and challenges of its implementation over a one year period. This project was conducted between July 2015 and August 2016, within a wider partnership between Felege Hiwot Hospital and The University of Aberdeen. The WHO Surgical Checklist was modified for appropriate and locally specific use within the OR of Felege Hiwot. The modified Checklist was introduced to all OR's and staff instructed on its use by local surgical leaders. Assessment of use of the Checklist was performed for General Surgical OR in three phases and Obstetric OR in two phases via observational study and case note review. Training was conduct between each phase to address challenges and promote use. Checklist utilisation in the general OR increased between Phase I and 2 from 50% to 97% and remained high at 94% in Phase 3. Between Phase I and 2 partial completion rose from 27% to 77%, whereas full completion remained unchanged (23% to 20%). Phase 3 resulted in an increase in full completion from 20% to 60%. After 1 year the least completed section was “Sign In” (53%) and “Time Out” was most completed (87%). The most poorly checked item was “Site Marked” (60%). Use of the checklist in Obstetrics OR increased between Phase I and Phase II from 50% to 100% with some improvement in partial completion (50% to 60%) and a notable increase in full completion (0% to 40%). The least
Ellis, Ryan; Izzuddin Mohamad Nor, Ahmad; Pimentil, Iona; Bitew, Zebenaye; Moore, Jolene
Development of surgical and anaesthetic care globally has been consistently reported as being inadequate. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery highlights the need for action to address this deficit. One such action to improve global surgical safety is the introduction of the WHO Surgical Checklist to Operating Rooms (OR) around the world. The checklist has a growing body of evidence supporting its ability to assist in the delivery of safe anaesthesia and surgical care. Here we report the introduction of the Checklist to a major Ethiopian referral hospital and low-resource setting and highlight the success and challenges of its implementation over a one year period. This project was conducted between July 2015 and August 2016, within a wider partnership between Felege Hiwot Hospital and The University of Aberdeen. The WHO Surgical Checklist was modified for appropriate and locally specific use within the OR of Felege Hiwot. The modified Checklist was introduced to all OR's and staff instructed on its use by local surgical leaders. Assessment of use of the Checklist was performed for General Surgical OR in three phases and Obstetric OR in two phases via observational study and case note review. Training was conduct between each phase to address challenges and promote use. Checklist utilisation in the general OR increased between Phase I and 2 from 50% to 97% and remained high at 94% in Phase 3. Between Phase I and 2 partial completion rose from 27% to 77%, whereas full completion remained unchanged (23% to 20%). Phase 3 resulted in an increase in full completion from 20% to 60%. After 1 year the least completed section was "Sign In" (53%) and "Time Out" was most completed (87%). The most poorly checked item was "Site Marked" (60%). Use of the checklist in Obstetrics OR increased between Phase I and Phase II from 50% to 100% with some improvement in partial completion (50% to 60%) and a notable increase in full completion (0% to 40%). The least completed section
Ejaz, Aslam; Gani, Faiz; Frank, Steven M; Pawlik, Timothy M
The surgical Apgar score (SAS) has been shown to correlate with postoperative outcomes. A key component of the SAS is estimated blood loss (EBL), which has been shown to be inaccurate and discordant with intraoperative blood transfusion. Given this, the objective of the current study was to assess the added predictive value of the including receipt of intraoperative transfusion to the SAS. We identified 1833 patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery (pancreatic, hepato-biliary, and colorectal) between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2013 at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The primary outcome was postoperative complications or death. A modified SAS was created by assigning a "0" EBL score for every patient who received an intraoperative blood transfusion, regardless of the actual EBL. Model performance was tested using logistic regression and c-statistic. Mean EBL of the entire cohort was 250 mL. Two hundred ninety-two patients (15.9 %) received at least 1 unit of blood intraoperatively. Approximately, one half of patients (55.1 %) who had an EBL <1000 mL received an intraoperative transfusion. Patients who received an intraoperative transfusion (transfusion n = 94, 32.2 % vs. no transfusion n = 221, 14.3 %; P < 0.001) and those with increasing EBL had a higher incidence of postoperative morbidity and/or death (≤100 mL: 11.6 %, 101-600 mL: 16.9 %, 601-1000 mL: 24.5 %, >1000 mL: 29.2 %; P < 0.001). The variance inflation factor between EBL and intraoperative transfusion was 1.23 for postoperative morbidity/mortality, suggesting that the multicollinearity between the two variables was low. With the inclusion of intraoperative transfusion in the modified SAS, the modified model (c-statistic 0.6552) had an improved discrimination of predicting postoperative morbidity and mortality as compared to the original SAS (c-statistic 0.6391) (P = 0.01). The modified SAS demonstrated improvement in predicting raw differences in the incidence
Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Terekhov, Maxim; Rothman, Brian S; Sandberg, Warren S
Diabetic patients receiving insulin should have periodic intraoperative glucose measurement. The authors conducted a care redesign effort to improve intraoperative glucose monitoring. With approval from Vanderbilt University Human Research Protection Program (Nashville, Tennessee), the authors created an automatic system to identify diabetic patients, detect insulin administration, check for recent glucose measurement, and remind clinicians to check intraoperative glucose. Interrupted time series and propensity score matching were used to quantify pre- and postintervention impact on outcomes. Chi-square/likelihood ratio tests were used to compare surgical site infections at patient follow-up. The authors analyzed 15,895 cases (3,994 preintervention and 11,901 postintervention; similar patient characteristics between groups). Intraoperative glucose monitoring rose from 61.6 to 87.3% in cases after intervention (P = 0.0001). Recovery room entry hyperglycemia (fraction of initial postoperative glucose readings greater than 250) fell from 11.0 to 7.2% after intervention (P = 0.0019), while hypoglycemia (fraction of initial postoperative glucose readings less than 75) was unchanged (0.6 vs. 0.9%; P = 0.2155). Eighty-seven percent of patients had follow-up care. After intervention the unadjusted surgical site infection rate fell from 1.5 to 1.0% (P = 0.0061), a 55.4% relative risk reduction. Interrupted time series analysis confirmed a statistically significant surgical site infection rate reduction (P = 0.01). Propensity score matching to adjust for confounders generated a cohort of 7,604 well-matched patients and confirmed a statistically significant surgical site infection rate reduction (P = 0.02). Anesthesiologists add healthcare value by improving perioperative systems. The authors leveraged the one-time cost of programming to improve reliability of intraoperative glucose management and observed improved glucose monitoring, increased insulin administration, reduced
Mungo, Benedetto; Zogg, Cheryl K; Hooker, Craig M; Yang, Stephen C; Battafarano, Richard J; Brock, Malcolm V; Molena, Daniela
Obesity has increased dramatically in the American population during the past 2 decades. Approximately 35% of adults are obese. Although obesity represents a major health issue, the association between obesity and operative outcomes has been a subject of controversy. We queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to determine whether an increased body mass index (BMI) affects the outcomes of pulmonary resection for lung cancer. We identified 6,567 patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection from 2005 to 2012 in the NSQIP database. We stratified this population into 6 BMI groups according to the World Health Organization classification. The primary outcome measured was 30-day mortality; secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS), operative time, and NSQIP-measured postoperative complications. We performed both unadjusted analysis and adjusted multivariable analysis, controlling for statistically significant variables. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression showed no increase in 30-day mortality, overall morbidity, and serious morbidity among obese patients. Adjusted Poisson regression revealed greater operative times for both obese and underweight patients compared with normal weight patients. Overall, obese patients were younger and had a greater percentage of preoperative comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, dyspnea, renal disease, and history of previous cardiac surgery. The prevalence of active smokers was greater among patients with low and normal BMI. Underweight patients had a greater risk-adjusted LOS relative to normal weight patients, whereas overweight and mildly obese patients had lesser risk-adjusted LOS. The results of our analysis suggest that obesity does not confer greater mortality and morbidity after lung resection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qiu, Jianguo; Chen, Shuting; Wu, Hong
Objectives Surgical resection represents the main curative treatment for giant hepatic haemangioma (GHH). The aim of this study was to compare the respective outcomes of hepatic enucleation (HE) and hepatic resection (HR) for GHH. Methods Giant hepatic haemangioma was defined as haemangioma of 5–15 cm in size. A prospectively maintained database consisting of a series of consecutive patients who underwent HE or HR of GHH from January 2004 to December 2013 was analysed. Results Hepatic enucleation was performed in 386 (52.9%) patients and HR in 344 (47.1%) of a final cohort of 730 patients. The median size of GHH was similar in the HR and HE groups (9.8 and 10.6 cm, respectively; P = 0.752). The HE group had a shorter median operative time (150 min versus 240 min; P = 0.034), shorter median hospital stay (5.7 days versus 8.6 days; P < 0.001), lower median blood loss (400 ml versus 860 ml; P < 0.001), and fewer complications (17.6% versus 28.2%; P < 0.001) than the HR group. Quality of life scores in both the HR and HE groups significantly improved compared with preoperative levels and were similar to those found in healthy Chinese individuals following surgery, confirming the efficacy of both treatments. Conclusions Hepatic enucleation was associated with favourable operative outcomes compared with HR and is a safe and effective alternative to partial hepatectomy for GHH. PMID:25728743
Wallis, Christopher; Khana, Suneil; Hajiha, Mohammad; Nam, Robert K.; Satkunasivam, Raj
Introduction We sought to determine the effect of the presence of disseminated disease on perioperative outcomes following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Methods We identified 4108 eligible patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. We matched patients with disseminated cancer at the time of surgery to those without disseminated cancer using propensity scores. The primary outcome of interest was major complications (death, reoperation, cardiac or neurological event). Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious thromboembolic, and bleeding complications, in addition to prolonged length of stay. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between disseminated cancer and the development of complications. Results Following propensity score matching and adjusting for the type of urinary diversion, radical cystectomy in patients with disseminated disease was associated with a significant increase in major complications (8.6% vs. 4.0%; odds ratio [OR] 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–6.11; p=0.045). The presence of disseminated disease was associated with an increase in pulmonary complications (5.8% vs. 1.2%; OR 5.17. 95% CI 1.00–26.66. p=0.049), but not infectious complications, venous thromboembolism, bleeding requiring transfusion, and prolonged length of stay (p values 0.07–0.79). Conclusions Patients with disseminated cancer undergoing cystectomy are more likely to experience major and pulmonary complications. The strength of these conclusions is limited by sample size, selection bias inherent in observational data, and a lack of specific oncological detail in the database. PMID:28798823
Wallis, Christopher; Khana, Suneil; Hajiha, Mohammad; Nam, Robert K; Satkunasivam, Raj
We sought to determine the effect of the presence of disseminated disease on perioperative outcomes following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. We identified 4108 eligible patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. We matched patients with disseminated cancer at the time of surgery to those without disseminated cancer using propensity scores. The primary outcome of interest was major complications (death, reoperation, cardiac or neurological event). Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious thromboembolic, and bleeding complications, in addition to prolonged length of stay. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between disseminated cancer and the development of complications. Following propensity score matching and adjusting for the type of urinary diversion, radical cystectomy in patients with disseminated disease was associated with a significant increase in major complications (8.6% vs. 4.0%; odds ratio [OR] 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-6.11; p=0.045). The presence of disseminated disease was associated with an increase in pulmonary complications (5.8% vs. 1.2%; OR 5.17. 95% CI 1.00-26.66. p=0.049), but not infectious complications, venous thromboembolism, bleeding requiring transfusion, and prolonged length of stay (p values 0.07-0.79). Patients with disseminated cancer undergoing cystectomy are more likely to experience major and pulmonary complications. The strength of these conclusions is limited by sample size, selection bias inherent in observational data, and a lack of specific oncological detail in the database.
Satkunasivam, Raj; Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Byrne, James; Hoffman, Azik; Cheung, Douglas C.; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Nathens, Avery B.; Nam, Robert K.
Introduction We sought to determine whether patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) in the context of disseminated cancer have higher 30-day complications. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Men undergoing RP (from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014) for prostate cancer were identified and stratified by presence (n=97) or absence (n=27 868) of disseminated cancer. The primary outcome was major complications (death, re-operation, cardiac or neurologic events) within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious, venous thromboembolic, and bleeding complications; prolonged length of stay; and concomitant procedures (bowel-related, cystectomy, urinary diversion, and major ureteric reconstruction). Odds ratios (OR) for each complication were calculated using univariable logistic regression. Results We did not identify a difference in major complication rates (OR 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–7.16). Patients with disseminated cancer had increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.04–10.48) and transfusion (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18–5.05), but similar odds of pulmonary and infectious complications and length of stay. Bowel procedures were rare, however, a significantly higher proportion of patients with disseminated cancer required bowel procedures (2.1% vs. 0.3%; p=0.03). Patients with disseminated cancer undergoing RP had greater comorbidities and higher predicted probability of morbidity and mortality. This study is limited by its retrospective design, lack of cancer-specific variables, and prostatectomy-specific complications. Conclusions RP in the context of disseminated cancer may be associated with increased perioperative complications. Caution should be exercised in embarking on this practice outside of clinical trials. PMID:28096918
Hung, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hung-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ying; Su, Chao-Ton
Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts), specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM) is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC), of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Lehman, Amy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Johnson, Karen C.; Jackson, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ko, Marcia; Chen, Zhao; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V.
Objective Menopause is a risk factor for fracture, thus menopause age may affect bone mass and fracture rates. We compared Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and fracture rates among healthy postmenopausal women with varying ages of self-reported non-surgical menopause. Methods Hazard ratios for fracture and differences in BMD among 21,711 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational cohort without prior hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or hormone therapy, who reported age of menopause of <40, 40–49, or ≥50 years, were compared. Results Prior to multivariable adjustments, we found no differences in absolute fracture risk among menopausal age groups. After multivariable adjustments for known risk factors for fracture, women undergoing menopause <40 had a higher fracture risk at any site compared to women undergoing menopause ≥50 years (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.44; p=0.03). In a subset with BMD measurements (n=1,351), whole body BMD was lower in women who reported menopause <40 compared to 40–49 years (estimated difference= −0.034 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.07, −0.004; p=0.03) and compared to ≥50 years (estimated difference= −0.05 g/cm2; 95% CI; −0.08, −0.02; p<0.01). Left hip BMD was lower in women with menopause <40 compared to ≥50 years (estimated difference= −0.05 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.08, −0.01; p=0.01), and total spine BMD was lower in women with menopause <40 compared to ≥50 and 40–49 years (estimated differences= −0.11 g/cm2; 95% CI; −0.16, −0.06; p<0.01 and −0.09 g/cm2; 95% CI; −0.15, −0.04; p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In the absence of hormone therapy, earlier menopause age may be a risk factor contributing to decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Our data suggest that menopause age should be taken into consideration, along with other osteoporotic risk factors, when estimating fracture risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:25803670
Ho, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Liou, Eric J. W.; Lo, Lun-Jou
Traditional planning method for orthognathic surgery has limitations of cephalometric analysis, especially for patients with asymmetry. The aim of this study was to assess surgical plan modification after 3-demensional (3D) simulation. The procedures were to perform traditional surgical planning, construction of 3D model for the initial surgical plan (P1), 3D model of altered surgical plan after simulation (P2), comparison between P1 and P2 models, surgical execution, and postoperative validation using superimposition and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between postoperative 3D image and P2 simulation model. Surgical plan was modified after 3D simulation in 93% of the cases. Absolute linear changes of landmarks in mediolateral direction (x-axis) were significant and between 1.11 to 1.62 mm. The pitch, yaw, and roll rotation as well as ramus inclination correction also showed significant changes after the 3D planning. Yaw rotation of the maxillomandibular complex (1.88 ± 0.32°) and change of ramus inclination (3.37 ± 3.21°) were most frequently performed for correction of the facial asymmetry. Errors between the postsurgical image and 3D simulation were acceptable, with RMSD 0.63 ± 0.25 mm for the maxilla and 0.85 ± 0.41 mm for the mandible. The information from this study could be used to augment the clinical planning and surgical execution when a conventional approach is applied. PMID:28071714
Secker, T J; Pinchin, H E; Hervé, R C; Keevil, C W
Increasing drying time adversely affects attachment of tissue proteins and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel, and reduces the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries. This study tested the efficacy of commercial humidity retention bags to reduce biofouling on surgical stainless steel and to improve subsequent cleaning. Surgical stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenates and left to dry for 15 to 1,440 min either in air, in dry polythene bags or within humidity retention bags. Residual contamination pre/post cleaning was analysed using Thioflavin T/SYPRO Ruby dual staining and microscope analysis. An increase in biofouling was observed with increased drying time in air or in sealed dry bags. Humidity retention bags kept both protein and prion-associated amyloid minimal across the drying times both pre- and post-cleaning. Therefore, humidity bags demonstrate a cheap, easy to implement solution to improve surgical instrument reprocessing and to potentially reduce associated hospital acquired infections.
Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza; Vafamehr, Vajiheh; Dadgostarnia, Mohammad; Dehghani, Alireza
In this study, by using a problem-oriented approach in the needs assessment, identifying the defects and deficiencies in emergency health training centers has been determined as the basis for the requirements. The main objective of the study was the implementation of surgical emergencies integration of the five surgical groups (general surgery, urology, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and ENT) to meet the needs and determining its efficacy. THIS INTERVENTIONAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE PHASES: (1) Phase I (design and planning): Needs assessment, recognition of implementation barriers and providing the objectives and training program for integrated emergencies. (2) Phase II (implementation): Justification of the main stakeholders of the project, preparation of students' duties in the emergency department, preparation of on-duty plans, supervising the implementation of the program, and reviewing the plan in parallel with the implementation based on the problems. (3) Phase III (evaluation): Reviewing the evidences based on the amount of efficiency of the plan and justification for its continuation. In the first and the second phase, the data were collected through holding focus group meetings and interviews. In the third phase, the opened-reply and closed-reply researcher-made questionnaires were used. The questionnaire face and content validity were confirmed by experts and the reliability was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha. ACCORDING TO THE VIEWS OF THE INTERNS, ASSISTANTS, TEACHERS, AND EMERGENCY PERSONNEL, THE POSITIVE FEATURES OF THE PLAN INCLUDED THE FOLLOWING: Increasing the patients' satisfaction, reducing the patients' stay in the Emergency Department, increasing the speed of handling the patients, balancing the workloads of the interns, direct training of interns by young teachers of emergency medicine, giving the direct responsibility of the patient to the intern, practical and operational training of emergency issues, increasing the teamwork
Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza; Vafamehr, Vajiheh; Dadgostarnia, Mohammad; Dehghani, Alireza
Introduction: In this study, by using a problem-oriented approach in the needs assessment, identifying the defects and deficiencies in emergency health training centers has been determined as the basis for the requirements. The main objective of the study was the implementation of surgical emergencies integration of the five surgical groups (general surgery, urology, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and ENT) to meet the needs and determining its efficacy. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted in three phases: (1) Phase I (design and planning): Needs assessment, recognition of implementation barriers and providing the objectives and training program for integrated emergencies. (2) Phase II (implementation): Justification of the main stakeholders of the project, preparation of students’ duties in the emergency department, preparation of on-duty plans, supervising the implementation of the program, and reviewing the plan in parallel with the implementation based on the problems. (3) Phase III (evaluation): Reviewing the evidences based on the amount of efficiency of the plan and justification for its continuation. In the first and the second phase, the data were collected through holding focus group meetings and interviews. In the third phase, the opened-reply and closed-reply researcher-made questionnaires were used. The questionnaire face and content validity were confirmed by experts and the reliability was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha. Results: According to the views of the interns, assistants, teachers, and emergency personnel, the positive features of the plan included the following: Increasing the patients’ satisfaction, reducing the patients’ stay in the Emergency Department, increasing the speed of handling the patients, balancing the workloads of the interns, direct training of interns by young teachers of emergency medicine, giving the direct responsibility of the patient to the intern, practical and operational
Little, Katherine E; Martinez, Katie M; Forman, Jessica L; Richter, Jason P; Wade, Michael L
The variable costs of providing surgical procedures for military beneficiaries are greater when care is rendered in the civilian purchased care network than when provided at a direct care military treatment facility (MTF). To reduce healthcare-related costs, retaining surgical services is a priority at MTFs across the U.S. Army Medical Command. This study is the first to identify factors significantly associated with outpatient surgical service site selection in the military health system (MHS). We analyzed 1,000,305 patient encounters in fiscal year 2014, of which 970,367 were direct care encounters and 29,938 were purchased care encounters. We used multiple binomial logistic regression to assess and compare the odds of site selection at a purchased care facility and an MTF. We found that an increase in provider administrative time (OR = 1.024, p < .001) and an increase in case complexity (OR = 1.334, p < .001) were associated with increased odds that an outpatient surgical service was provided in a purchased care setting. The increased odds that highly complex cases were seen in purchased care has the potential to affect the medical readiness of military providers and the efficacy of graduate medical education programs. Healthcare administrators can use the results of this study to develop and implement MTF level policies to enhance outpatient surgical service practices in the Army medical system. These efforts may reduce costs and increase military provider medical readiness.
Connell, Linda; Wichner, David; Jakey, Abegael
Within many operations, the pressures for on-time performance are high. Each month, on-time statistics are reported to the Department of Transportation and made public. There is a natural tendency for employees under pressure to do their best to meet these objectives. As a result, pressure to get the job done within the allotted time may cause personnel to deviate from procedures and policies. Additionally, inadequate or unavailable resources may drive employees to work around standard processes that are seen as barriers. However, bypassing practices to enable on-time performance may affect more than the statistics. ASRS reports often highlight on-time performance pressures which may result in impact across all workgroups in an attempt to achieve on-time performance. Reporters often provide in-depth insights into their experiences which can be used by industry to identify and focus on the implementation of systemic fixes.
Dayama, Anand; Olorunfemi, Odunayo; Greenbaum, Simon; Stone, Melvin E; McNelis, John
Frailty is a clinical state of increased vulnerability resulting from aging-associated decline in physiologic reserve. Hip fractures are serious fall injuries that affect our aging population. We retrospectively sought to study the effect of frailty on postoperative outcomes after Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and Hemiarthroplasty (HA) for femoral neck fracture in a national data set. National Surgical Quality Improvement Project dataset (NSQIP) was queried to identify THA and HA for a primary diagnosis femoral neck fracture using ICD-9 codes. Frailty was assessed using the modified frailty index (mFI) derived from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and secondary outcomes were 30-day morbidity and failure to rescue (FTR). We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratio for outcomes while controlling for confounders. Of 3121 patients, mean age of patients was 77.34 ± 9.8 years. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.4% (3.2%-THA and 7.2%-HA). One or more severe complications (Clavien-Dindo class-IV) occurred in 7.1% patients (6.7%-THA vs.7.2%-HA). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for mortality in the group with the higher than median frailty score were 2 (95%CI, 1.4-3.7) after HA and 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) after THA. Similarly, in separate multivariate analysis for Clavien-Dindo Class-IV complications and failure to rescue 1.6 times (CI95% 1.15-2.25) and 2.1 times (CI95% 1.12-3.93) higher odds were noted in above median frailty group. mFI is an independent predictor of mortality among patients undergoing HA and THA for femoral neck fracture beyond traditional risk factors such as age, ASA class, and other comorbidities. Level II. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mull, Hillary J; Borzecki, Ann M; Loveland, Susan; Hickson, Kathleen; Chen, Qi; MacDonald, Sally; Shin, Marlena H; Cevasco, Marisa; Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Amy K
The Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) use administrative data to screen for select adverse events (AEs). In this study, VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) chart review data were used as the gold standard to measure the criterion validity of 5 surgical PSIs. Independent chart review was also used to determine reasons for PSI errors. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of PSI software version 4.1a were calculated among Veterans Health Administration hospitalizations (2003-2007) reviewed by VASQIP (n = 268,771). Nurses re-reviewed a sample of hospitalizations for which PSI and VASQIP AE detection disagreed. Sensitivities ranged from 31% to 68%, specificities from 99.1% to 99.8%, and positive predictive values from 31% to 72%. Reviewers found that coding errors accounted for some PSI-VASQIP disagreement; some disagreement was also the result of differences in AE definitions. These results suggest that the PSIs have moderate criterion validity; however, some surgical PSIs detect different AEs than VASQIP. Future research should explore using both methods to evaluate surgical quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hong, Guang-Liang; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Cai-Jiao; Liu, Jia-Ming; Zhao, Guang-Ju; Wu, Bin; Li, Meng-Fang; Lu, Zhong-Qiu
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by Vibrio infection is one of the most fatal diseases, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and effective surgical intervention are the mainstays for better outcomes for affected patients. Currently, standard surgical management calls for prompt and aggressive debridement and amputation. However, due to its rapid progression and deterioration, 50-60% of Vibrio NF cases present with septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction on admission. These patients, who usually have many surgical contraindications, are unable to tolerate a prolonged aggressive surgical debridement. Therefore, determining the optimal surgical intervention for these particularly severe patients remains a formidable problem in emergency medicine. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent surgery for Vibrio NF and septic shock on admission to the emergency room from April 2001 to October 2012. These patients received the same treatment protocol, with the exception of the initial surgical intervention strategy. Nineteen patients were treated with a temporizing strategy, which called for simple incisions and drainage under regional anesthesia, followed by complete debridement 24h later. Another fifteen patients underwent aggressive surgical debridement during the first operative procedure. Basic demographics, laboratory results on admission, clinical course and outcomes were compared to assess the efficacy and safety of two initial surgical treatment methods: the temporizing strategy and the aggressive strategy. Thirty-four patients were included in this study, and the average age was 51.65 years. Chronic liver disease was the most prevalent preexisting condition (50.00%) and the lower limbs were most commonly involved in infection (76.47%). In this patient population, 19 cases underwent surgery with a temporizing therapeutic strategy, while the remaining 15 cases were treated with an aggressive surgical strategy. There were
... A small number of states regulate surgical technologists. Education Surgical technologists typically need postsecondary education. Many community ... the skills needed in this occupation. Entry-level Education Typical level of education that most workers need ...
Aveling, Emma-Louise; Zegeye, Desalegn Tegabu; Silverman, Michael
Access to safe surgical care represents a critical gap in healthcare delivery and development in many low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives at hospital level may contribute to closing this gap. Many such quality improvement initiatives are carried out through international health partnerships. Better understanding of how to optimise quality improvement in low-income settings is needed, including through partnership-based approaches. Drawing on a process evaluation of an intervention to improve surgical services in an Ethiopian hospital, this paper offers lessons to help meet this need. We conducted a qualitative process evaluation of a quality improvement project which aimed to improve access to surgical services in an Ethiopian referral hospital through better management. Data was collected longitudinally and included: 66 in-depth interviews with surgical staff and project team members; observation (135 h) in the surgery department and of project meetings; project-related documentation. Thematic analysis, guided by theoretical constructs, focused on identifying obstacles to implementation. The project largely failed to achieve its goals. Key barriers related to project design, partnership working and the implementation context, and included: confusion over project objectives and project and partner roles and responsibilities; logistical challenges concerning overseas visits; difficulties in communication; gaps between the time and authority team members had and that needed to implement and engage other staff; limited strategies for addressing adaptive-as opposed to technical-challenges; effects of hierarchy and resource scarcity on QI efforts. While many of the obstacles identified are common to diverse settings, our findings highlight ways in which some features of low-income country contexts amplify these common challenges. We identify lessons for optimising the design and planning of quality improvement
Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C), and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications. PMID:21396085
Feyles, Francesca; Peiretti, Valentina; Mussa, Alessandro; Manenti, Marco; Canavese, Ferdinando; Cortese, Maria Grazia; Lala, Roberto
The timing of surgery in cryptorchidism has been debated for a long time. Reports on histology suggest better fertility outcomes with early surgery, whereas evidence of long-term improved fertility still lacks sound data. The aim of this study is to analyze sperm count and motility in a cohort of young men operated on during the first 2 years of life for cryptorchidism. A total of 78 young men (age, 18-26 years) surgically treated for cryptorchidism in the second year of life were recalled to evaluate testicular volume and sperm count and motility. Of the 78 young men, 51 accepted to participate to clinical and sperm evaluation. Relationship between total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility (SM), and age at surgery was investigated by Student t-test and Fisher test. Patients were divided into two groups: those patients who were submitted to surgery in their first year of life (Group A) and those patients who were submitted to surgery in their first and the second year of life (Group B). We investigated the ratio of those patients with normal sperm count to those patients with abnormal sperm count (we defined as normal TSC > 15 million and SM > 15%) and compared the mean TSC and SM in the two groups. TSC were slightly but not significantly higher in the first group (45.5 ± 15.5 million/mL vs. 36.5 ± 23.6 million/mL, p = 0.107) and SM (30.5% ± 11.3% vs. 26.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.341). The percentage of patients with normal sperm count and motility were significantly higher in the first group: normal TSC was found in 26 of 27 patients (96.3%) in Group A versus 18 of 24 patients (75.0%) in Group B (p = 0.042), normal SM was found in 26 of 27 patients (96.3%) versus 16 of 24 patients (66.7%), respectively (p = 0.008). In the two groups, no statistically significant difference was found neither in the proportion of patients with bilateral cryptorchidism, in the position of the testes, nor in the ratio of subjects treated with hormonal
Abdominoperineal Resection, Pelvic Exenteration, and Additional Organ Resection Increase the Risk of Surgical Site Infection after Elective Colorectal Surgery: An American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Analysis.
Kwaan, Mary R; Melton, Genevieve B; Madoff, Robert D; Chipman, Jeffrey G
Determining predictors of surgical site infection (SSI) in a large cohort is important for the design of accurate SSI surveillance programs. We hypothesized that additional organ resection and pelvic exenterative procedures are associated independently with a higher risk of SSI. Patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program® (ACS NSQIP®; American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL) database (2005-2012) were identified (n=112,282). Surgical site infection (superficial or deep SSI) at 30 d was the primary outcome. Using primary and secondary CPT® codes (American Medical Association, Chicago, IL) pelvic exenteration was defined and additional organ resection was defined as: bladder resection/repair, hysterectomy, partial vaginectomy, additional segmental colectomy, small bowel, gastric, or diaphragm resection. Univariable analysis of patient and procedure factors identified significant (p<0.05) predictors, which were modeled using stepwise logistic regression. The rate of SSI was 9.2%. After adjusting for operative duration, predictors of SSI were body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.3), BMI 30-34.9 (OR: 1.59), BMI 35-39.9 (OR: 2.11), BMI>40 (OR: 2.51), pulmonary comorbidities (OR: 1.22), smoking (OR: 1.24), bowel obstruction (OR: 1.40), wound classification 3 or 4 (OR: 1.18), and abdominoperineal resection (OR: 1.58). Laparoscopic or laparoscopically assisted procedures offered a protective effect against incision infection (OR: 0.55). Additional organ resection (OR: 1.08) was also associated independently with SSI, but the magnitude of the effect was decreased after accounting for operative duration. In the analysis that excludes operative duration, pelvic exenteration is associated with SSI (OR: 1.38), but incorporating operative duration into the model results in this variable becoming non-significant. In addition to other factors, obesity, surgery for bowel obstruction, abdominoperineal resection, and
Plantier, Morgane; Havet, Nathalie; Durand, Thierry; Caquot, Nicolas; Amaz, Camille; Philip, Irène; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel
Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being adopted by healthcare systems worldwide. In France, the "Hôpital numérique 2012-2017" program was implemented as part of a strategic plan to modernize health information technology (HIT), including promotion of widespread EHR use. With significant upfront investment costs as well as ongoing operational expenses, it is important to assess this system in terms of its ability to result in improvements in hospital performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EHR use on the organizational performances of acute care hospital surgical units throughout France. This retrospective study was based on data derived from three national databases for year the 2012: IPAQSS (Indicators of improvement in the quality and the management of healthcare, "IPAQSS"), Hospi-Diag (French hospital performance indicators), and the national accreditation database. National data and methodological support were provided by the French Ministry of Health (DGOS) and the French National Authority for Health (HAS). Multivariate linear models were used to assess four organizational performance indicators: the occupancy rate of surgical inpatient beds, operating room utilization, the activity per surgeon, and the activity per both nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist which were dependent variables. Several independent variables were taken into account, including the degree of EHR use. The models revealed a significant positive impact of EHR use on operating room utilization and bed occupancy rates for surgical inpatient units. No significant association was found between the activity per surgeon or the activity per nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist with EHR use. All four organizational performance indicators were impacted by the type of hospital, the geographical region, and the severity of the pathologies. We were able to verify the purported potential benefits of EHR use on the organizational performances of surgical
Bourassa-Moreau, Étienne; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Li, Ang; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie; Gagnon, Dany H; Thompson, Cynthia; Parent, Stefan
The prognosis for patients with a complete traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally poor. It is unclear whether some subgroups of patients with a complete traumatic SCI could benefit from early surgical decompression of the spinal cord. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the effect of early and late surgical decompression on neurological recovery in complete traumatic SCI and (2) to assess whether the impact of surgical timing is different in patients with cervical or thoracolumbar SCI. A prospective cohort study was followed in a single Level 1 Trauma Center specializing in SCI care. All consecutive patients who sustained a traumatic SCI and were referred between 2010 and 2013 were screened for eligibility. Neurological status was assessed systematically using the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) at arrival to the trauma center and at rehabilitation discharge. Patients operated within 24 h of the trauma were compared with patients operated later than 24 h after the trauma. Potential confounders such as age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), smoking history, body mass index (BMI), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Fifty-three patients with complete SCI were included in the study: 33 thoracolumbar and 20 cervical SCIs. The 38 patients operated <24 h were generally younger than the 15 patients operated ≥ 24 h (p = 0.049). Overall, 28% (15/53) of complete SCI had improvement in AIS: 34% (13/38) who were operated <24 h and 13% (2/15) who were operated ≥ 24 h (p = 0.182). Sixty-four percent (9/14) of cervical complete SCI operated <24 h had improvement in AIS as opposed to none in the subgroup of six complete cervical SCI operated ≥ 24 h (p = 0.008). Surgical decompression within 24 h in complete SCI may optimize neurological recovery, especially in patients with cervical SCI.
