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Sample records for in-and out-patient setting

  1. An audit of the safe use of the mini c-arm image intensifier in the out-patient setting.

    PubMed

    Hasham, S; Burke, F D; Evans, S J; Arundell, M K; Quinton, D N

    2007-10-01

    Mini C-arm image intensifiers are used commonly in surgery of the upper limb. With relatively low doses of emitted ionising radiation, portability and superior quality of image, they are a useful aid to the operating surgeon. However, these benefits are not so often used outside the theatre setting. This paper examines the use of a mini C-arm image intensifier in the out-patient clinic and presents an audit of 100 consecutive out-patients. We reviewed the potential benefits and effects on their care pathway. We also look at the specific radiation protection issues of the mini C-arm image intensifier in the out-patients clinic. We believe use of the mini C-arm image intensifier in the out-patient setting may speed treatment and reduce the cost of treatment.

  2. A Treatment Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy in an Out Patient Community Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an outpatient replication of Apsche, Bass, Jennings and Siv (2005) work which examined the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) on adolescent conduct disordered males in an inpatient therapeutic setting. This research compared the effectiveness of MDT and Treatment as Usual (TAU) as treatments on adolescents with conduct…

  3. Health Services OutPatient Experience questionnaire: factorial validity and reliability of a patient-centered outcome measure for outpatient settings in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Coluccia, Anna; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The patient-centered approach to health care does not seem to be sufficiently developed in the Italian context, and is still characterized by the biomedical model. In addition, there is a lack of validated outcome measures to assess outpatient experience as an aspect common to a variety of settings. The current study aimed to evaluate the factorial validity, reliability, and invariance across sex of the Health Services OutPatient Experience (HSOPE) questionnaire, a short ten-item measure of patient-centeredness for Italian adult outpatients. The rationale for unidimensionality of the measure was that it could cover global patient experience as a process common to patients with a variety of diseases and irrespective of the phase of treatment course. Patients and methods The HSOPE was compiled by 1,532 adult outpatients (51% females, mean age 59.22 years, standard deviation 16.26) receiving care in ten facilities at the Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Italy. The sample represented all the age cohorts. Twelve percent were young adults, 57% were adults, and 32% were older adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate factor structure. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency using Cronbach’s α. Factor invariance was assessed through multigroup analyses. Results Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses suggested a clearly defined unidimensional structure of the measure, with all the ten items having salient loadings on a single factor. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.95). Indices of model fit supported a single-factor structure for both male and female outpatient groups. Young adult outpatients had significantly lower scores on perceived patient-centeredness relative to older adults. No significant difference emerged on patient-centeredness between male and female outpatients. Conclusion The HSOPE questionnaire seemed to be a tool with high acceptability and excellent psychometric

  4. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting

    PubMed Central

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care. PMID:26915921

  5. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting.

    PubMed

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care.

  6. Out-Patient Nurse Involvement--An Answer to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Ruth J.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the planning and implementation of a continuing education inservice program for out-patient clinic nursing staff. Educational needs were assessed through interviews. Brief, twice-monthly seminar sessions stressed participant involvement. Copies of evaluation instruments are included which indicate favorable participant…

  7. Process evaluation of an out-patient detoxification service.

    PubMed

    Sannibale, Claudia; Fucito, Lisa; O'Connor, Danny; Curry, Kenneth

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the process evaluation of an out-patient detoxification service (ODS) established by Drug Health Services (DHS) to increase the supervised withdrawal options for substance users in a Sydney metropolitan Area Health Service. The ODS aimed to provide a safe and effective supervised withdrawal to substance users who were at low risk of severe withdrawal, engage those with severe dependence in further treatment and increase the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in the medical care of ODS clients. During its first 10 months of operation, the ODS received 199 inquiries, assessed 82 individuals and admitted 76 clients for detoxification. Withdrawal treatment proceeded without complications and within the expected time frames. Fifty-four clients completed withdrawal, 10 ceased treatment, 10 remained in treatment without completing withdrawal and two were transferred elsewhere. Clients who injected substances (mainly heroin) daily at admission, compared to others, were less likely to complete withdrawal and more likely to use a range of non-prescribed substances during withdrawal. One-fifth of clients went on to further treatment with DHS, attending at least once. Overall, the ODS met its goals, providing a safe and effective supervised withdrawal to local residents, especially women, young people and those withdrawing from benzodiazepines who had significant substance dependence, impairment and previous alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Non-injecting substance users benefited most from the ODS in terms of withdrawal completion and ongoing treatment. The level of GP involvement in the conjoint care of ODS clients remained constant over time. The development and expansion of the ODS are discussed.

  8. [Functional cardiovascular assessment in dentists performing local anesthesia in out-patient settings].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S A; Razumova, S N; Vasil'ev, Yu L

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of the cardiovascular changes assessment using electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring during local anesthesia in GP dentists. Selective ECG monitoring was carried out in 60 dentists aged 25-55 years (1 group - 25-34 y.o.; 2 group - 35-44 y.o.; 3 group - 45-55 y.o.) by means of portable «Valens» system. The study of stress index or the index of regulatory systems tension (IT) was conducted for 6 hours in the first day half within 1 working day. IT from 50 to 150 relative units was considered normal. In the first group IT peak was observed at the time of expectation of clinically relevant anesthesia in upper and lower jaw, while in the second and third groups it was associated with pain reaction in the course of treatment despite of clinical signs of anesthesia in the maxilla (IT=20±5.3 and 231±1.4, correspondingly) and mandible (IT=213±2.7 and 223±2.6, correspondingly). In all groups greater IT correlated more with mandible anesthesia events.

  9. Using soft systems methodology to develop a simulation of out-patient services.

    PubMed

    Lehaney, B; Paul, R J

    1994-10-01

    Discrete event simulation is an approach to modelling a system in the form of a set of mathematical equations and logical relationships, usually used for complex problems, which are difficult to address by using analytical or numerical methods. Managing out-patient services is such a problem. However, simulation is not in itself a systemic approach, in that it provides no methodology by which system boundaries and system activities may be identified. The investigation considers the use of soft systems methodology as an aid to drawing system boundaries and identifying system activities, for the purpose of simulating the outpatients' department at a local hospital. The long term aims are to examine the effects that the participative nature of soft systems methodology has on the acceptability of the simulation model, and to provide analysts and managers with a process that may assist in planning strategies for health care.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Rehabilitation Needs of In-patients and Out-patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gandotra, Sachin; Paul, Sarita E.; Daniel, Mercian; Kumar, Krishan; Raj, Harsh A.; Sujeetha, B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of needs of patients with schizophrenia permits practitioners to prioritize, formulate and implement rehabilitation goals. Negative symptoms have been shown to present greater obstacles to effective rehabilitation. The study compared the rehabilitation needs of in and out-patients with schizophrenia, and its relationship with negative symptoms. Thirty each of out patients and short term in-patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited for the study. Patients currently exhibiting severe unmanageable psychoses and depression were excluded. Tools used for the study were DSM-IV-TR, Rehabilitation Needs Assessment Schedule, SANS, HDRS, BPRS, and UKU. Significant difference across the groups were observed as far as needs regarding requirement of help from a voluntary agency, employment, accommodation, leisure activities and help for family was concerned. Moreover, negative symptoms significantly correlated with rehabilitation needs among both groups of patients. The study also elicited family′s expectations of their patients regarding their rehabilitation needs. Further, the implications of the association between some negative symptoms and the felt needs of the patients in their rehabilitation were discussed. A full spectrum of functional behaviours needs to be assessed soon after patients recover from their most recent exacerbation and suitable interventions need to be planned. PMID:21224906

  11. The feasibility and benefits of a 12-week yoga intervention for pediatric cancer out-patients.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Amanda; Chamorro-Vina, Carolina; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Schulte, Fiona; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Increasing rates of survival present a new set of psychosocial and physical challenges for children undergoing treatment for cancer. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be a safe and effective strategy to mitigate the significant burden of cancer and its treatments, with yoga increasingly gaining recognition as a gentle alternative. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and benefits of a 12-week community-based yoga intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), select physical fitness outcomes and PA levels (PAL). Eight pediatric cancer out-patients (4 male; 4 female; Mage  = 11.88, SD = 4.26) participated in the 12-week intervention consisting of supervised yoga sessions 2 times/week. Participants (patients and parent proxies) completed measures assessing HRQL, physical fitness and PAL at baseline and post-intervention. Rates of recruitment, retention, attendance and adverse events indicated the program was feasible. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests indicated significant improvements for patient (P = 0.02) and parent reported HRQL (P = 0.03), functional mobility (P = 0.01), hamstring flexibility (left, P = 0.01 and right P = 0.02), and total PAL (P = 0.02) pre to post intervention. This 12-week community-based yoga intervention was feasible and provides preliminary evidence for the benefits of yoga on HRQL, physical fitness and PAL in pediatric cancer out-patients. In a population where sedentary behavior and the associated co-morbidities are a growing concern, these results promote the continued exploration of yoga programming. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. How post-call resident doctors perform, feel and are perceived in out-patient clinics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Wissow, Lawrence

    2011-07-01

     Recently, in the U.S.A., the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines limited residents' consecutive duty to 24 hours. In Europe, the European Working Time Directive limits the average working week to 48 hours. This study aimed to examine the performance of post-call residents in out-patient interviews using subjective and objective measures and to assess residents' subjective feelings.  We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a systematic sample of 170 paediatric primary care consultations conducted during 117 clinic sessions served by 47 residents at a teaching hospital, including 34 consultations conducted during 23 sessions by 20 post-call residents. Interviews were audiotaped and quantitatively analysed using the Roter Interactional Analysis System (RIAS). Residents and patients' parents gave subjective appraisals of the visits using short questionnaires. Major covariates are resident gender and the timing of the clinic. Results did not show significant differences between post-call residents and their peers who had left the hospital on time in most components of the out-patient interview. Subtle yet probably important differences emerged with findings that post-call residents were significantly less likely to ask a parent to repeat what she had just said, and parents seeing post-call residents were more likely to request the resident to repeat what he or she had just said and to check if the resident understood what they had said. Post-call residents were rated by objective coders as having better attitudes than their left-on-time counterparts, yet subjectively felt less satisfied and more fatigued. Female post-call residents felt less competent, less productive and less energetic; male post-call residents felt more challenged, more demoralised and busier. The changes in activating and partnering talk that occur in post-call residents are consistent with findings concerning sleep deprivation and speech. Female and male residents

  13. Radiographer-performed abdominal and pelvic ultrasound: its value in a urology out-patient clinic.

    PubMed

    Nargund, V H; Lomas, K; Sapherson, D A; Flannigan, G M; Stewart, P A

    1994-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of radiographer-performed ultrasound examination as a routine investigative procedure in a urological out-patient clinic. A total of 151 patients attending a District General Hospital Urological Out-patient Department underwent an ultrasound examination in the clinic. Diagnosis by ultrasound was achieved in 93% of patients. The remaining patients underwent further investigations. Two (1%) patients with normal scans had small bladder tumours. Subsequent intravenous urography in these individuals showed normal upper tracts. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound examination performed in the urological out-patient clinic on unprepared patients was the only investigation necessary for evaluation of common problems such as non-specific urinary symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder outlet obstruction.

  14. Time to wait: a systematic review of strategies that affect out-patient waiting times.

    PubMed

    Naiker, Ugenthiri; FitzGerald, Gerry; Dulhunty, Joel M; Rosemann, Michael

    2017-03-30

    Objective Out-patient waiting times pose a significant challenge for public patients in need of specialist evaluation and intervention. The aim of the present study was to identify and categorise effective strategies to reduce waiting times for specialist out-patient services with a focus on the Australian healthcare system.Methods A systematic review of major health databases was conducted using the key terms 'outpatient*' AND 'waiting time', 'process*' AND 'improvement in outpatient clinics'. Identified articles were assessed for their relevance by sequential review of the title, abstract and full text. References of the selected manuscripts were scanned for additional relevant articles. Selected articles were evaluated for consistent and emerging themes.Results In all, 152 articles were screened, of which 38 were included in the present review. Numerous strategies identified in the articles were consolidated into 26 consistent approaches. Three overarching themes were identified as significantly affecting waiting times: resource realignment, operational efficiency and process improvement.Conclusions Strategies to align resources, increase operational efficiency and improve processes provide a comprehensive approach that may reduce out-patient waiting times.What is known about the topic? Out-patient waiting times are a challenge in most countries that seek to provide universal access to health care for all citizens. Although there has been extensive research in this area, many patients still experience extensive delays accessing specialist care, particularly in the public health sector. The multiple factors that contribute to bottlenecks and inefficiencies in the referral process and affect patient waiting times are often poorly understood.What does this paper add? This paper reviews the published healthcare literature to identify strategies that affect specialist out-patient waiting times for patients. The findings suggest that there are numerous operational

  15. [The team medical support in out-patient chemotherapy: a role of nurses].

    PubMed

    Doi, Naomi; Shigematsu, Tadashi; Amamori, Keiko; Yamada, Toshimi; Hattori, Naoko; Morisaki, Setsuko; Matsuo, Ayumi; Hatai, Yusuke; Senba, Ikuko; Shirai, Masatoshi

    2007-12-01

    The number of cancer patients and families desiring home-based care and out-patient chemotherapy has been increasing. Hence, a support system for home-based care is urgently needed for a patient with recurrent and/or advanced unresectable cancer who recieved cancer chemotherapy. The cancer therapy especially in patients with colorectal cancer could have expected an improvement of the prognosis utilizing FOLFOX/FOLFIRI, a standard therapy established in Europe and America. Thereby, it was well recognized that the department of out-patient chemotherapy is very important for continuous venous infusion using a central venous port. Since May 2005, we started an out-patient department for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy and a risk management in order to establish a patient care team. The important thing we should recognize about the out-patient treatment is that there are many cases of cancer patients who are in the state of poor nourishment caused by plural factors such as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) by an intake disturbance, and the poor absorption in glucose, protein and fat which are necessary for a good metabolism. The poor nutritional status causes a deterioration of immune function and complications such as infectious diseases. Thereby, a good management of nourishment to the patient who received cancer chemotherapy is an important supportive therapy. It appears that a good management of nourishment prevented and/or alleviated the complication that caused by the treatment of cancer chemotherapy. Because of the out-patient treatment is to treat a patient in a short period of time without thorough evaluation about the same for in hospitalized patient, a team medical support, a prudent policy of chemotherapy by the medical team members consisting of nurses, pharmacists, dietitian, chemotherapist and the self-care guidance of the patient are strongly required.

  16. Changes in hospital and out-patient events and costs following implant naltrexone treatment for problematic alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Erin; Hayes, Lesleigh; O'Neil, Graeme; Kyle, Sarah; Jeffrey, Gary P; O'Neil, George; Hendrie, Delia; Mukhtar, Aqif; Hulse, Gary

    2014-08-01

    The harmful use of alcohol places a considerable burden on the community, both socially and financially. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of implant naltrexone is associated with a reduction in health care events and costs in patients treated for problematic alcohol use. Ninety four patients (60.6% male) treated between 2002 and 2007 were matched against state hospital, emergency department (ED), mental health out-patients and mortality data sets for 6 months prior to and 6 months post treatment. The number of patients, events, and costs associated with each health event were compared before and after treatment. Overall health care events and costs were reduced from $509033 prior to treatment to $270001 following treatment. Costs associated with hospital admission showed the most significant reduction, falling from $424605 (82 admissions/36 patients) before treatment to $203462 (43 admission/24 patients) after. While costs associated with ED attendances also fell ($74885 to $54712), costs associated with mental health out-patient attendances increased ($9543 to $11827). The use of implant naltrexone was associated with a reduction health events and costs in patients with problematic alcohol use in the first 6 months following treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Improving the quality of NHS out-patient clinics: the applications and misapplications of TQM.

    PubMed

    Hart, M

    1996-01-01

    Presents and discusses the results of a monitoring programme instituted to comply with the objectives laid down in The Patient's Charter. Explores the dangers inherent in attempting to assess the quality of out-patient clinics by the use of single, simplistic indicators such as a waiting time. Examines the ways in which total quality management has been deployed in a health-service context and pays particular attention to the way in which the concept of ¿the customer¿ may need considerable refinement. Suggests incorporating more user-centered approaches into evaluations of quality in the National Health Service, such as the patient satisfaction survey and the application of the SERVQUAL model of consumer satisfaction. Refines the concept of ¿ecological validity¿ in an attempt to capture the perceptions and world views of all of the participants in episodes of out-patient care in order to derive more complete measures of quality.

  18. Financial impact of surgical training on hospital economics: an income analysis of 1184 out-patient clinic consultations.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J E F; Ravindra, P; Lepore, M; Armstrong, A; Bhangu, A; Maxwell-Armstrong, C A

    2013-01-01

    In many countries healthcare commissioning bodies (state or insurance-based) reimburse hospitals for their activity. The costs associated with post-graduate clinical training as part of this are poorly understood. This study quantified the financial revenue generated by surgical trainees in the out-patient clinic setting. A retrospective analysis of surgical out-patient ambulatory care appointments under 6 full-time equivalent Consultants (Attendings) in one hospital over 2 months. Clinic attendance lists were generated from the Patient Access System. Appointments were categorised as: 'new', 'review' or 'procedure' as per the Department of Health Payment by Results (PbR) Outpatient Tariff (Outpatient Treatment Function Code 104; Outpatient Procedure Code OPRSI1). During the study period 78 clinics offered 1184 appointments; 133 of these were not attended (11.2%). Of those attended 1029 had sufficient detail for analysis (98%). 261 (25.4%) patients were seen by a trainee. Applying PbR reimbursement criteria to these gave a projected annual income of £GBP 218,712 (€EU 266,527; $USD 353,657) generated by 6 surgical trainees (Residents). This is equivalent to approximately £GBP 36,452 (€EU 44,415; $USD 58,943) per trainee annually compared to £GBP 48,732 (€EU 59,378; $USD 78,800) per Consultant. This projected yearly income off-set 95% of the trainee's basic salary. Surgical trainees generated a quarter of the out-patient clinic activity related income in this study, with each trainee producing three-quarters of that generated by a Consultant. This offers considerable commercial value to hospitals. Although this must offset productivity differences and overall running costs, training bodies should ensure hospitals offer an appropriate return. In a competitive market hospitals could be invited to compete for trainees, with preference given to those providing excellence in training. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Quality of life and subjective well-being during treatment with antipsychotics in out-patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wehmeier, Peter M; Kluge, Michael; Schneider, Edith; Schacht, Alexander; Wagner, Thomas; Schreiber, Wolfgang

    2007-04-13

    To assess the Quality of Life (QOL) in outpatients with schizophrenia under antipsychotics from two perspectives: a "subjective" perspective as rated by the patient and an "objective" perspective as rated by the physician. EASE (External Assessment of Quality of Life in Out-patients with Schizophrenia) is a 12-month, prospective, naturalistic study of the QOL in patients on antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in an out-patient setting in Germany. The study included 1462 patients who were initiated on a new antipsychotic or switched to another antipsychotic. The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale (SWN) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were used to assess the QOL in these patients. The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale was used to assess overall symptom severity. Four cohorts were identified and evaluated: (a) patients treated with olanzapine monotherapy (N=1007), (b) another atypical antipsychotic as monotherapy (N=335), (c) a typical antipsychotic as monotherapy (N=32) and (d) combination therapy with more than one antipsychotic (N=88). QOL as assessed by both SWN and QLS improved in all treatment cohorts. SWN responses in the respective cohorts were (a) 52.3%, (b) 38.8%, (c) 31.3% and (d) 44.3%, whilst the QLS responses were (a) 58.2%, (b) 45.1%, (c) 59.4% and (c) 40.9%. Symptom severity as assessed by the CGI also improved over time regardless of the type of antipsychotic. An increase of one point on the CGI corresponded to a change in SWN total score of -9.67 points and a change in QLS total score of -13.36 points. Both QOL and symptom severity improved over the 12-month study period, regardless of the type of antipsychotic taken. QOL improvement as perceived both from a "subjective" and an "objective" perspective was greatest in the cohort on olanzapine monotherapy.

  20. Comprehensive out-patient pulmonary rehabilitation: Treatment outcomes in early and late stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ergün, Pinar; Kaymaz, Dicle; Günay, Ersin; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Turay, Ülkü Yilmaz; Demir, Neşe; Çanak, Ebru; Sengül, Fatma; Egesel, Nurcan; Köse, Serdal Kenan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the outcomes of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to establish whether in early disease stage PR is as effective as in late stages of disease. METHODS: A total of 55 stable COPD patients, 28 with early and 27 with late disease stages, were assessed. Patients underwent a comprehensive out-patient PR program for 8 weeks. To eluciate the effects of PR and compare the level of improvement; lung function, dyspnea sensation [Medical Research Council (MRC)], body composition [body mass index (BMI), fat free mass (FFM), fat free mass index (FFMI)], exercise capacity [incremental shuttle walking test, endurance shuttle walking test], health related quality of life (HRQoL) with St. George Respiratory Disease Questionnaire, psycohological status (Hospital anxiety–depression (HAD) scale) were evaluated before and after PR. RESULTS: At the end of PR in the early disease stage group, the improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) reached a statistically significant level (P < 0.05). In both disease stages, there were no significant differences in BMI, FFM, and FFMI. The decrease in exertional dyspnea for the two groups evaluated with the modified BORG scale were not found statistically significant, though the dyspnea scores evaluated with MRC showed significant improvements (P < 0.001). HRQoL and exercise capacity were significantly improved for the two groups (P < 0.001). Psychological status evaluated with the HAD scale improved after PR (P < 0.001) both in early and late stages. Gainings in the study parameters did not differ in the early and the late disease stages. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that patients with COPD had benefited from a comprehensive PR program in an out-patient setting regardless of disease severity. Even patients with earlier stage of disease should be referred and encouraged to participate in a PR program. PMID:21572695

  1. Clinical predictors of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in out-patients.

    PubMed

    Shivashankar, R; Khanna, S; Kammer, P P; Scott Harmsen, W; Zinsmeister, A R; Baddour, L M; Pardi, D S

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurs in 20-30% of patients. To describe the predictors of recurrence in out-patients with CDI. Out-patient cases of CDI in Olmsted County, MN residents diagnosed between 28 June 2007 and 25 June 2010 were identified. Recurrent CDI was defined as recurrence of diarrhoea with a positive C. difficile PCR test from 15 to 56 days after the initial diagnosis with interim resolution of symptoms. Patients who had two positive tests within 14 days were excluded. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association of clinical variables with time to recurrence of CDI. The cohort included 520 out-patients; 104 had recurrent CDI (cumulative incidence of 17.5% by 30 days). Univariate analysis identified increasing age and antibiotic use to be associated with recurrent CDI. Severe CDI, peripheral leucocyte count and change in serum creatinine >1.5-fold were not. In a multiple variable model, concomitant antibiotic use was associated with risk of recurrent CDI (HR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.6-17.5, P = 0.005), while age (HR per 10 year increase = 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.3, P = 0.22); peripheral leucocyte count >15 × 10(9) /L (HR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-2.1, P = 0.92); and change in serum creatinine greater than 1.5-fold (HR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5, P = 0.44) were not. Antibiotic use was independently associated with a dramatic risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in an out-patient cohort. It is important to avoid unnecessary systemic antibiotics in patients with Clostridium difficile infection, and patients with ongoing antibiotic use should be monitored closely for recurrent infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Endoscopic sphincterotomy as an out-patient procedure: is it safe?].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2003-01-01

    Patients have been routinely admitted for observation for potential complications after therapeutic ERCP; however, in this era of cost containment it may be more cost-effective to perform these procedures on an out-patient basis. The purpose of this study was to determine safety and complication rates of endoscopic sphincterotomy in out-patients. Over an 11-month period, 124 consecutive patient undergoing endoscopic sphincterotomy for biliary and pancreatic disease were enrolled in a prospective and randomized manner. Sixty patients (Group A) were observed 1-3 h post procedure before discharge with follow-up at 5 days. The other 62 patients (Group B) were admitted for observation. The statistical method was Fisher test and chi 2. Successful endoscopic sphincterotomy was achieved in 98.3% (122/124) of patients. Eighty five patients were female and 37 male. There were 60 outpatients and 62 in-patients; endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed by choledocholithiasis in 59.9% (70 cases) and papillary stenoses in 16.4% (20 cases). Complication rates were 3.27% (four patients): three pancreatitis and one bleeding. There were three in-patients and one outpatient (p. 313). We reduce costs $324,120.00 M.N. (Mexican pesos) without compromising patient safety and outcome. Endoscopic sphincterotomy may be performed safely on an outpatient basis, realizing significant savings in costs.