Integrating palliative care in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit (IPAL-ICU) Project Advisory Board and the Center to Advance Palliative Care.
Mosenthal, Anne C; Weissman, David E; Curtis, J Randall; Hays, Ross M; Lustbader, Dana R; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret; Nelson, Judith E
Although successful models for palliative care delivery and quality improvement in the intensive care unit have been described, their applicability in surgical intensive care unit settings has not been fully addressed. We undertook to define specific challenges, strategies, and solutions for integration of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit. We searched the MEDLINE database from inception to May 2011 for all English language articles using the term "surgical palliative care" or the terms "surgical critical care," "surgical ICU," "surgeon," "trauma" or "transplant," and "palliative care" or "end-of- life care" and hand-searched our personal files for additional articles. Based on review of these articles and the experiences of our interdisciplinary expert Advisory Board, we prepared this report. We critically reviewed the existing literature on delivery of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit setting focusing on challenges, strategies, models, and interventions to promote effective integration of palliative care for patients receiving surgical critical care and their families. Characteristics of patients with surgical disease and practices, attitudes, and interactions of different disciplines on the surgical critical care team present distinctive issues for intensive care unit palliative care integration and improvement. Physicians, nurses, and other team members in surgery, critical care and palliative care (if available) should be engaged collaboratively to identify challenges and develop strategies. "Consultative," "integrative," and combined models can be used to improve intensive care unit palliative care, although optimal use of trigger criteria for palliative care consultation has not yet been demonstrated. Important components of an improvement effort include attention to efficient work systems and practical tools and to attitudinal factors and "culture" in the unit and institution. Approaches that emphasize delivery of
Guo, Theresa; Qualliotine, Jesse R; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph A; Kim, Young; Saunders, John R; Blanco, Ray G; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Zhang, Zhe; Chung, Christine H; Kiess, Ana; Gourin, Christine G; Koch, Wayne; Richmon, Jeremy D; Agrawal, Nishant; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole
Human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor status and surgical salvage are associated with improved prognosis for patients with recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Current data regarding types of surgery and the impact of surgery for patients with distant metastatic disease are limited. A retrospective analysis of patients with recurrent OPSCC from 2 institutions between 2000 and 2012 was performed. p16 immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization, as clinically available, were used to determine HPV tumor status. Clinical characteristics, distribution of recurrence site, and treatment modalities were compared by HPV tumor status. Overall survival (OS) was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. The current study included 108 patients with 65 locoregional and 43 distant metastatic first recurrences. The majority of patients were HPV-positive (80 patients). HPV-positive tumor status was associated with longer time to disease recurrence (P<.01). Anatomic site distribution of disease recurrences did not differ by HPV tumor status. HPV-positive tumor status (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.09-0.58 [P = .002]), longer time to disease recurrence (≥ 1 year; aHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.74 [P = .006]), and surgical salvage (aHR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.12-0.61 [P = .002]) were found to be independently associated with OS after disease recurrence. Surgical salvage was independently associated with improved OS compared with nonsurgical treatment among patients with both locoregional (aHR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.56 [P = .005]) and distant (aHR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.75 [P = .018]) metastatic disease recurrences. Surgical salvage was found to be associated with improved OS for patients with recurrent locoregional and distant metastatic OPSCC, independent of HPV tumor status. Further prospective data are needed to confirm the role of surgical salvage for distant metastases. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Englesbe, Michael J; Grenda, Dane R; Sullivan, June A; Derstine, Brian A; Kenney, Brooke N; Sheetz, Kyle H; Palazzolo, William C; Wang, Nicholas C; Goulson, Rebecca L; Lee, Jay S; Wang, Stewart C
The Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program is a structured, home-based, preoperative training program targeting physical, nutritional, and psychological guidance. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in this program was associated with reduced hospital duration of stay and health care costs. We conducted a retrospective, single center, cohort study evaluating patients who participated in the Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program and subsequently underwent major elective general and thoracic operative care between June 2014 and December 2015. Propensity score matching was used to match program participants to a control group who underwent operative care prior to program implementation. Primary outcome measures were hospital duration of stay and payer costs. Multivariate regression was used to determine the covariate-adjusted effect of program participation. A total of 641 patients participated in the program; 82% were actively engaged in the program, recording physical activity at least 3 times per week for the majority of the program; 182 patients were propensity matched to patients who underwent operative care prior to program implementation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participation in the Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program was associated with a 31% reduction in hospital duration of stay (P < .001) and 28% lower total costs (P < .001) after adjusting for covariates. A home-based, preoperative training program decreased hospital duration of stay, lowered costs of care, and was well accepted by patients. Further efforts will focus on broader implementation and linking participation to postoperative complications and rigorous patient-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L
A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.
Kohut, Adrian Y; Liu, James J; Stein, David E; Sensenig, Richard; Poggio, Juan L
Pay-for-performance measures incorporate surgical site infection rates into reimbursement algorithms without accounting for patient-specific risk factors predictive for surgical site infections and other adverse postoperative outcomes. Using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data of 67,445 colorectal patients, multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine independent risk factors associated with various measures of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notable patient-specific factors included (number of models containing predictor variable; range of odds ratios [ORs] from all models): American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3, 4, or 5 (7 of 7 models; OR 1.25 to 1.74), open procedures (7 of 7 models; OR .51 to 4.37), increased body mass index (6 of 7 models; OR 1.15 to 2.19), history of COPD (6 of 7 models; OR 1.19 to 1.64), smoking (6 of 7 models; OR 1.15 to 1.61), wound class 3 or 4 (6 of 7 models; OR 1.22 to 1.56), sepsis (6 of 7 models; OR 1.14 to 1.89), corticosteroid administration (5 of 7 models; OR 1.11 to 2.24), and operation duration more than 3 hours (5 of 7 models; OR 1.41 to 1.76). These findings may be used to pre-emptively identify colorectal surgery patients at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davenport, Daniel L.; Bowe, Edwin A.; Henderson, William G.; Khuri, Shukri F.; Mentzer, Robert M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Physical Status (ASA PS) classifications and the other National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) preoperative risk factors. Background: The ASA PS has been shown to predict morbidity and mortality in surgical patients but is inconsistently applied and clinically imprecise. It is desirable to have a method for validating ASA PS classification levels. Methods: The NSQIP preoperative risk factors, including ASA PS, were recorded from a random sample of 5878 surgical patients on 6 services between October 1, 2001 and September 30, 2003 at the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Mortality, morbidity, costs, and length of stay were obtained and compared across ASA PS levels. The ability of 1) ASA PS alone, 2) the other NSQIP risk factors, and, 3) all factors combined to predict outcomes was analyzed. A model using the other NSQIP risk factors was developed to predict ASA PS. Results: ASA PS alone was a strong predictor of outcomes (P < 0.01). However, the other NSQIP risk factors were better predictors as a group. There was significant interdependence between the ASA PS and the other NSQIP risk factors. Predictions of ASA PS using the other factors showed strong agreement with the anesthesiologists’ assignments. Conclusions: The NSQIP risk factors other than ASA PS can and should be used to validate ASA PS classifications. PMID:16632998
Ward, Joseph; Spencer, Robin; Soo, Eleanor; finucane, katherine
Poorly organised clinical equipment can waste significant amounts of time otherwise available for direct patient care. As a group of foundation year one doctors, we identified the organisation of clinical equipment across surgical wards at North Bristol NHS Trust to be poor with stocks often low and items frequently difficult to locate. Time-motion studies (n=80) were confirmatory demonstrating that the mean time to collect equipment necessary for venepuncture, cannulation, arterial blood gases, or blood cultures ranged from 121 to 174 seconds between different areas. By applying a plan-do-study-act (PDSA) methodology, surveying peers as well as working with nursing staff and senior managers, we were able to purchase and implement clinical equipment trolleys on 10 surgical wards across the trust to reduce the time-taken to locate clinical equipment to between 38 to 45 seconds (p=0.01). We feel the key factors for the success of our initiative were strong multidisciplinary engagement and a simple uniform idea. Clinical equipment trolleys organised in a standardised manner have now been rolled out hospital-wide in the new Southmead Hospital Brunel building. PMID:26734373
Chung, Paul J; Carter, Timothy I; Burack, Joshua H; Tam, Sophia; Alfonso, Antonio; Sugiyama, Gainosuke
Risk models to predict 30-day mortality following isolated coronary artery bypass graft is an active area of research. Simple risk predictors are particularly important for cardiothoracic surgeons who are coming under increased scrutiny since these physicians typically care for higher risk patients and thus expect worse outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop a 30-day postoperative mortality risk model for patients undergoing CABG using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Data was extracted and analyzed from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files (2005-2010). Patients that had ischemic heart disease (ICD9 410-414) undergoing one to four vessel CABG (CPT 33533-33536) were selected. To select for acquired heart disease, only patients age 40 and older were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to create a risk model. The C-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to evaluate the model. Bootstrap-validated C-statistic was calculated. A total of 2254 cases met selection criteria. Forty-nine patients (2.2%) died within 30 days. Six independent risk factors predictive of short-term mortality were identified including age, preoperative sodium, preoperative blood urea nitrogen, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, dyspnea at rest, and history of prior myocardial infarction. The C-statistic for this model was 0.773 while the bootstrap-validated C-statistic was 0.750. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test had a p-value of 0.675, suggesting the model does not overfit the data. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program risk model has good discrimination for 30-day mortality following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The model employs six independent variables, making it easy to use in the clinical setting.
Fischer, John P; Wes, Ari M; Nelson, Jonas A; Serletti, Joseph M; Kovach, Stephen J
This study explored factors associated with readmission following plastic surgery using a prospective, validated, national database. Patients who underwent primary plastic surgery procedures (n = 10,669) were identified from the 2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases. Those who were readmitted were compared with those who were not. Preoperative patient comorbidities, laboratory values, and intraoperative details derived from the data set were analyzed, and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of readmission. A total of 10,669 patients were included, with a 4.5 percent readmission rate. Their average age was 49.5 years, 32.2 percent were obese, 15.2 percent were smokers, and 81.7 percent were women. The most commonly performed procedures included elective/cosmetic breast (23.4 percent), implant breast reconstruction (16.5 percent), revision breast procedures (14.9 percent), hand operations (9.7 percent), and body contouring (5.9 percent). The wound complication rate was 4.6 percent and the medical complication rate was 4.9 percent. The overall incidence of any postoperative complication was 10.9 percent, of which 4.8 percent were defined as major surgical complications. Independent risk factors associated with readmission included procedure type (p = 0.029); obesity (p = 0.011); anemia (p = 0.003); and medical (p < 0.001), major surgical (p < 0.001), and wound (p < 0.001) complications. The most significant predictor of readmission was postoperative complications. Patients experiencing postoperative surgical complications were six times more likely to be readmitted. These findings can assist surgeons and health systems to better tailor preoperative risk counseling, resource allocation, and postoperative discharge services.
Khavanin, Nima; Gutowski, Karol A; Hume, Keith M; Simmons, Christopher J; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Weiss, Michael; Mayer, Kristen E; Murphy, Robert X; Kim, John Y S
The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) and the Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons (TOPS) registries gather outcomes for plastic surgery procedures. The NSQIP collects hospital data using trained nurses, and the TOPS relies on self-reported data. We endeavored to compare the TOPS and NSQIP data sets with respect to cohort characteristics and outcomes to better understand the strengths and weakness of each registry as afforded by their distinct data collection methods. The 2008 to 2011 TOPS and NSQIP databases were queried for breast reductions and breast reconstructions. Propensity score matching identified similar cohorts from the TOPS and NSQIP databases. Shared 30-day surgical and medical complications rates were compared across matched cohorts. The TOPS captured a significantly greater number of wound dehiscence occurrences (4.77%-5.47% vs 0.69%-1.17%, all P<0.001), as well as more reconstructive failures after prosthetic reconstruction (2.82% vs 0.26%, P<0.001). Medical complications were greater in NSQIP (P<0.05). Other complication rates did not differ across any procedure (all P>0.05). The TOPS and NSQIP capture significantly different patient populations, with TOPS' self-reported data allowing for the inclusion of private practices. This self-reporting limits TOPS' ability to identify medical complications; surgical complications and readmissions, however, were not underreported. Many surgical complications are captured by TOPS at a higher rate due to its broader definitions, and others are not captured by NSQIP at all. The TOPS and NSQIP provide complementary information with different strengths and weakness that together can guide evidence-based decision making in plastic surgery.
Samson, Pamela; Robinson, Clifford G; Bradley, Jeffrey; Lee, Audrey; Broderick, Stephen; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, A Sasha; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun; Meyers, Bryan F; Crabtree, Traves
The study objective was to validate the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Risk Calculator in stratifying risk estimates for patients who received surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer undergoing surgery (N = 279) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (N = 206) from 2009 to 2012 was performed. NSQIP complication risk estimates were calculated for both surgical and stereotactic body radiation therapy cases using the NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator. NSQIP complication risk estimates were compared as continuous variables and by quartile ranges. Compared with patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery wedge resection, patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy were older, had larger tumors, had lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1) in 1 second and diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLCO) for carbon monoxide values, had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, had higher rates of dyspnea, and had higher NSQIP serious complication risk estimates (all P < .05). Compared with patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy, patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy had similar disparities, along with higher Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE) scores comorbidity scores, higher rates of cardiac comorbidities, and worse functional status (all P < .05). Variables associated with receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment, rather than wedge resection, included increasing age, higher Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE)-27 comorbidity score, dyspnea status, and decreasing FEV1 in 1 second and DLCO for carbon monoxide, but NSQIP serious complication risk score. In addition, surgical patients' actual serious complication rate (16.6% vs 8.8%) and pneumonia rate (6.0% vs 3.2%) were significantly higher than the NSQIP risk calculator predicted
Lepänluoma, M; Takala, R; Kotkansalo, A; Rahi, M; Ikonen, T S
The World Health Organization's surgical safety checklist is designed to improve adherence to operating room safety standards, and its use has been shown to reduce complications among surgical patients. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of the implementation of the checklist on safety-related issues in the operating room and on postoperative adverse events in neurosurgery. From structured questionnaires delivered to operating room personnel, answers were analyzed to evaluate communication and safety-related issues during 89 and 73 neurosurgical operations before and after the checklist implementation, respectively. From the analyzed operations, 83 and 67 patients, respectively, were included in a retrospective analysis of electronic patient records to compare the length of hospital stay, reported adverse events, and readmissions. In addition, the consistency of operating room documentation and patient records was assessed. Communication between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist was enhanced, and safety-related issues were better covered when the checklist was used. Unplanned readmissions fell from 25% to 10% after the checklist implementation (p = 0.02). Wound complications decreased from 19% to 8% (p = 0.04). The consistency of documentation of the diagnosis and the procedure improved. The use of the checklist improved safety-related performance and, contemporarily, reduced numbers of wound complications, and readmissions were observed.
Lavery, Lawrence A
The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical off-loading to heal diabetic foot ulcers and prevent ulcer recurrence. Usually, structural foot deformities such as hallux rigidus, hammertoe deformities and equinus of the ankle contribute to abnormal pressure and shear forces and non-healing foot ulcers. Elective surgery to remove the deformity and restore joint mobility has been shown to be safe and effective to improve wound healing of recalcitrant ulcer and to reduce the risk of re-ulceration. Unfortunately, there is very little high-level evidence to help guide patient selection or to compare clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Davis, Mitzie-Ann; Adams, Sarah; Eun, Daniel; Lee, David; Randall, Thomas C
Pelvic exenteration can be used to cure women with a central pelvic recurrence or persistence of gynecologic malignancy after initial definitive therapy. Refinements in patient selection, operative techniques, and surgical instrumentation have significantly improved outcomes over the past 60 years, but the procedure is still associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and recovery time. New technologies have made it possible to approach radical gynecologic surgeries in a minimally invasive fashion. We present 2 patients successfully treated with robotic-assisted anterior pelvic exenteration for treatment of persistent or recurrent cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Xihui; Apple, Daniel; Hu, Jonathan; Tewari, Asheesh
This article reviews current advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines. The most recent advancement in vitreoretinal surgical machines include 27-gauge vitrectomy probes, new cutter designs, higher cut rate, improved intraocular pressure control, new endoillumination technologies, and combined anterior/posterior segment capabilities. With recent advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines, surgical incisions have become less traumatic and fluidics control has led to a more controlled posterior segment vitrectomy.
Surgical site infection prevention: the importance of operative duration and blood transfusion--results of the first American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Best Practices Initiative.
Campbell, Darrell A; Henderson, William G; Englesbe, Michael J; Hall, Bruce L; O'Reilly, Michael; Bratzler, Dale; Dellinger, E Patchen; Neumayer, Leigh; Bass, Barbara L; Hutter, Matthew M; Schwartz, James; Ko, Clifford; Itani, Kamal; Steinberg, Steven M; Siperstein, Allan; Sawyer, Robert G; Turner, Douglas J; Khuri, Shukri F
Surgical site infections (SSI) continue to be a significant problem in surgery. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Best Practices Initiative compared process and structural characteristics among 117 private sector hospitals in an effort to define best practices aimed at preventing SSI. Using standard NSQIP methodologies, we identified 20 low outlier and 13 high outlier hospitals for SSI using data from the ACS-NSQIP in 2006. Each hospital was administered a process of care survey, and site visits were conducted to five hospitals. Comparisons between the low and high outlier hospitals were made with regard to patient characteristics, operative variables, structural variables, and processes of care. Hospitals that were high outliers for SSI had higher trainee-to-bed ratios (0.61 versus 0.25, p < 0.0001), and the operations took significantly longer (128.3+/-104.3 minutes versus 102.7+/-83.9 minutes, p < 0.001). Patients operated on at low outlier hospitals were less likely to present to the operating room anemic (4.9% versus 9.7%, p=0.007) or to receive a transfusion (5.1% versus 8.0%, p=0.03). In general, perioperative policies and practices were very similar between the low and high outlier hospitals, although low outlier hospitals were readily identified by site visitors. Overall, low outlier hospitals were smaller, efficient in the delivery of care, and experienced little operative staff turnover. Our findings suggest that evidence-based SSI prevention practices do not easily distinguish well from poorly performing hospitals. But structural and process of care characteristics of hospitals were found to have a significant association with good results.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are recognized as a common surgical complication, occurring in about 2-5% of all surgical procedures. SSIs represent the third most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for 14-16% of all infections observed in hospitalized patients and up to 38% of those observed among surgical patients. Knowledge of incidence, epidemiology, classification, process of wound healing, and pathogenesis of surgical site infection is of great importance. Given the high economic burden that infections provoke, beyond the increased morbidity and mortality, it appears mandatory to improve our tools in order to reduce their incidence, as a reduction of only 0.1% can result in a considerable saving of economic resources to be allocated to other activities, such as screening and prevention programs.
Feng, Christina; Sidhwa, Feroze; Cameron, Danielle B; Glass, Charity; Rangel, Shawn J
The purpose of this study was to characterize the rates of surgical site infections (SSI) associated with colorectal procedures in children and the relative burden of these events within the scope of pediatric surgical practice. The NSQIP-Pediatric Public Use File was queried for all pediatric surgery procedures captured from 50 hospitals during 2012-2013. Rates of incisional and deep organ/space SSIs (ISSI and OSI, respectively) were calculated for all procedures, and the relative burden of SSIs from the entire dataset attributable to colorectal procedures was determined. Colorectal procedures accounted for 2.5% (2872/114,395) of the NSQIP-P caseload and contributed 7.1% of the SSI burden. The SSI rate for all colorectal procedures was 5.9% (ISSI:3.2%; OSI:2.7%), and the highest rates were associated with total abdominal colectomy (11.4%) partial colectomy (8.3%), and colostomy closure (5.0%). Inflammatory bowel disease contributed the greatest relative burden of SSIs among colorectal diagnoses (24.9%; ISSI:22%; OSI:28.6%), followed by Hirschsprung's Disease (14.2%; ISSI:15.4%; OSI:12.8%) and anorectal malformations (12.4%; ISSI:17.6%; OSI:6.4%). Colorectal procedures are responsible for a disproportionate burden of SSIs within pediatric surgery. The rate and relative burden of SSIs are particularly high for colostomy closure, partial colectomy, and procedures for inflammatory bowel disease. Efforts to reduce SSI burden may be best focused on this cohort of children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chia, C L K; Mantoo, S K; Tan, K Y
The frail elderly surgical patient is at increased risk of morbidity after major surgery. A transdisciplinary Geriatric Surgery Service (GSS) has been shown to produce consistently positive results in our institution. A trans-institutional transdisciplinary Start to Finish (STF) programme was initiated incorporating seamless prehabilitation and rehabilitation to enhance the outcome further. Patients who underwent major colorectal resection in Khoo Teck Puat Hospital and were managed under the GSS from January 2007 to December 2014 were included in this prospective study. The STF programme was initiated from January 2012. The surgical outcome of patients managed under the GSS before the initiation of STF was compared with that after its implementation. There were 57 patients after the initiation of the STF programme compared with 60 patients managed before STF. There were 26.4% and 25% of frail patients in the STF group compared with the non-STF group (P = 0.874). The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the STF group (8.4 days vs 11.0 days, P = 0.029). Functional recovery in patients available for follow-up at 6 weeks showed 100% (46/46) recovery in the elective STF group who received prehabilitation and 95.7% (45/47) in the elective non-STF group who did not (P = 0.157). There were no significant differences in a Clavien-Dindo complication score of Grade 3 or more and 30-day mortality between the two groups. Through a trans-institutional transdisciplinary approach, we managed to achieve a significantly shorter hospital stay in frail patients having colorectal surgery. All elective patients who received prehabilitation achieved full functional recovery. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Saeed, Diyar; Maxhera, Bujar; Albert, Alexander; Westenfeld, Ralf; Hoffmann, Till; Lichtenberg, Artur
PURPOSE Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump thrombosis is one of the devastating complications following mechanical circulatory support implantation. Surgical pump exchange is a known high-risk surgery with a high perioperative mortality rate. We aim to summarize our experience with several other alternative approaches in patients with suspected HeartWare HVAD (HeartWare, Framingham, MA, USA) pump thrombosis. METHODS The outcome of HeartWare HVAD implantations performed at single institution from January 2010 to September 2015 was studied. Inclusion criteria were patients with suspected HeartWare HVAD pump thrombosis. Patients’ preoperative characteristics and outcome following various interventions were reviewed. RESULTS A total of 94 HeartWare HVAD pumps were implanted in 91 patients. The inclusion criteria were met by 13 patients (14%) with a mean age of 55 ± 14 years old and a median total pump support duration of 467 days (11–937 days). A conservative approach using systemic thrombolysis (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) + heparin was used in the majority of the patients (15 events = 65%). Heart transplantation was performed in 4 patients and device explantation in 2 patients. Other approaches were used in the rest of patients. Considering thrombolysis-related complications, 1 patient required resternotomy for bleeding after thrombolysis, which was necessary a few days after LVAD implant surgery and 2 patients developed minor intracranial bleeding after thrombolysis. One-year survival after the latest intervention was 69%. CONCLUSIONS This report showed the feasibility of several alternative conservative approaches combining medications, minimally invasive and interventional methods for patients with HeartWare pump thrombosis. The outcome may be better than immediate surgical pump exchange. PMID:26993475
Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K
Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501
Overdyk, Frank J; Dowling, Oonagh; Newman, Sheldon; Glatt, David; Chester, Michelle; Armellino, Donna; Cole, Brandon; Landis, Gregg S; Schoenfeld, David; DiCapua, John F
Compliance with the surgical safety checklist during operative procedures has been shown to reduce inhospital mortality and complications but proper execution by the surgical team remains elusive. We evaluated the impact of remote video auditing with real-time provider feedback on checklist compliance during sign-in, time-out and sign-out and case turnover times. Prospective, cluster randomised study in a 23-operating room (OR) suite. Surgeons, anaesthesia providers, nurses and support staff. ORs were randomised to receive, or not receive, real-time feedback on safety checklist compliance and efficiency metrics via display boards and text messages, followed by a period during which all ORs received feedback. Checklist compliance (Pass/Fail) during sign-in, time-out and sign-out demonstrated by (1) use of checklist, (2) team attentiveness, (3) required duration, (4) proper sequence and duration of case turnover times. Sign-in, time-out and sign-out PASS rates increased from 25%, 16% and 32% during baseline phase (n=1886) to 64%, 84% and 68% for feedback ORs versus 40%, 77% and 51% for no-feedback ORs (p<0.004) during the intervention phase (n=2693). Pass rates were 91%, 95% and 84% during the all-feedback phase (n=2001). For scheduled cases (n=1406, 71%), feedback reduced mean turnover times by 14% (41.4 min vs 48.1 min, p<0.004), and the improvement was sustained during the all-feedback period. Feedback had no effect on turnover time for unscheduled cases (n=587, 29%). Our data indicate that remote video auditing with feedback improves surgical safety checklist compliance for all cases, and turnover time for scheduled cases, but not for unscheduled cases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Overdyk, Frank J; Dowling, Oonagh; Newman, Sheldon; Glatt, David; Chester, Michelle; Armellino, Donna; Cole, Brandon; Landis, Gregg S; Schoenfeld, David; DiCapua, John F
Importance Compliance with the surgical safety checklist during operative procedures has been shown to reduce inhospital mortality and complications but proper execution by the surgical team remains elusive. Objective We evaluated the impact of remote video auditing with real-time provider feedback on checklist compliance during sign-in, time-out and sign-out and case turnover times. Design, setting Prospective, cluster randomised study in a 23-operating room (OR) suite. Participants Surgeons, anaesthesia providers, nurses and support staff. Exposure ORs were randomised to receive, or not receive, real-time feedback on safety checklist compliance and efficiency metrics via display boards and text messages, followed by a period during which all ORs received feedback. Main outcome(s) and measure(s) Checklist compliance (Pass/Fail) during sign-in, time-out and sign-out demonstrated by (1) use of checklist, (2) team attentiveness, (3) required duration, (4) proper sequence and duration of case turnover times. Results Sign-in, time-out and sign-out PASS rates increased from 25%, 16% and 32% during baseline phase (n=1886) to 64%, 84% and 68% for feedback ORs versus 40%, 77% and 51% for no-feedback ORs (p<0.004) during the intervention phase (n=2693). Pass rates were 91%, 95% and 84% during the all-feedback phase (n=2001). For scheduled cases (n=1406, 71%), feedback reduced mean turnover times by 14% (41.4 min vs 48.1 min, p<0.004), and the improvement was sustained during the all-feedback period. Feedback had no effect on turnover time for unscheduled cases (n=587, 29%). Conclusions and relevance Our data indicate that remote video auditing with feedback improves surgical safety checklist compliance for all cases, and turnover time for scheduled cases, but not for unscheduled cases. PMID:26658775
Johnson, Adam P; Altmark, Randi E; Weinstein, Michael S; Pitt, Henry A; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W
This study aims to develop a Respiratory Failure Risk Score (RFRS) with good predictability for elective abdominal and vascular patients to be used in the outpatient setting for risk stratification and to guide preoperative pulmonary optimization. Postoperative respiratory failure (RF), defined as ventilator dependency for more than 48 hours or unplanned reintubation within 30 days, is associated with increased mortality and hospital costs. Many tools have been previously described for risk stratification, but few target elective surgical candidates. Our training sample included patients undergoing inpatient, nonemergent general and vascular procedures sampled for the American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2012 Participant Use File. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent preoperative risk factors associated with RF, used to derive a weighted RFRS. We then determined goodness-of-fit and optimal cutoff values through receiver operator characteristic analysis and Youden indices to evaluate internal and external validity with a retrospective institutional validation sample (2013 and 2014). Multivariable analysis of 151,700 patients from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File identified 12 variables independently associated with RF. The RFRS showed good external prediction in the validation sample with a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.79). With the highest Youden index, 30 was determined to be the optimal cutoff value with a sensitivity 0.62 and specificity of 0.75. Additional cutoff values of 15 and 40 optimized sensitivity (>0.80) and specificity (>0.80), respectively. In the preoperative setting, the RFRS can effectively stratify patients into low (<15), moderate low (15-29), moderate high (30-39), and high risk (>39) to assist in patient counseling and guide application of perioperative pulmonary optimization measures.
McCulloch, Peter; Morgan, Lauren; New, Steve; Catchpole, Ken; Roberston, Eleanor; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Collins, Gary; Griffin, Damian
Patient safety improvement interventions usually address either work systems or team culture. We do not know which is more effective, or whether combining approaches is beneficial. To compare improvement in surgical team performance after interventions addressing teamwork culture, work systems, or both. Suite of 5 identical controlled before-after intervention studies, with preplanned analysis of pooled data for indirect comparisons of strategies. Operating theatres in 5 UK hospitals performing elective orthopedic, plastic, or vascular surgery PARTICIPANTS:: All operating theatres staff, including surgeons, nurses, anaesthetists, and others INTERVENTIONS:: 4-month safety improvement interventions, using teamwork training (TT), systems redesign and standardization (SOP), Lean quality improvement, SOP + TT combination, or Lean + TT combination. Team technical and nontechnical performance and World Health Organization (WHO) checklist compliance, measured for 3 months before and after intervention using validated scales. Pooled data analysis of before-after change in active and control groups, comparing combined versus single and systems versus teamwork interventions, using 2-way ANOVA. We studied 453 operations, (255 intervention, 198 control). TT improved nontechnical skills and WHO compliance (P < 0.001), but not technical performance; systems interventions (Lean & SOP, 2 & 3) improved nontechnical skills and technical performance (P < 0.001) but improved WHO compliance less. Combined interventions (4 & 5) improved all performance measures except WHO time-out attempts, whereas single approaches (1 & 2 & 3) improved WHO compliance less (P < 0.001) and failed to improve technical performance. Safety interventions combining teamwork training and systems rationalization are more effective than those adopting either approach alone. This has important implications for safety improvement strategies in hospitals.