  3. Patient satisfaction with out-patient rehabilitation therapy: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Se-Yeon; Ha, Ji Sun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study were to develop an out-patient satisfaction questionnaire to be used in health care system, from which the underlying dimensions could be derived and individual patient scores calculated, and to evaluate some of the questionnaire’s psychometric properties. [Subjects and Methods] Forty out-patient of local hospital reply both the questionnaire used in previous study and newly designed questionnaire. To identifying validity, the statistical linear relationship between the total score of the primary questionnaire and newly designed questionnaire, which were analyzed. The test-retest reliability has been investigated by using a single measure intra class correlation. [Results] The average satisfaction of the previous questionnaire were significantly correlated with newly designed questionnaire. The intra-lass correlation coefficient of the each items of newly designed questionnaire were strong. Total score of the previous questionnaire had the lowest test-retest reliability, Cronbach’ s alpha coefficient for the newly designed questionnaire score showed acceptable inter-item reliability. [Conclusion] The out-patients’ satisfaction questionnaire developed in present study, which had appropriate validity, reliability, and acceptability. PMID:28174450

  4. Failure to attend out-patient clinics: is it in our DNA?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kinley; Callanan, Ian; Tubridy, Niall

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the reasons why patients miss clinic appointments and to ascertain patients' views on the implementation of reminder systems and penalty fees to reduce the rates of did not attend (DNAs). Overall, the paper seeks to establish novel ways to run a more efficient out-patient department (OPD) service to improve waiting times and access for patients to limited neurology resources. A questionnaire-based study was approved by the audit committee and was offered to 204 out-patients attending the neurology clinics over a three-month period (July to September 2009). The patients' demographic details and non-attendance records were reviewed. The paper aimed to ascertain, from the patients' perspective, why people failed to attend clinic appointments. Each participant was asked their views on how they felt their public hospital service might reduce the number of DNAs at their neurology OPD. A total of 204 patients took part. Participants had a mean age of 31 years (range 25-75 years) with a modal peak in the 26 to 35 age bracket. Almost 10 per cent of those surveyed admitted to missing a hospital out-patient appointment in the past. The most common reason was that they simply "forgot" (28 per cent). DNA rates by age range were proportionally similar to the overall age profile of attenders. Over 55 per cent said they would like a pre-appointment reminder via a mobile telephone text message, 19 per cent preferred a pre-appointment telephone call, and 19 per cent an e-mail. Of those surveyed, 47 per cent said they would be willing to pay a fee on booking that could be refunded on attending for their appointment. The majority of these felt Euro 20 was the most appropriate amount (39 per cent). The rate of acceptance for various fee amounts was uniform across age ranges. Over half (52 per cent) said that they would agree to a "buddy" system whereby the appointment reminder was sent to the patient but also a nominated friend or relative. Non

  5. Neuroleptic drug utilization in out-patients--a prescription database study.

    PubMed Central

    Rosholm, J U; Hansen, L J; Hallas, J; Gram, L F

    1993-01-01

    1 A prescription database study was conducted to describe the out-patient utilization of neuroleptics in the Odense area (207,000 inhabitants) during a period of 1 year. 2 Neuroleptic drug use is widespread, the period prevalence being 2.45% of the population. 3 The prevalence increases with increasing age. Fifteen percent of the population aged 90 years or more received neuroleptic drugs in spite of the many warnings against side effects in the elderly. 4 Estimated daily doses of neuroleptics were considerably lower than the Defined Daily Dose, probably as a reflection of many neuroleptics being prescribed to non-psychotic patients, in whom lower doses are used. 5 For perphenazine, a comparison of estimated daily doses from this study with doses from patients whose treatment had been adjusted by plasma concentration monitoring showed that generally much lower doses were used by patients included in this study. PMID:12959276

  6. Rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids in the out-patient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Paulvannan, S.; Billings, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Rubber band ligation (RBL) is an effective treatment for symptomatic haemorrhoids but carries significant morbidity. We performed a prospective study of 98 consecutive patients treated by RBL in the out-patient clinic. Immediate, intermediate (within 2 weeks) and late (within 2 months) complications were recorded. Immediate complications occurred in 66 (67.3%) patients. Pain was the predominant symptom in 50 patients (51%). Fifteen (15.3%) patients had vasovagal attacks and 1 (1%) had bleeding. Twenty-five patients (25.5%) were unable to perform normal activities on the day of RBL. One patient needed hospital admission for control of pain. Seventy four (75.5%) patients would have RBL if they needed further treatment for haemorrhoids. Symptomatic cure was achieved in 71 patients (72.4%). RBL is an effective treatment but with significant complications. Patients should be adequately warned, especially of pain and vasovagal attacks. PMID:12092868

  7. Out-patient psychodynamic psychotherapy services: an analysis of patient discharge data.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Nightingale, A

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the functioning of a specialist out-patient Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Service by studying demographic characteristics of patient referrals and referral sources. To investigate the effect of number of treatment sessions on outcome; and to discuss the results in the light of some prevailing stereotypes about psychotherapeutic treatment. Analysis of discharge data on a cohort of patients discharged from a psychotherapy clinic. An out-patient psychotherapy clinic serving the West Sector of the City of Glasgow. All patients discharged between mid 1993 and 1998. The clinic served all General Practices within eight postal code areas in West Glasgow (catchment population 260,000). Over a five year period 1648 patients were discharged from the clinic; 68% of referrals were from General Practitioners, 18% from Psychiatrists and the remainder from Clinical Psychologists, Consultant Physicians and Surgeons. A wide range of diagnostic conditions were encountered with personality disorder being diagnosed in more than one-third of patients seen. Successful outcome, assessed by patients' subjective ratings on a four point scale at termination of treatment, showed a 50% improvement rate achieved between 7-12 treatment sessions in the Non Personality Disorder group, and between 12-20 treatment sessions in the Personality Disorder group. In total the proportion of not improved and improved ratings was 61% and 39% respectively. Four hundred (73%) of the not improved group received, five sessions or less. The results indicated that the Psychotherapy Service treated a large number of patients, many from middle to high areas of deprivation, and that improvement could be effected over relatively short time periods. The data did not conform to existing stereotypes such as psychotherapy being confined to the treatment of "worried well", affluent groups. It took twice as many sessions to achieve a 50% improvement rate in patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder

  8. Drug adherence behavior among hypertensive out-patients at a tertiary health institution in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mukora-Mutseyekwa, Fadzai Nn; Chadambuka, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the level of drug adherence among hypertensive outpatients at a tertiary hospital in Zimbabwe. Specific objectives included measurement of blood pressure (BP) control achievement, estimating prevalence of drug adherence behavior, and establishing the association between drug adherence behavior and achievement of BP control. An analytic cross sectional design was applied on a convenience sample of 102 participants using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Self-reported adherence was assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. The median age of participants was 68.5 years (Q(1) 61;Q(3) 76). The majority were female (n = 71;69.6%). BP control (< 140/90 mmHg) was achieved in 52% (n = 53). Self-reported drug adherence was 40.2% (n = 42). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, participants with normal BP measurements were more than three times as likely to report maximal adherence to prescribed drug schedules (odds ratio 3.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.38-.24). Poor drug adherence behavior prevails among hypertensive outpatients. This contributes to poor achievement of BP control. The hospital is recommended to set up a specialized hypertension clinic in the Out-patients' Department where an intensified health education package can be introduced as well as community awareness programs on the importance of medication adherence.

  9. Out-patient chronic pain service in Hong Kong: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, P P; Chen, J; Gin, T; Ma, M; Fung, K C; Woo, K H; Wong, P Y

    2004-06-01

    To examine the profile and referral pattern of patients attending an out-patient pain management service in Hong Kong. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Regional public hospitals, Hong Kong. All patients attending out-patient pain management clinics in the New Territories East public hospitals between 1 September and 31 December 2002. Demographic profiles, referring specialty, pain diagnosis, pain sites, duration and severity of pain, treatment modality, litigation, compensation, and social welfare status. Data were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Two hundred and forty-eight patients were interviewed. Most patients (70%) were middle-aged, with 21% over 60 years. Seventy-nine percent of patients were referred to the clinics either from orthopaedic surgeons (64.1%), general and other surgeons (14.9%), or general practitioners (3.6%). The median (range) duration of pain was 2.3 (0.08-26.7) years. The most common pain diagnoses were musculoskeletal back pain (46.4%) and neuropathic pain (27.8%). A total of 11.3% of the patients had two pain diagnoses, while 40.7% complained of pain in more than one location. Pain in the limbs was the most frequent complaint followed by the head, neck, and back. Approximately 38% of patients had tried four or more treatment modalities. Oral medication was the most common method (86.7%) of pain-relief treatment. More than half of the patients had also tried physiotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine. Approximately 37% of the patients were unemployed, while 31% were receiving social security subsidy. Eighty-six patients had pain associated with a work-related injury, and of these patients, 80% were involved in compensation claims. The profile of patients referred to the pain management clinics was complex. Patients were mainly referred from specialists. The economic implication in this group of patients is likely to be significant as many patients utilised multiple treatment modalities, were unemployed and on social

  10. Patient mobile telephone 'text' reminder: a novel way to reduce non-attendance at the ENT out-patient clinic.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, M; Glynn, F; Amin, M; Kinsella, J

    2008-03-01

    Non-attendance at out-patient clinics is a seemingly intractable problem, estimated to cost 65 pounds sterling (97 euros) per incident. This results in under-utilisation of resources and prolonged waiting lists. In an effort to reduce out-patient clinic non-attendance, our ENT department, in conjunction with the information and communication technology department, instigated the use of a mobile telephone short message service ('text') reminder, to be sent out to each patient three days prior to their out-patient clinic appointment. To audit non-attendance rates at ENT out-patient clinics following the introduction of a text reminder system. Retrospective review. Non-attendance at our institution's ENT out-patient clinics was audited, following introduction of a text message reminder system in August 2003. Rates of non-attendance were compared for the text message reminder group and a historical control group. Before the introduction of the text message reminder system, the mean rate of non-attendance was 33.6 per cent. Following the introduction of the system, the mean rate of non-attendance reduced to 22 per cent. Sending text message reminders is a simple and cost-effective way to improve non-attendance at ENT out-patient clinics.

  11. Out-patient percutaneous renal biopsy among children in Northern Nigeria: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Obiagwu, Patience N; Abdu, Aliyu; Atanda, Akinfenwa T

    2014-01-01

    The safety of percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) has been debated. The primary aim of this study was to review the procedure and secondary aim is to evaluate the safety of PRB in children in a developing nephrology unit in Northern Nigeria. Renal biopsies carried out in the renal unit of a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria between November 2011 and April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All biopsies were carried out electively and under real-time ultrasound guidance using an automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun. Risk factors for complications were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 24 biopsies were carried out in 20 children with nephrotic syndrome during the period under review. Mean age was 8.3 ΁ 3.0 years. Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome was the most common indication for biopsy in 11 (55%) cases. Adequate tissue was obtained in 91.7%. Complications occurred in 2 (8.3%) cases. One required hospitalization with blood transfusion. Pre-biopsy hemoglobin concentration of <10 g/dL was found to be a significant predictor for the development of complications (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of complications between the in-patient biopsies and day case biopsies. PRB can be safely carried out as an out-patient procedure in children. Low hemologlobin concentration was the major risk factor for complication.

  12. Impact of involuntary out-patient commitment on reducing hospital services: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Castells-Aulet, Laura; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Jiménez-Martos, Jesús; Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method To evaluate whether involuntary out-patient commitment (OPC) in patients with severe mental disorder reduces their use of hospital services. This is a retrospective case-control study comparing a group of patients on OPC (n = 75) and a control group (n = 75) which was composed of patients whose sociodemographic variables and clinical characteristics were similar to those of the OPC group. Each control case is paired with an OPC case, so the control case must have an involuntary admission in the month that the index OPC case admission occurred. Emergency room visits, admissions and average length of hospital stay over a 2-year follow-up after the initiation of OPC were compared. Results No statistically significant evidence was found in the use of mental healthcare services between the two groups. Different reasons for admission found between the groups limit similarity when comparing the two. Clinical implications The findings cast doubt over the effectiveness of this legal measure to reduce emergency visits, the number of admissions and the length of stay in the hospital.

  13. Evaluating Infection Prevention Strategies in Out-Patient Dialysis Units Using Agent-Based Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Lawson, Barry; Shemin, Douglas; D'Agata, Erika M C

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD) are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO. We also hypothesize that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. To address our hypotheses, we built an agent-based model to simulate different treatment strategies in a dialysis unit. Our results suggest that reducing antimicrobial treatment, either by reducing the number of patients receiving treatment or by reducing the duration of the treatment, markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. Our results also suggest that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments is an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates. These findings have important implications for the development and implementation of future infection prevention strategies.

  14. The Effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E): A Naturalistic Study within an Out-Patient Eating Disorder Service.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Rachel; Sheffield, Jeanie; Rhodes, Natalie; Fleming, Carmel; Ward, Warren

    2017-06-19

    The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) for adults with a range of eating disorder presentations within routine clinical settings has been examined in only two known published studies, neither of which included a follow-up assessment period. The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-E within an out-patient eating disorder service in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, and incorporated a follow-up assessment period of approximately 20 weeks post-treatment. The study involved 114 adult females with a diagnosed eating disorder, who attended an average of 20-40 individual CBT-E sessions with a psychologist or a psychiatry registrar between 2009 and 2013. Of those who began treatment, 50% did not complete treatment, and the presence of psychosocial and environmental problems predicted drop-out. Amongst treatment completers, statistically and clinically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed at post-treatment, which were generally maintained at the 20-week follow-up. Statistically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed amongst the total sample. The findings, which were comparable to the previous Australian effectiveness study of CBT-E, indicate that CBT-E is an effective treatment for adults with all eating disorders within out-patient settings. Given the high attrition rate, however, minimizing drop-out appears to be an important consideration when implementing CBT-E within clinical settings.

  15. Scheduled out-patient endoscopy and lack of compliance in a minority serving tertiary institution

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Danielle S.; Egbuonnu, Nneka; Umunakwe, Chukwuma; Fullum, Terrence M.; Ford, Debra H.; Anders, Kyle B.; McDonald-Pinkett, Shelly; Smoot, Duane T.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lack of adherence to appointments wastes resources and portends a poorer outcome for patients. We sought to determine if the type of scheduled endoscopic procedures affect compliance. Methods We reviewed the final endoscopy schedule from January 2010 to August 2010 in an inner city teaching hospital that serves a predominantly African American population. The final schedule only includes patients who did not cancel, reschedule or notify the facility of their inability to adhere to their care plan up to 24 hours prior to their procedures. All patients had face to face consultation with gastroenterologists or surgeons prior to scheduling. We identified patients who did not show up for their procedures. We used Poisson regression models to calculate Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results Of 2,183 patients who were scheduled for outpatient endoscopy, 400 (18.3%) patients were scheduled for Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD), 1,335 (61.2%) for colonoscopy and 448 (20.5%) for both EGD and colonoscopy. The rate of non compliance was 17.5%, 22.8% and 22.1%, respectively. When compared to those scheduled for only EGD, patients scheduled for colonoscopy alone (RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.13-1.92) and patients scheduled for both EGD and colonoscopy (RR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.84) were less likely to show up for their procedures. Conclusions Our study suggests a high rate of non-compliance with scheduled out-patient endoscopy, particularly for colonoscopy. Since this may be a contributing factor to colorectal cancer disparities, increased community outreach on colorectal cancer education is needed and may help to reduce non compliance. PMID:22197978

  16. Evaluation of Hand Written and Computerized Out-Patient Prescriptions in Urban Part of Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Jatin; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusion As compared to handwritten prescriptions, computerized prescriptions appeared to be associated with relatively lower rates of error. Since out-patient prescription errors are abundant and often occur in handwritten prescriptions, prescribers need to adapt themselves to computerized prescription order entry in their daily practice. PMID:27504305

  17. [THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRAUMATOLOGICAL ORTHOPEDIC OUT-PATIENT CARE TO POPULATION OF THE PRIVOLJSKII FEDERAL OKRUG].

    PubMed

    Norkin, I A; Baratov, A W; Andreeva, T M; Yushina, B S; Fedonnikov, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis ofmanpower support of specialized out-patient traumatological orthopedic care in the Privoljskii federal okrug. The manpower deficiency of traumatologist-orthopedist at the out-patient stage was established especially especially in rural area. This is cause of low indicators ofdispensary monitoring of patients with consequences of traumas and diseases of musculo-skeletal system and factual unavailability of rehabilitation care to patients of given profile. The experience oftraining and re-training of traumatologist-orthopedist is presented. The organization of hospital-substituting forms of medical service of profile patients in the Saratovskaia oblast. The directions of development of organization of specialized out-patient care to population of the region.

  18. New approach for treatment of prolonged postoperative pain: APS Out-Patient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tiippana, Elina; Hamunen, Katri; Heiskanen, Tarja; Nieminen, Teija; Kalso, Eija; Kontinen, Vesa K

    2016-07-01

    Persistent postoperative pain (PPP) is a significant clinical problem. Several patient-related risk factors for PPP have been identified, including a previous chronic pain problem, young age, female gender and psychological vulnerability. Intra- and postoperative risk factors include surgical complications such as infections, haematoma, nerve damage and repeated surgery. As the length of hospital stay has been shortened, some patients may be discharged despite ongoing pain and insufficient analgesic medication. The challenge is to identify patients at high risk of developing PPP and to create a targeted care pathway to ensure effective and safe pain treatment especially in the subacute postoperative phase at home. This observational study describes the first two years of the Acute Pain Service Out-Patient Clinic (APS-OPC) at the Helsinki University Hospital. Patient characteristics, known risk factors, and details of treatment of PPP for the first 200 patients referred to our APS-OPC were retrospectively collected from the medical records. The APS-OPC clinic functions in close collaboration with the Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic (MPC), and the number of patients in need of physiotherapist, psychologist or psychiatrist counselling was recorded, as well as the number of patients referred to the MPC for further PPP management. Patients were referred to the APS-OPC from different surgical specialities, the two most common being thoracic and orthopaedic surgery. Seventy per cent of the patients (139/200) presented symptoms indicating neuropathic postsurgical pain. The patients had, on average, five risk factors for PPP. The median time from surgery to the first contact to the APS-OPC was two months, and the median duration of follow-up was 2.8 months (0-16 months). The median number of contacts with APS-OPC was 3 (range 1-14). Every fourth patient needed only one contact to the APS-OPC. Nineteen per cent of the patients had an appointment with the physiotherapist and 20

  19. Colonisation of dentures by Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in out-patient and in-patient populations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N; Parmar, N; Hussain, Z; Baker, G; Green, I; Howlett, J; Kearns, A; Cookson, B; McDonald, A; Wilson, M; Ready, D

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen, and colonisation with this organism can result in localised or systemic infections which may be fatal. One hundred in-patients admitted to a London teaching hospital and 100 out-patients attending prosthetic dentistry clinics were recruited into this study. Of the 100 out-patients, 27 % harboured S. aureus on their dentures, compared to 33 % of in-patients. Only one out-patient had MRSA colonising their dentures whereas 12 % of the in-patients harboured MRSA. The median total bacterial count of the denture plaque samples was 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/sample and 6.9 × 10(7) cfu/sample for the out-patient and in-patient populations, respectively. In most instances, where present, S. aureus comprised less than 1 % of the total viable denture microbiota. Phage typing demonstrated that EMRSA-15 and non-typeable strains were harboured on dentures. The results of this study have revealed that dentures are a potential reservoir of MRSA and so account should be taken of these findings when planning decontamination procedures for elimination of this pathogen.

  20. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles

    2004-08-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention.

  1. Self-esteem in recovered bipolar and unipolar out-patients.

    PubMed

    Pardoen, D; Bauwens, F; Tracy, A; Martin, F; Mendlewicz, J

    1993-12-01

    The hypothesis of a low self-esteem in depressive patients was tested using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 24 recovered unipolar and 27 recovered bipolar patients, compared with a normal control group of 26 subjects matched for age and sex. The hypothesis was confirmed only for unipolars; bipolar patients presented a self-esteem score not significantly different from normal scores. Self-esteem was not related to clinical characteristics of the affective disorder, suggesting that low self-esteem may be a basic component of a depression-prone personality. The investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and social adjustment confirmed the presence of social conformism in bipolar patients and rigidly set low self-esteem in unipolar patients. These results should stimulate the evaluation of different psychotherapeutic treatments in the long-term psychosocial management of affectively ill patients.

  2. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.

  3. Prostitution use has non sexual functions - case report of a depressed psychiatric out-patient

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Fátima; Gysin, François

    2013-01-01

    Case: A shy, depressed 30 year old male discussed his frequent ego-syntonic indoor prostitution consumption in small peer groups. Several distinctive non-sexual functions of this paid sex habit were identified. Design and method: The patient had 40 hourly psychiatric sessions in the private practice setting over 14 months. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale was applied to compare the subjective appraisal of both paid sex and sex in a relationship. The informal Social Atom elucidates social preferences and the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostic-procedure was applied to describe a dominant relationship pattern. Results: The paid sex consumption functioned as a proud male life style choice to reinforce the patients fragile identity. The effect on self esteem was a release similar to his favorite past-time of kick-boxing. With paid sex asserted as a group ritual, it was practiced even with frequent erectile dysfunction and when sex with a stable romantic partner was more enjoyable and satisfying. The therapeutic attitude of the female psychiatrist, with her own ethical values, is put in to context with two opposing theories about prostitution: the ‘Sex-Work-model’ and the ‘Oppression-model’. The therapist’s reaction to the patients’ information was seen as a starting point to understanding the intrapsychic function of paid sex as a coping mechanism against depressive feelings. Conclusions: Exploring and understanding prostitution consumption patterns in young men can benefit the treatment of psychiatric disorders in the private practice setting. It is the psychiatrists task to investigate the patients hidden motives behind paid sex use to help patients achieve a greater inner and relational freedom. PMID:24627772

  4. Integration of computer and Internet-based programmes into psychiatric out-patient care of adolescents with depression.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Marjo; Hätönen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Välimäki, Maritta

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this explorative study was to describe nurses' opportunities to integrate computer and Internet-based programmes in psychiatric out-patient care among adolescents with depression. Therefore, nurses' daily computer use and possible problems related to it were investigated. The data were collected by conducting focus group interviews with Finnish registered nurses (n =12) working at the out-patient clinics of two university central hospitals. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The analysis showed that nurses used the computer and Internet in their daily work for data transmission and informal interaction with adolescents. Findings revealed that nurses have good computer skills, a positive attitude towards using the computer and Internet and were motivated to make use of both on a daily basis. Problems faced in daily computer use were a lack of instructions and education, and lack of help and support. We can conclude that nurses have good opportunities to implement computer and Internet-based programmes in adolescent out-patient care. These results are encouraging keeping in mind that adolescents are the most active Internet users in society.

  5. Neuronal correlates of affective theory of mind in schizophrenia out-patients: evidence for a baseline deficit.

    PubMed

    Mier, D; Sauer, C; Lis, S; Esslinger, C; Wilhelm, J; Gallhofer, B; Kirsch, P

    2010-10-01

    Schizophrenia out-patients have deficits in affective theory of mind (ToM) but also on more basal levels of social cognition, such as the processing of neutral and emotional expressions. These deficits are associated with changes in brain activation in the amygdala and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, until now there have been no studies that examined these different levels of social cognition and their neurobiological underpinnings in patients within one design. Sixteen medicated schizophrenia out-patients and 16 matched healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a social cognition task that allows the investigation of affective ToM (aToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions. Patients showed a deficit in emotion recognition and a more prominent deficit in aToM. The performance in aToM and in emotion recognition was correlated in the control group but not in the schizophrenia group. Region-of-interest analysis of functional brain imaging data revealed no difference between groups during aToM, but a hyperactivation in the schizophrenia group in the left amygdala and right STS during emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions. The results indicate that schizophrenia out-patients have deficits at several levels of social cognition and provide the first evidence that deficits on higher-order social cognitive processes in schizophrenia may be traced back to an aberrant processing of faces per se.

  6. Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Clar, C; Waugh, N; Thomas, S

    2003-01-01

    In many places, children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus are admitted to hospital for metabolic stabilisation and training, even if they are not acutely ill. Out-patient or home based management of these children could avoid the stress associated with a hospital stay, could provide a more natural learning environment for the child and its family, and might reduce costs for both the health care system and the families. To assess the effects of routine hospital admission compared to out-patient or home-based management in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes who are not acutely ill, on metabolic control, wellbeing and self-efficacy of the patient and his/her family. We searched the Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the British Nursing Index. Additionally, we searched reference lists of relevant studies identified and contacted one of the trialists about further studies. Date of latest search: February 2003. Comparative studies of initial hospitalisation compared to home-based and/or out-patient management in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Studies were independently selected by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality assessment of trials were done independently by two reviewers. Any differences in opinion were resolved by discussion. Authors of included studies were contacted for missing information. Results were summarised descriptively, using tables and text. Six studies were included in the review, including a total of 237 children in the out-patient/home group. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, three were retrospective cohort studies, and one was a prospective cohort study. Except for one randomised controlled trial that included children in the intervention group who were initially hospitalised for a brief period, studies were of low quality. The one high quality trial identified suggested that home-based management of children with newly

  7. How much does a diabetes out-patient appointment actually cost? An argument for PLICS.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The national tariff system for clinical processes and procedures aims to put a discrete unit cost on clinical activity. Calculating such costs can be subject to a great deal of local variation and interpretation. Given the rising costs of diabetes the purpose of this paper is to ask the question what does a diabetes outpatient appointment in the UK NHS actually cost? This is important in a time of financial austerity and healthcare rationing because it can be difficult to decipher the attribution of costs within the acute hospital setting. Exploring this question, the author considers the present cost model and analyse in terms of the language of unit model cost; the basic tariff system and how it works in diabetes and looking at internal cost information the author attempts to unbundle the cost to provide a more accurate value for the cost object. One major finding is that costs and overheads are divided arbitrarily as opposed to being distributed on the basis of measured relative consumption. Alternative costing methods are appraised to demonstrate that a patient level episodic costing approach such as patient level information and costing system (PLICS) which incorporates aspects of activity-based costing (ABC) would be far more appropriate. Using time driven ABC (TDABC), a new patient appointment costs £162 for 30 minutes and a follow-up appointment costs £81 for 15 minutes. PLICS has the added benefit of greater financial and clinical transparency and this goes some way towards the holy grail of greater engagement with the doctors delivering clinical care. It would appear that there are different purposes of different costing systems. One can argue that a costing system is there to both contain costs and divide overheads and demonstrate activity. Depending on how data are interpreted costing information can be an agent of enlightenment and behavioural modification for healthcare professionals to show them their direct and indirect costs, their capacity and

  8. [A retrospective evaluation of the behaviour of groups under out-patient care at a health center].

    PubMed

    Hormigo Pozo, A; García Ruiz, A J; Martos Crespo, F; García Ruiz, M C; Montesinos Gálvez, A C; Prados Torres, A; de la Cuesta, S

    1998-01-01

    To study and analyse the Out-Patient Care Groups (OCGs), and evaluate how they affect use of health resources. An observational, retrospective study. Ciudad Jardín Health Centre, Málaga. 2999 patients with a clinical history opened before 31.12.95, chosen from 5 of the 17 medical lists at the Health Centre, were included. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS software package of the Calculation Centre at Málaga University. A descriptive test produced the following results: 33% of the patients were classified in OCG 41 (combination of 2 or 3 out-patient diagnosis groups in people over 34); 19% belonged to groups of stable or unstable chronic illnesses (OCGs 8, 9 and 10); and 9% had acute children's diseases. Then multiple regression constructed a model with the OCGs as independent variable and annual visits, further tests performed and referral to specialists as dependent variables. In this model the OCGs were able to explain 20.3% of resource consumption. In the retrospective study and with a limited sample of 2999 patients, the OCGs are able to explain 20.3% of resource consumption. However, it does seem a valid model for discriminating between normal and over-using patients.

  9. Correlates and outcomes of depressed out-patients with greater and fewer anxious symptoms: a CO-MED report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Herng Nieng; Rush, A John; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Trivedi, Madhukar; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Balasubramani, G K; Friedman, Edward S; Gaynes, Bradley N; Davis, Lori; Morris, David; Fava, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine whether the presence of more vs. fewer anxious symptom features, at baseline, are associated with other clinical features and treatment outcomes in out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This single-blind, randomized trial enrolled 665 MDD out-patients to compare the efficacy of two antidepressant medication combinations against escitalopram after 12-wk acute treatment and follow-up (total 28 wk). The sample was divided into those with greater (vs. fewer) anxiety features using the anxiety/somatization subscale of the baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical features, treatment features and outcomes compared these two groups. Overall, 74.7% of participants met the threshold for 'anxious features'. They were more likely to be female, have other concurrent anxiety disorders, more severe depression, more lethargic and melancholic features and poorer cognitive and physical functioning, quality of life and work and social adjustment. In acute treatment, participants with anxious features received comparatively higher doses of mirtazapine and venlafaxine and reported more side-effects. The groups with and without anxious features did not differ in treatment outcomes and side-effect burden. Despite being associated with a distinct clinical profile, baseline anxious features were not clinically useful in predicting acute treatment outcomes or differential treatment response.