Adeleye, Amos O; Ogbole, Godwin I
Surgical intervention is not so commonly deployed for idiopathic syringomyelia, even the symptomatic ones; is only undertaken, in the current era, after thorough clinical evaluation and extensive high-resolution neuroimaging; and is more assuredly performed, high-tech, in health facilities in the developed world with cutting edge logistic supports. In the practice environment of a low-resource African developing country, a 41-year-old young man recently presented in severe clinical-neurological deficit, Nurick grade 5, with an extensive cervical-medullary idiopathic syringomyelia. In spite of severe preoperative and intraoperative resource limitations, he successfully underwent spinal surgical decompression, fenestration of syrinx, and expansile duraplasty. He improved clinically postoperatively and achieved mobility, Nurick grade 3, before hospital discharge. He sustained this improvement, Nurick grade 3 to 2, 20 months post-op. He is now independent, needing only a walking stick to aid ambulation, and an MRI at this time showed only minimal focal post-op changes but total disappearance of the syrinx.
Kelleher, Alyson Dare; Moorer, Amanda; Makic, MaryBeth Flynn
We conducted a quality improvement project in order to evaluate the effect of nurse-to-nurse bedside "rounding" as a strategy to decrease hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) in a surgical intensive care unit. We instituted weekly peer-to-peer bedside skin rounds in a 17-bed surgical intensive care unit. Two nurses were identified as skin champions and trained by the hospital's certified WOC nurse to conduct skin rounds. The skin champion nurses conducted weekly peer-to-peer rounds that included discussions about key elements of our patients' skin status including current Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score, and implementation of specific interventions related to subscale risk assessment. If a pressure ulcer was present, the current action plan was reevaluated for effectiveness. Quarterly HAPU prevalence studies were conducted from January 2008 to December 2010. Nineteen patients experienced a HAPU: 17 were located on the coccyx and 2 on the heel. Ten ulcers were classified as stage II, 3 PU were stage IV, 5 were deemed unstageable, and 1 was classified as a deep tissue injury. The frequency of preventive interventions rose during our quality improvement project. Specifically, the use of prevention surfaces increased 92%, repositioning increased 30%, nutrition interventions increased 77%, and moisture management increased 100%. Prior to focused nursing rounds, the highest HAPU prevalence rate was 27%. After implementing focused nursing rounds, HAPU rates trended down and were 0% for 3 consecutive quarters.
Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Dias, Pedro Colli Rocha; Lucchesi, Amanda Natália; Arruda, Maurício Ferraz de; Spadella, César Tadeu
To investigate the effect of zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis (TDI) on mechanical resistance of surgical wounds performed in the skin of diabetic rats. One hundred and sixty male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250 g were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and randomly distributed into four experimental groups with 40 non-diabetic control animals (G1) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G2), both without any treatment of incisions; 40 non-diabetic animals (G3) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G4), both with incisions treated with zinc sulphate, administered for a period of four consecutive days after surgery, in sessions of ten minutes duration, using a continuous-current electrostimulator (Zn + TDI). Each experimental group was further divided into four subgroups with ten rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period were analyzed clinical and laboratory from the animals, and measured the breaking strength and hydroxyproline content (OH-P) of the skin scars. Breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats (G2) on the 7th, 14th, and 21st postoperative days when compared to non-diabetic control rats (G1). In contrast, BS in skin scars of non-diabetic and untreated diabetic rats (G3, G4) treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase (p<0.05) in those periods when compared with their respective controls with untreated incisions. The OH-P content of the scars did not show statistically significant variation in all studied groups at four different times evaluated after surgery. Zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis had beneficial effect on the mechanical resistance of scars produced in the skin of diabetic rats. This therapeutic may have potential to reduce the complications observed in surgical wounds of the skin in diabetic subjects, mainly in most vulnerable stages of incisions to dehiscences
Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Miyake, Koichi; Kobayashi, Maika; Yaguchi, Chiemi; Iijima, Osamu; Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki; Katakai, Yuko; Miyake, Noriko; Kameya, Shuhei; Shimada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Takashi
The retina is an ideal target for gene therapy because of its easy accessibility and limited immunological response. We previously reported that intravitreally injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduced the inner retina with high efficiency in a rodent model. In large animals, however, the efficiency of retinal transduction was low, because the vitreous and internal limiting membrane (ILM) acted as barriers to transduction. To overcome these barriers in cynomolgus monkeys, we performed vitrectomy (VIT) and ILM peeling before AAV vector injection. Following intravitreal injection of 50 μL triple-mutated self-complementary AAV serotype 2 vector encoding EGFP, transduction efficiency was analyzed. Little expression of GFP was detected in the control and VIT groups, but in the VIT+ILM group, strong GFP expression was detected within the peeled ILM area. To detect potential adverse effects, we monitored the retinas using color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. No serious side effects associated with the pretreatment were observed. These results indicate that surgical ILM peeling before AAV vector administration would be safe and useful for efficient transduction of the nonhuman primate retina and provide therapeutic benefits for the treatment of retinal diseases.
Romero Arenas, Minerva A; Morris, Lilah F; Rich, Thereasa A; Cote, Gilbert J; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Waguespack, Steven G; Perrier, Nancy D
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is uncommon in children. The surgical management of PHPT in children has evolved over the past two decades. A retrospective study of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHPT diagnosed at age < 18 years and managed at a tertiary referral center for endocrine and familial disorders. Thirty-eight patients met eligibility criteria (1981-2012). Median age at PHPT diagnosis was 15 years. Two-thirds of patients were symptomatic (68%, n=26), most commonly from nephrolithiasis. Twenty-six (68%) patients underwent a standard cervical exploration while 32% underwent a focused unilateral parathyroidectomy. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) was diagnosed preoperatively in 22/26 patients. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of MEN1 were more likely to undergo a complete initial operation (≥ 3 gland parathyroidectomy with transcervical thymectomy, 13/22, 59% vs. 0/4, 0%; P=0.03) and less likely to have recurrent disease (10/22, 45% vs. 3/4, 75%; P<0.001) during follow up than patients diagnosed postoperatively. Children with PHPT should raise suspicion for MEN1. Preoperative MEN1 evaluation helped guide the extent of initial parathyroidectomy and was associated with lower rates of recurrence in sporadic and familial PHPT in pediatric patients. Management should occur at a high volume center with experienced clinicians and genetic counseling services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Augustine, Kurt E.; Camp, Jon J.; Holmes, David R.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Robb, Richard A.
Failure of the spine's structural integrity from metastatic disease can lead to both pain and neurologic deficit. Fractures that require treatment occur in over 30% of bony metastases. Our objective is to use computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with analytic techniques that have been previously developed to predict fracture risk in cancer patients with metastatic disease to the spine. Current clinical practice for cancer patients with spine metastasis often requires an empirical decision regarding spinal reconstructive surgery. Early image-based software systems used for CT analysis are time consuming and poorly suited for clinical application. The Biomedical Image Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester has developed an image analysis computer program that calculates from CT scans, the residual load-bearing capacity in a vertebra with metastatic cancer. The Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) program is built on a platform designed for clinical practice, with a workflow format that allows for rapid selection of patient CT exams, followed by guided image analysis tasks, resulting in a fracture risk report. The analysis features allow the surgeon to quickly isolate a single vertebra and obtain an immediate pre-surgical multiple parallel section composite beam fracture risk analysis based on algorithms developed at Mayo Clinic. The analysis software is undergoing clinical validation studies. We expect this approach will facilitate patient management and utilization of reliable guidelines for selecting among various treatment option based on fracture risk.
Cooney, Carisa M; Sebai, Mohamad E; Ogbuagu, Onyebuchi; Devulapalli, Chris; Manahan, Michele A; Rosson, Gedge D
The purpose of this study was to assess for compounded risk of postoperative morbidity with the addition of a simultaneous contralateral breast matching procedure at the time of mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. 2005 to 2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases were used to identify cases of mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with and without simultaneous contralateral breast matching procedures. Matching procedures included mastopexy, reduction mammaplasty, and augmentation mammaplasty. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Of 59,766 mastectomy patients, 24,191 (40 percent) underwent immediate breast reconstruction: 903 (3.7 percent) underwent matching procedures and 23,288 (96.3 percent) did not. Univariable logistic regression demonstrated that the matching procedure group had statistically significantly higher overall morbidity (OR, 1.288; 95 percent CI, 1.022 to 1.623; p = 0.032). Although surgical and systemic morbidity did not differ significantly, the matching procedure group demonstrated higher risk for superficial surgical-site infection (OR, 1.57; 95 percent CI, 1.066 to 2.31; p = 0.022), reconstruction failure (OR, 1.69; 95 percent CI, 1.014 to 2.814; p = 0.044), and pulmonary embolism (OR, 2.54; 95 percent CI, 1.01 to 6.37; p = 0.048). Controlling for possible confounders, multivariable logistic regression rendered the relationship between matching procedure and complications insignificant (OR, 1.17; 95 percent CI, 0.92 to 1.48; p = 0.2). These data suggest that preoperative comorbidities and other patient-related factors may have a larger influence on postoperative morbidity than the addition of a contralateral matching procedure alone. Therapeutic, III.
Wynne, Kathryn E; Simpson, B Joyce; Berman, Loren; Rangel, Shawn J; Grosfeld, Jay L; Moss, R Lawrence
In an effort to improve the reporting quality of clinical research, the Journal of Pediatric Surgery instituted specific reporting guidelines for authors beginning June 2006. This study was conducted to evaluate whether these guidelines improved reporting of observational studies. The Guidelines for the Reporting of Clinical Research Data (Guidelines) included 23 criteria in 3 subcategories: Methods, Results, and More than one treatment group. Reporting quality was evaluated by determining the percentage of criteria met. Seventy-three articles before implementation and 147 articles after implementation were independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Mean global composite scores increased from 72.2 pre-Guidelines to 80.1 post-Guidelines (P < .0001). Scores increased in each subcategory: Methods, 71.9 to 78.6 (P < .0001); Results, 77.2 to 83.0 (P = .002); and More than one treatment group, 40.0 to 70.6 (P = .0003). Post-Guidelines implementation scores have increased over time. The introduction of the Guidelines resulted in significant improvement in the quality of reporting in the Journal. The low cost vs the benefit suggests that the Guidelines can be an effective way to improve reporting quality in nonrandomized studies. We encourage further efforts to increase inclusion of reporting criteria as well as evaluation and improvement of the Guidelines. We suggest that editors of other surgical publications consider implementing analogous guidelines. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teber, Dogu; Guven, Selcuk; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Mathias; Güven, Esref Oguz; Yencilek, Faruk; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Rassweiler, Jens
Use of an augmented reality (AR)-based soft tissue navigation system in urologic laparoscopic surgery is an evolving technique. To evaluate a novel soft tissue navigation system developed to enhance the surgeon's perception and to provide decision-making guidance directly before initiation of kidney resection for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Custom-designed navigation aids, a mobile C-arm capable of cone-beam imaging, and a standard personal computer were used. The feasibility and reproducibility of inside-out tracking principles were evaluated in a porcine model with an artificially created intraparenchymal tumor in vitro. The same algorithm was then incorporated into clinical practice during LPN. Evaluation of a fully automated inside-out tracking system was repeated in exactly the same way for 10 different porcine renal units. Additionally, 10 patients underwent retroperitoneal LPNs under manual AR guidance by one surgeon. The navigation errors and image-acquisition times were determined in vitro. The mean operative time, time to locate the tumor, and positive surgical margin were assessed in vivo. The system was able to navigate and superpose the virtually created images and real-time images with an error margin of only 0.5 mm, and fully automated initial image acquisition took 40 ms. The mean operative time was 165 min (range: 135-195 min), and mean time to locate the tumor was 20 min (range: 13-27 min). None of the cases required conversion to open surgery. Definitive histology revealed tumor-free margins in all 10 cases. This novel AR tracking system proved to be functional with a reasonable margin of error and image-to-image registration time. Mounting the pre- or intraoperative imaging properties on real-time videoendoscopic images in a real-time manner will simplify and increase the precision of laparoscopic procedures.
McRae, Marion E; Chan, Alice; Lee, Ai Jin; Hulett, Renee; Coleman, Bernice
There are few reports of the use of 1-session team-based learning (TBL) in hospital settings and none to teach cardiac surgical resuscitation (CSR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1-session TBL is an effective method to increase nursing knowledge of CSR. The participating subjects viewed a PowerPoint presentation about CSR prior to the learning session. Participants completed a 16-item individual readiness assessment test. Immediately after, participants in groups of 3 completed the same 16-item test as a team using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique form. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their concerns with CSR, which were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. The sample consisted of 60 subjects (54 completing all phases). Team-based learning significantly increased scores from 36.93 (SD, 8.49) to 50.89 (SD, 5.29), t53 = -13.05, P < .001. There was a significant increase in scores (t46 = 2.13, P = .04) among the noncohesive groups from baseline (52.88 [SD, 3.29]) versus the cohesive groups (50.38 [SD, 4.73]). The qualitative data indicated that the subjects had worries/concerns and lack of self-confidence around CSR. Team-based learning is a feasible method to use for single-session education where team building is also required. Noncohesive groups may benefit from TBL, from discussing divergent viewpoints to reach a consensus. Additional studies are needed to compare preferences for TBL with other teaching methods.
Okumura, Lucas M; Veroneze, Izelandia; Burgardt, Celia I; Fragoso, Marta F
Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients' needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation), where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD), crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days). We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised >95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05). In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs.
Veroneze, Izelandia; Burgardt, Celia I.; Fragoso, Marta F.
Background: Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients’ needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation), where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD), crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days). We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. Results: In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised >95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05). In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. Conclusion: The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs. PMID:27785159
Kasotakis, George; Lakha, Aliya; Sarkar, Beda; Kunitake, Hiroko; Kissane-Lee, Nicole; Dechert, Tracey; McAneny, David; Burke, Peter; Doherty, Gerard
To identify whether resident involvement affects clinically relevant outcomes in emergency general surgery. Previous research has demonstrated a significant impact of trainee participation on outcomes in a broad surgical patient population. We identified 141,010 patients who underwent emergency general surgery procedures in the 2005-2010 Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Because of the nonrandom assignment of complex cases to resident participation, patients were matched (1:1) on known risk factors [age, sex, inpatient status, preexisting comorbidities (obesity, diabetes, smoking, alcohol, steroid use, coronary artery disease, chronic renal failure, pulmonary disease)] and preoperatively calculated probability for morbidity and mortality. Clinically relevant outcomes were compared with a t or χ test. The impact of resident participation on outcomes was assessed with multivariable regression modeling, adjusting for risk factors and operative time. The most common procedures in the matched cohort (n = 83,790) were appendectomy (39.9%), exploratory laparotomy (8.8%), and adhesiolysis (6.6%). Trainee participation is independently associated with intra- and postoperative events, wound, pulmonary, and venous thromboembolic complications, and urinary tract infections. Trainee participation is associated with adverse outcomes in emergency general surgery procedures.
D'Angelo, Rita; Zarbo, Richard J
We implemented a continuous quality improvement initiative in pursuit of a "zero-defects" performance goal in surgical pathology that required design of novel data collection tools to assess our current condition and sources of defects and waste. We defined defect as a flaw, an imperfection, or a deficiency in specimen processing requiring delaying or stopping work or returning work to the sender. These defects were noninterpretive, nondiagnostic defects critical to quality. Through a blameless work environment and contributions from all workers, we defined a baseline surgical pathology case defect rate of 27.9%, mostly arising in the laboratory (89.3%); only 8.3% were preanalytic; 2.4% resulted in amended reports. Additional focus on fidelity of patient and specimen identification allowed us to define defective identification in 1.67% of cases, with blocks and slides accounting for 78% of the defects. The misidentification defect rates per million opportunities for all sources were 4.3 to 4.8 sigma. These misidentification defects for 3 weeks required 159 hours of manual rework, or an annualized 1.3 full-time-equivalent employees. We found that through deep and honest exposure and the concerted effort of all workers, we could identify numerous sources of waste in our processes. This knowledge formed the structure for effective changes to strive toward a zero-defect performance goal.