  10. Timing of procedure and compliance to out-patient endoscopy among an underserved population in an inner city tertiary institution

    PubMed Central

    Badurdeen, Dilhana S.; Umar, Nisser A.; Begum, Rehana; Sanderson, Andrew K.; Jack, Momodu; Mekasha, Getachew; Kwagyan, John; Smoot, Duane T.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anecdotal evidence suggests that patient compliance with colonoscopy is poorer with Monday procedures and better during winter months since “there is not much else to do”. We examined patients’ compliance to scheduled out-patient endoscopy by time of the day, days of the week and seasons of the year. Methods We included 2,873 patients who were scheduled for endoscopy from September 2009 to August 2010. Compliant patients were those who showed up for their procedures while non-compliant patients were those who did not show up, without canceling or rescheduling their procedures up to 24 hours prior to their scheduled procedures. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association between the timing of the scheduled procedure and compliance. Results 574 (20%) patients did not show up. There was no difference in compliance by time of day of the procedures. However, when compared with patients scheduled for procedures on Monday, there was a trend towards improved adherence as the week progressed, becoming significant on Friday (OR=1.46; 95%CI: 1.06–2.00). There was also better compliance in the warmer months. Conclusions Non-compliance with out-patient endoscopy is substantial among underserved populations with limited predictive pattern of compliance by the timing of the procedures. PMID:22571991

  11. Skin diseases among children attending the out patient clinic of the University of Nigeria teaching hospital, Enug.

    PubMed

    Emodi, L J; Ikefuna, A N; Uchendu, U; Duru, U A

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of skin diseases varies worldwide and information regarding local prevalence of its various causes may help the development of policies towards better management. To document the types of skin disorders seen among children attending the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu( UNTH). The medical register from the children out patient clinic was used to obtain information on pattern and outcome of skin diseases seen from January 1996 to December 2005. Of the 16,337 children seen in children.s out patient clinic (CHOP), 1506 (1.3%) had a skin disease. Age range was one week to 16 years with a mean ± SD of 3.89 ± 3.8 years. Children aged 0 - 5 years constituted 70.24% of patients with skin diseases. The commonest skin condition was pyoderma (29.81%) seen mainly in those below 5 years, followed by scabies (13.55%). Approximately 1/3 (33.3%) of the patients were referred to the dermatology clinic. Infectious skin diseases constitute a high percentage of skin disorders encountered in paediatrics. Almost half (48.4%) of the skin problems were diagnosed as non-specific dermatitis suggesting the need of better dermatological training of the paediatric residents.

  12. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus among out-patients in Ho, the Volta regional capital of Ghana: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gudjinu, Horlali Yao; Sarfo, Bismark

    2017-07-26

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in developing countries like Ghana continues to rise. This study seeks to assess the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Ghanaian setting. An unmatched case-control study among patients receiving care at the out-patient departments of the two major hospitals in the Ho Municipality. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. Appropriate controls with similar ages who were also patients receiving care at the out-patient department of these hospitals were recruited. Both cases and controls were administered a questionnaire that comprises of standardized and validated tools. These tools include WHO STEPs instrument, general practice physical activity questionnaire and rapid eating and activity assessment for patients. Additionally, the research participants were made to undergo physical examinations for weight, height, waist circumference and laboratory testing of fasting venous blood to assess the biochemical factors of interest namely fasting blood glucose and fasting lipids. Analysis of data was done using STATA version 11. A total of 136 (48 cases and 88 controls) participants of which 95 [39 (81.25%) cases and 56 (63.64%) controls] respondents underwent laboratory testing for fasting blood glucose and fasting blood lipid (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). Participants were aged between 35 and 62 years. This study reveals a number of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals in the middle socio-economic class have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus with an OR of 5.03 (p < 0.003; 95% CI 1.71-14.74). Eating large quantities/servings of fruits per seating provides protection against development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low physical activity level is a valid determinant of type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of body mass index, socio-economic level or place of residence. Individuals within the middle socio-economic level, who are

  13. Investigation of the level of safety for out-patients treated with high dose of 131I in Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, M. K.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the patterns of radiation exposure of contacts of Sudanese patients treated with radioactive 131I on an out-patient basis and post discharge after high dose 131I therapy, and also to compare the family members' results with dose constraints proposed by the European Commission (EC). Thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD-100 H) were used to estimate the effective doses for 40 family members of fifteen patients treated with 131I. The family members wore a TLD in front of the chest for 10 days. The effective dose ranged from 0.23 to 6.74 mSv (mean 1.75 mSv). These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Patient Activation Measure-13 among out-patients waiting for mental health treatment: A validation study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Moljord, Inger Elise O; Lara-Cabrera, Mariela L; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Eriksen, Lasse; Linaker, Olav M

    2015-11-01

    The Patient Activation Measure-13 (PAM-13) has been found useful for assessing patient knowledge, skills and confidence in management of chronic conditions, but the empirical evidence from mental health is sparse. The psychometric properties of PAM in out-patients waiting for treatment in community mental health centers (CMHC) have therefore been examined. A total of 290 adults from two CMHC completed PAM. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted with 273 patients. Data at baseline and after 4 weeks were used to analyze test-retest reliability (n=60) and to analyze the sensitivity to change (n=51). The exploratory factor analysis revealed a fit for a two-factor model (Cronbach's α was 0.86 and 0.67), and was assessed for a one-factor model (α=0.87). The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.76. Sensitivity to change was good with a statistically significant activation improvement (p<0.001) on patients receiving a peer co-led-educational intervention (Cohen's d was 0.85). PAM has appropriate and acceptable psychometric properties in mental health settings. Assessing activation before treatment might be useful for scheduling the delivery of mental health services as well as evaluating educational interventions aimed at improving patient engagement in mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A cross-sectional study of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients aged 50 years or above towards herpes zoster in an out-patient setting.

    PubMed

    Lam, A Cy; Chan, M Y; Chou, H Y; Ho, S Y; Li, H L; Lo, C Y; Shek, K F; To, S Y; Yam, K K; Yeung, I

    2017-08-01

    There has been limited research on the knowledge of and attitudes about herpes zoster in the Hong Kong population. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients aged 50 years or above towards herpes zoster and its vaccination. This was a cross-sectional study in the format of a structured questionnaire interview carried out in Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club General Outpatient Clinic in Hong Kong. Knowledge of herpes zoster and its vaccination was assessed, and patient attitudes to and concerns about the disease were evaluated. Factors that affected a decision about vaccination against herpes zoster were investigated. A total of 408 Hong Kong citizens aged 50 years or above were interviewed. Multiple regression analysis revealed that number of correct responses regarding knowledge about herpes zoster was positively correlated with educational attainment (B=0.313, P=0.026) and history of herpes zoster (B=0.408, P=0.038), and negatively correlated with age (B= -0.042, P<0.001) and male gender (B= -0.396, P=0.029). Answers to several questions revealed a sizable number of misconceptions about the disease. Among all respondents, 35% stated that they were worried about getting the disease, and 17% would consider vaccination against herpes zoster. Misconceptions about herpes zoster were notable in this study. More health education is needed to improve the understanding and heighten awareness of herpes zoster among the general public. Although the majority of participants indicated that herpes zoster would have a significant impact on their health, a relatively smaller proportion was actually worried about getting the disease. Further studies on this topic should be encouraged to gauge the awareness and knowledge of herpes zoster among broader age-groups.

  16. Cognitive bias modification for attention and interpretation reduces trait and state anxiety in anxious patients referred to an out-patient service: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brosan, Lee; Hoppitt, Laura; Shelfer, Lorna; Sillence, Alison; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2011-09-01

    It is well established that anxious individuals show biases in information processing, such that they attend preferentially to threatening stimuli and interpret emotional ambiguity in a threatening way. It has also been established that these biases in attention and interpretation can causally influence anxiety. Recent advances in experimental work have involved the development of a paradigm known as Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a constellation of procedures which directly modify bias using computerised tasks. Excitingly, these procedures have been shown to reduce bias in attention to threat (CBM-A), and to promote a positive interpretive bias (CBM-I) in anxious populations; furthermore, these modifications are associated with reductions in anxiety. We believe that these techniques have the potential to create a real clinical impact for people with anxiety. Initial studies involved volunteer participants who reached criteria for clinical diagnoses to be made, but emerging evidence suggests that patients referred for therapy also benefit. For the purposes of experimentation researchers have normally looked at one procedure at a time. In order to try to maximise the potential clinical impact we wished to investigate whether the combination of the procedures would be more effective than either alone. We also wished to investigate whether the procedures could be carried out in routine clinical settings with patients referred to an out-patient psychological treatment service. We therefore carried out a pilot study using a combined approach of CBM-A and CBM-I with a sample of 13 anxious patients referred to an out-patient psychology service for cognitive therapy. The results showed successful reductions in threat related attentional and interpretive bias, as well as reductions in trait and state anxiety. Participant reports describe the procedures as acceptable, with the attentional task experienced as boring, but the interpretive one experienced as helpful. While

  17. Combination of ultra-low dose bupivacaine and fentanyl for spinal anaesthesia in out-patient anorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gurbet, A; Turker, G; Girgin, N K; Aksu, H; Bahtiyar, N H

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether the addition of 25 microg fentanyl to an ultra-low (sub-anaesthetic) dose of intrathecal bupivacaine provides adequate anaesthesia for out-patient anorectal surgery, without increasing side-effects or delaying hospital discharge. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 2.5 mg 0.5% bupivacaine plus 25 microg fentanyl (group BF, n = 18) or 5 mg 0.5% bupivacaine alone (group B, n = 17). There were no significant differences in intra-operative outcomes, but mean recovery and discharge times were significantly shorter in group BF. There were no between-group differences in hypotension, bradycardia or respiratory depression and post-operative complications were comparable, apart from pruritus which was significantly more frequent in group BF. Fewer patients requested analgesic medication in the early post-operative period in group BF than in group B. In conclusion, 25 microg intrathecal fentanyl added to ultra-low dose (2.5 mg) bupivacaine provided good-quality spinal anaesthesia and reduced post-operative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing ambulatory anorectal surgery.

  18. Rehabilitation activities, out-patient visits and employment in patients and partners the first year after ICU: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Agård, A S; Lomborg, K; Tønnesen, E; Egerod, I

    2014-04-01

    To describe the influence of critical illness on patients and their partners in relation to rehabilitation, healthcare consumption and employment during the first year after Intensive Care Unit discharge. Longitudinal, observational and descriptive. Five Danish Intensive Care Units. Data were collected from hospital charts, population registers and interviews with 18 patients and their partners at 3 and 12 months after intensive care discharge. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Post-discharge inpatient rehabilitation was median (range) 52 (15-174) days (n=10). Community-based training was 12 (3-34) weeks (n=15). Neuropsychological rehabilitation following brain damage was 13-20 weeks (n=3). Number of out-patient visits 1 year before and 1 year after were mean 3 versus 8, and General Practitioner visits were 12 versus 18. Three patients resumed work at pre-hospitalisation employment rates after 12 months. After the patients' stay in intensive care, partners' mean full-time sick leave was 17 (range 0-124) days and 21 (range 0-106) days part time. Partners often had long commutes. Most patients had comprehensive recovery needs requiring months of rehabilitation. Some partners needed extensive sick leave. The study reveals the human cost of critical illness and intensive care for patients and partners in the Danish welfare system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perception of neonatal jaundice among women attending children out patient and immunization clinics of the UPTH Port Harcourt.

    PubMed

    Eneh, A U; Ugwu, R O

    2009-06-01

    Neonatal Jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide. Early identification and proper management is needed to prevent the serious neurological complications associated with it. To determine the knowledge of the women attending Children Outpatient (CHOP) and Immunization clinics on the causes, treatment and complications of neonatal jaundice. Women who brought their children/wards to the immunization/children out patient clinics at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Port Harcourt were interviewed using structured questionaire. There were 255 mothers who participated in the study. Of these 30 (11.8%) have never heard of neonatal jaundice while 225 (88.2%) have heard and only those who have heard were further analyzed. The age range was from 16 to 47 yrs (mean age 27.1 +/- 3.3 years). Median parity was 2. One hundred and twenty two (54.2%) women had tertiary education. One hundred and seventy four (77.3%) correctly defined neonatal jaundice, and in 114 (44.7%) source of information was from health talk in the clinic. Seventy five (33.3%), and 50 (22.2%) erroneously believed that eating too much groundnut in pregnancy and mosquito bite respectively were the main causes while 55 (24.4%) correctly answered that it is due to mismatch of mother and baby's blood. Only a few knew that use of dusting powder on baby's cord, prematurity, and storing baby's clothes in camphor were risk factors for NNJ. One hundred and fourteen (50.7%) and 60 (26.7%), wrongly believed that exposure to sunlight and use of glucose drinks respectively were the main forms of treatment and 50 (22.2%) knew brain damage as a possible complication There is still misconception on the causes and risk factors and treatment of neonatal jaundice among our women. Also only a few women are reached by the health talk in the clinics. There is therefore urgent need for massive health enlightenment campaign.

  20. Out-of-Pocket Spending on Out-Patient Care in India: Assessment and Options Based on Results from a District Level Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Indrani; Chowdhury, Samik; Prinja, Shankar; Trivedi, Mayur

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-pocket spending at out-patient departments (OPD) by households is relatively less analyzed compared to hospitalization expenses in India. This paper provides new evidence on the levels and drivers of expenditure on out-patient care, as well as choice of providers, using household survey data from 8 districts in 3 states of India. Results indicate that the economically vulnerable spend more on OPD as a proportion of per capita consumption expenditure, out-patient care remains overwhelmingly private and switches of providers—while not very prevalent—is mostly towards private providers. A key result is that choice of public providers tend to lower OPD spending significantly. It indicates that an improvement in the overall quality and accessibility of government facilities still remain an important tool that should be considered in the context of financial protection. PMID:27861559

  1. The effectiveness of holistic diabetic management between Siriraj Continuity of Care clinic and medical out-patient department.

    PubMed

    Chalermsri, Chalobol; Paisansudhi, Supalerg; Kantachuvesiri, Pitchaporn; Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Nopmaneejumruslers, Cherdchai; Chouriyagune, Charoen; Pandejpong, Denla; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the Thai population, and it is well known that diabetic complications could be prevented with appropriate management. Despite published guidelines, most Thai patients with diabetes do not achieve treatment goals. Siriraj Continuity of Care clinic (CC clinic) was recently established in order to provide training for medical students and internal medicine residents. It is possible that the training component in the CC clinic may contribute to better overall outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients when compared with usual care at the medical out-patient department (OPD). To compare the effectiveness of diabetic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the CC clinic and the medical OPD. Retrospective chart review was performed in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were treated at either clinic at Siriraj Hospital in 2007-2011. Baseline demographics, treatment strategies and outcomes, and participation in an appropriate health maintenance program were assessed in both groups. Seven hundred and fifty seven medical records were reviewed, including 383 patients in the CC clinic group and 374 in the OPD group. Mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the CC clinic group compared with the OPD group (7.3 +/- 0.9% and 7.8 +/- 1.3%, respectively, < 0.001). The number of patients who achieved goal HbA1c of less than 7% in CC clinic group was 123 (32.1%) compared with 91 (24.3%) in the OPD group (p = 0.039). More patients were screened for diabetic complications in the CC clinic group compared with the OPD group, including screening for diabetic neuropathy (57.4% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001), diabetic retinopathy (56.7% vs. 36.6%, p < 0.001), and diabetic nephropathy (80.9% vs. 36.9%, p < 0.001). Patients in the CC clinic group had a higher rate of age-appropriate cancer screening than those in the OPD group (54.2% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.001 for breast cancer; 24.0% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001 for cervical

  2. Empirical models of demand for out-patient physician services and their relevance to the assessment of patient payment policies: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Skriabikova, Olga; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee) or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  3. International Classification of Primary Care-2 coding of primary care data at the general out-patients' clinic of General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olagundoye, Olawunmi Abimbola; van Boven, Kees; van Weel, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Primary care serves as an integral part of the health systems of nations especially the African continent. It is the portal of entry for nearly all patients into the health care system. Paucity of accurate data for health statistics remains a challenge in the most parts of Africa because of inadequate technical manpower and infrastructure. Inadequate quality of data systems contributes to inaccurate data. A simple-to-use classification system such as the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) may be a solution to this problem at the primary care level. To apply ICPC-2 for secondary coding of reasons for encounter (RfE), problems managed and processes of care in a Nigerian primary care setting. Furthermore, to analyze the value of selected presented symptoms as predictors of the most common diagnoses encountered in the study setting. Content analysis of randomly selected patients' paper records for data collection at the end of clinic sessions conducted by family physicians at the general out-patients' clinics. Contents of clinical consultations were secondarily coded with the ICPC-2 and recorded into excel spreadsheets with fields for sociodemographic data such as age, sex, occupation, religion, and ICPC elements of an encounter: RfE/complaints, diagnoses/problems, and interventions/processes of care. Four hundred and one encounters considered in this study yielded 915 RfEs, 546 diagnoses, and 1221 processes. This implies an average of 2.3 RfE, 1.4 diagnoses, and 3.0 processes per encounter. The top 10 RfE, diagnoses/common illnesses, and processes were determined. Through the determination of the probability of the occurrence of certain diseases beginning with a RfE/complaint, the top five diagnoses that resulted from each of the top five RfE were also obtained. The top five RfE were: headache, fever, pain general/multiple sites, visual disturbance other and abdominal pain/cramps general. The top five diagnoses were: Malaria, hypertension

  4. Attachment security and parental bonding in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with depressed out-patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Myhr, G; Sookman, D; Pinard, G

    2004-06-01

    This study examines concurrent associations of attachment security, psychopathology and recollections of early parental interactions, in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and in healthy controls. Thirty-six out-patients with OCD, 16 depressed out-patients and 26 controls were asked to fill out the Revised Adult Attachment Scale and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). OCD and depressed groups were more insecure than controls. The depressed group recalled less caring mothers than the OCD group, while the OCD group was indistinguishable from controls on PBI measures. Married status was associated with greater security, but also with recollections of greater parental control, and lower maternal care. OCD and depressed groups demonstrated greater attachment insecurity than controls. No clear relationship emerged between security and PBI recollections. The PBI may not measure aspects of early interactions essential for later attachment security, or recollections may be biased according to diagnosis or attachment style.

  5. Effect of PaO2 and social circumstances on outcomes in out-patient treatment of COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Khalid, S; Elliott, A C; Pilling, A; Wolstenholme, R J

    2007-01-01

    The current British Thoracic Society guidelines on COPD recommend that patients with COPD exacerbations should be admitted to hospital if they either have partial pressure of arterial oxygen of <7.0 kilopascals (kPa) or if they are living alone. This study was carried out to see if either of these factors have any effect on the outcome in patients presenting with COPD exacerbation in the setting of well established COPD services. This study was to see if patients with PaO2 < 7.0 kPa or those living alone were readmitted more frequently or had higher mortality than other patients discharged through the same scheme. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 1078 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD who were discharged home through Wigan "hospital at home" scheme in the period between November 1999 and February 2004 prior to the introduction of the new guidelines. This study found that there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of readmissions in patients with low PaO2 or those living in adverse social circumstances compared to other groups of patients. The number of patients dying in this period was too small to analyse with adequate power. This study indicates that such patients can be safely managed at home in the context of well established COPD services.

  6. [SEIP-AEPAP-SEPEAP consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial skin infections in out-patients].

    PubMed

    Conejo-Fernández, A J; Martínez-Chamorro, M J; Couceiro, J A; Moraga-Llop, F A; Baquero-Artigao, F; Alvez, F; Vera Casaño, A; Piñeiro-Pérez, R; Alfayate, S; Cilleruelo, M J; Calvo, C

    2016-02-01

    Skin infections are a common cause for dermatological consultations in the paediatric setting. A review is presented of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the main bacterial skin infections, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of super-infected puncture and bite wounds. The most prevalent bacteria in skin infections are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Treatment is usually empirical, since microbiological studies are only recommended under certain circumstances or lack of improvement with common therapies. Superficial skin infections can be treated with local antiseptics or antibiotics (mupirocin or fusidic acid). Systemic treatment is usually reserved for patients with extensive or severe disease or with other risk factors. Systemic treatment depends on the suspected infecting bacteria, with penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and first or second generation cephalosporin being the most frequently used drugs. Due to the low incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant infection by S. aureus in Spain, the use of clindamycin or co-trimoxazole is only recommended after severe disease, relapses or a clear epidemiological background. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high.

    PubMed

    Roos, Corey R; Maisto, Stephen A; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping. Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH , a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in out-patient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF). Nine research sites in the United States. A total of 1063 adults with AUD. The primary outcomes were percentage days abstinent and percentage heavy drinking days at the 1-year follow-up. Coping was assessed with the Processes of Change Questionnaire . Dependence severity was measured with the Alcohol Dependence Scale . Among the full available sample (across treatment arms), there were no significant moderated mediation effects. Double moderated mediation analyses indicated that several moderated mediation effects were moderated by treatment arm (all P < 0.05). In the out-patient arm, there were several significant moderated mediation effects (all P < 0.05), but no significant moderated mediation effects in the aftercare arm. For out-patient clients with high baseline dependence severity, end-of-treatment coping mediated the positive treatment effects of CBT, compared with both MET and TSF, on 1-year drinking outcomes (all P < 0.05). Coping did not mediate treatment effects of CBT among those with low or moderate dependence severity. In the Project MATCH out-patient sample, whether or not coping mediated the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder was conditional on dependence severity. End-of-treatment coping mediated the positive treatment effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on 1-year drinking outcomes among out-patient clients when dependence severity was high, but not when

  8. Psychiatric disorder among adolescents attending a psychiatric out-patient clinic in Accra, Ghana: a seven year review study (1987-1994).

    PubMed

    Turkson, S N

    1996-01-01

    The records of four hundred and fifty four (454) adolescent comprising of two hundred and thirty nine (239) female and two hundred and fifteen (215) male who had attended a psychiatric out-patient clinic in Accra over a seven year period were reviewed. Only 269 patients had psychiatric illness while 185 (40.7%) had purely physical illness with no associated psychiatric illness. Of the 269 (59.3%) with psychiatric illness, there were 88 (32.7%) with functional psychoses consisting mainly of depression, 47 (17.5%), and psychoneurotic disorders 63, (23.4%); with personality disorders, 55 (20.4%) and with organic psychosis, 27, (10%) while 36, (13.4%) had psychiatric disorders. The aetiology of these disorders could be deduced from the profound biological events that occur during adolescence and the rapid period for personality growth and its associated emotional turmoil. It was suggested that due to the large numbers who attended the psychiatric out-patient clinic with non identifiable psychiatric illness, residency in general practice and internal medicine should include a posting in Psychiatry and that the national health care should pay a greater attention to mental health.

  9. ADHD-related symptoms among adults in out-patient psychiatry and female prison inmates as compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Edvinsson, Dan; Bingefors, Kerstin; Lindström, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of symptoms consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related problems in adults in the general population, out-patient psychiatry (where females are in majority), and female convicts. Method A questionnaire based on the DSM-IV criteria of ADHD, reported childhood symptoms, reading and spelling problems, difficulties and suffering, and general assessment of functioning (GAF) was distributed to samples of the general population, open care psychiatry, and female prison inmates. Completed questionnaires were received from 517/1000, 349/400, and 50/65 of the three samples, respectively. Results Symptoms consistent with ADHD were more than three times higher in out-patient psychiatry than in the general population (6.6% versus 2.1%), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.6–1.7. The severity of symptoms and frequencies of associated disabilities were similar in men and women. ADHD symptoms and related problems occurred in 50% of the female prisoners, which is similar to male prisoners according to the literature. Conclusion The high prevalence of symptoms and disabilities of ADHD in women should lead to awareness of the disorder in both sexes and be addressed in terms of diagnostic work-up, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:20085506

  10. [Clinical-chemical studies in schizophrenic out-patients under neuroleptic long-term treatment with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, N; Grüneberg, F

    1977-01-01

    A series of clinical-chemical tests was conducted in 68 schizophrenic out-patients under long-term neuroleptic medication, with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism, i.e.: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, GPT, GOT, gamma-GT, total protein and serum-protein-electrophoresis. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance tests was carried out. In 44% of the patients an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and positive correlations with increased fibrinogen values were found. Increased gamma-GT-values were proven in 33% of the patients; they correlated positively with the increased GPT-and/or GOT-values as well as with pathological glucose tolerance values. Overweight of more than 10 kilos was found in 46% of the patients. A significant correlation between overweight and pathological glucose tolerance values existed. The results were interpreted as consequence of a light fatty liver.

  11. Shared care in gastroenterology: GPs' views of open access to out-patient follow-up for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cheung, W Y; Dove, J; Lervy, B; Russell, I T; Williams, J G

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain GPs' views about open access to out-patient follow-up for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Semi-structured interviews and a postal survey were carried out in general practices in West Glamorgan UK, each with at least one IBD patient taking part in a randomized trial of open access versus routine follow-up, which has been reported elsewhere. A total of 112 GPs from 53 general practices who referred the 180 study patients to specialist gastroenterological care in Neath or Swansea were included in the study. Main outcome measures were GPs' experience of the trial; preferences between methods of out-patient follow-up; and their views about enhancing open access follow-up. Sixty-nine GPs from 40 practices took part in the practice-specific data collection and 91 returned 156 patient-specific questionnaires. They expressed a strong preference for open access follow-up, for both specific patients (108/156 patients) and IBD patients in general (47/69 GPs). Preference for extending open access follow-up to other chronic conditions was not so strong (21/69 GPs). A substantial number of GPs considered their experience of the trial limited (30/69), and few GPs were aware of the shared care guideline distributed before the trial started (8/69). Few GPs encountered any problems in the management of the study patients (9/69) and <50% of the GPs used a Cumulative Encounter Form (29/69) developed for the study. Most GPs were supportive of giving patients written guidelines (56/69) and establishing a gastroenterological (GI) nurse practitioner (45/69). Open access follow-up of patients with IBD is supported by GPs. The approach would probably be improved by the distribution of written information to patients, the establishment of a GI nurse practitioner and an integrated approach between the nurse, hospital specialist, GP and patient.

  12. Rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach after cone beam CT-guided lung biopsy: effect on pneumothorax rate in 1,191 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Im; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Min; Goo, Jin Mo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach on the incidence of pneumothorax and drainage catheter placement due to pneumothorax in C-arm Cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of lung lesions. From May 2011 to December 2012, 1227 PTNBs were performed in 1191 patients with a 17-gauge coaxial needle. 617 biopsies were performed without (conventional-group) and 610 with rapid-rollover approach (rapid-rollover-group). Overall pneumothorax rates and incidences of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in overall pneumothorax rates between conventional and rapid-rollover groups (19.8% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.164). However, pneumothorax rate requiring drainage catheter placement was significantly lower in rapid-rollover-group (1.6%) than conventional-group (4.2%) (p = 0.010). Multivariate analysis revealed male, age > 60, bulla crossed, fissure crossed, pleura to target distance > 1.3 cm, emphysema along needle tract, and pleural punctures ≥ 2 were significant risk factors of pneumothorax (p < 0.05). Regarding pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement, fissure crossed, bulla crossed, and emphysema along needle tract were significant risk factors (p < 0.05), whereas rapid-rollover approach was an independent protective factor (p = 0.002). The rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach significantly reduced the rate of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement after CBCT-guided PTNB. • The rapid-rollover approach had little beneficial effect on overall pneumothorax rate. • The rapid-rollover approach significantly reduced drainage catheter placement due to pneumothorax. • The strongest risk factor was pleural punctures ≥ 2 per procedure. • Emphysema along the needle tract was a stronger risk factor than fissure-crossed.

  13. Neural correlates of perception of emotional facial expressions in out-patients with mild-to-moderate depression and anxiety. A multicenter fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Demenescu, L R; Renken, R; Kortekaas, R; van Tol, M-J; Marsman, J B C; van Buchem, M A; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; den Boer, J A; Aleman, A

    2011-11-01

    Depression has been associated with limbic hyperactivation and frontal hypoactivation in response to negative facial stimuli. Anxiety disorders have also been associated with increased activation of emotional structures such as the amygdala and insula. This study examined to what extent activation of brain regions involved in perception of emotional faces is specific to depression and anxiety disorders in a large community-based sample of out-patients. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm was used including angry, fearful, sad, happy and neutral facial expressions. One hundred and eighty-two out-patients (59 depressed, 57 anxiety and 66 co-morbid depression-anxiety) and 56 healthy controls selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were included in the present study. Whole-brain analyses were conducted. The temporal profile of amygdala activation was also investigated. Facial expressions activated the amygdala and fusiform gyrus in depressed patients with or without anxiety and in healthy controls, relative to scrambled faces, but this was less evident in patients with anxiety disorders. The response shape of the amygdala did not differ between groups. Depressed patients showed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) hyperactivation in response to happy faces compared to healthy controls. We suggest that stronger frontal activation to happy faces in depressed patients may reflect increased demands on effortful emotion regulation processes triggered by mood-incongruent stimuli. The lack of strong differences in neural activation to negative emotional faces, relative to healthy controls, may be characteristic of the mild-to-moderate severity of illness in this sample and may be indicative of a certain cognitive-emotional processing reserve.