Humphries, Angela; Peden, Carol; Jordan, Lesley; Crowe, Josephine; Peden, Carol
A significant incidence of post-procedural deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) was identified in patients undergoing surgery at our hospital. Investigation showed an unreliable peri-operative process leading to patients receiving incorrect or missed venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. The Trust had previously participated in a project funded by the Health Foundation using the “Safer Clinical Systems” methodology to assess, diagnose, appraise options, and implement interventions to improve a high risk medication pathway. We applied the methodology from that study to this cohort of patients demonstrating that the same approach could be applied in a different context. Interventions were linked to the greatest hazards and risks identified during the diagnostic phase. This showed that many surgical elective patients had no VTE risk assessment completed pre-operatively, leading to missed or delayed doses of VTE prophylaxis post-operatively. Collaborative work with stakeholders led to the development of a new process to ensure completion of the VTE risk assessment prior to surgery, which was implemented using the Model for Improvement methodology. The process was supported by the inclusion of a VTE check in the Sign Out element of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist at the end of surgery, which also ensured that appropriate prophylaxis was prescribed. A standardised operation note including the post-operative VTE plan will be implemented in the near future. At the end of the project VTE risk assessments were completed for 100% of elective surgical patients on admission, compared with 40% in the baseline data. Baseline data also revealed that processes for chemical and mechanical prophylaxis were not reliable. Hospital wide interventions included standardisation of mechanical prophylaxis devices and anti-thromboembolic stockings (resulting in a cost saving of £52,000), and a Trust wide awareness and education programme. The education included
Risk factors for superficial surgical site infection after elective rectal cancer resection: a multivariate analysis of 8880 patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.
Sutton, Elie; Miyagaki, Hiromichi; Bellini, Geoffrey; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Yan, Xiaohong; Howe, Brett; Feigel, Amanda; Whelan, Richard L
Superficial surgical site infection (sSSI) is one of the most common complications after colorectal resection. The goal of this study was to determine the comorbidities and operative characteristics that place patients at risk for sSSI in patients who underwent rectal cancer resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried (via diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology codes) for patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective resection between 2005 and 2012. Patients for whom data concerning 27 demographic factors, comorbidities, and operative characteristics were available were eligible. A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify possible risk factors for sSSI. A total of 8880 patients met the entry criteria and were included. sSSIs were diagnosed in 861 (9.7%) patients. Univariate analysis found 14 patients statistically significant risk factors for sSSI. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors: male gender, body mass index (BMI) >30, current smoking, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), American Society of Anesthesiologists III/IV, abdominoperineal resection (APR), stoma formation, open surgery (versus laparoscopic), and operative time >217 min. The greatest difference in sSSI rates was noted in patients with COPD (18.9 versus 9.5%). Of note, 54.2% of sSSIs was noted after hospital discharge. With regard to the timing of presentation, univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant delay in sSSI presentation in patients with the following factors and/or characteristics: BMI <30, previous radiation therapy (RT), APR, minimally invasive surgery, and stoma formation. Multivariate analysis suggested that only laparoscopic surgery (versus open) and preoperative RT were risk factors for delay. Rectal cancer resections are associated with a high incidence of sSSIs, over half of which are noted after discharge. Nine patient and
Marsh, Dan; Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Rozen, Warren Matthew; Chowdhry, Muhammed; Sharma, Hrsikesa; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V
Breast reconstruction is a multi-stage process, involving many individual procedures and many healthcare professionals which take the patient through from diagnosis of breast cancer to the completion of cancer treatment and ultimate breast reconstruction. With an experience of over 3,000 autologous breast reconstructions, we have refined both our surgical technique and overall approach to breast reconstruction to improve the efficiency in free flap based breast reconstruction surgery. Through a process mapping approach similar to that employed by large-scale industry, we have broken down free flap based breast reconstruction into multiple smaller processes. By looking at various steps as a simple component of the whole, we have improved our theatre efficiency to maximize patient throughput and improve our outcomes for breast reconstruction patients. Since beginning free flap breast reconstruction surgery, we have improved overall efficiency by applying a process mapping approach. In our early experience, we undertook a single patient undergoing breast reconstruction with a free flap per theatre list, moving to two patients having breast reconstruction, and now carry out three free flap based reconstructions in a single theatre per day as a routine. Specific times are demonstrated, with no increased complication rate. Through clearly defined processes, operative efficiency in autologous breast reconstruction can achieve three free flaps per day in a single theatre.
Marsh, Dan; Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Chowdhry, Muhammed; Sharma, Hrsikesa; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.
Background Breast reconstruction is a multi-stage process, involving many individual procedures and many healthcare professionals which take the patient through from diagnosis of breast cancer to the completion of cancer treatment and ultimate breast reconstruction. With an experience of over 3,000 autologous breast reconstructions, we have refined both our surgical technique and overall approach to breast reconstruction to improve the efficiency in free flap based breast reconstruction surgery. Methods Through a process mapping approach similar to that employed by large-scale industry, we have broken down free flap based breast reconstruction into multiple smaller processes. By looking at various steps as a simple component of the whole, we have improved our theatre efficiency to maximize patient throughput and improve our outcomes for breast reconstruction patients. Results Since beginning free flap breast reconstruction surgery, we have improved overall efficiency by applying a process mapping approach. In our early experience, we undertook a single patient undergoing breast reconstruction with a free flap per theatre list, moving to two patients having breast reconstruction, and now carry out three free flap based reconstructions in a single theatre per day as a routine. Specific times are demonstrated, with no increased complication rate. Conclusions Through clearly defined processes, operative efficiency in autologous breast reconstruction can achieve three free flaps per day in a single theatre. PMID:27047779
Back in the early 1990s, reengineering was all the rage. All of the corporations and their CEOs got excited about the prospect of having to streamline and reorganize, reengineering their organizations in an effort to improve the bottom line. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center was no exception to that rule. Some folks in upper management wanted to take advantage of this new paradigm and they turned their attention to the Hubble Space Telescope ground system. The objective was to reduce the operating cost of the system by at least 50 percent. This was a noble objective, as Hubble would likely be around for another ten to fifteen years at least.
Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S
Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.
Gao, Yongyin; Shang, Xiaobin; Gong, Lei; Ma, Zhao; Yang, Mingjian; Jiang, Hongjing; Zhan, Zhongli; Meng, Bin; Yu, Zhentao
This study aimed to investigate whether the inclusion of tumor size could improve the prognostic accuracy in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). A total of 387 patients with ESCC who underwent curative resection were enrolled in this analysis. The patients were categorized into small-sized tumors (SSTs) and large-sized tumors (LSTs) using an appropriate cut-off point for tumor size. Kaplan–Meier survival curve and log–rank test were used to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor size. A Cox regression model was adopted for multivariate analysis. Their accuracy was compared based on the presence or absence of tumor size. Using 3.5 cm as the optimal cut-off point, 228 and 159 patients presented with LSTs (≥ 3.5 cm) and SSTs (< 3.5 cm), respectively. The patients with LSTs had significantly worse prognoses than patients with SSTs (23.9% vs. 43.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size, histological type, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis were independent predictors of overall survival. The addition of tumor size to the AJCC TNM staging improved the predictive accuracy of the 5-year survival rate by 3.9%. Further study showed that tumor size and T stage were independent predictors of the prognosis of node-negative patients, and the combination of tumor size and T stage improved the predictive accuracy by 3.7%. In conclusion, tumor size is indeed a simple and practical prognostic factor in patients with ESCC. It can be used to improve the prognostic accuracy of the current TNM staging, especially for patients with node-negative disease. PMID:27579613
Satava, R M
Technological change, decreased financial support for medical education, and social oversight (in the form of the "To Err Is Human" report, HIPPA, and reduced work hours) are forcing a rethinking of the traditional model of surgical education to improve patient safety. New approaches to evaluating surgical competence, such as objective assessment, in combination with new technologies, such as the Internet and surgical simulators, provide the tools to effect a revolution in surgical education and training. Competency based upon quantifiable criteria measures must replace the traditional subjective assessment. The implementation requires accurately defining the elements of training, establishing new quantifiable metrics, stringently measuring performance against criterion, and reporting outcomes throughout the career of a surgeon.
Agbo, S P
Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding.
Agbo, S. P.
Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048
Merle, Véronique; Marini, Hélène; Rongère, Julie; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Scotté, Michel; Czernichow, Pierre
A previous study suggested that most surgical patients do not remember having received information about surgical site infection (SSI). In other fields, written information has been suggested to improve patient satisfaction and recollection of information. Our objective was to assess if providing patients with written information about SSI, in addition to oral information, could influence patient satisfaction, recall of information, and opinion regarding SSI. A total of 207 patients scheduled for digestive surgery at a university hospital were randomized between usual oral information about SSI, plus an information leaflet about SSI (group O/L), or usual oral information alone (group O). Patients were interviewed 5 weeks after surgery to assess their recall and satisfaction regarding information, opinion regarding SSI, and declared intention of seeking legal action in case of SSI. Surgeons and interviewer were blinded to patients' group allocation. Recruitment occurred between October 2005 and August 2006. Of the original 207 patients, 161 patients (O/L=87, O=74) underwent operation and were interviewed as scheduled. Satisfaction was higher in group O/L (67% vs. O: 43%; P=0.003). The recall of having received information (O/L: 39% vs. O: 31%; P=0.29), was similar between the two groups. Judging SSI as always preventable was more frequent in group O/L (28% vs. O: 9%; P=0.004) with a trend toward a more frequent intention of seeking legal action (O/L: 10% vs. O: 3%; P=0.055). The leaflet did not improve patient recall of information about SSI, but it was associated with an increased level of satisfaction. The association between the leaflet and judging SSI as always preventable was unexpected.
De La Garza, Javier Rodrigo; Kowalewski, Karl-Friedrich; Friedrich, Mirco; Schmidt, Mona Wanda; Bruckner, Thomas; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat-Peter; Nickel, Felix
Laparoscopic training has become an important part of surgical education. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure performed. Surgeons must be well trained prior to operating on a patient. Multimodality training is vital for bariatric surgery. E-learning with videos is a standard approach for training. The present study investigates whether scoring the operation videos with performance checklists improves learning effects and transfer to a simulated operation. This is a monocentric, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. The trainees are medical students from the University of Heidelberg in their clinical years with no prior laparoscopic experience. After a laparoscopic basic virtual reality (VR) training, 80 students are randomized into one of two arms in a 1:1 ratio to the checklist group (group A) and control group without a checklist (group B). After all students are given an introduction of the training center, VR trainer and laparoscopic instruments, they start with E-learning while watching explanations and videos of RYGB. Only group A will perform ratings with a modified Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (BOSATS) scale checklist for all videos watched. Group B watches the same videos without rating. Both groups will then perform an RYGB in the VR trainer as a primary endpoint and small bowel suturing as an additional test in the box trainer for evaluation. This study aims to assess if E-learning and rating bariatric surgical videos with a modified BOSATS checklist will improve the learning curve for medical students in an RYGB VR performance. This study may help in future laparoscopic and bariatric training courses. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00010493 . Registered on 20 May 2016.
Clevin, Lotte; Grantcharov, Teodor P
Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). University Hospital. Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group. Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared with the control group: economy of movement (p=0.001), time (p=0.001) and tissue damage (p=0.036), confirming the positive impact of box-trainer curriculum on laparoscopic skills acquisition. Structured laparoscopic skill training on a low cost box model trainer improves performance as assessed using the VR system. Trainees who used the box model trainer showed significant improvement compared to the control group. Box model trainers are valid tools for laparoscopic skills training and should be implemented in the comprehensive training curricula in gynaecology.
Integrating palliative care in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit: A report from the Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit (IPAL-ICU) Project Advisory Board and the Center to Advance Palliative Care
Mosenthal, Anne C.; Weissman, David E.; Curtis, J. Randall; Hays, Ross M.; Lustbader, Dana R.; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Ray, Daniel E.; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D.; Brasel, Karen J.; Campbell, Margaret; Nelson, Judith E.
Objective Although successful models for palliative care delivery and quality improvement in the intensive care unit have been described, their applicability in surgical intensive care unit settings has not been fully addressed. We undertook to define specific challenges, strategies, and solutions for integration of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit. Data Sources We searched the MEDLINE database from inception to May 2011 for all English language articles using the term “surgical palliative care” or the terms “surgical critical care,” “surgical ICU,” “surgeon,” “trauma” or “transplant,” and “palliative care” or “end-of- life care” and hand-searched our personal files for additional articles. Based on review of these articles and the experiences of our interdisciplinary expert Advisory Board, we prepared this report. Data Extraction and Synthesis We critically reviewed the existing literature on delivery of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit setting focusing on challenges, strategies, models, and interventions to promote effective integration of palliative care for patients receiving surgical critical care and their families. Conclusions Characteristics of patients with surgical disease and practices, attitudes, and interactions of different disciplines on the surgical critical care team present distinctive issues for intensive care unit palliative care integration and improvement. Physicians, nurses, and other team members in surgery, critical care and palliative care (if available) should be engaged collaboratively to identify challenges and develop strategies. “Consultative,” “integrative,” and combined models can be used to improve intensive care unit palliative care, although optimal use of trigger criteria for palliative care consultation has not yet been demonstrated. Important components of an improvement effort include attention to efficient work systems and practical tools and to
Robles, Lourdes; Slogoff, Michele; Ladwig-Scott, Eva; Zank, Dan; Larson, Mary Kay; Aranha, Gerard; Shoup, Margo
Resident work hour restrictions and changes in reimbursement may lead to an adverse effect on the continuity of care of a patient after discharge. This study analyzes whether adding a nurse practitioner (NP) to a busy inpatient surgery service would improve patient care after discharge. In 2007, a NP joined a team of 3 surgery attendings. She coordinated the discharge plan and communicated with patients after discharge. We reviewed the records of patients 1 year before (N = 415) and 1 year after (N = 411) the NP joined the team. The discharge courses of the patients were reviewed, and an unnecessary emergency room (ER) visit was defined as an ER visit that did not result in an inpatient admission. The 2 groups were statistically similar with regard to age, race, acuity of the operation, duration of hospital stay, and hospital readmissions. Telephone communication between nurses and discharged patients was 846 calls before the NP and 1,319 calls after the NP, representing an increase of 64% (P < .0001). Visiting nurse, physical therapy, or occupational therapy services were rendered to only 25% of patients before the NP compared to 39% after (P < .0001). There were more unnecessary ER visits before the NP (103/415; 25%) compared to after (54/411; 13%) (P = .001). Adding a NP to our inpatient surgery service led to an overall improvement in the use of resources and a 50% reduction in unnecessary ER visits. This study shows that the addition of a NP not only improves continuity of care on discharge but also has the potential to yield financial benefits for the hospital. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jabbour, Noel; Snyderman, Carl H
There are massive hidden costs in the current paradigm of surgical training related to increased operative times for procedures with resident involvement and costs of medical errors. Shifting procedural training outside of the operating room through use of simulation has the potential to improve patient safety, minimize learning time to achieve competency, and increase operative efficiency. Investment in surgical simulation has the potential to reduce costs to health care systems through improved operating room efficiency and reduction of medical errors. This article explores the economic costs related to surgical training in otolaryngology and the value of investment in surgical simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caniano, Donna A; Yamazaki, Kenji; Yaghmour, Nicholas; Philibert, Ingrid; Hamstra, Stanley J
Background Resident and faculty views of program strengths and opportunities for improvement (OFIs) offer insight into how stakeholders assess key elements of the learning environment. Objective This study sought (1) to assess the degree to which residents and faculty in 359 programs in 5 surgical specialties (obstetrics and gynecology, orthopaedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, and surgery) were aligned or divergent in their respective views of program strengths and OFIs; and (2) to evaluate whether responses to selected questions on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Resident Survey correlated with strengths or OFIs identified by the residents during the site visit. Methods Faculty and resident lists of program strengths and OFIs in site visit reports for 2012 and 2013 were aggregated, analyzed, and compared to responses on the Resident Survey. Results While there was considerable alignment in resident and faculty perceptions of program strengths and OFIs, some attributes were more important to one or the other group. Collegiality was valued highly by both stakeholder groups. Responses to 2 questions on the ACGME Resident Survey were associated with resident-identified OFIs in site visit reports pertaining to aspects of the didactic program and responsiveness to resident suggestions for improvement. Conclusions The findings offer program leadership additional insight into how 2 key stakeholder groups view elements of the learning environment as program strengths or OFIs and may serve as useful focal areas for ongoing improvement activities.