  14. Clinical utility of PKD2 mutation testing in a polycystic kidney disease cohort attending a specialist nephrology out-patient clinic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADPKD affects approximately 1:1000 of the worldwide population. It is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Although allelic variation has some influence on disease severity, genic effects are strong, with PKD2 mutations predicting later onset of ESRF by up to 20 years. We therefore screened a cohort of ADPKD patients attending a nephrology out-patient clinic for PKD2 mutations, to identify factors that can be used to offer targeted gene testing and to provide patients with improved prognostic information. Methods 142 consecutive individuals presenting to a hospital nephrology out-patient service with a diagnosis of ADPKD and CKD stage 4 or less were screened for mutations in PKD2, following clinical evaluation and provision of a detailed family history (FH). Results PKD2 mutations were identified in one fifth of cases. 12% of non-PKD2 patients progressed to ESRF during this study whilst none with a PKD2 mutation did (median 38.5 months of follow-up, range 16–88 months, p < 0.03). A significant difference was found in age at ESRF of affected family members (non-PKD2 vs. PKD2, 54 yrs vs. 65 yrs; p < 0.0001). No PKD2 mutations were identified in patients with a FH of ESRF occurring before age 50 yrs, whereas a PKD2 mutation was predicted by a positive FH without ESRF. Conclusions PKD2 testing has a clinically significant detection rate in the pre-ESRF population. It did not accurately distinguish those individuals with milder renal disease defined by stage of CKD but did identify a group less likely to progress to ESRF. When used with detailed FH, it offers useful prognostic information for individuals and their families. It can therefore be offered to all but those whose relatives have developed ESRF before age 50. PMID:22863349

  15. [Effective communication strategies to frame the trainer-trainee dialogue in the clinical setting].

    PubMed

    Gachoud, D; Félix, S; Monti, M

    2015-11-04

    Communication between trainer and trainee plays a central role in teaching and learning in the clinical environment. There are various strategies to frame the dialogue between trainee and trainer. These strategies allow trainers to be more effective in their supervision, which is important in our busy clinical environment. Communication strategies are well adapted to both in- and out-patient settings, to both under- and postgraduate contexts. This article presents three strategies that we think are particularly useful. They are meant to give feedback, to ask questions and to present a case.

  16. A randomised controlled out-patient trial of cognitive-behavioural treatment for children and adolescents with depression: 9-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vostanis, P; Feehan, C; Grattan, E; Bickerton, W L

    1996-09-09

    Nine-month outcome data of a randomized controlled out-patient trial of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) for children and adolescents with depression are presented. CBT was compared with a non-focussed intervention (NFI) in 56 subjects. At 9 months after thr termination of the trial, 21 children (37.5%) fulfilled criteria for a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III-R), out of whom 15 (26.8%) had a depressive illness. However, 25 subjects (45%) reported depressive symptoms of significant severity to suggest a depressive episode during the previous 9-month period. Both treatment groups maintained a significant improvement on all psychosocial measures since the post-treatment assessment. No significant treatment effect was established. Low self-esteem at the time of referral, predicted presence of psychiatric disorder, and child-reported scores of depressive symptoms and low self-esteem at follow-up. The research and clinical implications for the treatment of depressive disorders in young life are discussed.

  17. The experience of activity pacing in chronic pain management-An interpretive phenomenological analysis of out-patient physiotherapists and patients.

    PubMed

    Scott-Dempster, Clare; Toye, Francine; Barker, Karen

    2017-08-08

    Activity pacing (AP) is widely used to manage chronic pain. However, recent developments in pain management do not necessarily include AP. Research has explored the experience of AP for physiotherapists who specialize in chronic pain. The innovation of this study is to build on previous research by exploring the experiences of patients and physiotherapists who do not specialize in chronic pain. We interviewed eight patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who had used AP and eight physiotherapists working in an out-patient department who had not specialized in chronic pain. Interviews were recorded, and transcribed verbatim and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) were used for analysis. We present the following themes: 1) I have tried everything and have no other place to go; 2) AP provides a tangible, physical structure that can be used flexibly; 3) working to retune the brain to a different way of life; 4) retuning the brain can pay off in the end as "less is more"; 5) working hard to connect with patients; 6) connecting with patients can be exhausting; and 7) the patient needs to be on board. AP can provide a useful vehicle for psychological change through experiential learning. It can support psychological flexibility and is not incompatible with other biopsychosocial approaches.

  18. [Prevalence of hidden renal failure calculated through formulas on the degree of renal function in hypertense patients over 60 referred to out-patients for blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Pozuelos Estrada, Gerónimo; Molina Martínez, Luis; Romero Perera, Juan José; Díaz Herrera, Natalio; Cañón Barroso, Lourdes; Buitrago Ramírez, Francisco

    2007-05-01

    To validate the Cockroft-Gault and the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas in a hypertense population aged over 60 and with blood pressure monitored in out-patients. To evaluate the prevalence of various stages of hidden chronic kidney disease in this population. Descriptive study of validation of diagnostic tests. Urban primary care centre. A total of 113 patients over 60 (53.8% female) with hypertension and no history of chronic kidney disease, on whom blood pressure could be monitored in a 24-hour session. Calculation of the glomerular filtration rate. Validity parameters of diagnostic tests. Renal clearance estimated in the Cockroft-Gault and MDRD equations was similar (77.9 mL/min and 76.9 mL/min, respectively). There was 37.3% prevalence of chronic kidney disease, using the Cockroft-Gault equation; and 27.0%, using the MDRD. The degree of agreement between the two equations was excellent in classifying patients with stage-2 chronic kidney disease (kappa index =0.9) and it was acceptable for stage-3 (kappa index =0.5). In both equations, validity indexes were acceptable for the presence of microalbuminuria as a manifestation of renal damage. There is a high prevalence of hidden chronic kidney disease in the hypertense population over 60 years old. Glomerular filtration should be determined systematically in these patients, even when their plasma creatinine figures are normal.

  19. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study among Dermatological Out-Patients in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Lien, Lars; Poot, Francoise; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Szabo, Csanad; Linder, Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; Evers, Andrea W M; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Kupfer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 European countries. In each dermatology clinic, 250 consecutive adult out-patients were recruited to complete a questionnaire, reporting socio-demographic information, negative life events, and suicidal ideation; depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A clinical examination was performed. A control group was recruited among hospital employees. There were 4,994 participants––3,635 patients and 1,359 controls. Clinical depression was present in 10.1% patients (controls 4.3%, odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (1.67–3.47)). Clinical anxiety was present in 17.2% (controls 11.1%, OR 2.18 (1.68–2.82)). Suicidal ideation was reported by 12.7% of all patients (controls 8.3%, OR 1.94 (1.33–2.82)). For individual diagnoses, only patients with psoriasis had significant association with suicidal ideation. The association with depression and anxiety was highest for patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and leg ulcers. These results identify a major additional burden of skin disease and have important clinical implications. PMID:25521458

  20. Watchful waiting and active surveillance approach in patients with low risk localized prostatic cancer: an experience of out-patients clinic with 12-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Peled, Ronit; Cytron, Shmuel

    2011-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the safety of expectant approach in the patients with low risk prostate cancer in the reality of community based out-patients clinics. 48 men were enrolled into the study. The inclusion criteria were age ranged from 60 to 75 years and the Epstein criteria for low risk prostate cancer. Patients were managed expectantly while curative treatment was offered when indicated. Initial and final Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and BMI were assessed for all men. Patients' median follow-up was 81.1 ± 29.1 years. During this study 41.7% of the patients chose active forms of treatment. Cancer was found in 20.8% (n-10) of our patients. Two first sessions of re-biopsy diagnosed 92% of T1c upgrading. Six men with CCI ≥2 died from concomitant disease and no one died from PCa. Significant correlation was found between BMI and final CCI ≥2 (p-0.001). Expectant approach can be considered as self alternative to active treatment model in selected group of patients with well differentiated PCa, however 20.8% of these patients are still at risk of having aggressive form of cancer. Expectant approach is particular beneficial for the patients with CCI 1-2 and high BMI.

  1. Self-referral of symptoms (SOS) follow-up system of appointments for patients with uncertain diagnoses in rheumatology out-patients.

    PubMed

    Pace, A V; Dowson, C M; Dawes, P T

    2006-02-01

    Clinical features in rheumatological conditions often fluctuate with time and this may cause difficulty when evaluating patients whose symptoms or signs do not coincide with their initial rheumatology visit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a follow-up system whereby patients with uncertain rheumatological diagnoses at their initial assessment are given easy and rapid access to a rheumatology review. We studied the outcome of SOS (self-referral of symptoms) appointments offered to patients over a 44-month period in one consultant's clinic at the Staffordshire Rheumatology Centre. The reattendance rates and diagnoses at the initial and subsequent visits were evaluated over a mean period of 26.3 months (range 7-64 months). Thirty-seven patients (23 males, 14 females) were offered SOS appointments during the period studied. At the initial assessment, a provisional diagnosis was recorded for 29 patients (78.4%), whereas the diagnosis was unclear for the other eight patients. At the end of the study period, 10 patients (27%) had requested specialist review via the SOS system after a mean period of 6.8 months (1-19 months). The diagnosis remained unchanged in 8 of the 10 reattenders, whereas the diagnosis was revised in two patients. None of these patients, however, developed an inflammatory arthritis. We suggest that an SOS system of appointments may be a feasible and practical method to follow up patients who have uncertain rheumatological diagnoses at their initial visit. This follow-up system may not easily fit into the current out-patient reforms being implemented in the National Health Service, yet this form of specialist follow-up seems clinically essential for some forms of disease management. The requirements necessary to operate such a system as well as the envisaged pros and cons for the patient and for the rheumatologist are discussed.

  2. A retrospective study of cases presenting with chilblains (Perniosis) in Out Patient Department Of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (NMCTH).

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Jha, A K; Ghimire, A

    2011-09-01

    Chilblains (Perniosis/Pernio) is characterized by painful red-to-purple papular lesions involving the fingers or toes due to non-freezing damp cold that resolves with symptomatic treatment. As in winters, cold is moderate to severe in Kathmandu, this retrospective study was undertaken to find out the incidence of chilblains cases, seeking health care in the Out Patient Department of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital. Cases of chilblains were noted in the months of October to December 2009, January to March 2010, October to December 2010 and January to March 2011. Out of total 49 cases maximum patients (n=25; male 10, female 15) were in the age group of 7-20 years. Rest of them (n=18; male 7, female 11) were in the age group of 21-40 years and only 6 (male 2, female 4) were in the age group of 41-65 years. Amongst all the cases 30 patients were females (61.2%) and 19 were males (38.8%). Most of (79.6%) the chilblain victims sought health care during the months of December to February -- coldest time of the years. The patients were advised to protect their acral parts from cold exposure as far as practicable by wearing shocks and gloves. They were advised not to warm their extremities all on a sudden, after exposure to cold, as this causes vasospasm and makes the condition worse. Extremities should be warmed gradually. Assessing the severity of the condition topical allocation of steroid ointment and/or anti allergic drugs was prescribed, when felt needed.

  3. Are pharmacological properties of anticoagulants reflected in pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policy? Out-patient treatment of venous thromboembolism and utilization of anticoagulants in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, T; Czarnogorski, M; Nizankowski, R; Pilc, A

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) is a major cost driver in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Major representatives of anticoagulants in Europe include: acenocoumarol and warfarin (VKA), enoxaparin, dalteparin, nadroparin, reviparin, parnaparin and bemiparin (LMWH). Aim of this report is to measure and critically assess the utilization of anticoagulants and other resources used in the out-patient treatment of VTE in Poland. To confront the findings with available scientific evidence on pharmacological and clinical properties of anticoagulants. The perspectives of the National Health Fund (NHF) and the patients were adopted, descriptive statistics methods were used. The data were gathered at the NHF and the clinic specialized in treatment of coagulation disorders. Non-pharmacological costs of treatment were for the NHF 1.6 times higher with VKA than with LMWH. Daily cost of pharmacotherapy with LMWH turned out higher than with VKA (234 times for the NHF, 42 times per patient). Within both LMWH and VKA the reimbursement due for the daily doses of a particular medication altered in the manner inversely proportional to the level of patient co-payment. Utilization of long-marketed and cheap VKA was dominated by LMWH, when assessed both through the monetary measures and by the actual volume of sales. Pharmaceutical reimbursement policy favored the more expensive equivalents among VKA and LMWH, whereas in the financial terms the patients were far better off when remaining on a more expensive alternative. The pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policy of the state should be more closely related to the pharmacological properties of anticoagulants.

  4. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  5. Changes in Nutritional, Functional Status and Quality of Life of COPD Out-patients after a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme in HUKM: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Suzana, S; Hanis, M Y; Tang, S Y; Ayiesah, R; Roslina, A M

    2008-09-01

    This quasi-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an eight-week multi-disciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation programme in improving nutritional and functional status and quality of life of COPD out patients at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A total of 9 COPD outpatients aged 40 years and above (6 men and 3 women) completed at least 50% of 16 sessions of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Their nutritional and functional status and rating of quality of life were measured at baseline (0 day) and after 8 weeks and these were compared to those of the control group matched for age, comprising 13 subjects (11 men and 2 women). Nutritional status was determined using anthropometry, body composition (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis) and three-day food record. Assessment of appetite for food was also carried out using the Simplified Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Functional status was assessed using the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire-modified version(PFSDQ-M). The handgrip strength was also measured using handgrip dynamometer. The SF36 questionnaire was used to measure the quality of life of the subjects. There was a reduction in dyspnea (-49.0%, p<0.05) and fatigue (-47.8%, p<0.05) in men after the intervention programme, as compared to their controls (dyspnea -2.9% and fatigue 8.9%). Quality of life in this group was also significantly improved by 31.8% (p<0.05) as compared to their controls (-3.0%,p>0.05). Similar trends were noted for the women, although the difference was not significant. No significant changes were seen in nutritional status assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and appetite. However, there was a trend of increased nutrient intake and SNAQ score in the intervention group as compared to control. An eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation programme was effective in improving the functional status particularly in men, by reducing dyspnea and fatigue; and also

  6. Household cost of out-patient treatment of Buruli ulcer in Ghana: a case study of Obom in Ga South Municipality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The economic burden of diseases has become increasingly relevant to policy makers as healthcare expenditure keep rising in the face of limited and competing resources. Buruli ulcer (BU), a neglected but treatable tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, the only known environmental mycobacterium is capable of causing long term disability when left untreated. However, most BU studies have tended to focused on its bacteriology, epidemiology, entomology and other social determinants to the neglect of its economic evaluation. This paper reports estimated the household economic costs of BU and describe the intangible cost suffered by BU patients in an endemic area. Methods Retrospective one year cost data was used. A total of 63 confirmed BU cases were randomly sampled for the study. Economic cost and cost burden of BU were estimated. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of the cost estimates. Intangible cost measured stigmatization, pain, functional limitation and social isolation of children. Results The annual total household economic cost was US$35,915.98, of which about 65% was cost incurred by children with a mean cost of US$521.04. The mean annual household cost was US$570.09. The direct cost was 96% of the total cost. Non-medical cost accounts for about 97% of the direct cost with a mean cost of US$529.27. The mean medical cost was US$18.94. The main cost drivers of the household costs were transportation (78%) and food (12%). Caregivers and adult patients lost a total of 535 productive days seeking care, which gives an indirect cost valued at US$1,378.67 with a mean of US$21.88. A total of 365 school days (about 1 year) were lost by 19 BU patients (mean, 19.2 days). Functional loss and pain were low, and stigma rated moderate. Most children suffering from BU (84%) were socially isolated. Conclusion Household cost burden of out-patient BU ulcer treatment was high. Household cost of BU is therefore essential in the

  7. District nurses' and registered nurses' training in and use of motivational interviewing in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Häggström, Elisabeth; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena

    2014-08-01

    To examine to what extent district nurses and registered nurses have training in motivational interviewing, to what extent they use it and what prerequisites they have for using it; to compare district nurses and registered nurses, as well as to compare users and nonusers of motivational interviewing; and to examine possible relationships between use of motivational interviewing and the variables training, supervision and feedback in motivational interviewing and prerequisites for use. Motivational interviewing is an effective method for motivating patients to change their lifestyle, used increasingly in primary care. A cross-sectional survey study. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all district nurses and registered nurses (n = 980) in primary care in three counties in Sweden, from September 2011-January 2012; 673 (69%) responded. Differences between groups as well as relationships between study variables were tested. According to self-reports, 59% of the respondents had training in motivational interviewing and 57% used it. Approximately 15% of those who reported using it had no specific training in the method. More district nurses than registered nurses had training in motivational interviewing and used it. The following factors were independently associated with the use of motivational interviewing: training in and knowledge of motivational interviewing, conditions for using it, time and absence of 'other' obstacles. Having knowledge in motivational interviewing and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it may promote increased use of motivational interviewing. Having the prerequisites for using motivational interviewing at the workplace is of significance to the use of motivational interviewing. In the context of primary care, district nurses seem to have better prerequisites than registered nurses for using motivational interviewing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  9. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  10. Automated Developmental Disabilities Out-Patient Treatment Review System (ADDOPTRS)—Development and Automation of a Microcomputer Based Case Management System

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Clifford B.; Fisch, Martin L.

    1979-01-01

    The Stanley S. Lamm Institute for Developmental Disabilities of The Long Island College Hospital, in conjunction with Micro-Med Systems has developed a low cost micro-computer based information system (ADDOP TRS) which monitors quality of care in outpatient settings rendering services to the developmentally disabled population. The process of conversion from paper record keeping systems to direct key-to-disk data capture at the point of service delivery is described. Data elements of the information system including identifying patient information, coded and English-grammar entry procedures for tracking elements of service as well as their delivery status are described. Project evaluation criteria are defined including improved quality of care, improved productivity for clerical and professional staff and enhanced decision making capability. These criteria are achieved in a cost effective manner as a function of more efficient information flow. Administrative applications including staff/budgeting procedures, submissions for third party reimbursement and case reporting to utilization review committees are considered.

  11. Autopsy Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Other Potentially Treatable Infections among Adults with Advanced HIV Enrolled in Out-Patient Care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Tanvier; von Gottberg, Anne; Tlali, Mpho; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Johnson, Suzanne; Martinson, Neil A.; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Wolter, Nicole; Wong, Emily B.; Charalambous, Salome; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early mortality among HIV-positive adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains high in resource-limited settings, with tuberculosis (TB) the leading cause of death. However, current methods to estimate TB-related deaths are inadequate and most autopsy studies do not adequately represent those attending primary health clinics (PHCs). This study aimed to determine the autopsy prevalence of TB and other infections in adults enrolled at South African PHCs in the context of a pragmatic trial of empiric TB treatment (“TB Fast Track”). Methods and Findings Adults with CD4 ≤150 cells/μL, not on ART or TB treatment, were enrolled to TB Fast Track and followed up for at least six months. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) was conducted as soon as possible after death. Lungs, liver, and spleen were biopsied; blood, CSF, and urine aspirated; and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained. Samples underwent mycobacterial, bacterial, and fungal culture; molecular testing (including Xpert® MTB/RIF); and histological examination. 34 MIAs were conducted: 18 (53%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range 33–44) years; 25 (74%) deaths occurred in hospitals; median time from death to MIA was five (IQR 3–6) days. 16/34 (47%) had evidence of TB (14/16 [88%] with extrapulmonary disease; 6/16 [38%] not started on treatment antemortem); 23 (68%) had clinically important bacterial infections; four (12%) cryptococcal disease; three (9%) non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease; and two (6%) Pneumocystis pneumonia. Twenty decedents (59%) had evidence of two or more concurrent infections; 9/16 (56%) individuals with TB had evidence of bacterial disease and two (13%) cryptococcal disease. Conclusions TB, followed by bacterial infections, were the leading findings at autopsy among adults with advanced HIV enrolled from primary care clinics. To reduce mortality, strategies are needed to identify and direct those at highest risk into a structured pathway

  12. [Evaluation of a modular out-patient education program for adult asthmatics with office-based specialists--results of a controlled, randomized multicenter trial].

    PubMed

    Dhein, York; Barczok, Michael; Breyer, Gerhard Otto; Hellmann, Andreas; Oblinger, Paul; Weber, Michael; Gaus, Wilhelm; Bulenda, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of a modular education program for adult asthmatics was evaluated in a controlled, randomized multicenter trial under outpatient conditions for six months. The education was performed with material (patient handout and PowerPoint slides) of the MASA Program (i.e. a modular outpatient education program for adult asthmatics) according to the contents list of the NASA Program (i.e. a national education program for adult asthmatics). In total, 75 patients of seven asthma specialists were included. The complete data of 53 patients were obtained and evaluated. All patients had been diagnosed with asthma in the year before, most of them (54%) with moderately severe asthma. The patients in the intervention group attended a two-hour teaching program for three times; the control group once received a short introduction to the use of a peak-flow meter, an asthma diary and asthma emergency instructions. Compared to the control group, the intervention group patients showed significantly less mild asthma attacks. The mean requirement for inhalation of short-acting beta-agonists was 0.18 times vs. 1.5 times per week for the intervention and the control group, respectively (p = 0.0062). Another primary outcome was the number of unscheduled asthma-related visits to the doctor within six months. There was a trend to lower numbers in the intervention group, but due to the small number of patients the results did not reach significance. The same applies to the patients' estimation of their quality of life, measured by the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients in the intervention group had a significantly better knowledge about their disease (improvement in the number of correctly answered questions: 6.7 times in the intervention and 5.5 times in the control group; p = 0.0062) and showed a better adherence to their regular medication. In conclusion, this trial proves the quality of the MASA education program and its feasibility in the outpatient setting of a chest physician

  13. Out-Patient Management of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Asthma, seen primarily as an inflammatory disease with secondary airway hyper-responsiveness, causes symptoms through contraction of the airway's smooth muscles. The management of chronic asthma relies on bronchodilators for symptomatic relief of bronchospasm, while primary therapy is used to either prevent or reverse the inflammatory component of the disease. Anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies include environmental control (where relevant), sodium cromoglycate (where appropriate), and both inhaled and oral glucocorticosteroids. Management of acute severe asthma is similar; bronchodilators are used to ”buy time” while systemic corticosteroids control the inflammatory process. PMID:21248908

  14. SET OF CUT SETS AND OPTIMUM FLOW,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    maintain the same terminal flow. The method presented stems from the work of Ford and Fulkerson which relates maximum terminal flow to the cut set...separating the terminals. A new set of cut sets called a ’set of M- cut sets’ is introduced from which it is possible to improve edge flows while maintaining maximum terminal flow.

  15. ["Practical tuberculosis care outside the hospital stands and falls with the tuberculosis nurse". Challenges in out-patient care, using the example of tuberculosis nurses in the first third of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2014-01-01

    Once it had become apparent that tuberculosis sanatoriums were unable to stop this widespread disease, out-patient tuberculosis clinics were established for patients and their relatives in the German Reich. These clinics, which started in the late nineteenth century, employed physicians and tuberculosis nurses. The nurses were generally community or parish nurses, specialized carers not being trained until later. On the one hand, their tasks included the work at these clinics, where they assisted the physician, admitted patients and carried out x-rays and lab tests. On the other hand--and this was their main task--they visited the sick and their families at home, informed them about tuberculosis, instructed them on questions of hygiene and the appropriate behaviour and made sure these instructions were adhered to. If they were able to offer material help as well, they were received more willingly--and they could only make their visits with a patient's consent. Due to the lack of tuberculosis medicines, the work of the tuberculosis nurses was a mainstay in the fight against this highly infectious disease. They often had to overcome the resistance of general practitioners and also of some patients and their families. But they loved doing their job because they were appreciated by the tuberculosis doctors, had a relatively high degree of freedom, authority and responsibility as health visitors and achieved visible results through personal commitment.

  16. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  17. Efficacy and safety of agomelatine (10 or 25 mg/day) in non-depressed out-patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Ahokas, Antti; Jarema, Marek; Avedisova, Alla S; Vavrusova, Livia; Chaban, Oleg; Gruget, Céline; Olivier, Valérie; Picarel-Blanchot, Françoise; de Bodinat, Christian

    2017-03-12

    Agomelatine is efficacious in reducing symptoms and preventing relapse in placebo-controlled trials in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Nevertheless, fixed dose studies of agomelatine in GAD have not been undertaken. To determine the minimally effective optimal dose of agomelatine in GAD, the efficacy of two doses of agomelatine (10 and 25mg/day) was investigated in a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, international study in patients with a primary diagnosis of GAD. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Anxiety scale (HAM-A). The study was undertaken in 35 clinical centers in Finland, Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine from August 2013 to January 2015. 131 out-patients were included in the agomelatine 10mg group, 139 in the agomelatine 25mg group, and 142 in the placebo group. Both doses of agomelatine were associated with significant decreases in the HAM-A at week 12 (difference versus placebo of 7.16±1.00 at 10mg and 11.08±0.98 at 25mg, p<0.0001). Significant effects on all secondary measures were found for both doses at week 12; including psychic and somatic HAM-A subscales, response rate, remission on the HAM-A, and functional impairment. Findings were confirmed in subsets of more severely ill patients on all endpoints. The low placebo response rate observed in this study was consistent with an increase in the quality of data collected. Agomelatine was well-tolerated by patients, with minimal distinctions from placebo. There was a dose effect of agomelatine, with a greater placebo-agomelatine difference in the agomelatine 25mg group, compared to the agomelatine 10mg group.The present data support early work indicating the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine in the treatment of GAD.

  18. Sales of macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the in- and outpatient setting in 10 European countries, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Pili; Sabaté, Mònica; Ballarín, Elena; Fortuny, Joan; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the use of antibiotics is relevant due to the public health impact of microbial resistance, adverse effects, and costs. We present data on the consumption of macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) between 2007 and 2010 in the in-and outpatient healthcare setting in 10 European countries provided by IMS Health. Antibiotics were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification and consumption was expressed in defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DIDs). We analysed the number of prescriptions by diagnostic codes between 2008 and 2010, based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). These ICD-10 codes were grouped into four main categories: respiratory infections, genitourinary infections, other infections and other diagnoses. In 2010, the consumption of macrolides and lincosamides ranged from 0.45 DIDs (Sweden) to 5.46 DIDs (Italy), and from 0.04 DIDs (Denmark) to 1.00 DID (Germany), respectively. Streptogramins were available in France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain and United Kingdom with a consumption of <0.001 DID exclusively in the hospital setting. The consumption of AMC ranged from <0.001 DIDs (Norway) to 11.67 DIDs (Spain). During the study period, the consumption of macrolides decreased, the consumption of AMC increased in most of European countries, and lincosamides varied very slightly. Macrolides and AMC were mainly prescribed for respiratory infections in all countries but United Kingdom, where most of the prescriptions were assigned to diagnostic codes not clearly related with an infection. Lincosamides were prescribed for the respiratory infections and other infections groups. There was a wide inter-country variability in the percentage of the prescriptions assigned to each of the diagnostic categories. The inter-country differences in the consumption of these antibiotics and their prescription by diagnostic categories point to an inappropriate

  19. Jacobi Set Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2016-07-28

    Jacobi Set Computation is a software to compute the Jacobi set of 2 piecewise linear scalar functions defined on a triangular mesh. This functionality is useful for analyzing multiple scalar fields simultaneously.

  20. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  1. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutsch, Jason

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus a pathological set becomes a bit more friendly. Finally, a number of interesting open problems are left for the inspired reader.

  2. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  3. Acronical Risings and Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  4. Pseudo-set framing.

    PubMed

    Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Economic communication model set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvereva, Olga M.; Berg, Dmitry B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper details findings from the research work targeted at economic communications investigation with agent-based models usage. The agent-based model set was engineered to simulate economic communications. Money in the form of internal and external currencies was introduced into the models to support exchanges in communications. Every model, being based on the general concept, has its own peculiarities in algorithm and input data set since it was engineered to solve the specific problem. Several and different origin data sets were used in experiments: theoretic sets were estimated on the basis of static Leontief's equilibrium equation and the real set was constructed on the basis of statistical data. While simulation experiments, communication process was observed in dynamics, and system macroparameters were estimated. This research approved that combination of an agent-based and mathematical model can cause a synergetic effect.

  6. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs about C. difficile for ... Facilities/Settings State Health Departments Tracking C. difficile Clostridium Sordellii Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Tracking CRE Interim ...

  7. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  8. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  9. Multicriteria identification sets method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenev, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).

  10. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  11. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  12. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  13. Welfare rights services for people disabled with arthritis integrated in primary care and hospital settings: set-up costs and monetary benefits.

    PubMed

    Powell, J E; Langley, C; Kirwan, J; Gubbay, D; Memel, D; Pollock, J; Means, R; Hewlett, S

    2004-09-01

    To quantify the set-up costs and monetary benefits of a welfare rights service integrated within an NHS service provider, that selects eligible patients using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and offers welfare rights advice to assist in application for Disability Living Allowance and Attendance Allowance. (1) DESIGN: a cost evaluation of a social intervention, screening with the HAQ and welfare rights advice in primary care and hospital settings. (2) SETTING: Eight general practices and four hospital rheumatology out-patient departments were selected from four localities in the southwest of England. (3) PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and sixty-eight eligible patients with arthritis accepted an interview with a welfare rights officer (WRO) from a sample of 1989 service users identified from GPs' records and hospital out-patient lists. Two hundred and forty two service users expressed an interest in take up of the social intervention. (4) Service users with a HAQ score >/=1.5 were contacted by telephone and offered an appointment with an experienced WRO to help them complete a welfare benefit application form. A 'micro-costing' study was undertaken with assessment of monetary benefits received. The indicative set-up costs of similar welfare rights services are pound 8125 in a GP setting and pound 9307 per annum in a hospital setting at 2002 prices. Total annual unclaimed Disability Living Allowance/Attendance Allowance granted to successful claimants was pound 184,382 in the GP setting (n = 84 from 137) and pound 169,309 in the hospital setting (n = 79 from 131). Welfare rights advice received during a visit to a GP practice or a hospital out-patient department can substantially reduce the level of unclaimed benefit in arthritic populations including the elderly; with mobility and care difficulties. A welfare rights service integrated within a GP practice or hospital that screens people with arthritis using HAQ scores and encourages those with scores >/=1.5 to

  14. Can C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide measurements guide choice of in-patient or out-patient care in acute pyelonephritis? Biomarkers In Sepsis (BIS) multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Y-E; Schmidt, J; Batard, E; Grabar, S; Jegou, D; Hausfater, P; Kierzek, G; Guérin, S; Pourriat, J-L; Dhainaut, J-F; Ginsburg, C

    2010-06-01

    Whereas C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may be of use at the bedside in the management of adult patients with infectious disorders, their usefulness has not been established in the setting of acute pyelonephritis. To assess the effectiveness of CRP, PCT and ANP measurements in guiding emergency physicians' decisions whether to admit to hospital patients with acute pyelonephritis, we conducted a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 12 emergency departments in France; 582 consecutive patients were included. The reference standard for admission was defined by experts' advice combined with necessity of admission or death during the 28-day follow-up. Baseline CRP, PCT and ANP were measured and their accuracy in identifying the necessity of admission was analysed using area under curves (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots. According to the reference standard, 126 (22%) patients required admission. ANP (AUC 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.80) and PCT (AUC 0.75, 95% CI 0.71-0.80) more accurately predicted this than did CRP (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.74). The positive and negative likelihood ratios for each biomarker remained clinically irrelevant whatever the threshold. Our results did not support the use of these markers to help physicians in deciding about admission of patients experiencing acute pyelonephritis in daily practice.

  15. Complex attentional control settings.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Stacey E; Levinthal, Brian R; Franconeri, Steven L

    2010-12-01

    The visual system prioritizes information through a variety of mechanisms, including "attentional control settings" that specify features (e.g., colour) that are relevant to current goals. Recent work shows that these control settings may be more complex than previously thought, such that participants can monitor for independent features at different locations (Adamo, Pun, Pratt, & Ferber, 2008). However, this result leaves unclear whether these control settings affect early attentional selection or later target processing. We dissociated between these possibilities in two ways. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to determine whether a target object, which was preceded by an uninformative cue, matched one of two target templates (e.g., a blue vertical object or a green horizontal object). Participants monitored for independent features in the same location, but in different objects, which should reduce the effectiveness of the control setting if it is due to early attentional selection, but not if it is due to later target processing. In Experiment 2, we removed the ability of the cue to prime the target identity, which makes the opposite prediction. Together, the results suggest that complex attentional control settings primarily affect later target identity processing, and not early attentional selection.

  16. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  17. The Crystal Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  18. Therapists in Oncology Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…

  19. Ready ... set ... grow.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1998-01-05

    Three years after going public, FPA Medical Management rose from obscurity to become the nation's second largest practice manager. Its network of primary care doctors ballooned from only 95 to nearly 6,700. Now, as executives mull over $2 billion in acquisitions, the company is set to bulk up even more.

  20. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  1. Diffusion on Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeseler, Sebastian; Huang, Xueping; Lenz, Daniel; Pogorzelski, Felix

    2017-06-01

    We consider graphs associated to Delone sets in Euclidean space. Such graphs arise in various ways from tilings. Here, we provide a unified framework. In this context, we study the associated Laplace operators and show Gaussian heat kernel bounds for their semigroups. These results apply to both metric and discrete graphs.

  2. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  3. Therapists in Oncology Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…

  4. The Crystal Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  5. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  6. Building Temperature Set Point

    SciTech Connect

    Meincke, Carol L.; Evans, Christopher A.

    2014-09-01

    This white paper provides information and recommendations for an actionable and enforceable corporate policy statement on temperature set points for office and related spaces at Sandia and presents a strategy that balances the need to achieve the energy goals with optimizing employee comfort and productivity.

  7. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  8. Marihuana and setting.

    PubMed

    Hollister, L E; Overall, J E; Gerber, M L

    1975-06-01

    Marihuana or placebo cigarettes were smoked by 12 subjects in two environments, one "favorable" and one "neutral". The object was to determine the contribution of setting to the effects reported from the drug. Two quantifiable self-report measurements, the linear euphoriant scale and the card-sort version of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (marihuana and hallucinogen scales), were the major reporting criteria. Analyses of variance consistently demonstrated strong effects for subjects and drug but not for the environmental conditions. Reports of marihuana effects may be assumed to be highly colored by psychological differences in the mental set of subjects, or biological variations in their responses to the drug. The actual environment in which the drug is taken seems to play little, if any, role.

  9. The Crystal Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-04-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought I knew, but actually did not.

  10. The Moon has set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschberg, I. S.; Mebius, J. E.

    1989-08-01

    The Sappho epigram mentioned in the title is shown to contain implicit astronomical information, which must have contributed to the expressiveness of Sappho's short poem to contemporary audiences. Astronomical computations are given to discover the earliest and the latest time of year for which the Pleiads set at midnight while being visible earlier in the evening, taking into account the atmospheric refraction. The time of year for which Sappho's poem is valid is concluded to run from 17 Jan. to 29 Mar.

  11. Triage in military settings.

    PubMed

    Falzone, E; Pasquier, P; Hoffmann, C; Barbier, O; Boutonnet, M; Salvadori, A; Jarrassier, A; Renner, J; Malgras, B; Mérat, S

    2017-02-01

    Triage, a medical term derived from the French word "trier", is the practical process of sorting casualties to rationally allocate limited resources. In combat settings with limited medical resources and long transportation times, triage is challenging since the objectives are to avoid overcrowding medical treatment facilities while saving a maximum of soldiers and to get as many of them back into action as possible. The new face of modern warfare, asymmetric and non-conventional, has led to the integrative evolution of triage into the theatre of operations. This article defines different triage scores and algorithms currently implemented in military settings. The discrepancies associated with these military triage systems are highlighted. The assessment of combat casualty severity requires several scores and each nation adopts different systems for triage on the battlefield with the same aim of quickly identifying those combat casualties requiring lifesaving and damage control resuscitation procedures. Other areas of interest for triage in military settings are discussed, including predicting the need for massive transfusion, haemodynamic parameters and ultrasound exploration.

  12. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  13. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  14. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  15. Local anesthesia in reduction mastoplasty for out-patient surgery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1992-01-01

    To perform a breast reduction under local anesthesia we need a large amount of anesthetic with lasting effects. For this I use a solution of 25 cc of lidocaine, 25 cc of bupivacaine, and 1 cc of epinephrine in 350 cc of saline solution. The bupivacaine allows a 4-6-hour operation. Once the breast is infiltrated, a great amount of anesthetic is lost in the incision, in the dissection, and in the resected tissue. Thus, a low dose remains subcutaneously to be metabolized by the liver. The serum lidocaine levels are low during these operations, as demonstrated by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Under analgesic sedation the submammary sulcus and the retroglandular space are infiltrated, blocking the perforants of the intercostal nerves, under the areola, beneath the skin where the incision is made and where the areola is placed. This procedure has been applied to many techniques of breast reduction by modifying the infiltration under the incision lines. For hypertrophy up to 1000 g, 200-300 cc of anesthetic solution is used for both breasts at one stage, while for gigantomastia, about 400 cc of anesthetic is used, infiltrating and reducing one after the other. As the blood loss is minimal and the recovery very fast, with an appropriate adhesive bandage and a "soutien," the patient could be discharged in the afternoon. Our experience includes 94 reduction mastoplasties with local anesthesia, and also 74 other mastoplasties with equally good results. There were no patient complaints and, in general, they felt very comfortable, awakening without pain or side effects.

  16. Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian general out-patient clinic.

    PubMed

    Jegede, R O; Ohaeri, J U; Bamgboye, E A; Okunade, A O

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of a systematic random sample of new patients attending the clinic of the G.O.P.D. of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, using the PSE, the CES-D and clinical evaluation, at least 40% of 104 subjects were found to have sufficient symptoms of psychic distress to warrant treatment. There was statistically significant association between the measures for psychiatric caseness. Among those rated as psychiatric cases on clinical evaluation, neurosis was the predominant diagnosis. Symptoms of depression were commonly admitted to by these subjects. At review of case notes one year later, the initial diagnoses for those referred to the psychiatric clinic were sustained. In view of the commoness of psychiatric symptoms in general practice, it is suggested that undergraduate psychiatric posting duration be increased; residency training in general practice and internal medicine should include a period of posting in psychiatry; and national health care planning should pay a greater attention to mental health care than is at present the case.

  17. [Prescribing drugs to patients receiving out-patient care].

    PubMed

    Garjón Parra, F J

    2009-01-01

    Drug prescription has evolved to deal mainly with chronic diseases. Nowadays, repeating prescriptions using computers results in problems if this is not done with adequate control. Steps proposed for appropriate prescription are: defining the problem; specifying the objective; selecting the drug; initiating therapy with appropriate details; giving information; regular evaluation; considering cost; and using tools to reduce errors. Published recommendations for prescription, which have focused on elderly patients, include: avoiding polypharmacy; carrying out a regular medication review; stopping any current drugs that are not indicated and prescribing new drugs that have a clear indication; avoiding drugs that have deleterious effects; using dosages that are suitable for the age and renal function; using simple drug regimes and appropriate administration systems; considering non-pharmacological treatments; limiting the number of practitioners prescribing for each patient; and avoiding treating adverse drug reactions with further drugs. Examples of compliance with those recommendations in the Navarre Health Service, extracted from the prescription information system, are provided. The measures for improving prescription are: education, auditing, collaboration between health professionals and use of electronic tools.

  18. Tool setting device

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.

  19. Telemedicine in clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    The telemedicine department of a hospital is an emerging branch in upcoming hospitals and may become an essential component of every hospital. It basically utilizes the information technologies along with telecommunication systems in order to provide clinical care and assistance. Furthermore, the branch of telemedicine offers significant opportunities for the process of developmental freedom from illness, early death, and preventable diseases. It advances development by providing relevant drugs and the necessary care aimed to alleviate patient suffering. It is also beneficial for patients in rural remote areas who usually do not have adequate access to advanced hospitals. Telemedicine in these remote areas allows for timely treatment of emergency cases. Thus, it contributes towards remote emergency critical care in order to save lives in crucial cases. Additionally, the emerging advances have now enabled telemedicine to transfer large amounts of clinical informatics data including images, and test reports to the specifically specialized health professionals in some serious cases. However, as in the case of many emerging technologies, organizing information and understanding the field has significant challenges. The present review article aimed to discuss important aspects of the field with regard to the better management of patients in clinical settings. PMID:27703503

  20. Rough sets and near sets in medical imaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Abraham, Ajith; Peters, James F; Schaefer, Gerald; Henry, Christopher

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the current literature on rough-set- and near-set-based approaches to solving various problems in medical imaging such as medical image segmentation, object extraction, and image classification. Rough set frameworks hybridized with other computational intelligence technologies that include neural networks, particle swarm optimization, support vector machines, and fuzzy sets are also presented. In addition, a brief introduction to near sets and near images with an application to MRI images is given. Near sets offer a generalization of traditional rough set theory and a promising approach to solving the medical image correspondence problem as well as an approach to classifying perceptual objects by means of features in solving medical imaging problems. Other generalizations of rough sets such as neighborhood systems, shadowed sets, and tolerance spaces are also briefly considered in solving a variety of medical imaging problems. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are identified and an extensive bibliography is also included.

  1. Tectonic setting of kimberlites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelsma, Hielke; Barnett, Wayne; Richards, Simon; Lister, Gordon

    2009-11-01

    Kimberlites can be viewed as time capsules in a global plate tectonic framework. Their distribution illustrates clustering in time and space. Kimberlite ages span the assembly and break-up of a number of supercontinents, such as Rodinia and Gondwana. These supercontinents show time lines with (i) broad periods devoid of kimberlite magmatism corresponding to times of continent stability, and (ii) narrow kimberlite emplacement windows corresponding to times of fundamental plate reorganizations. This episodicity implies that kimberlite emplacement events are intrinsically related to particular stages in the life cycle of supercontinents. The onset of kimberlite magmatism is closely associated with thermal perturbations (thermal insulation, mantle upwelling?) beneath a stagnant or sluggish supercontinent. These perturbations may have caused uplift and the onset of continental break-up through fracture zones propagating into the supercontinent. Subsequent spreading and ocean floor development is marked by apparent cusps and jogs in plate motion paths. Resultant strain is accommodated along trans-lithospheric corridors with episodic uplift and erosion and focused kimberlite melt migration. The corridors are manifest as discontinuities in the lithosphere mantle, measured as geophysical gradients and as changes in mantle lithosphere composition. Within the crust, these corridors are expressed as (a) terrane boundaries, (b) incipient continental rifts, (c) fracture zones, or (d) major dyke swarms. Some kimberlite populations are clustered along parallel sets of corridors widely distributed across a large part of a subcontinent and repeated magmatism is seen within many of the clusters. The association of kimberlite occurrences with discontinuities may be ascribed to favorable conditions for melt production and to resultant melt focusing along high strain zones that contain fractures and faults. Such conditions may be attained during different stages in the evolution of

  2. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  3. Neurobiology: Setting the Set Point for Neural Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Truszkowski, Torrey L S; Aizenman, Carlos D

    2015-12-07

    Neural homeostasis allows neural networks to maintain a dynamic range around a given set point. How this set point is determined remains unknown. New evidence shows that alterations of activity during a critical developmental period can alter the homeostatic set point, resulting in epilepsy-like activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  5. Semi-bounded sets with respect to bornological sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Anwar N.; Rakhimov, Isamiddin S.; Hussain, Sharifah Kartini Said

    2017-04-01

    The first goal of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the concept of semi bounded set and it is variations in bornological sets (BS). We study semi boundedness properties and keep track behaviour of semi boundedness under some set operations. Then, the concept of bornological ideal (BI) is given. It is provoked by intention to give the definition of semi boundedness with respect to (BI). It extends the notion of semi bounded sets in (BS). Finally, we study some properties of semi bounded sets with respect to a bornological ideal.

  6. Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig

    2013-12-01

    In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques.

  7. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  8. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  9. Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to determine how "stimulus-set" and "response-set" components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration…

  10. Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to determine how "stimulus-set" and "response-set" components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration…

  11. Complex fuzzy soft expert sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvachandran, Ganeshsree; Hafeed, Nisren A.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2017-04-01

    Complex fuzzy sets and its accompanying theory although at its infancy, has proven to be superior to classical type-1 fuzzy sets, due its ability in representing time-periodic problem parameters and capturing the seasonality of the fuzziness that exists in the elements of a set. These are important characteristics that are pervasive in most real world problems. However, there are two major problems that are inherent in complex fuzzy sets: it lacks a sufficient parameterization tool and it does not have a mechanism to validate the values assigned to the membership functions of the elements in a set. To overcome these problems, we propose the notion of complex fuzzy soft expert sets which is a hybrid model of complex fuzzy sets and soft expert sets. This model incorporates the advantages of complex fuzzy sets and soft sets, besides having the added advantage of allowing the users to know the opinion of all the experts in a single model without the need for any additional cumbersome operations. As such, this model effectively improves the accuracy of representation of problem parameters that are periodic in nature, besides having a higher level of computational efficiency compared to similar models in literature.

  12. Spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE).

    PubMed

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Moore, Jason H

    2015-03-03

    Gene set testing is typically performed in a supervised context to quantify the association between groups of genes and a clinical phenotype. In many cases, however, a gene set-based interpretation of genomic data is desired in the absence of a phenotype variable. Although methods exist for unsupervised gene set testing, they predominantly compute enrichment relative to clusters of the genomic variables with performance strongly dependent on the clustering algorithm and number of clusters. We propose a novel method, spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE), for unsupervised competitive testing of the association between gene sets and empirical data sources. SGSE first computes the statistical association between gene sets and principal components (PCs) using our principal component gene set enrichment (PCGSE) method. The overall statistical association between each gene set and the spectral structure of the data is then computed by combining the PC-level p-values using the weighted Z-method with weights set to the PC variance scaled by Tracy-Widom test p-values. Using simulated data, we show that the SGSE algorithm can accurately recover spectral features from noisy data. To illustrate the utility of our method on real data, we demonstrate the superior performance of the SGSE method relative to standard cluster-based techniques for testing the association between MSigDB gene sets and the variance structure of microarray gene expression data. Unsupervised gene set testing can provide important information about the biological signal held in high-dimensional genomic data sets. Because it uses the association between gene sets and samples PCs to generate a measure of unsupervised enrichment, the SGSE method is independent of cluster or network creation algorithms and, most importantly, is able to utilize the statistical significance of PC eigenvalues to ignore elements of the data most likely to represent noise.

  13. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Chemistry Sets Face Uncertain Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen C.

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry sets, often a child's first contact with chemistry, are becoming less attractive to manufacturers as the market for these items decreases. There is a tendency for recently manufactured chemistry sets to be less adequate than those selling in the same price range in past years. Manuals vary in quality among manufacturers. (RE)

  15. Fuzzy sets and data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gesù, V.

    Methods and their applications to data analysis problems in fuzzy-sets theory are presented. Fuzzy-sets theory seems to be a powerful tool to model uncertainty and vagueness present in the data and to represent the human thinking in a more natural way.

  16. Moment based gene set tests.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jessica L; Owen, Art B

    2015-04-28

    Permutation-based gene set tests are standard approaches for testing relationships between collections of related genes and an outcome of interest in high throughput expression analyses. Using M random permutations, one can attain p-values as small as 1/(M+1). When many gene sets are tested, we need smaller p-values, hence larger M, to achieve significance while accounting for the number of simultaneous tests being made. As a result, the number of permutations to be done rises along with the cost per permutation. To reduce this cost, we seek parametric approximations to the permutation distributions for gene set tests. We study two gene set methods based on sums and sums of squared correlations. The statistics we study are among the best performers in the extensive simulation of 261 gene set methods by Ackermann and Strimmer in 2009. Our approach calculates exact relevant moments of these statistics and uses them to fit parametric distributions. The computational cost of our algorithm for the linear case is on the order of doing |G| permutations, where |G| is the number of genes in set G. For the quadratic statistics, the cost is on the order of |G|(2) permutations which can still be orders of magnitude faster than plain permutation sampling. We applied the permutation approximation method to three public Parkinson's Disease expression datasets and discovered enriched gene sets not previously discussed. We found that the moment-based gene set enrichment p-values closely approximate the permutation method p-values at a tiny fraction of their cost. They also gave nearly identical rankings to the gene sets being compared. We have developed a moment based approximation to linear and quadratic gene set test statistics' permutation distribution. This allows approximate testing to be done orders of magnitude faster than one could do by sampling permutations. We have implemented our method as a publicly available Bioconductor package, npGSEA (www.bioconductor.org) .

  17. PowerSet: A Comprehensive Visualization of Set Intersections.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Ren, Liu

    2017-01-01

    When analyzing a large amount of data, analysts often define groups over data elements that share certain properties. Using these groups as the unit of analysis not only reduces the data volume, but also allows detecting various patterns in the data. This involves analyzing intersection relations between these groups, and how the element attributes vary between these intersections. This kind of set-based analysis has various applications in a variety of domains, due to the generic and powerful notion of sets. However, visualizing intersections relations is challenging because their number grows exponentially with the number of sets. We present a novel technique based on Treemaps to provide a comprehensive overview of non-empty intersections in a set system in a scalable way. It enables gaining insight about how elements are distributed across these intersections as well as performing fine-grained analysis to explore and compare their attributes both in overview and in detail. Interaction allows querying and filtering these elements based on their set memberships. We demonstrate how our technique supports various use cases in data exploration and analysis by providing insights into set-based data, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques.

  18. HAL-3 radar test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhenhe; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Yi

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the HAL-3 radar test set (called the set in the following) used to measure the technical specifications of the HAL-3 airborne radar and to maintain it based on tested results. Some new techniques are employed in the set, including sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) in the power supply, digital gyro simulator and automatic test module (ATM) with STD industrial control microprocessor series. The specially designed software implements man-machine interaction with menu in Chinese, selects parameters and operation mode, and controls testing procedures. These techniques may be extensively applied to other automatic test instruments.

  19. Grammatical complexity of strange sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Ditza; Procaccia, Itamar

    1990-06-01

    Chaotic dynamical systems can be organized around an underlying strange set, which is comprised of all the unstable periodic orbits. In this paper, we quantify the complexity of such an organization; this complexity addresses the difficulty of predicting the structure of the strange set from low-order data and is independent of the entropy and the algorithmic complexity. We refer to the new measure as the grammatical complexity. The notion is introduced, discussed, and illustrated in the context of simple dynamical systems. In addition, the grammatical complexity is generalized to include metric properties arising due to the nonuniform distribution of the invariant measure on the strange set.

  20. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Michael K.; Meissen, Gregory J.; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD) paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes. PMID:28462332

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs about C. difficile for ... Facilities/Settings State Health Departments Tracking C. difficile Clostridium Sordellii Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Tracking CRE Interim ...

  2. Mycobacterium abscessus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs about C. difficile for ... Facilities/Settings State Health Departments Tracking C. difficile Clostridium Sordellii Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Tracking CRE Interim ...

  3. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  4. Physical restraint in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Haidrani, Layla

    2017-03-30

    Essential facts In January, new guidance was drawn up for police and healthcare professionals, outlining for the first time how and when police officers should be involved in physically restraining people in healthcare settings in England and Wales.

  5. Terrestrial solar spectral data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1982-06-01

    Needed solar spectra irradiance data sets, which are representative of solar spectra under average conditions in the United States, are made available. Two new spectral irradiance data sets were created to update two standards that were proposed to the American Society for Testing and Materials. One data set is for the direct normal irradiance within a 5.8/sup 0/ field of view, and the other set is for the global irradiance falling on a flat surface (180/sup 0/ field of view). The data were generated from a new extraterrestrial spectrum and a Rayleigh scattering calculation. These data can be used to compare the performance of solar products, and also can be used to evaluate absorptance, reflectance, transmittance, and responses of various devices and materials.

  6. Boundary terms for causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay; Jubb, Ian; Surya, Sumati

    2015-10-01

    We propose a family of boundary terms for the action of a causal set with a spacelike boundary. We show that in the continuum limit one recovers the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term in the mean. We also calculate the continuum limit of the mean causal set action for an Alexandrov interval in flat spacetime. We find that it is equal to the volume of the codimension-2 intersection of the two light-cone boundaries of the interval.

  7. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  8. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Roger Brent

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  9. An inability to set independent attentional control settings by hemifield.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mark W; Ravizza, Susan M; Peltier, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that people can simultaneously activate attentional control setting for two distinct colors. However, it is unclear whether both attentional control settings must operate globally across the visual field or whether each can be constrained to a particular spatial location. Using two different paradigms, we investigated participants' ability to apply independent color attentional control settings to distinct regions of space. In both experiments, participants were told to identify red letters in one hemifield and green letters in the opposite hemifield. Additionally, some trials used a "relevant distractor"-a letter that matched the opposite side's target color. In Experiment 1, eight letters appeared (four per hemifield) simultaneously for a brief amount of time and then were masked. Relevant distractors increased the error rate and resulted in a greater number of distractor intrusions than irrelevant distractors. Similar results were observed in Experiment 2 in which red and green targets were presented in two rapid serial visual presentation streams. Relevant distractors were found to produce an attentional blink similar in magnitude to an actual target. The results of both experiments suggest that letters matching either attentional control setting were selected by attention and were processed as if they were targets, providing strong evidence that both attentional control settings were applied globally, rather than being constrained to a particular location.

  10. Complete Basis Set Model Chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochterski, Joseph Wallace

    1994-01-01

    The major source of error in most ab initio calculations of molecular energies is the truncation of the one-electron basis set. Extrapolation to the complete basis set second -order (CBS2) limit using the N^{-1 } asymptotic convergence of N-configuration pair natural orbital (PNO) expansions can be combined with the use of relatively small basis sets for the higher-order correlation energy to develop cost effective computational models. Following this strategy, four new computational models denoted CBS-4, CBS-q, CBS-Q, and CBS-QCI/APNO are introduced. The mean absolute deviations (MAD) from experiment for the 125 energies of the G2 test set are 2.0, 1.7, 1.0 and 0.5 kcal/mol, respectively. The error distributions for all six models are indistinguishable from Gaussian distribution functions. Calculations on the cyclopropenyl radical and cyclopropenylidene provide new dissociation energies which are in accord with an interpretation of the thermochemistry emphasizing aromaticity. Several levels of theory are examined as candidates for the routine calculation of molecular geometries. The very simple UHF/3-21G* model gives bond lengths to an accuracy of +/-0.027 A compared with experiment for a test set of 69 small molecules. The commonly used MP2/6-31G* model (RMS error 0.025 A) offers virtually no improvement and use of the considerably more expensive QCISD calculations with the same basis set provides only a modest reduction to 0.020 A. However, spin projected MP3 calculations with a modified basis set including f -functions on Si, P, S, and Cl, reduce the RMS error to 0.010 A. This PMP3/6-31Gdf* model is recommended as a general scheme of geometry optimization for small molecules. The equilibrium structure and binding energy of the water dimer have been determined for several levels of ab initio theory. The basis set convergence of the SCF energy, the intramolecular and intermolecular MP2 energy, and higher-order effects, are examined separately and realistic error

  11. Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dockery, John; Littman, David

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.