Castillo, V.; Pessina, P.; Hall, P.; Blatter, M.F. Cabrera; Miceli, D.; Arias, E. Soler; Vidal, P.
The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of isotretinoin 9-cis (RA9-cis) as a post-surgery treatment of thyroid carcinoma to a traditional treatment (doxorubicin) and no treatment. Owners who did not want their dogs to receive treatment were placed into the control group A (GA; n=10). The remaining dogs were randomly placed into either group B (GB; n=12) and received doxorubicin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 every three weeks, for six complete cycles or group C (GC; n=15) and treated with RA9-cis at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The time of the recurrence was significantly shorter in the GA and GB compared to GC (P=0.0007; P=0.0015 respectively), while we did not detect differences between GA and GB. The hazard ratio of recurrence between GA and GB compared to GC were 7.25 and 5.60 times shorter, respectively. We did not detect any differences between the other groups. The risk ratio of recurrence was 2.0 times higher in GA compared to GC and 2.1 times higher in GB compared to GC. The type of carcinoma had an effect on time of survival with follicular carcinomas having an increased mean survival time than follicular-compact carcinomas (P<0.0001) and follicular-compact carcinomas had a longer mean survival time than compact carcinomas. The interaction among treatment and type was significant, but survival time in follicular carcinomas did not differ between treatments. In follicular-compact carcinomas the survival time of GC was greater than GB (P<0.05), but we did not detect a difference between GA and GB. In conclusion, this study shows that the use of surgery in combination with RA9-cis treatment significantly increases survival rate and decreases the time to tumor recurrence when compared to doxorubicin treated or untreated dogs. The histological type of carcinoma interacted with treatment for time to recurrence and survival time, with more undifferentiated carcinomas having a worse prognosis than differentiated carcinomas. PMID:26862515
Castillo, V; Pessina, P; Hall, P; Blatter, M F Cabrera; Miceli, D; Arias, E Soler; Vidal, P
The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of isotretinoin 9-cis (RA9-cis) as a post-surgery treatment of thyroid carcinoma to a traditional treatment (doxorubicin) and no treatment. Owners who did not want their dogs to receive treatment were placed into the control group A (GA; n=10). The remaining dogs were randomly placed into either group B (GB; n=12) and received doxorubicin at a dose of 30 mg/m(2) every three weeks, for six complete cycles or group C (GC; n=15) and treated with RA9-cis at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The time of the recurrence was significantly shorter in the GA and GB compared to GC (P=0.0007; P=0.0015 respectively), while we did not detect differences between GA and GB. The hazard ratio of recurrence between GA and GB compared to GC were 7.25 and 5.60 times shorter, respectively. We did not detect any differences between the other groups. The risk ratio of recurrence was 2.0 times higher in GA compared to GC and 2.1 times higher in GB compared to GC. The type of carcinoma had an effect on time of survival with follicular carcinomas having an increased mean survival time than follicular-compact carcinomas (P<0.0001) and follicular-compact carcinomas had a longer mean survival time than compact carcinomas. The interaction among treatment and type was significant, but survival time in follicular carcinomas did not differ between treatments. In follicular-compact carcinomas the survival time of GC was greater than GB (P<0.05), but we did not detect a difference between GA and GB. In conclusion, this study shows that the use of surgery in combination with RA9-cis treatment significantly increases survival rate and decreases the time to tumor recurrence when compared to doxorubicin treated or untreated dogs. The histological type of carcinoma interacted with treatment for time to recurrence and survival time, with more undifferentiated carcinomas having a worse prognosis than differentiated carcinomas.
Cheng, Guang-Shing; Stednick, Zach J; Madtes, David K; Boeckh, Michael; McDonald, George B; Pergam, Steven A
biopsy between the cohorts (30/54 versus 1/25, P < .001). A similar percentage underwent biopsy with therapeutic intent for invasive fungal disease in the 2 cohorts (8/54 [15%] versus 4/25 [16%]). Surgical evaluation of lung disease in HCT recipients significantly declined over a span of 2 decades. The decline from the years 1993 to 1997 compared with 2003 to 2007 was because of a reduction in the number of biopsies for post-transplant infections due to aspergillosis, which is temporally related to improved diagnostic testing by minimally invasive means and the increased use of empiric therapy with extended-spectrum azoles. This practice of primary nonsurgical diagnostic and treatment approaches to pulmonary disease post-HCT have continued, shown by low numbers of surgical biopsies over the last 3 years.
Bampoe, Sohail; Odor, Peter M; Dushianthan, Ahilanandan; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Cro, Suzie; Gan, Tong J; Grocott, Michael Pw; James, Michael Fm; Mythen, Michael G; O'Malley, Catherine Mn; Roche, Anthony M; Rowan, Kathy; Burdett, Edward
Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate. Buffered fluids also provide additional electrolytes, including potassium, magnesium, and calcium, more closely matching the electrolyte balance of plasma. The putative benefits of buffered fluids have been compared with those of non-buffered fluids in the context of clinical studies conducted during the perioperative period. This review was published in 2012, and was updated in 2017. To review effects of perioperative intravenous administration of buffered versus non-buffered fluids for plasma volume expansion or maintenance, or both, on clinical outcomes in adults undergoing all types of surgery. We electronically searched the Clinicaltrials.gov major trials registry, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 6) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2016), Embase (1980 to June 2016), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to June 2016). We handsearched conference abstracts and, when possible, contacted leaders in the field. We reran the search in May 2017. We added one potential new study of interest to the list of 'Studies awaiting classification' and will incorporate this trial into formal review findings when we prepare the review update. Only randomized controlled trials that compared buffered versus non-buffered intravenous fluids for surgical patients were eligible for inclusion. We excluded other forms of comparison such as crystalloids versus colloids and colloids versus different colloids. Two review
Nouri, Aria; Tetreault, Lindsay; Côté, Pierre; Zamorano, Juan J; Dalzell, Kristian; Fehlings, Michael G
Ambispective study. To determine whether MRI parameters improve the predictive performance of a validated clinical prediction rule used to assess functional outcomes in surgical patients with DCM. Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in the elderly worldwide. A clinical prediction rule was developed to discriminate between patients with mild myelopathy postoperatively (mJOA ≥ 16) and those with substantial residual neurological impairment (mJOA < 16). Recently, a separate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prediction model was created. However, a model exploring the combined predictive value of imaging and clinical variables does not exist. One hundred and fourteen patients with MRIs were examined from a cohort of 278 patients enrolled in the AOSpine CSM-North America Study. Ninety-nine patients had complete preoperative imaging and postoperative outcome data. MRIs were evaluated for the presence/absence of signal change on T2- and T1-weighted images. Quantitative analysis of the T2 signal change was conducted and maximum canal compromise and cord compression were calculated. The added predictive performance of each MRI parameter to the clinical model was evaluated using receiver operator characteristic curves. The model developed on our subsample yielded an area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of 0.811 (95% CI: 0.726-0.896). The addition of imaging variables did not significantly improve the predictive performance. Small improvements in prediction were obtained when sagittal extent of T2 hyperintensity (AUC: 0.826, 95% CI: 0.743-0.908, 1.35% increase) or Wang ratio (AUC: 0.823, 95% CI: 0.739-0.907, 1.21%) was added. Anatomic characteristics, such as maximum canal compromise and maximum cord compression, did not improve the discriminative ability of the clinical prediction model. In our sample of surgical patients, with clinical and image-evidence of DCM, MRI parameters do not significantly add to
Engineer, Reena; Ramaswamy, Anant; Sahu, Arvind; Zanwar, Saurabh; Arya, Suprita; Chopra, Supriya; Bal, Munita; Patil, Prachi; Desouza, Ashwin; Saklani, Avanish
Background Role of chemotherapy in patients who continue to have unresectable disease after pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) remains largely unaddressed. Methods Patients with LA rectal cancer from January 2013 to June 2015 were evaluated. Post-CRT, patients, who were deemed unresectable, were considered for further interim chemotherapy (i-CT). Results Seventy six patients (15%) with median age of 38.5 years received i-CT after CRT. About 61.8% patients receiving i-CT managed to undergo a definitive surgery and the extent of surgery was reduced in 48.7% patients. With the median follow up of 19 months, the estimated 2-year event free survival (EFS) of 48% and OS was 56%. The estimated 2-year OS was 81% in mucinous tumors whereas it was 44.4% in signet ring pathology (P=0.045). The 2-year OS of 86% for whom surgery was done vs. 38% (2-year OS) in whom surgery was not done (P=0.011). Survival was better in conservative surgery group vs. total pelvic exenteration (TPE) vs. no surgery (2-year OS: 84% vs. 59.1% vs. 38%; P=0.033). In the CAPE-OX group, 71.4% (14/23) underwent surgery whereas 75.9% (29/47) in the 5-FU plus irinotecan plus oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) group with EFS (P=0.570) and OS (P=0.120). In conservative surgery group, OS was better in FOLFIRINOX (2-year OS: 95.7%) vs. capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) (2-year OS: 70%) (P=0.012). Conclusions i-CT can lead to improved resection rates, improved survivals and downstaging with acceptable toxicity. FOLFIRINOX appears to better over CAPOX, specifically in whom conservative surgery is feasible. PMID:28078119
Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary
Purpose: To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) confers as much functional visual improvement as on eyes without retinal pathology. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4,924 cataract surgeries from the VA Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. We included cases of eyes with AMD which had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes to controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies. The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales. Results: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of controls. Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared to controls (-6.4± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001). Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r=-0.38, P<0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r=-0.075, P=0.0002). AMD patients with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P=0.37). Conclusions: Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA ≥20/40, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is <20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA. Copyright © 2015 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Vetter, Thomas R; Ivankova, Nataliya V; Goeddel, Lee A; McGwin, Gerald; Pittet, Jean-Francois
Approximately 80 million inpatient and outpatient surgeries are performed annually in the United States. Widely variable and fragmented perioperative care exposes these surgical patients to lapses in expected standard of care, increases the chance for operational mistakes and accidents, results in unnecessary and potentially detrimental care, needlessly drives up costs, and adversely affects the patient healthcare experience. The American Society of Anesthesiologists and other stakeholders have proposed a more comprehensive model of perioperative care, the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH), to improve current care of surgical patients and to meet the future demands of increased volume, quality standards, and patient-centered care. To justify implementation of this new healthcare delivery model to surgical colleagues, administrators, and patients and maintain the integrity of evidenced-based practice, the nascent PSH model must be rigorously evaluated. This special article proposes comparative effectiveness research aims or objectives and an optimal study design for the novel PSH model.
Sohn, Vance Y; Miller, Joseph P; Koeller, Craig A; Gibson, Steven O; Azarow, Kenneth S; Myers, Jerome B; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James A; Christensen, Jon B; Rush, Robert M
Medics assigned to combat units have a notable paucity of trauma experience. Our goal was to provide intense trauma refresher training for the conventional combat medic to better prepare them for combat casualty care in the War on Terror. Our Tactical Combat Casualty Care Course (TC3) consisted of the following five phases: (1) One and one-half-day didactic session; (2) Half-day simulation portion with interactive human surgical simulators for anatomical correlation of procedures and team building; (3) Half-day of case presentations and triage scenarios from Iraq/Afghanistan and associated skills stations; (4) Half-day live tissue lab where procedures were performed on live anesthetized animals in a controlled environment; and (5) One-day field phase where live anesthetized animals and surgical simulators were combined in a real-time, field-training event to simulate realistic combat injuries, evacuation problems, and mass casualty scenarios. Data collection consisted of surveys, pre- and posttests, and after-action comments. A total of 1317 personnel participated in TC3 from October 2003 through May 2005. Over the overlapping study period from December 2004 to April 2005, 327 soldiers participated in the formal five-phase course. Three hundred four (94%) students were combat medics who were preparing for combat operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Of those completing the training, 97% indicated their confidence and ability to treat combat casualties were markedly improved. Moreover, of those 140 medics who took the course and deployed to Iraq for 1 year, 99% indicated that the principles taught in the TC3 course helped with battlefield management of injured casualties during their deployment. The hybrid training model is an effective method for training medical personnel to deal with modern battle injuries. This course increases the knowledge and confidence of combat medics deploying and fighting the Global War on Terrorism.
Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance
Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.
Sivalingam, Varun P; Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Raja, Krishnakumar V B; Gopi, Gayathri
To assess the influence of topical ozone administration on patient comfort after third molar surgery. A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was designed involving patients who required removal of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. The predictor variable was the postoperative medication used after third molar surgery. Using the split-mouth design, the study group received topical ozone without postoperative systemic antibiotics, whereas the control group did not receive ozone but only systemic antibiotics. The 2 groups were prescribed analgesics for 2 days. The assessing surgeon was blinded to treatment assignment. The primary outcome variables were postoperative mouth opening, pain, and swelling. The secondary outcome variable was the number of analgesic doses required by each group on postoperative days 3 to 5. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (P < .05). SPSS 20.0 was used for data analysis. The study sample included 33 patients (n = 33 in each group). The study group showed statistically relevant decreases in postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus. Further, the number of analgesics required was smaller than in the control group. No adverse effects of ozone gel were observed in any patient. Ozone gel was found to be an effective topical agent that considerably improves patient comfort postoperatively and can be considered a substitute of postoperative systemic antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corcoran, John R; Herbsman, Jodi M; Bushnik, Tamara; Van Lew, Steve; Stolfi, Angela; Parkin, Kate; McKenzie, Alison; Hall, Geoffrey W; Joseph, Waveney; Whiteson, Jonathan; Flanagan, Steven R
Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation and the role of physical and occupational therapy. This Performance Improvement Project (PIP) project examined early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with and without mechanical ventilation. In addition, speech-language pathology rehabilitation was added to the early mobilization program. We sought to assess the efficacy of early mobilization of patients with and without mechanical ventilation in the ICU on length of stay (LOS) and patient outcomes and to determine the financial viability of the program. PIP. Prospective data collection in 2014 (PIP) compared with a historical patient population in 2012 (pre-PIP). Medical and surgical ICUs of a Level 2 trauma hospital. There were 160 patients in the PIP and 123 in the pre-PIP. Interprofessional training to improve collaboration and increase intensity of rehabilitation therapy services in the medical and surgical intensive care units for medically appropriate patients. Demographics; intensity of service; ICU and hospital LOS; medications; pain; discharge disposition; functional mobility; and average cost per day were examined. Rehabilitation therapy services increased from 2012 to 2014 by approximately 60 minutes per patient. The average ICU LOS decreased by almost 20% from 4.6 days (pre-PIP) to 3.7 days (PIP) (P = .05). A decrease of over 40% was observed in the floor bed average LOS from 6.0 days (pre-PIP) to 3.4 days (PIP) (P < .01). An increased percentage of PIP patients, 40.5%, were discharged home without services compared with 18.2% in the pre-PIP phase (P < .01). Average cost per day in the ICU and floor bed decreased in the PIP group, resulting in an annualized net cost savings of $1.5 million. The results of the PIP indicate that enhanced rehabilitation services in the ICU is clinically feasible, results in improved patient outcomes, and is fiscally sound. Most early
Ramonell, Kimberly M; Fang, Shuyang; Perez, Sebastian D; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K; Sullivan, Patrick S; Galloway, John R; Staley, Charles A; Lin, Edward; Sharma, Jyotirmay; Sweeney, John F; Shaffer, Virginia O
Postoperative acute renal failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in colon and rectal surgery. Our objective was to identify preoperative risk factors that predispose patients to postoperative renal failure and renal insufficiency, and subsequently develop a risk calculator. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files database, all patients who underwent colorectal surgery in 2009 were selected (n = 21,720). We identified renal complications during the 30-day period after surgery. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, a predictive model was developed. The overall incidence of renal complications among colorectal surgery patients was 1.6 per cent. Significant predictors include male gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8), dependent functional status (OR: 1.5), preoperative dyspnea (OR: 1.5), hypertension (OR: 1.6), preoperative acute renal failure (OR: 2.0), American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥3 (OR: 2.2), preoperative creatinine >1.2 mg/dL (OR: 2.8), albumin <3.5 g/dL (OR: 1.8), and emergency operation (OR: 1.5). This final model has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 and was validated with similar excellent discrimination (area under the curve: 0.76). Using this model, a risk calculator was developed with excellent predictive ability for postoperative renal complications in colorectal patients and can be used to aid clinical decision-making, patient counseling, and further research on measures to improve patient care.