  12. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  13. To Set or Not to Set; Is that the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an evaluation of the rationale for, and impact of, setting with English classes in the second year of secondary school in one Scottish authority. The Council's education department has a long-standing policy of mixed-ability classes in English for the first two years of secondary school (S2). A number of schools approached…

  14. Product-Free Sets in the Card Game Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, Judy A.

    2005-01-01

    The card game SET has attracted the attention of math and game enthusiasts alike. In this article, I present a first semester Abstract Algebra project that guides the students through an algebraic formulation of the game. There are many interesting mathematical questions that one can ask about the game, and I illustrate how the project can be used…

  15. Cosmic setting for chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous-textured, millimeter-sized, spherical to irregularly-shaped silicate objects which constitute the major component of most chondrites. There is agreement that chondrules were once molten. Models for chondrule origin can be divided into two categories. One involves a 'planetary' setting, which envisages chondrules forming on the surfaces of parent bodies. Melting mechanisms include impact and volcanism. The other category is concerned with a cosmic setting in the solar nebula, prior to nebula formation. Aspects regarding the impact on planetary surfaces are considered, taking into account chondrule abundances, the abundancy of agglutinates on the moon, comminution, hypervelocity impact pits, questions of age, and chondrule compositions. Attention is also given to collisions during accretion, collisions between molten planetesimals, volcanism, and virtues of a nebular setting.

  16. Small sets of complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassl, M.; McNulty, D.; Mišta, L.; Paterek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Two observables are called complementary if preparing a physical object in an eigenstate of one of them yields a completely random result in a measurement of the other. We investigate small sets of complementary observables that cannot be extended by yet another complementary observable. We construct explicit examples of unextendible sets up to dimension 16 and conjecture certain small sets to be unextendible in higher dimensions. Our constructions provide three complementary measurements, only one observable away from the ultimate minimum of two. Almost all our examples in finite dimensions are useful for discriminating pure states from some mixed states, and they help to shed light on the complex topology of the Bloch space of higher-dimensional quantum systems.

  17. Physical Quantities, Measurement Sets, Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallefond, F.

    2012-09-01

    A methodology is proposed to develop efficient, robust and expressive data models. The idea is to transform objects described using our human language into mathematical objects which can then be used efficiently in information systems. This is done using topological spaces and algebras to model data types. Technically it is implemented using parametric polymorphism. Two examples are shown, 1) a simple well known object, the physical quantities, and 2) a data-base object, the measurement sets which bind the measurements to their experimental contexts. This leads to theories. The result is high expressiveness by formulating equations and data base operations by means of λ calculi. The theory of the measurement set encapsulates the relational model. Using topoi it is a generalization, a category above the sets.

  18. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated.

  19. Uncertainties in climate data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Climate diagnostics are constructed from either analyzed fields or from observational data sets. Those that have been commonly used are normally considered ground truth. However, in most of these collections, errors and uncertainties exist which are generally ignored due to the consistency of usage over time. Examples of uncertainties and errors are described in NMC and ECMWF analyses and in satellite observational sets-OLR, TOVS, and SMMR. It is suggested that these errors can be large, systematic, and not negligible in climate analysis.

  20. Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.

    PubMed

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings.

  1. Families & School. Best of "set."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N., Ed.; Richards, Llyn, Ed.

    Published to celebrate the United Nations' International Year of the Family, this special issue presents selected articles from "set," a twice yearly journal of research information for teachers. These articles look at the contribution of educational research on the relationships between schools and families, and families and learning in…

  2. Teaching Quality across School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julie; Brown, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Districts are increasingly making personnel decisions based on teachers' impact on student-achievement gains and classroom observations. In some schools, however, a teacher's practices and their students' achievement may reflect not just individual but collaborative efforts. In other settings, teachers' instruction benefits less from the insights…

  3. Communicable Diseases in Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networks, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter addresses managing the spread of communicable diseases in childhood settings as well as educational program concerns for children who are HIV infected. Noting that communicable diseases are a source of concern no matter how minor they might appear, the newsletter suggests that it is important for individuals who work with the…

  4. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  5. Evolving Compact Decision Rule Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    While data mining technology holds the promise of automatically extracting useful patterns (such as decision rules) from data, this potential has yet...to be realized. One of the major technical impediments is that the current generation of data mining tools produce decision rule sets that are very

  6. Setting an Endowment Spending Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1995-01-01

    Trustees can set endowment spending policies to meet current spending needs and protect the future by understanding, forecasting, and managing potential risks and returns. Spending policy should be based on a combination of economic conditions and capital market characteristics related to the institution's investment portfolio. (Author/MSE)

  7. Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…

  8. Informal Learning in Experiential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neathery, Madelyn Faye

    1998-01-01

    Assesses informal learning in experiential settings. Elementary teachers (n=20) from public and private schools participated in an on-site seminar involving experiential learning in science centers, a wildlife refuge, and a zoological sanctuary. The significance of instruction provided by guides, types of exhibits, and the use of informational…

  9. Promoting Literacy in Multilingual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo; Young, Catherine; Malone, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of resource papers and findings is from a regional workshop on mother-tongue/bilingual literacy programmes for ethnic and linguistic minorities in multilingual settings. It was organized by Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Bangkok, 6-10 December…

  10. Feedback Seeking in Training Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    The role of feedback in training settings was examined in a survey-based study of feedback in nine 5-day management development training courses in a United Kingdom government agency. The courses followed a highly standardized curriculum and delivery process. Although the courses were primarily instructor-and theory-centered, they also included…

  11. Level Set Strategy for SCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaknin, Gaddiel

    This thesis investigates the design of sharp in terface level set methods in the context of self-consistent field theory (SCFT) in polymer physics. SCFT computes the structure and energy of inhomogeneous self-assembling polymers at thermodynamic equilibrium. Level set methods are based on an implicit representation of free boundaries, which enable motions with arbitrary change in topology. In addition, recent advances on how to impose Robin boundary conditions enables the study of free boundary problems of interest in the community interested in self-assembly. We first present a computational framework, encoded on a forest of quad/oct-trees in a parallel environment. We then present results of imposing sharp Neumann boundary conditions as was first proposed by de Gennes, which enables SCFT computations of meaningful quantities at the boundary of irregular geometries. We then introduce the concept of functional level-set derivative in the context of SCFT and rigorously derive expressions for the change of energy of a diblock copolymer with respect to an enclosing shape. The level-set derivative is then used to embed SCFT into a variable shape simulator, where the internal structure and the enclosing shape are coupled together and evolve in tandem in order to reduce the energy of the diblock copolymer. Finally an algorithm for solving the inverse problem for directed self-assembly is presented.

  12. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  13. Entrepreneurism in the Academic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossberg, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on entrepreneurship is reviewed as it relates to the university setting. Academic entrepreneurship is defined as actions designed to increase individual or institutional profit or prestige through development and marketing of research ideas or products. Case studies in the fields of pharmacy and biochemistry are presented. (MSE)

  14. Setting an Endowment Spending Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1995-01-01

    Trustees can set endowment spending policies to meet current spending needs and protect the future by understanding, forecasting, and managing potential risks and returns. Spending policy should be based on a combination of economic conditions and capital market characteristics related to the institution's investment portfolio. (Author/MSE)

  15. Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…

  16. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  17. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  18. Setting Time Limits on Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…

  19. Multiple Kernel Point Set Registration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2015-12-22

    The finite Gaussian mixture model with kernel correlation is a flexible tool that has recently received attention for point set registration. While there are many algorithms for point set registration presented in the literature, an important issue arising from these studies concerns the mapping of data with nonlinear relationships and the ability to select a suitable kernel. Kernel selection is crucial for effective point set registration. We focus here on multiple kernel point set registration. We make several contributions in this paper. First, each observation is modeled using the Student's t-distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than the Gaussian distribution. Second, by automatically adjusting the kernel weights, the proposed method allows us to prune the ineffective kernels. This makes the choice of kernels less crucial. After parameter learning, the kernel saliencies of the irrelevant kernels go to zero. Thus, the choice of kernels is less crucial and it is easy to include other kinds of kernels. Finally, we show empirically that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods recently proposed in the literature.

  20. Multiple Kernel Point Set Registration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    The finite Gaussian mixture model with kernel correlation is a flexible tool that has recently received attention for point set registration. While there are many algorithms for point set registration presented in the literature, an important issue arising from these studies concerns the mapping of data with nonlinear relationships and the ability to select a suitable kernel. Kernel selection is crucial for effective point set registration. We focus here on multiple kernel point set registration. We make several contributions in this paper. First, each observation is modeled using the Student's t-distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than the Gaussian distribution. Second, by automatically adjusting the kernel weights, the proposed method allows us to prune the ineffective kernels. This makes the choice of kernels less crucial. After parameter learning, the kernel saliencies of the irrelevant kernels go to zero. Thus, the choice of kernels is less crucial and it is easy to include other kinds of kernels. Finally, we show empirically that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods recently proposed in the literature.

  1. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  2. Assessing After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Goldsmith, Julie; Sheldon, Jessica; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    2009-01-01

    According to previous research, three point-of-service features--strong youth engagement, well-conceived and well-delivered content, and a conducive learning environment--lead to positive impacts in after-school settings, the ultimate gauge of quality. To assess quality at a program's point of service, researchers and program administrators should…

  3. Teaching Leadership in Nontraditional Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oechsle, Lois H.; Volden, Cecilia M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses clinical placement for a leadership/management course at the University of North Dakota College of Nursing. The program used nontraditional settings such as the YMCA, nursing homes, rehabilitation hospitals, and senior citizens' centers as alternate sites for nursing practice and work. (JOW)

  4. The Best of SET: Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, David, Ed.

    This collection presents 15 articles on writing, three of them new and 12 of them representing the best of the 500 articles published since 1974 in "SET: Research Information for Teachers," a twice-yearly publication by the New Zealand and Australian Councils for Educational Research aimed at teachers, students, board members, and…

  5. Informal Learning in Experiential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neathery, Madelyn Faye

    1998-01-01

    Assesses informal learning in experiential settings. Elementary teachers (n=20) from public and private schools participated in an on-site seminar involving experiential learning in science centers, a wildlife refuge, and a zoological sanctuary. The significance of instruction provided by guides, types of exhibits, and the use of informational…

  6. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  7. Health promotion and prison settings.

    PubMed

    Santora, Lidia; Arild Espnes, Geir; Lillefjell, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of modern correctional service in health promotion exemplified by the case study of Norwegian health promotion policies in prison settings. This paper applies a two-fold methodology. First a narrative systematic literature review based on the Norwegian policy documents relevant for correctional settings is conducted. This is followed by a general review of the literature on the principles of humane service delivery in offender rehabilitation. Alongside the contribution of the Risk-Need-Responsivity Model in corrections and prevention of reoffending, the findings demonstrate an evident involvement of Norway in health promotion through authentic health promoting actions applied in prison settings. The actions are anchored in health policy's overarching goals of equity and "health in all public policy" aiming to reduce social inequalities in population health. In order to achieve a potential success of promoting health in correctional settings, policy makers have much to gain from endorsing a dialogue that respects the unique contributions of correctional research and health promotion. Focussing on inter-agency partnership and interdisciplinary collaboration between humane services may result in promising outcomes for individual, community and public health gain. The organizational factors and community involvement may be a significant aspect in prisoner rehabilitation, reentry and reintegration.

  8. The Sun Sets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On Sol 20 of its journey, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity woke up around 5:30 in the martian afternoon to watch the sunset. A series of five sets of three-color images from the rover's panoramic camera was acquired looking toward the southwest. Each set used an infrared, green and violet filter, rather than the human red-green-blue, so that the maximum panoramic camera wavelength range could be covered by the observations, enhancing the scientific value of the measurements.

    A color image was made from the first post-sunset sequence of calibrated color images, with the color balance set to approximate what the sunset color would have looked like to the human eye. The color seen in this first post-sunset image was then used to colorize each image in the sequence. Approximately one-minute gaps between consecutive color images meant the Sun's position changed within each color set, so the images had to be manually shifted to compensate for this motion. In this fashion, the position and brightness of the Sun are taken from each individual image, but the color is taken from a single set of images. The images were then combined into a movie where one color set fades gracefully into the next. Analysis of the five color sets shows that there were only small color variations during the sunset, so most of the real variations are captured in the movie.

    The rapid dimming of the Sun near the horizon is due to the dust in the sky. There is nearly twice as much dust as there was when the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which landed on Mars in 1997, imaged the sunset. This causes the Sun to be many times fainter. The sky above the Sun has the same blue tint observed by Pathfinder and also by Viking, which landed on Mars in 1976. This is because dust in the martian atmosphere scatters blue light forward toward the observer much more efficiently than it scatters red light forward. Therefore, a 'halo' of blueish sky color is always observed close to the Sun. We're only seeing

  9. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  10. Developing a research skill set.

    PubMed

    You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.

  11. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  12. Answer Set Programming: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiter, Thomas; Ianni, Giovambattista; Krennwallner, Thomas

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a declarative problem solving paradigm, rooted in Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning, which has been gaining increasing attention during the last years. This article is a gentle introduction to the subject; it starts with motivation and follows the historical development of the challenge of defining a semantics for logic programs with negation. It looks into positive programs over stratified programs to arbitrary programs, and then proceeds to extensions with two kinds of negation (named weak and strong negation), and disjunction in rule heads. The second part then considers the ASP paradigm itself, and describes the basic idea. It shows some programming techniques and briefly overviews Answer Set solvers. The third part is devoted to ASP in the context of the Semantic Web, presenting some formalisms and mentioning some applications in this area. The article concludes with issues of current and future ASP research.

  13. Optical set-reset latch

    DOEpatents

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  14. Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    DACA -39-70-C-0022 Miscellaneous Paper C-73-1b. PROJECT NO. TISSA 02/07 TISA 02/07 . Sb. OTNER REPORT NO(S) (An , ether nu aLbL thel Mirn be...G. M. Hart ib letter of 13 May 1970, subject: Literature Survey Re Air Mobility Fast Setting Cement - Contract No. DACA -39-70-C- 0022. WES personnel

  15. Less than a Class Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  16. Communication in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Cvetic, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Poor communication in the perioperative setting contributes to an unsafe OR culture and affects patient safety and employee engagement, decision making, productivity, morale, and retention. Communication breakdowns can lead to surgical delays, patient inconvenience, and serious errors. Simplification and standardization of communication processes and the use of effective communication skills (eg, clear verbal communication, awareness of the effects of nonverbal communication, use of listening and conflict management skills) are ways to improve OR interactions and minimize or prevent errors.

  17. Fluctuation Induced Almost Invariant Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-28

    the methods are used to illustrate the technique. 28-12-2006 Interim Report Office of Naval Research One Liberty Center 875 North Randolph Street...Markov processes. Two examples of the methods are used to illustrate the technique. I. INTRODUCTION Transport in dynamical systems is an important topic...chaotic saddle present. As an alternative to the above analysis methods , set theoretic methods have been used to quantify the stochastic attractors

  18. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  19. Acceptability and psychometric properties of Brøset Violence Checklist in psychiatric care settings in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, X; Li, Z; Arthur, D; Hu, L; An, F-R; Cheng, G

    2014-01-01

    Short-term risk assessment instrument owns great importance for psychiatric nurses in China; however, the lack of a standardized violence risk assessment instrument has disadvantaged them in clinical practice. The Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), a behavioural observation tool, is the most frequently cited instrument available for evaluating violence risk in psychiatric inpatients, then worth to be tested in Chinese culture. This study, conducted in two closed wards in a psychiatric hospital in Beijing, revealed that the instrument has favourable reliability, validity and predictive accuracy in Chinese population. BVC provides nurses with a quick and easily administered method to screening out patients with violence potential, thus allowing for early intervention. Feedback from the nurses was quite encouraging and the further use of BVC seems promising. The lack of standardized violence risk assessment instrument has disadvantaged nurses in clinical practice in China, where violent behaviour is an increasing problem. This study conducted a validation of the Brøset Violence Checklist that has proven effective in violence risk prediction in other countries. A sample of 296 patients consecutively admitted to two wards of a psychiatric hospital in Beijing was recruited. These patients were assessed on day shift and evening shift for the first seven days of hospitalization. Violence data and preventive measures were concurrently collected from nursing records and case reports. A total of 3707 assessments for 281 patients were collected revealing 93 episodes of violence among 55 patients. Receiver operating characteristics yielded an area under the curve of 0.85. At the cut-off point of one, its sensitivity/specificity was 78.5%/88.2% and the corresponding positive/negative predictive value was 14.6%/99.4%. In some false positive cases, intense preventive measures had been implemented. Positive feedback from the nurses was gained. The Brøset Violence Checklist was

  20. Quantum gate-set tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Quantum information technology is built on (1) physical qubits and (2) precise, accurate quantum logic gates that transform their states. Developing quantum logic gates requires good characterization - both in the development phase, where we need to identify a device's flaws so as to fix them, and in the production phase, where we need to make sure that the device works within specs and predict residual error rates and types. This task falls to quantum state and process tomography. But until recently, protocols for tomography relied on a pre-existing and perfectly calibrated reference frame comprising the measurements (and, for process tomography, input states) used to characterize the device. In practice, these measurements are neither independent nor perfectly known - they are usually implemented via exactly the same gates that we are trying to characterize! In the past year, several partial solutions to this self-consistency problem have been proposed. I will present a framework (gate set tomography, or GST) that addresses and resolves this problem, by self-consistently characterizing an entire set of quantum logic gates on a black-box quantum device. In particular, it contains an explicit closed-form protocol for linear-inversion gate set tomography (LGST), which is immune to both calibration error and technical pathologies like local maxima of the likelihood (which plagued earlier methods). GST also demonstrates significant (multiple orders of magnitude) improvements in efficiency over standard tomography by using data derived from long sequences of gates (much like randomized benchmarking). GST has now been applied to qubit devices in multiple technologies. I will present and discuss results of GST experiments in technologies including a single trapped-ion qubit and a silicon quantum dot qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  1. Setting yourself up for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    So, as the school year is ending, are you just trying to survive your "season" or are you thinking ahead and preparing yourself for a great next season? I want to encourage you to consider the steps you should take now to set yourself up for success next year and beyond. By establishing a few timely habits, you can come into the next school year in a much better position. Some habits are simply keeping track of what happens this year so you can repeat the good and toss the bad. Others involve maintaining a dedication to lifelong learning.

  2. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  3. Geriatric nursing in acute settings.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, T; Ashley, J; Reilly, C

    1986-01-01

    In conclusion, it is important to reiterate the interdependent nature of the functional health patterns as they relate to the geriatric patient in the acute care setting. Further, the combination of the primary nursing model with the functional health pattern approach that leads to subsequent nursing diagnoses provides a comprehensive care approach, which is so important for the elderly patient. As elders live longer, become frailer, and are subject to increasingly frequent hospitalizations, it will become more and more important to provide care in a manner that decreases fragmentation, increases individualization, and makes provisions for comprehensive and wholistic continuing care.

  4. Benchmarking Sets for Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Niu; Shoichet, Brian K.; Irwin, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand enrichment among top-ranking hits is a key metric of molecular docking. To avoid bias, decoys should resemble ligands physically, so that enrichment is not simply a separation of gross features, yet be chemically distinct from them, so that they are unlikely to be binders. We have assembled a directory of useful decoys (DUD), with 2950 ligands for 40 different targets. Every ligand has 36 decoy molecules that are physically similar but topologically distinct, leading to a database of 98,266 compounds. For most targets, enrichment was at least half a log better with uncorrected databases such as the MDDR than with DUD, evidence of bias in the former. These calculations also allowed forty-by-forty cross docking, where the enrichments of each ligand set could be compared for all 40 targets, enabling a specificity metric for the docking screens. DUD is freely available online as a benchmarking set for docking at http://blaster.docking.org/dud/. PMID:17154509

  5. Setting up crowd science projects.

    PubMed

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Legionellosis in the occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Principe, Luigi; Tomao, Paola; Visca, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first review to provide an analysis of cases of occupational legionellosis. A literature search in the PubMed website was started on January 31, 2015 and ended on June 30, 2016. Cases of occupational legionellosis documented in the scientific literature were retrieved from PubMed upon interrogation with the following keywords: "Legionella pneumophila", "Legionnaires' disease", "Pontiac fever", and "legionellosis", in combination with "employees", "workers", and "occupational". Abstracts were reviewed, and applicable articles were obtained. Only articles that met the inclusion criteria were considered. Forty-seven articles were selected, reporting confirmed cases of legionellosis which occurred over 66 years (1949-2015), and involved 805 workers (221, LD; 584, PF). Fatalities were all associated with LD, resulting in 4.1% mortality. The most common etiologic agents were Legionella pneumophila (58.5%) and Legionella feeleii (39.4%), the latter being responsible for only one large outbreak of PF. Workplaces more frequently associated with occupational legionellosis were industrial settings (62.0%), office buildings (27.3%) and healthcare facilities (6.3%), though cases were also reported from a variety of

  7. Setting Emissions Standards Based on Technology Performance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In setting national emissions standards, EPA sets emissions performance levels rather than mandating use of a particular technology. The law mandates that EPA use numerical performance standards whenever feasible in setting national emissions standards.

  8. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  9. Communicating science in social settings

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  10. Setting a personal career direction.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Fredrick A; Marcdante, Karen

    2003-01-01

    In summary, we believe that both you and your organization should have a set of core values, a well-defined mission (core purpose), and a vision of the future. Ideally, your projects and activities should be congruent with your mission and values, you should be pursuing your vision, and all of this should be congruent with the organization mission and values. Practically speaking, most individuals we have worked with over the years find themselves in two different groups at this point in the exercise. The minority find that their personal mission is not at all similar to the mission of their current organization and they find it necessary to seriously reevaluate their personal career direction. Sometimes, this results in them finding some other place to work. On the other hand, the majority discover their personal mission is in reasonable agreement with that of their organization. For both, this exercise has helped them clarify and better manage their personal career direction.

  11. Hamiltonians defined by biorthogonal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, Fabio; Bellomonte, Giorgia

    2017-04-01

    In some recent papers, studies on biorthogonal Riesz bases have found renewed motivation because of their connection with pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics, which deals with physical systems described by Hamiltonians that are not self-adjoint but may still have real point spectra. Also, their eigenvectors may form Riesz, not necessarily orthonormal, bases for the Hilbert space in which the model is defined. Those Riesz bases allow a decomposition of the Hamiltonian, as already discussed in some previous papers. However, in many physical models, one has to deal not with orthonormal bases or with Riesz bases, but just with biorthogonal sets. Here, we consider the more general concept of G -quasi basis, and we show a series of conditions under which a definition of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian with purely point real spectra is still possible.

  12. EXTREME -- Handling extreme data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    This package provides some utilities, background documentation, and associated files for adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and software which uses it, to handle very large data sets. The principal focus of this is to move to use of 64 bits of address space on 64-bit operating systems. This document (SSN/73) is squarely aimed at the problem of adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and consequently focuses on the three operating systems (Solaris, Linux and Tru64) supported by Starlink, the compiled languages Fortran 77 and ANSI C, and Starlink's somewhat idiosyncratic build mechanisms. However, some of the discussion here may be of interest or use to people who are considering the change from 32 to 64 bits for software in other contexts.

  13. Communicating science in social settings.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  14. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  15. Sustaining Family Physicians in Urban Underserved Settings.

    PubMed

    Getzin, Anne; Bobot, Bonnie L; Simpson, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to identify factors that sustain family physicians practicing in Milwaukee's underserved urban areas. Family physicians with clinical careers in Milwaukee's urban, underserved communities were identified and invited to participate in a 45-60 minute interview using a literature-based semi-structured protocol. Each interview was transcribed and de-identified prior to independent analysis using a grounded theory qualitative approach by two authors to yield sustaining themes. The project was determined not human subjects research per Aurora Health Care IRB. Sixteen family physicians were identified; six of 11 who met inclusion criteria agreed to interview. Four general domains central to sustaining family physicians working with underserved populations were identified: (1) cognitive traits and qualities (trouble shooting, resilience, flexibility), (2) core values (medicine as mechanism to address social justice), (3) skills (self-care, communication, clinical management), and (4) support systems (supportive family/employer, job flexibility, leadership opportunities, staff function as team). The formation of these personal attributes and skills was partly shaped by experiences (from childhood to medical training to work experience) and by personal drivers that varied by individual. Common was that the challenges of providing care in urban underserved settings was seen as rewarding in and of itself and aligned with these physicians' values and skills. Family physicians working with underserved populations described possessing a combination of values, cognitive qualities, skill sets, and support systems. While family physicians face complex challenges in quality care goals in urban underserved settings, training in the personal and professional skill sets identified by participants may improve physician retention in such communities.

  16. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  17. Who sets the business agenda?

    PubMed

    Young, A P

    1996-11-01

    Business planning is now a key activity in health care organizations and is affecting the way in which both managers and professionals carry out their work. This paper starts by examining some of the recent changes affecting business planning in a number of health care sectors. It then suggests that the business agenda can be based on four possible models-financial, marketing, needs or power. The evidence is examined, looking at input, output and process information, and some conclusions reached on what, in reality, influences the business agenda, as well as what doesn't, but perhaps should. The overwhelming importance of financial and power features of agenda setting are recognized and the paper concludes by suggesting how the contents of the agenda may be shifted by allowing the voices of a wider group of participants to be heard. Perhaps a new model will be developed based initially on information sharing but moving to real communication between the different perspectives now in existence.

  18. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-07-12

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  19. Managers' skill set for decentralization.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In order for decentralization to work, central- and field-level managers must have complementary roles and skills. Managers at both levels must master skills in the key management areas which will be most affected by decentralization. This paper summarizes the major skills which family planning managers at the central and local levels must have in a decentralized setting in the areas of program planning and implementation, financial planning/management, staffing, staff supervision, logistics and vehicles management, quality of care and service standards, MIS/reporting and program monitoring, and program evaluation. Selected comments from the International Review Board of The Family Planning Manager are presented on each topic. When decentralization occurs, local staff may find themselves overburdened with their new management responsibilities while they are still expected to carry out their regular work. Transforming doctors, nurses, and administrative staff into managers is a slow process. The process can, however, be made easier by carefully analyzing their new roles and responsibilities and the corresponding skills they need to perform their jobs, and providing them with the appropriate training.

  20. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-03-01

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  1. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  2. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  3. 45 CFR 84.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational setting. 84.34 Section 84.34 Public... Secondary Education § 84.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart... satisfactorily. Whenever a recipient places a person in a setting other than the regular educational...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.23 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational setting. 15b.23 Section 15b.23 Agriculture... Education § 15b.23 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies... satisfactorily. Whenever a recipient places a person in a setting other than the regular educational...

  5. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational setting. 605.34 Section 605.34 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which... satisfactorily. Whenever a recipient places a person in a setting other than the regular educational...

  6. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  7. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente

    2007-01-15

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not.