Kohn, Geoffrey P; Galanko, Joseph A; Overby, D Wayne; Farrell, Timothy M
Background Recent years have seen the establishment of bariatric surgery credentialing processes, centers-of-excellence programs and fellowship training positions. The effects of center-of-excellence status and of the presence of training programs have not previously been examined. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of case volume, center-of-excellence status and training programs on early outcomes of bariatric surgery. Study Design Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2006. Quantification of patients’ comorbidities was made using the Charlson Index. Using logistic regression modeling, annual case volumes were analyzed for an association with each institution’s center-of-excellence status and training program status. Risk-adjusted outcome measures were calculated for these hospital-level parameters. Results Data from 102,069 bariatric operations were obtained. Adjusting for comorbidities, greater bariatric case volume was associated with improvements in the incidence of total complications (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99937 for each single case increase, p=0.01), in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.99717, p<0.01), and most other complications. Hospitals with a Fellowship Council-affiliated gastrointestinal surgery training program were associated with risk-adjusted improvements in rates of splenectomy (OR = 0.2853, p<0.001) and bacterial pneumonias (OR = 0.65898, p=0.02). Center-of-excellence status, irrespective of the accrediting entity, had minimal independent association with outcome. A surgical residency program had a varying association with outcomes. Conclusions The hypothesized positive volume-outcome relationship of bariatric surgery is shown without arbitrarily categorizing hospitals to case volume groups, by analysis of volume as a continuous variable. Institutions with a dedicated fellowship training program have also been shown, in part, to be associated with improved outcomes. The concept of volume
Smyth, Niall A; Murawski, Christopher D; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Savage-Elliott, Ian; Kennedy, John G
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture) or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft) strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh
Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092
Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary G
To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with AMD confers as much functional visual improvement as surgery on eyes without retinal pathology. This is a retrospective analysis of 4924 cataract surgeries from the Veterans Healthcare Administration Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project (OSOD). We included cases of eyes with AMD that had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes with controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies (740 patients). The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales using t-tests, multivariate logistic regressions, and linear regression modeling. Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of no retinal pathology cases (controls). Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8 ± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared with controls (-6.4 ± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001). Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r = -0.38, P < 0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r = -0.075, P = 0.0002). Patients with AMD with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2 ± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P = 0.37). Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA of 20/40 or greater, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is less than 20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA.
O'Connell, Brendan P; Rizk, Habib G; Stevens, Shawn M; Nguyen, Shaun A; Meyer, Ted A
Length of stay is a marker of quality and efficiency of health care delivery. The objective of this study was to identify preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables that impact length of stay after lateral skull base surgery. Methods/Procedures: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) databases from 2009-2012 were analyzed, and patients undergoing elective lateral skull base surgery for benign lesions of cranial nerves were identified. The primary outcome measure of interest was length of hospital stay. Protracted length of stay was defined as ≥75th percentile of length of stay for all patients. The impact of demographic factors, intraoperative variables, and postoperative complications on length of stay was assessed. In total, 252 patients were included. Almost half of the patients (41.2%) were classified as obese (body mass index ≥30). Patients who were obese had significantly longer lengths of stay (5.6 ± 3.9 days) when compared to patients who were not obese (4.6 ± 3.4 days, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that operative time, reoperation within 30 days of initial surgery, and obesity were independent predictors for protracted length of stay. National multi-institutional data from the ACS-NSQIP suggest that operative time, reoperation, and obesity are predictors of longer hospital stays after lateral skull base approaches for benign cranial nerve neoplasms. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hall, Sonĵa E; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Finn, Judith; Semmens, James B
This paper highlights the uses of population-based linkage of administrative health records to improve the quality, safety, and equity of surgical care. The primary focus of the paper is on the transfer of this type of research into policy and practice. In the modern era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that not only is new evidence incorporated into clinical practice, but that the implementation and associated costs are monitored; this requires the setting of appropriate benchmarking criteria. Furthermore, it is imperative that all members of the population receive optimal health care and people are not discriminated against because of socio-economic, locational, or racial factors. The use of data linkage can assist with examining these aspects of health care and this paper provides real-life examples such as costs and adverse events from laparoscopic cholecystectomy, event monitoring for post-operative venous thrombosis, and inequalities in cancer care. The influence of these studies on clinical practice and policy is also discussed. Furthermore, this paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of data linkage research and how to avoid pitfalls. Health researchers, clinicians, and policy-makers will find the discussion of these issues useful in their everyday practice.
Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash
Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Glasgow Acute Clinical Audit Sub-Committee on Pressure Sores has previously carried out studies of incidence of pressure ulcers in the medical directorates and case-mix-adjusted the figures for length of hospital stay and risk assessment score. Case-mix classification is 'classification of people or treatment placed into groups using characteristics associated with condition, treatment or outcome that can be used to predict need, resource, use of outcomes'. In this instance, crude pressure ulcer incidence figures may be adjusted for length of hospital stay and pressure sore risk assessment score, and stratified into groups, which allows like to be compared with like. The value in case-mix-adjusted figures lies in repeating the exercise, thus determining the trend for individual areas and assessing whether improvement in the quality of care is being achieved. This is more positive than creation of 'league tables' comparing simultaneous studies in a number of areas. The figures showed that there was no statistically significant difference between surgical directorates in trusts with regard to risk assessment scores and length of hospital stay. Gathering data on the incidence of pressure ulcer development allows us to identify where new sores are occurring, but does not critically analyse the nursing intervention taken in individual cases, which identifies preventive strategies. The Glasgow group's primary aim was to gather data on case-mix-adjusted incidence of pressure damage; the secondary objectives were to scrutinize the data to gather more general information on intrinsic and extrinsic factors which may predispose to pressure ulcer development. The study was carried out in the surgical directorate. Findings showed that incidence was low (1.1%), with the majority of sores being superficial. There was a correlation between pressure ulcer development and incontinence, evidence of under-utilization of moving and handling aids for prevention of pressure ulcers
Giles, Kristina A; Wyers, Mark C; Pomposelli, Frank B; Hamdan, Allen D; Ching, Y Avery; Schermerhorn, Marc L
OBJECTIVES Obesity and morbid obesity have been shown to increase wound infections and occasionally mortality after many surgical procedures. Little is known about the relative impact of body mass index on these outcomes after open (OAR) and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS The 2005–2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was retrospectively queried to compare perioperative mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) and postoperative wound infections after OAR and EVAR. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative details were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight variables and definitions of obesity and morbid obesity were defined as BMI > 30kg/m2 and BMI > 40kg/m2 respectively. Student's T-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare outcomes. RESULTS There were 2,097 OAR and 3,358 EVAR. Compared to EVAR, OAR patients were younger, more likely to be female (26% vs. 17%, P < .001), and less obese (27% vs. 32%, P < .001). Mortality was 3.7% vs. 1.2% after OAR vs. EVAR respectively (RR 3.1, P < .001) and overall morbidity was 28% vs. 12% (RR 2.3, P < .001). Morbidly obese patients had a higher mortality for both OAR (7.3%) and EVAR (2.4%) than obese patients (3.9% OAR; 1.5% EVAR) or non-obese patients (3.7% OAR; 1.1% EVAR). Obese patients had a higher rate of wound infection vs. non-obese after open repair (6.3% vs. 2.4%, P < .001) and EVAR (3.3% vs. 1.5%, P < .001). Morbid obesity predicted mortality after OAR but not EVAR and obesity was an independent predictor of wound infection after OAR and EVAR. CONCLUSIONS Morbid obesity confers a worse outcome for mortality after AAA repair. Obesity is also a risk factor for infectious complications after OAR and EVAR. Obese patients and particularly morbidly obese patients should be treated with EVAR when anatomically feasible. PMID:20843627
Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.
Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G
OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0
Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program
Sherrod, Brandon A.; Johnston, James M.; Rocque, Brandon G.
Objective Readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmission within 30 days of the primary procedure. Results A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). Spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures had the lowest unplanned readmission rates. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0.010), oxygen supplementation (OR 1.645, p = 0.010), nutritional
Nessen, Shawn C; Eastridge, Brian J; Cronk, Daniel; Craig, Robert M; Berséus, Olle; Ellison, Richard; Remick, Kyle; Seery, Jason; Shah, Avani; Spinella, Philip C
In Afghanistan, a substantial portion of resuscitative combat surgery is performed by US Army forward surgical teams (FSTs). Red blood cells (RBCs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) are available at these facilities, but platelets are not. FST personnel frequently encounter high-acuity patient scenarios without the ability to transfuse platelets. An analysis of the use of fresh whole blood (FWB) at FSTs therefore allows for an evaluation of outcomes associated with this practice. A retrospective analysis was performed in prospectively collected data from all transfused patients at six FSTs from December 2005 to December 2010. Univariate analysis was performed, followed by two separate propensity score analyses. In-hospital mortality was predicted with the use of a conditional logistic regression model that incorporated these propensity scores. Subset analysis included evaluation of patients who received uncrossmatched Type O FWB compared with those who received type-specific FWB. A total of 488 patients received a blood transfusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or Glasgow Coma Scale in those who received or did not receive FWB. Injury Severity Scores were higher in patients transfused FWB. In our adjusted analyses, patients who received RBCs and FFP with FWB had improved survival compared with those who received RBCs and FFP without FWB. Of 94 FWB recipients, 46 FWB recipients (49%) were given uncrossmatched Type O FWB, while 48 recipients (51%) received type-specific FWB. There was no significant difference in mortality between patients that received uncrossmatched Type O and type-specific FWB. The use of FWB in austere combat environments appears to be safe and is independently associated with improved survival to discharge when compared with resuscitation with RBCs and FFP alone. Mortality was similar for patients transfused uncrossmatched Type O compared with ABO type-specific FWB in an austere setting. © 2013 American Association of Blood
Garg, Ravi K; Wieland, Aaron M; Hartig, Gregory K; Poore, Samuel O
Unplanned readmissions are associated with decreased healthcare quality and increased costs. This nationwide study examines causes for unplanned readmission among head and neck cancer patients undergoing immediate microsurgical reconstruction. Patients undergoing head and neck tumor resection with microsurgical reconstruction were identified in the 2011-2014 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Clinical characteristics and complications were compared among patients who did and did not undergo unplanned readmission. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Database search revealed 1,063 patients, 94 (8.8%) of whom had unplanned readmissions. Readmitted patients had significantly higher ASA scores (14.9% vs.7.3% ASA class 4 patients; P = 0.03) and significantly higher rates of disseminated cancer (14.9% vs.7.1%; P = 0.01), laryngopharyngectomy (17.0% vs.6.9%; P = 0.0005), deep wound infection (22.3% vs.2.4%; P < 0.0001), wound dehiscence (19.1% vs.3.3%; P < 0.0001), and blood transfusion within 72 h of surgery (44.7% vs.32.6%; P = 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression revealed deep wound infection (OR = 8.65, P < 0.0001) and wound dehiscence (OR = 3.69, P = 0.0004) to be independent predictors of unplanned readmission. Deep wound infection and wound dehiscence were independent predictors of unplanned readmission among head and neck cancer patients undergoing immediate microsurgical reconstruction. Institutions should focus efforts on improving wound surveillance, outpatient strategies for wound care, and optimization of discharge planning for this complex patient population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Desai, Atman; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Goodney, Philip; Labropoulos, Nicos
Background and Purpose Accurate knowledge of individualized risks and benefits is crucial to the surgical management of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Although large randomized trials have determined specific cutoffs for the degree of stenosis, precise delineation of patient-level risks remains a topic of debate, especially in real world practice. We attempted to create a risk factor-based predictive model of outcomes in CEA. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent CEAs from 2005 to 2010 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project database. Results Of the 35 698 patients, 20 015 were asymptomatic (56.1%) and 15 683 were symptomatic (43.9%). These patients demonstrated a 1.64% risk of stroke, 0.69% risk of myocardial infarction, and 0.75% risk of death within 30 days after CEA. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age, male sex, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, angina, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, and dialysis were independent risk factors associated with an increased risk of the combined outcome of postoperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. A validated model for outcome prediction based on individual patient characteristics was developed. There was a steep effect of age on the risk of myocardial infarction and death. Conclusions This national study confirms that that risks of CEA vary dramatically based on patient-level characteristics. Because of limited discrimination, it cannot be used for individual patient risk assessment. However, it can be used as a baseline for improvement and development of more accurate predictive models based on other databases or prospective studies PMID:23412374
Auffinger, Brenda; Lam, Sandi; Shen, Jingjing; Roitberg, Ben Z
Although the concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) as a measurement of surgical outcome has been extensively studied, there is lack of consensus on the most valid or clinically relevant MCID calculation approach. To compare the range of MCID threshold values obtained by different anchor-based and distribution-based approaches to determine the best clinically meaningful and statistically significant MCID for our studied group. Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing surgery for subaxial degenerative cervical spine disease were analyzed from a prospective blinded database. Preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative patient reported outcome (PRO) scores and blinded surgeon ratings were collected. Four calculation methods were used to calculate MCID threshold values: average change, change difference, minimum detectable change, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three anchors were used to evaluate meaningful improvement postsurgery: health transition item, patient overall status, and surgeon ratings. On average, all patients had a statistically significant improvement (P < .001) postoperatively for neck disability index (score 27.42 preoperatively to 19.42 postoperatively), physical component of the Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) (33.02-42.23), mental component of the SF-36 (44-50.74), and visual analog scale (2.85-1.93). The 4 MCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.23 to 16.59 for physical component of the SF-36, 0.11 to 16.27 for mental component of the SF-36, and 2.72 to 12.08 for neck disability index. In comparison with health transition item and patient overall status anchors, the area under the ROC curve was consistently greater for surgeon ratings for all 4 PROs. Minimum detectable change together with surgeon ratings anchor appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. Based on our findings, this combination offers the greatest area under the ROC curve (threshold above the 95
Antonelli, Jodi A
Urinary stone disease is a condition characterized by a rich history of surgical innovation. Herein, we review the new ideas, devices and methods that are the cornerstones of contemporary surgical innovation in stone disease, specifically flexible ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The new ideas being applied to flexible ureteroscopy include extending the boundaries of surgical indications and eliminating the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy. Device advancements include disposable ureteroscopes and flexi semirigid ureteroscopes. Robotic flexible ureteroscopy, the use of magnets and mobile technology applications represent progress in methods of performing flexible ureteroscopy. Three-dimensional computed tomography and printing technology are enhancing percutaneous renal access. Novel image-guided access techniques are improving the accuracy of percutaneous surgery particularly for complex cases. New ideas, devices and methods are continuing to reshape the landscape of surgical stone treatment and in so doing not only have the potential to improve surgical outcomes but also to cultivate further scientific and technological advancements in this area.
Chow, Ian; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K
Most cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis is associated with substantial blood loss necessitating transfusion. The transfusion of over 25 ml/kg of red blood cells has long been considered an important safety threshold and has been proposed as a potential marker of health care quality, despite a lack of evidence. The authors sought to ascertain risk factors for transfusion in cranial vault remodeling and to quantify the effect of transfusion volume on postoperative complications. Patients who underwent complex cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis were identified from the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariate regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for transfusion and to assess its impact on subsequent outcomes. One thousand fifty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Seven hundred seventy-seven patients (73.4 percent) required a transfusion and 520 patients (49.1 percent) required a transfusion in excess of 25 ml/kg. Neither transfusion nor transfusion volume in excess of 25 ml/kg had a significant effect on postoperative outcomes. Therefore, the authors sought to determine a more meaningful threshold. The top 20 percent of transfusion volumes were greater than or equal to 45.28 ml/kg. Recursive partitioning generated a threshold of 62.52 ml/kg, which independently predicted a greater number of complications and was associated with higher odds ratios than the quintile method. A threshold of 60 ml/kg was chosen for simplicity and was independently predictive of overall complications, medical complications, and increased length of stay. Transfusion is common in complex cranial vault remodeling. Currently described occurrence thresholds do not accurately convey postoperative risk. Transfusion in excess of 60 ml/kg significantly increases risk for complications and length of stay in cranial vault remodeling.