  8. Implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiuzhen; Wang, Dejiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set. Some definitions and properties of Steiner point are investigated and extended to fuzzy set. This paper focuses on establishing efficient methods to compute Steiner point of fuzzy set. Two strategies of computing Steiner point of fuzzy set are proposed. One is called linear combination of Steiner points computed by a series of crisp α-cut sets of the fuzzy set. The other is an approximate method, which is trying to find the optimal α-cut set approaching the fuzzy set. Stability analysis of Steiner point of fuzzy set is also studied. Some experiments on image processing are given, in which the two methods are applied for implementing Steiner point of fuzzy image, and both strategies show their own advantages in computing Steiner point of fuzzy set.

  9. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  10. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P

    2017-01-01

    Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.

  11. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. Results: It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. Conclusion: This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology. PMID:28250554

  12. AggreSet: Rich and Scalable Set Exploration using Visualizations of Element Aggregations.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, M Adil; Elmqvist, Niklas; Bederson, Benjamin B

    2016-01-01

    Datasets commonly include multi-value (set-typed) attributes that describe set memberships over elements, such as genres per movie or courses taken per student. Set-typed attributes describe rich relations across elements, sets, and the set intersections. Increasing the number of sets results in a combinatorial growth of relations and creates scalability challenges. Exploratory tasks (e.g. selection, comparison) have commonly been designed in separation for set-typed attributes, which reduces interface consistency. To improve on scalability and to support rich, contextual exploration of set-typed data, we present AggreSet. AggreSet creates aggregations for each data dimension: sets, set-degrees, set-pair intersections, and other attributes. It visualizes the element count per aggregate using a matrix plot for set-pair intersections, and histograms for set lists, set-degrees and other attributes. Its non-overlapping visual design is scalable to numerous and large sets. AggreSet supports selection, filtering, and comparison as core exploratory tasks. It allows analysis of set relations inluding subsets, disjoint sets and set intersection strength, and also features perceptual set ordering for detecting patterns in set matrices. Its interaction is designed for rich and rapid data exploration. We demonstrate results on a wide range of datasets from different domains with varying characteristics, and report on expert reviews and a case study using student enrollment and degree data with assistant deans at a major public university.

  13. TMX Upgrade magnet-set geometry design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.

    1981-09-24

    A magnet set, consisting of 24 coils, has been designed for the TMX Upgrade. Like the coil set designed for the TMX experiment, the coils for TMX Upgrade consist of a central-cell set with a minimum-B plug set on each end. Between the central cell and each end plug, there is a flux bundle recircularizing transition set. Physics considerations require that the TMX Upgrade magnet set be almost twice as long as the TMX magnet set (14 m between the outer mirrors). The central circular coils are the only coils used from TMX. The TMX transition set of two C-coils and an octupole is replaced by a C-coil and an Ioffe coil. The TMX plug composed of a baseball coil and two C-coils is replaced by an Ioffe coil, two C-coils and two circular coils. A comparison between the TMX and TMX Upgrade magnet sets is shown.

  14. A new MCNP{trademark} test set

    SciTech Connect

    Brockhoff, R.C.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The MCNP test set is used to test the MCNP code after installation on various computer platforms. For MCNP4 and MCNP4A this test set included 25 test problems designed to test as many features of the MCNP code as possible. A new and better test set has been devised to increase coverage of the code from 85% to 97% with 28 problems. The new test set is as fast as and shorter than the MCNP4A test set. The authors describe the methodology for devising the new test set, the features that were not covered in the MCNP4A test set, and the changes in the MCNP4A test set that have been made for MCNP4B and its developmental versions. Finally, new bugs uncovered by the new test set and a compilation of all known MCNP4A bugs are presented.

  15. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork in low-acuity settings: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Sandrijn M; O'Brien, Bridget C; Almeida, Sandra A; Adler, Shelley R

    2014-06-01

    Working effectively in interprofessional teams is a core competency for all health care professionals, yet there is a paucity of instruments with which to assess the associated skills. Published medical teamwork skills assessment tools focus primarily on high-acuity situations, such as cardiopulmonary arrests and crisis events in operating rooms, and may not generalise to non-high-acuity environments, such as in-patient wards and out-patient clinics. We undertook the current study to explore the constructs underlying interprofessional teamwork in non-high-acuity settings and team members' perspectives of essential teamwork attributes. We used an ethnographic approach to study four interprofessional teams in two different low-acuity settings: women's HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) clinics and in-patient paediatric wards. Over a period of 17 months, we collected qualitative data through direct observations, focus groups and individual interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative thematic analysis, following an iterative process: data from our observations (20 hours in total) informed the focus group guide and focus group data informed the interview guide. To enhance the integrity of our analysis, we triangulated data sources and verified themes through member checking. We conducted seven focus groups and 27 individual interviews with a total of 39 study participants representing eight professions. Participants emphasised shared leadership and collaborative decision making, mutual respect, recognition of one's own and others' limitations and strengths, and the need to nurture relationships. Team members also discussed tensions around hierarchy and questioned whether doctor leadership is appropriate for interprofessional teams. Our findings indicate that there are differences in teamwork between low-acuity and high-acuity settings, and also provide insights into potential barriers to effective interprofessional teamwork. Our study delineates essential

  16. Interoperability Context-Setting Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Hardin, Dave; Ambrosio, Ron; Drummond, R.; Gunther, E.; Gilchrist, Grant; Cohen, David

    2007-01-31

    -conditioning (HVAC) unit up several degrees. The resulting load reduction becomes part of an aggregated response from the electricity service provider to the bulk system operator who is now in a better position to manage total system load with available generation. Looking across the electric system, from generating plants, to transmission substations, to the distribution system, to factories, office parks, and buildings, automation is growing, and the opportunities for unleashing new value propositions are exciting. How can we facilitate this change and do so in a way that ensures the reliability of electric resources for the wellbeing of our economy and security? The GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) mission is to enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. A good definition of interoperability is, “The capability of two or more networks, systems, devices, applications, or components to exchange information between them and to use the information so exchanged.” As a step in the direction of enabling interoperability, the GWAC proposes a context-setting framework to organize concepts and terminology so that interoperability issues can be identified and debated, improvements to address issues articulated, and actions prioritized and coordinated across the electric power community.

  17. Guide for SDEC Set up

    SciTech Connect

    Bibby, R; Guthrie, E

    2009-01-30

    The instrument has four collection vials that must be filled with ethylene glycol before operation. Each of the four vials should be labeled 1 through 4 and the empty weights recorded. Fill each vial with 80 mL of ethylene glycol and record the weight again. In order for the instrument to operate properly, the collection vials should always have less than 160 mL of total liquid in them. After completing a sample run, remove the collection vials, use a transfer pipette to remove any liquid that might still be on the air paddler, wipe off any condensation from the exterior of the collection vial and record weight. From the instrument, record the ending volume and the time of operation. The solution mixed in the scintillation vial will be 2 ml of a 95% to 50% ethylene glycol to water mixture. To determine the efficiency of counting at all of these concentrations, a series of vials should be set up that consist of 18 ml of Ultima Gold LLT cocktail mixed with standard, regular deionized water and ethylene glycol. The efficiency curve should be counted in the 'Low Level' count mode with the Luminescence Correction ON and the Color Quench Correction ON. Once the tSIE values are determined, chart the cpm against the tSIE numbers and find the best fit for the data. The resulting equation is to be used to converting tSIE values from the collection vials to efficiency. To determine the background cpm value of the ethylene glycol, count a 2 ml sample of ethylene glycol with 18 ml of Ultima Gold for 100 minutes. To determine the total activity of the sample, take two 2 ml aliquots of sample from the first vial and place in separate scintillation vials. Record the weight of each aliquot. Determine the percentage of total sample each aliquot represents by dividing the aliquot weight by the total solution weight from the vial. Also, determine the percentage of ethylene glycol in the sample by dividing the initial solution weight by the final solution weight and multiplying by 100

  18. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  19. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  20. The Anatomy of Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seeks to add insight to the complex intellectual history of agenda-setting research by identifying over-time patterns of publications and of bibliographic citations. Addresses issues about the past, present, and future of agenda-setting research. (SR)

  1. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  2. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  3. The Anatomy of Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seeks to add insight to the complex intellectual history of agenda-setting research by identifying over-time patterns of publications and of bibliographic citations. Addresses issues about the past, present, and future of agenda-setting research. (SR)

  4. Feedback control and synchronization of Mandelbrot sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The movement of a particle could be depicted by the Mandelbrot set from the fractal viewpoint. According to the requirement, the movement of the particle needs to show different behaviors. In this paper, the feedback control method is taken on the classical Mandelbrot set. By amending the feedback item in the controller, the control method is applied to the generalized Mandelbrot set and by taking the reference item to be the trajectory of another system, the synchronization of Mandelbrot sets is achieved.

  5. Setting analyst: A practical harvest planning technique

    Treesearch

    Olivier R.M. Halleux; W. Dale Greene

    2001-01-01

    Setting Analyst is an ArcView extension that facilitates practical harvest planning for ground-based systems. By modeling the travel patterns of ground-based machines, it compares different harvesting settings based on projected average skidding distance, logging costs, and site disturbance levels. Setting Analyst uses information commonly available to consulting...

  6. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  7. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  8. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pincock, Layne

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  9. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  10. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting....

  11. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting....

  12. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting....

  13. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting....

  14. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting....

  15. Revisiting separation properties of convex fuzzy sets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separation of convex sets by hyperplanes has been extensively studied on crisp sets. In a seminal paper separability and convexity are investigated, however there is a flaw on the definition of degree of separation. We revisited separation on convex fuzzy sets that have level-wise (crisp) disjointne...

  16. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  17. Qualitative Research in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos, Ed.

    This book consists of a set of studies and essays that represent the best work being done in the area of qualitative research in early childhood settings (children from birth to about age 8). Research in this area involves studies of young children in educational contexts, day care, and preschool settings. The Introduction, "Qualitative…

  18. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  19. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Integrated settings. 36.203 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings. (a... accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  1. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Integrated settings. 36.203 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings. (a... accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of...

  2. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  4. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a...

  5. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  6. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating— (1)...

  7. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  9. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Integrated settings. 36.203 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings. (a... accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  12. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  13. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  14. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  16. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating— (1)...

  17. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a...

  18. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  19. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating— (1)...

  20. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating— (1)...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  2. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  5. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  6. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  7. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  8. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating— (1)...

  9. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  10. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who are...

  11. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who are...

  12. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who are...

  13. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  14. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  15. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  16. Liner hanger assembly with setting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dockins, R.R. Jr.; Lindsey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-12-15

    A setting tool and liner hanger for setting a liner in a well bore traversing earth formations is described including: a tubular outer hanger member adapted for coupling to a depending liner, the outer hanger member having circumferentially disposed elongated slip openings, elongated slip members disposed in the slip openings for movement of the slip members from a first retracted position within the outer hanger member to an extended position in engagement with the wall of a well casing, a setting tool having a tubular inner member adapted for coupling to a drill string; hydraulic slip setting means for response to hydraulic pressure for producing a slip setting force and mechanical slip setting means for producing a slip setting force, the hydraulic slip setting means and the mechanical slip setting means being carried by the tubular inner member; coupling means for releasably coupling the tubular inner member to the outer hanger member. The slip setting means include an upper dog member and a lower dog member which are respectively connected to the hydraulic slip setting means and to the mechanical slip setting means wherein the dog members are movable longitudinally relative to the tubular member in response to a slip setting force for moving the slip members from the first retracted position to the extended position. The hydraulic slip setting means and the mechanical slip setting means for moving the upper and lower dog members respectively include selectively operable actuator means for selectively moving one of the dog members longitudinally relative to the tubular inner member and the outer hanger member.

  17. The fast escaping set for quasiregular mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergweiler, Walter; Drasin, David; Fletcher, Alastair

    2014-06-01

    The fast escaping set of a transcendental entire function is the set of all points which tend to infinity under iteration as fast as possible compatible with the growth of the function. We study the analogous set for quasiregular mappings in higher dimensions and show, among other things, that various equivalent definitions of the fast escaping set for transcendental entire functions in the plane also coincide for quasiregular mappings. We also exhibit a class of quasiregular mappings for which the fast escaping set has the structure of a spider's web.

  18. A universal set of qubit quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Nechita, Ion; Pellegrini, Clément; Žnidarič, Marko

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the set of quantum channels acting on a single qubit. We provide an alternative, compact generalization of the Fujiwara-Algoet conditions for complete positivity to non-unital qubit channels, which we then use to characterize the possible geometric forms of the pure output of the channel. We provide universal sets of quantum channels for all unital qubit channels as well as for all extremal (not necessarily unital) qubit channels, in the sense that all qubit channels in these sets can be obtained by concatenation of channels in the corresponding universal set. We also show that our universal sets are essentially minimal.

  19. Airborne Turbulence Detection System Certification Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology and a corresponding set of simulation tools for testing and evaluating turbulence detection sensors has been presented. The tool set is available to industry and the FAA for certification of radar based airborne turbulence detection systems. The tool set consists of simulated data sets representing convectively induced turbulence, an airborne radar simulation system, hazard tables to convert the radar observable to an aircraft load, documentation, a hazard metric "truth" algorithm, and criteria for scoring the predictions. Analysis indicates that flight test data supports spatial buffers for scoring detections. Also, flight data and demonstrations with the tool set suggest the need for a magnitude buffer.

  20. Point set registration: coherent point drift.

    PubMed

    Myronenko, Andriy; Song, Xubo

    2010-12-01

    Point set registration is a key component in many computer vision tasks. The goal of point set registration is to assign correspondences between two sets of points and to recover the transformation that maps one point set to the other. Multiple factors, including an unknown nonrigid spatial transformation, large dimensionality of point set, noise, and outliers, make the point set registration a challenging problem. We introduce a probabilistic method, called the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm, for both rigid and nonrigid point set registration. We consider the alignment of two point sets as a probability density estimation problem. We fit the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) centroids (representing the first point set) to the data (the second point set) by maximizing the likelihood. We force the GMM centroids to move coherently as a group to preserve the topological structure of the point sets. In the rigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by reparameterization of GMM centroid locations with rigid parameters and derive a closed form solution of the maximization step of the EM algorithm in arbitrary dimensions. In the nonrigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by regularizing the displacement field and using the variational calculus to derive the optimal transformation. We also introduce a fast algorithm that reduces the method computation complexity to linear. We test the CPD algorithm for both rigid and nonrigid transformations in the presence of noise, outliers, and missing points, where CPD shows accurate results and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Murata, Atsuo; Li, Guo-Dong; Nagai, Masatake

    Conventional set approximations are based on a set of attributes; however, these approximations cannot relate an object to the corresponding attribute. In this study, a new model for set approximation based on individual attributes is proposed for interval-valued data. Defining an indiscernibility relation is omitted since each attribute value itself has a set of values. Two types of approximations, single- and multiattribute approximations, are presented. A multi-attribute approximation has two solutions: a maximum and a minimum solution. A maximum solution is a set of objects that satisfy the condition of approximation for at least one attribute. A minimum solution is a set of objects that satisfy the condition for all attributes. The proposed set approximation is helpful in finding the features of objects relating to condition attributes when interval-valued data are given. The proposed model contributes to feature extraction in interval-valued information systems.

  2. Seeing sets: representation by statistical properties.

    PubMed

    Ariely, D

    2001-03-01

    Sets of similar objects are common occurrences--a crowd of people, a bunch of bananas, a copse of trees, a shelf of books, a line of cars. Each item in the set may be distinct, highly visible, and discriminable. But when we look away from the set, what information do we have? The current article starts to address this question by introducing the idea of a set representation. This idea was tested using two new paradigms: mean discrimination and member identification. Three experiments using sets of different-sized spots showed that observers know a set's mean quite accurately but know little about the individual items, except their range. Taken together, these results suggest that the visual system represents the overall statistical, and not individual, properties of sets.

  3. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  4. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; ...

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  5. Analysis of the heat setting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besler, N.; Gloy, Y. S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Heat setting is an expensive and energy elaborative textile process. Heat setting is necessary to guarantee size accuracy and dimensional stability for textile materials. Depending on the material different heat setting methods such as saturated steam or hot air are used for the fixation. The research aim is to define the influence of heat setting on mechanical characteristics and to analyse the correlation of heat setting parameters for polyester. With the help of a “one factor at a time” experimental design heat setting parameters are varied. Mechanical characteristics and the material quality of heat set and not heat set material are evaluated to analyse the heat setting influence. In the described experimental design up to a temperature of 195 °C and a dwell time of 30 seconds the material shrinkage of polyester is increasing with increasing temperature and dwell time. Shrinkage in wales direction is higher than in course direction. The tensile strength in course direction stays constant whereas the tensile strength in wales direction can be increased by heat setting.

  6. Principal component gene set enrichment (PCGSE).

    PubMed

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Although principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for the dimensional reduction of biomedical data, interpretation of PCA results remains daunting. Most existing interpretation methods attempt to explain each principal component (PC) in terms of a small number of variables by generating approximate PCs with mainly zero loadings. Although useful when just a few variables dominate the population PCs, these methods can perform poorly on genomic data, where interesting biological features are frequently represented by the combined signal of functionally related sets of genes. While gene set testing methods have been widely used in supervised settings to quantify the association of groups of genes with clinical outcomes, these methods have seen only limited application for testing the enrichment of gene sets relative to sample PCs. We describe a novel approach, principal component gene set enrichment (PCGSE), for unsupervised gene set testing relative to the sample PCs of genomic data. The PCGSE method computes the statistical association between gene sets and individual PCs using a two-stage competitive gene set test. To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCGSE method, we use simulated and real gene expression data to evaluate the performance of various gene set test statistics and significance tests. Gene set testing is an effective approach for interpreting the PCs of high-dimensional genomic data. As shown using both simulated and real datasets, the PCGSE method can generate biologically meaningful and computationally efficient results via a two-stage, competitive parametric test that correctly accounts for inter-gene correlation.

  7. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  8. Statistical mechanics of maximal independent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Pin, Paolo; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    The graph theoretic concept of maximal independent set arises in several practical problems in computer science as well as in game theory. A maximal independent set is defined by the set of occupied nodes that satisfy some packing and covering constraints. It is known that finding minimum and maximum-density maximal independent sets are hard optimization problems. In this paper, we use cavity method of statistical physics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem on random graphs. We obtain the entropy of maximal independent sets within the replica symmetric and one-step replica symmetry breaking frameworks, shedding light on the metric structure of the landscape of solutions and suggesting a class of possible algorithms. This is of particular relevance for the application to the study of strategic interactions in social and economic networks, where maximal independent sets correspond to pure Nash equilibria of a graphical game of public goods allocation.

  9. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  10. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for outpatients with eating disorders: effectiveness for a transdiagnostic group in a routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    Whilst there is a growing evidence to support the impact of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of adults with eating disorders, much of this evidence comes from tightly controlled efficacy trials. This study aimed to add to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of CBT when delivered in a routine clinical setting. The participants were 203 adults presenting with a range of eating disorder diagnoses, who were offered CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed measures of eating disorder pathology at the start of treatment, following the sixth session, and at the end of treatment. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosocial functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 55% of patients completed treatment, and there were no factors that predicted attrition. There were significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology, anxiety, depression and general functioning, with particular changes in eating attitudes in the early part of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. These findings confirm that evidence-based forms of CBT can be delivered with strong outcomes in routine clinical settings. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver evidence-based treatments when working in these settings.

  11. Set Shifting Among Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Colborn, Danielle; Gudorf, Caroline; Lock, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective Set shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC). Method Data on set shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) and Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared to those from 22 HCs. Results There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures. Conclusion The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN. PMID:22692985

  12. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  13. Construction of Weak and Strong Similarity Measures for Ordered Sets of Documents Using Fuzzy Set Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.; Michel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ordered sets (OS) of documents are encountered more and more in information distribution systems, such as information retrieval systems. Classical similarity measures for ordinary sets of documents need to be extended to these ordered sets. This is done in this article using fuzzy set techniques. The practical usability of the OS-measures is…

  14. Optimality for set-valued optimization in the sense of vector and set criteria.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyu; Yu, GuoLin; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The vector criterion and set criterion are two defining approaches of solutions for the set-valued optimization problems. In this paper, the optimality conditions of both criteria of solutions are established for the set-valued optimization problems. By using Studniarski derivatives, the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions are derived in the sense of vector and set optimization.

  15. Nutritional screening for improving professional practice for patient outcomes in hospital and primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Murray, Susan M; Wonderling, David; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-06-06

    Given the prevalence of under-nutrition and reports of inadequate nutritional management of patients in hospitals and the community, nutritional screening may play a role in reducing the risks of malnutrition. Screening programmes can invoke costs to health systems and patients. It is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes. To examine the effectiveness of nutritional screening in improving quality of care (professional practice) and patient outcomes compared with usual care. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June 2012 to find relevant studies. Randomised controlled studies, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies assessing the effectiveness of nutritional screening were eligible for inclusion in the review. We considered process outcomes (for example patient identification, referral to dietitian) and patient outcomes (for example mortality, change in body mass index (BMI)). Participants were adult patients aged 16 years or over. We included studies conducted in different settings, including hospitals, out-patient clinics, primary care or long term care settings. We independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Meta-analysis was considered but was not conducted due to the discrepancies between the studies. The studies were heterogeneous in their design, setting, intervention and outcomes. We analysed the data using a narrative synthesis approach. After conducting initial searches and screening the titles and abstracts of the identified literature, 77 full text papers were retrieved and read. Ultimately three studies were included. Two controlled before-after studies were conducted in hospital settings (one in the UK and one in the Netherlands) and one cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary care setting (in the USA).The study conducted in

  16. Cost of curative pediatric services in a public sector setting.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anand; Arora, Narendra K; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Kapoor, Suresh K

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the cost of ambulatory (out-patient) and in-patient pediatric health services for the year 1999 provided by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at all the three levels-primary, secondary and tertiary level. The costing module developed by Children's Vaccines Initiative (CVI) was used. This rapid assessment tool focuses on collection of data at macro level by using key informants like doctors, nursing staff, accountant, store keeper, engineer etc. Cost per beneficiary was estimated separately for in-patients and out-patients and was calculated by dividing the total cost of the services by the number of beneficiaries for the year 1999. For the out-patient, the beneficiaries were the total out-patient attendees and for the in-patient, it was the total pediatric admissions multiplied by mean duration of stay in days. The cost per out-patient visit was INR.20.2 (US0.44 dollars@1US dollars=INR.46) at primary level, higher than INR14.5 (US0.31 dollars) at the secondary level, while at tertiary level it was INR 33.8 (US 0.73 dollars). At the primary and secondary level, non-physician cost was more than the physician cost, and for tertiary level, physician cost was much higher than the other costs. There were no in-patient services at primary level. The cost of in-patient services at secondary level was estimated as INR 419.30 (US 9.1 dollars) per patient per day with a bed occupancy rate of 60%. Two-fifths of the cost was due to nursing and other supportive staff and one fifth due to the doctor costs and overhead costs. The unit cost of INR 928 (US 20.2 dollars) per patient per day incurred at AIIMS with a bed occupancy rate of 100% was almost twice that of secondary level. In contrast to the secondary level, almost half the total costs at tertiary level was due to the doctors costs. Effective use of resources at lower level of care especially ambulatory care at primary level and inpatient care at secondary level can result in much higher savings

  17. Gene set analysis using variance component tests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Lin, Xihong

    2013-06-28

    Gene set analyses have become increasingly important in genomic research, as many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional repertoire, e.g., a biological pathway/network and are highly correlated. However, most of the existing gene set analysis methods do not fully account for the correlation among the genes. Here we propose to tackle this important feature of a gene set to improve statistical power in gene set analyses. We propose to model the effects of an independent variable, e.g., exposure/biological status (yes/no), on multiple gene expression values in a gene set using a multivariate linear regression model, where the correlation among the genes is explicitly modeled using a working covariance matrix. We develop TEGS (Test for the Effect of a Gene Set), a variance component test for the gene set effects by assuming a common distribution for regression coefficients in multivariate linear regression models, and calculate the p-values using permutation and a scaled chi-square approximation. We show using simulations that type I error is protected under different choices of working covariance matrices and power is improved as the working covariance approaches the true covariance. The global test is a special case of TEGS when correlation among genes in a gene set is ignored. Using both simulation data and a published diabetes dataset, we show that our test outperforms the commonly used approaches, the global test and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We develop a gene set analyses method (TEGS) under the multivariate regression framework, which directly models the interdependence of the expression values in a gene set using a working covariance. TEGS outperforms two widely used methods, GSEA and global test in both simulation and a diabetes microarray data.

  18. Gene set analysis using variance component tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene set analyses have become increasingly important in genomic research, as many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional repertoire, e.g., a biological pathway/network and are highly correlated. However, most of the existing gene set analysis methods do not fully account for the correlation among the genes. Here we propose to tackle this important feature of a gene set to improve statistical power in gene set analyses. Results We propose to model the effects of an independent variable, e.g., exposure/biological status (yes/no), on multiple gene expression values in a gene set using a multivariate linear regression model, where the correlation among the genes is explicitly modeled using a working covariance matrix. We develop TEGS (Test for the Effect of a Gene Set), a variance component test for the gene set effects by assuming a common distribution for regression coefficients in multivariate linear regression models, and calculate the p-values using permutation and a scaled chi-square approximation. We show using simulations that type I error is protected under different choices of working covariance matrices and power is improved as the working covariance approaches the true covariance. The global test is a special case of TEGS when correlation among genes in a gene set is ignored. Using both simulation data and a published diabetes dataset, we show that our test outperforms the commonly used approaches, the global test and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Conclusion We develop a gene set analyses method (TEGS) under the multivariate regression framework, which directly models the interdependence of the expression values in a gene set using a working covariance. TEGS outperforms two widely used methods, GSEA and global test in both simulation and a diabetes microarray data. PMID:23806107

  19. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  20. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  1. Feedback Mechanisms in Learning Virtual Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Luigi; Comai, Alessio; Davi, Filippo; Molinari, Andrea; Villa, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of services for the creation of on-line surveys, questionnaires, exams and self-assessment tests within a virtual community system used in e-learning settings. The system, called "Online Communities", is a dynamic web application used as platform for blended learning activities by the Faculty of Economics of…

  2. Student Learning in an International Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores student learning in an international setting and the importance that students place on the international setting when they are considering where to study abroad. It examines how the social distance of foreign sites from America has been reduced in recent years due to globalization, politics, the Internet, internationalization…

  3. Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

    2008-01-01

    Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets,"…

  4. Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

    2008-01-01

    Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory, for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets," causes…

  5. A Conceptual Examination of Setting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Driscoll, Coralie

    2007-01-01

    Setting events are typically seen as antecedent contextual variables that influence behaviour. They are thought to act independently of Skinner's three-term contingency, which consists of a discriminative stimulus, response, and reinforcing consequence. There has been increasing interest in setting events in education from both a theoretical and…

  6. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  7. Working with Negative Emotions in Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This account draws upon learning from an incident in an action learning set where an individual challenged a mandatory organisational requirement. As a facilitator I reflect upon my initial defensive reaction to this challenge. The use of critical action learning to inform ourselves as facilitators of the underlying tensions between set members…

  8. Service Learning in Domestic and International Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pre-service teacher outcomes associated with service learning in domestic and international settings. One group of upper-division undergraduate level pre service teachers participated in supervised experiences in domestic settings. A second group of upper-division undergraduate level pre-service teachers participated in…

  9. SET: Research Information for Teachers, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Llyn, Ed.; Wright, Judith, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of "SET" published during 1989. Each SET issue consists of a packet of brief reports, leaflets, pamphlets, etc., all reporting on educational research and designed for private study, staff-meetings, in-service courses, or small group discussions. (LL/ND)

  10. 10 CFR 429.25 - Television sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Television sets. 429.25 Section 429.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.25 Television sets. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to televisions; and (2) For...

  11. CUTTING PLANE METHODS WITHOUT NESTED CONSTRAINT SETS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    General conditions are given for the convergence of a class of cutting -plane algorithms without requiring that the constraint sets for the... cutting -planes include that of Kelley and a generalization of that used by Zoutendisk and Veinott. For algorithms with nested constraint sets, these

  12. Ready, Set, Respect! GLSEN's Elementary School Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Ready, Set, Respect!" provides a set of tools to help elementary school educators ensure that all students feel safe and respected and develop respectful attitudes and behaviors. It is not a program to be followed but instead is designed to help educators prepare themselves for teaching about and modeling respect. The toolkit responds to…

  13. Subspace Identification with Multiple Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Laurent; Feron, Eric; Paduano, James D.; Brenner, Marty

    1995-01-01

    Most existing subspace identification algorithms assume that a single input to output data set is available. Motivated by a real life problem on the F18-SRA experimental aircraft, we show how these algorithms are readily adapted to handle multiple data sets. We show by means of an example the relevance of such an improvement.

  14. An Observation Protocol for Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver, Judith W.; Orlando, Lynn S.

    The paper describes a systematic observation instrument designed to describe settings in which young children and adults interact. The Early Childhood Setting Observation Instrument (ECSOI) provides a comprehensive matrix of categories useful in describing and analyzing adult-child interactions. Adult behavior categories included in the matrix…

  15. Set Reconciliation in Two Rounds of Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    STACS, 1990. [12] Y. Minsky and A. Trachtenberg, “Practical set reconciliation,” Tech. Rep., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...Boston Uni- versity, 2002. [13] Y. Minsky , A. Trachtenberg, R. Zippel, “Set reconciliation with nearly optimal communication complexity,” IEEE Trans

  16. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings. (a) General. A public accommodation shall afford goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of...

  17. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped...

  18. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped...

  19. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped...

  20. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped...

  1. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  2. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  3. Practice settings and dentists' job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Starkel, Rebecca L; Warren, Matthew N; Guay, Albert H; Vujicic, Marko

    2015-08-01

    The nature and organization of dental practice is changing. The aim of this study was to explore how job satisfaction among dentists is associated with dental practice setting. A survey measured satisfaction with income, benefits, hours worked, clinical autonomy, work-life balance, emotional exhaustion, and overall satisfaction among dentists working in large group, small group, and solo practice settings; 2,171 dentists responded. The authors used logistic regression to measure differences in reported levels of satisfaction across practice settings. Dentists working in small group settings reported the most satisfaction overall. Dentists working in large group settings reported more satisfaction with income and benefits than dentists in solo practice, as well as having the least stress. Findings suggest possible advantages and disadvantages of working in different types of practice settings. Dentists working in different practice settings reported differences in satisfaction. These results may help dentists decide which practice setting is best for them. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

    2011-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

  5. Bilinguals Use Language-Specific Articulatory Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has shown that monolingual French and English speakers use distinct articulatory settings, the underlying articulatory posture of a language. In the present article, the authors report on an experiment in which they investigated articulatory settings in bilingual speakers. The authors first tested the hypothesis that in…

  6. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  7. Autocatalytic sets in a partitioned biochemical network.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua I; Steel, Mike; Hordijk, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, RAF theory has been developed as a tool for making theoretical progress on the origin of life question, providing insight into the structure and occurrence of self-sustaining and collectively autocatalytic sets within catalytic polymer networks. We present here an extension in which there are two "independent" polymer sets, where catalysis occurs within and between the sets, but there are no reactions combining polymers from both sets. Such an extension reflects the interaction between nucleic acids and peptides observed in modern cells and proposed forms of early life. We present theoretical work and simulations which suggest that the occurrence of autocatalytic sets is robust to the partitioned structure of the network. We also show that autocatalytic sets remain likely even when the molecules in the system are not polymers, and a low level of inhibition is present. Finally, we present a kinetic extension which assigns a rate to each reaction in the system, and show that identifying autocatalytic sets within such a system is an NP-complete problem. Recent experimental work has challenged the necessity of an RNA world by suggesting that peptide-nucleic acid interactions occurred early in chemical evolution. The present work indicates that such a peptide-RNA world could support the spontaneous development of autocatalytic sets and is thus a feasible alternative worthy of investigation.

  8. An inclusion measure between fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new inclusion measure between fuzzy sets. Firstly, we select an axiomatic definition for the inclusion measure. Then, we present a new computation formula based on the selected axiomatic definition, and demonstrate its two properties. Finally, we give examples to validate its performance. The results show that the new inclusion measure is rational for fuzzy sets.

  9. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  10. Mind-Sets for a Happier Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how irrational beliefs can be disputed and replaced with alternative, healthier mind-sets. Focuses on cognitive restructuring theory, changing unhealthy thoughts, disputation, semantics, and adopting alternative mind-sets, such as life is bizarre and funny. Claims that using words that indicate preferences and possibilities can help…

  11. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  12. Bilinguals Use Language-Specific Articulatory Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has shown that monolingual French and English speakers use distinct articulatory settings, the underlying articulatory posture of a language. In the present article, the authors report on an experiment in which they investigated articulatory settings in bilingual speakers. The authors first tested the hypothesis that in…

  13. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.

  14. Mind-Sets for a Happier Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how irrational beliefs can be disputed and replaced with alternative, healthier mind-sets. Focuses on cognitive restructuring theory, changing unhealthy thoughts, disputation, semantics, and adopting alternative mind-sets, such as life is bizarre and funny. Claims that using words that indicate preferences and possibilities can help…

  15. Psychotherapy and despair in the prison setting.

    PubMed

    Gee, Joanna; Loewenthal, Del; Cayne, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline research which aimed to explore psychotherapists' experience of working with despair, in the UK prison setting, through a qualitative phenomenological approach. Within the forensic psychological literature, despair is considered a pathology, associated with suicide and self-harm, resulting from the prisoners histories and the coercive prison setting. In turn, therapeutic writings outline the importance of therapy in the prison setting with despair in providing coping skills, containment and learning opportunities for the prisoners involved. Within the study, ten psychotherapists were interviewed as to their experience of working with clients in despair in the prison setting. The data were analysed via the phenomenological research method Empirical Phenomenological Analysis (EPA), and a secondary analysis through reverie. Through the analysis by EPA, despair emerged in the prison setting as a destabilising phenomenon to which there was no protocol for working with it. Participants also described the prisoners' despair and the despairing prison setting, touching on their own sense of vulnerability and despair. However, drawing on the secondary analysis by reverie, the researcher also became aware of how the phenomenon of despair emerged not simply through the said, but also through the intersubjective. It was therefore through the secondary analysis by reverie that the importance of the attendance to aspects of intersubjectivity in prison research emerged. This paper contributes to the therapeutic writings on despair in the prison setting, alongside holding implications for qualitative research in the prison setting.

  16. Automatic Generation of Validated Specific Epitope Sets.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, Sebastian; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of B and T cell responses is a valuable tool to study autoimmunity, allergies, immunity to pathogens, and host-pathogen interactions and assist in the design and evaluation of T cell vaccines and immunotherapies. In this context, it is desirable to elucidate a method to select validated reference sets of epitopes to allow detection of T and B cells. However, the ever-growing information contained in the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) and the differences in quality and subjects studied between epitope assays make this task complicated. In this study, we develop a novel method to automatically select reference epitope sets according to a categorization system employed by the IEDB. From the sets generated, three epitope sets (EBV, mycobacteria and dengue) were experimentally validated by detection of T cell reactivity ex vivo from human donors. Furthermore, a web application that will potentially be implemented in the IEDB was created to allow users the capacity to generate customized epitope sets.

  17. Towards spectral geometry for causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K.; Kempf, Achim

    2017-05-01

    We show that the Feynman propagator (or the d’Alembertian) of a causal set contains the complete information about the causal set. Intuitively, this is because the Feynman propagator, being a correlator that decays with distance, provides a measure for the invariant distance between pairs of events. Further, we show that even the spectra alone (of the self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint parts) of the propagator(s) and d’Alembertian already carry large amounts of geometric information about their causal set. This geometric information is basis independent and also gauge invariant in the sense that it is the relabeling invariant (which is analogous to diffeomorphism invariance). We provide numerical evidence that the associated spectral distance between causal sets can serve as a measure for the geometric similarity between causal sets.

  18. Limit setting: a useful strategy in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, Julie; Rickard, Nonie

    2002-01-01

    Limit setting is a concept familiar to most mental health clinicians, but much less familiar to staff not specifically trained in mental health care. This paper presents guidelines developed for rehabilitation staff on the strategy of limit setting. The aim of these guidelines was to provide a starting point for ongoing education on limit setting and behavioural management for staff working in a non-psychiatric rehabilitation environment. Limit setting is presented, not only as a response to challenging behaviour, but also as fundamental to all patient care within the rehabilitation context. The guidelines draw on the concepts of limit setting, acting out, therapeutic relationships and therapeutic milieu as described in the psychiatric literature. A humanistic framework for helping people underpins the guidelines. Principles for selecting and enforcing limits are described. Finally, a list of clarification prompts is provided for clinicians to use when faced with challenging patient behaviour.

  19. Setting Time Measurement Using Ultrasonic Wave Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Suraneni, Prannoy; Popovics, John S.; Struble, Leslie J.

    2012-01-09

    Ultrasonic shear wave reflection was used to investigate setting times of cement pastes by measuring the reflection coefficient at the interface between hydrating cement pastes of varying water-to-cement ratio and an ultrasonic buffer material. Several different buffer materials were employed, and the choice of buffer was seen to strongly affect measurement sensitivity; high impact polystyrene showed the highest sensitivity to setting processes because it had the lowest acoustic impedance value. The results show that ultrasonic shear-wave reflection can be used successfully to monitor early setting processes of cement paste with good sensitivity when such a very low impedance buffer is employed. Criteria are proposed to define set times, and the resulting initial and final set times agreed broadly with those determined using the standard penetration resistance test.

  20. Minuteman Weapon System Test Set logic replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royse, S. D.

    In the late 1960s, the Minuteman Weapon System Test Set was constructed as a part of the Minuteman development program. The missile Reentry Vehicle is that portion of the Minuteman missile system which reenters the atmosphere with the nuclear warhead. The test set has the objective to test the electrical/electro-mechanical systems and components of the reentry vehicle at both the repair depot and missile maintenance squadron levels. With the recent advances in semiconductor technologies, the Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) technology used to implement the test set logic became obsolete. The present paper is concerned with efforts to develop a prototype replacement for the test set logic. Attention is given to the functions of the test set, the documentation of existing logic, and the prototype design approach, which involves the subdivision of the logic into three basic functional groups. The logic replacement is based on the utilization of a multiple microprocessor system.

  1. Dermatome setting for autografts to cover INTEGRA.

    PubMed

    Fang, P; Engrav, L H; Gibran, N S; Honari, S; Kiriluk, D B; Cole, J K; Fleckman, Philip; Heimbach, D M; Bauer, G J; Matsumura, H; Warner, P

    2002-01-01

    Using the INTEGRA Dermal Regeneration Template requires the outer silastic layer to be replaced with an autograft. We followed the manufacturer's directions for epidermal autografting and frequently obtained shredded, useless grafts, therefore, it seemed important to determine the proper dermatome setting. We evaluated dermatome settings from 0.002 to 0.012 inches. First, with feeler gauges, we verified the dermatome settings. Second, we harvested skin at various dermatome settings and measured the thickness histologically. We found that 1) the dermatome settings are reasonably accurate; 2) harvesting useful sheets at 0.002 and 0.004 inches is virtually impossible; 3) the variability of histologic graft thickness is enormous; and 4) a dermatome setting of 0.006 inches yields useful grafts. We no longer use the term epidermal autografting but rather ultrathin split-thickness grafting. To harvest these grafts, we now merely set the dermatome to 0.006 inches and make whatever midcourse corrections are necessary to obtain translucent grafts.

  2. Building complex reference objects from dual sets

    PubMed Central

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions. PMID:21666836

  3. Caipirini: using gene sets to rank literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Keeping up-to-date with bioscience literature is becoming increasingly challenging. Several recent methods help meet this challenge by allowing literature search to be launched based on lists of abstracts that the user judges to be 'interesting'. Some methods go further by allowing the user to provide a second input set of 'uninteresting' abstracts; these two input sets are then used to search and rank literature by relevance. In this work we present the service 'Caipirini' (http://caipirini.org) that also allows two input sets, but takes the novel approach of allowing ranking of literature based on one or more sets of genes. Results To evaluate the usefulness of Caipirini, we used two test cases, one related to the human cell cycle, and a second related to disease defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. In both cases, the new method achieved high precision in finding literature related to the biological mechanisms underlying the input data sets. Conclusions To our knowledge Caipirini is the first service enabling literature search directly based on biological relevance to gene sets; thus, Caipirini gives the research community a new way to unlock hidden knowledge from gene sets derived via high-throughput experiments. PMID:22297131

  4. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  5. High power laser with focusing mirror sets

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, J.L.; Sasnett, M.W.; Mefferd, W.S.; Allen, P.N.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a laser system producing a high power laser beam which propogates along a path. It comprises an optical resonator cavity enclosing a lasing medium through which the laser beam propagates along a first portion of the path within the optical resonator cavity; wherein the laser beam emerges from the cavity and propogates along a second portion of the path outside the cavity; and a first mirror set positioned along the first portion of the path within the cavity, the first set having effective focal length providing sufficient focal power to compensate for distributed thermally-induced lensing in the lasing medium and to maintain substantially constant laser beam diameter along a region of the path adjacent the first set, wherein each mirror in the first set is shaped and oriented so that the first set is substantially astigmatism- free, wherein the first set includes a spherical mirror and a cylindrical mirror, and wherein the spherical mirror has a radius of curvature equal to R and the cylindrical mirror has a radius of curvature substantially equal to R, and the first set has an effective focal length substantially equal to f = {radical}2R/4.

  6. UpSetR: an R package for the visualization of intersecting sets and their properties.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jake R; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils

    2017-09-15

    Venn and Euler diagrams are a popular yet inadequate solution for quantitative visualization of set intersections. A scalable alternative to Venn and Euler diagrams for visualizing intersecting sets and their properties is needed. We developed UpSetR, an open source R package that employs a scalable matrix-based visualization to show intersections of sets, their size, and other properties. UpSetR is available at https://github.com/hms-dbmi/UpSetR/ and released under the MIT License. A Shiny app is available at https://gehlenborglab.shinyapps.io/upsetr/ . nils@hms.harvard.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  8. Ranked set sampling with unequal samples.

    PubMed

    Bhoj, D S

    2001-09-01

    A ranked set sampling procedure with unequal samples (RSSU) is proposed and used to estimate the population mean. This estimator is then compared with the estimators based on the ranked set sampling (RSS) and median ranked set sampling (MRSS) procedures. It is shown that the relative precisions of the estimator based on RSSU are higher than those of the estimators based on RSS and MRSS. An example of estimating the mean diameter at breast height of longleaf-pine trees on the Wade Tract in Thomas County, Georgia, is presented.

  9. Finding overlapping communities using seed set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    The local optimization algorithm using seed set to find overlapping communities has become more and more a significant method, but it is a great challenge how to choose a good seed set. In this paper, a new method is proposed to achieve the choice of candidate seed sets, and yields a new algorithm to find overlapping communities in complex networks. By testing in real world networks and synthetic networks, this method can successfully detect overlapping communities and outperform other state-of-the-art overlapping community detection methods.

  10. Wavefront sets and polarizations on supermanifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Gimperlein, Heiko; Murro, Simone; Schenkel, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop the foundation for microlocal analysis on supermanifolds. Making use of pseudodifferential operators on supermanifolds as introduced by Rempel and Schmitt, we define a suitable notion of super-wavefront set for superdistributions which generalizes Dencker's polarization sets for vector-valued distributions to supergeometry. In particular, our super-wavefront sets detect polarization information of the singularities of superdistributions. We prove a refined pullback theorem for superdistributions along supermanifold morphisms, which as a special case establishes criteria when two superdistributions may be multiplied. As an application of our framework, we study the singularities of distributional solutions of a supersymmetric field theory.

  11. A Comparison of Set Redundancy Compression Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Aoudia, Samy; Gabis, Abdelhalim

    2006-12-01

    Medical imaging applications produce large sets of similar images. Thus a compression technique is necessary to reduce space storage. Lossless compression methods are necessary in such critical applications. Set redundancy compression (SRC) methods exploit the interimage redundancy and achieve better results than individual image compression techniques when applied to sets of similar images. In this paper, we make a comparative study of SRC methods on sample datasets using various archivers. We also propose a new SRC method and compare it to existing SRC techniques.

  12. Minimum data set requirements for ion microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontau, A. E.; Antolak, A. J.; Morse, D. H.

    1991-03-01

    Data acquisition and analysis rates and data set size seriously affect the practicality of conducting ion microtomography studies that map out material densities of extended objects in three dimensions. For the promise of today's fine spatial resolution capabilities to be met, huge data sets must be acquired, processed, and analyzed efficiently. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental parametric study exploring the limits of minimizing the amount of data required for tomographic reconstruction. We consider data acquisition system resolution and the effect of limited accuracy of stopping powers. We show graphically the specific results of variation of parameters affecting minimum data set size.

  13. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  14. Thermal behaviour of casting investment during setting.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the thermal reactions of silica-sol liquids for mixing investment powders using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and also the setting behaviour of the mixed powders using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The silica-sol liquids showed the appearance of vapourization (around 100 degrees C as a peak temperature) and combustion (200-300 degrees C) in DTA measurement. Mixed silica-sol investment exhibited the setting behaviour with an exotherm in the DSC measurement representing that greater peak time, setting time and heat in mixed investment than with gypsum-bonded investment.

  15. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  16. Cubical Sets and Trace Monoid Actions

    PubMed Central

    Husainov, Ahmet A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to connections between trace monoids and cubical sets. We prove that the category of trace monoids is isomorphic to the category of generalized tori and it is a reflective subcategory of the category of cubical sets. Adjoint functors between the categories of cubical sets and trace monoid actions are constructed. These functors carry independence preserving morphisms in the independence preserving morphisms. This allows us to build adjoint functors between the category of weak asynchronous systems and the category of higher dimensional automata. PMID:24453827

  17. Agenda-Setting by Electronic Text News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeter, Carrie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the agenda-setting impacts of electronic text news (ETN) and reactions to ETN as a news medium. Finds that electronic news viewers have nearly the same agenda as do users of traditional media. (MM)

  18. Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Grant Program (CWISA) provides funding to Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages for wastewater infrastructure. The CWISA program is administered in cooperation with the Indian Health Service (IHS).

  19. Interlaboratory Collaborations in the Undergraduate Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megehee, Elise G.; Hyslop, Alison G.; Rosso, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach to cross-disciplinary and group learning, known as interlaboratory collaborations, was developed. The method mimics an industrial or research setting, fosters teamwork, and emphasizes the importance of good communication skills in the sciences.

  20. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership Goal Setting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides tools and recognition for companies setting aggressive GHG reduction goals, which can galvanize reduction efforts at a company and often leads to the identification of many additional reduction opportunities.

  1. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs about C. difficile for ... Facilities/Settings State Health Departments Tracking C. difficile Clostridium Sordellii Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Tracking CRE Interim ...

  2. FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-12

    FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Marine Stratocumulus was conducted off the southwestern coast of California. ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  3. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of the... authorizes the representative or guardian of an individual with a disability to decline food, water,...

  4. Minimum Data Set--Maximum Yield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozarth, Jerold D.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1979-01-01

    Describes the minimum data-maxiumum yield concept as a tool leading to greater counselor accountability. Data sets are useful tools for improving services, answering questions, and encouraging meaningful outcome research. (JAC)

  5. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  6. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  7. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies.

  8. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  9. Using Water-Testing Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varrella, Gary F.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates an approach to teaching environmentally related studies based on constructivism. Presents an activity that makes use of data on chemicals in the water supply, and discusses obtaining and using data sets in the classroom. (LZ)

  10. Teaching Nursing Research Using Large Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Christine A.; Eriksen, Lillian R.; Lin, Yu-Feng

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for teaching nursing research via secondary analysis of data sets from the National Center for Health Statistics. Addresses advantages, potential problems and limitations, guidelines for students, and evaluation methods. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)

  11. Automatic computation of data-set definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical method for the construction of a computer program data set description from a computer program contains detailed declarative information. Cartesian products and disjoint-union operators are used to yield a series of recursive group equations.

  12. Interlaboratory Collaborations in the Undergraduate Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megehee, Elise G.; Hyslop, Alison G.; Rosso, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach to cross-disciplinary and group learning, known as interlaboratory collaborations, was developed. The method mimics an industrial or research setting, fosters teamwork, and emphasizes the importance of good communication skills in the sciences.

  13. QUEST2: Sysdtem architecture deliverable set

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document contains the system architecture and related documents which were developed during the Preliminary Analysis/System Architecture phase of the Quality, Environmental, Safety T-racking System redesign (QUEST2) project. Each discreet document in this deliverable set applies to a analytic effort supporting the architectural model of QUEST2. The P+ methodology cites a list of P+ documents normally included in a ``typical`` system architecture. Some of these were deferred to the release development phase of the project. The documents included in this deliverable set represent the system architecture itself. Related to that architecture are some decision support documents which provided needed information for management reviews that occurred during April. Consequently, the deliverables in this set were logically grouped and provided to support customer requirements. The remaining System Architecture Phase deliverables will be provided as a ``Supporting Documents`` deliverable set for the first release.

  14. A Lagrangian particle level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2005-11-01

    We present a novel particle level set method for capturing interfaces. The level set equation is solved in a Lagrangian frame using particles that carry the level set information. A key aspect of the method involves a consistent remeshing procedure for the regularization of the particle locations when the particle map gets distorted by the advection field. The Lagrangian description of the level set method is inherently adaptive and exact in the case of solid body motions. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in several benchmark problems in two and three dimensions involving pure advection and curvature induced motion of the interface. The simplicity of the particle description is shown to be well suited for real time simulations of surfaces involving cutting and reconnection as in virtual surgery environments.

  15. Treatment settings for adolescent psychiatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, David; Daigler, Gerald E

    2006-02-01

    The intensive psychiatric treatment settings, including inpatient hospitalization, day programs and residential care, are valuable options for clinicians caring for adolescents with serious mental health problems. The availability of these setting may be limited by geographic, insurance, or financial restraints, but providers should stay informed about the treatment settings available in their area and be prepared to advocate for their adolescent patients' psychiatric needs. Although little evidence-based practice is available to guide clinicians taking care of adolescents in need of the most intensive psychiatric treatment settings, certain elements of care have proven most essential, including especially the successful engagement of families in treatment. Good outcomes for the most complicated adolescents follow from successful collaborations with families and the various providers that intersect in their multidisciplinary care.

  16. Wales as a Setting for Children's Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Barbara Z.

    1982-01-01

    Examines three works of fantasy that have been awarded the Newbery or Carnegie Medal during the last 15 years ("The High King,""The Owl Service," and "The Grey King") and that have used Wales as their setting. (HOD)

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  18. Classical sequential growth dynamics for causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rideout, D. P.; Sorkin, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Starting from certain causality conditions and a discrete form of general covariance, we derive a very general family of classically stochastic, sequential growth dynamics for causal sets. The resulting theories provide a relatively accessible ``halfway house'' to full quantum gravity that possibly contains the latter's classical limit (general relativity). Because they can be expressed in terms of state models for an assembly of Ising spins residing on the relations of the causal set, these theories also illustrate how nongravitational matter can arise dynamically from the causal set without having to be built in at the fundamental level. Additionally, our results bring into focus some interpretive issues of importance for a causal set dynamics and for quantum gravity more generally.

  19. Alcohol Risk Management in College Settings

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Robert F.; Paschall, Mallie J.; McGaffigan, Richard P.; Nygaard, Peter M.O.

    2010-01-01

    Context Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention strategies are few in number and have been limited by their non-experimental designs, inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur. Purpose To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings. Design The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half of which were randomly assigned to the Safer intervention condition after baseline data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after 1 year of planning with 7 Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters (2003–2006). Setting/participants Campuses and communities surrounding 8 campuses of the University of California and 6 in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random samples of undergraduates (~500–1,000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public California universities. Intervention Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations, minor decoy operations, DUI checkpoints, social host ordinances, and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies. Main outcome measures Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting. Results Significant

  20. Set Constraints and Logic Programming (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-24

    algorithm which is essentially the same as the normal form algorithm of Let X be the set of variables appearing in the original system These...This result is essential in the semantics of clpsc Theorem Every satisable system of set constraints has a regular solution PROOF...automata and tree grammars Technical Report DAIMI FN Aarhus University April T Fruhwirth E Shapiro M Y Vardi and E Yardeni

  1. Switched Systems With Multiple Invariant Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-06

    system. The resulting construction is slightly more complicated, as we consider V̇ in order to isolate the invariant sets rather than using the Lyapunov ...switched systems literature are both Lyapunov -based, and we will make use of Lyapunov functions to define all the relevant sets. The benefit to relying on... Lyapunov functions is that this requires no special structure on the subsystems’ entire vector fields. The tradeoff is that we fail to exploit any

  2. Mars polar volatiles: Topographic and geologic setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.; Soderblom, L.; Herkenhoff, K.

    1984-01-01

    Progress on a project to elucidate the geological and topographic setting of the Martian polar volatiles is reported. The following accomplishments are enumerated: (1) all of the Mariner 9 imaging data sets available through JPL were acquired and copied; (2) Mariner 9 imagery was investigated in terms of the accuracy of the imaging footprints, dark current, and residual image; (3) the transfer functions of both vidicons were investigated; and (4) the magnitude of the atmospheric scattering was examined.

  3. Sets that Contain Their Circle Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Say that a subset S of the plane is a "circle-center set" if S is not a subset of a line, and whenever we choose three non-collinear points from S, the center of the circle through those three points is also an element of S. A problem appearing on the Macalester College Problem of the Week website stated that a finite set of points in the plane,…

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of September 1, 2011 or the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of December 19, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=ST

  5. Intelligent Classification in Huge Heterogeneous Data Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    signals and through data dimension reduction, and to develop and tailor algorithms for the extraction of intelligence from several huge heterogeneous...dimension reduction and feature extraction . These techniques are employed when no training set is available, and therefore also no target output...algorithms for application to huge, heterogeneous data sets enabling the extraction of intelligence from information. The approach uses two-scale supervised

  6. Sets that Contain Their Circle Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Say that a subset S of the plane is a "circle-center set" if S is not a subset of a line, and whenever we choose three non-collinear points from S, the center of the circle through those three points is also an element of S. A problem appearing on the Macalester College Problem of the Week website stated that a finite set of points in the plane,…

  7. Confidence Sets for a Change-Point.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    probability credible set for j. In fact, even without the explicit evaluation in (1), one knows from a general theorem of Stein (1965) and Hora and...confidence sets with smallest expected measure, Ann. Statist. , 10, 1283-94. Hora , R. B. and Buehler, R. J. (1966), Fiducial theory and invariant...simple cumulative sum type statistic for the change-point problem -’-"C with zero -one observations, Biometrika 67, 79-84. Raferty, A. E. and Akman, V

  8. Scientific Set of Instruments "Solar Cosmic Rays"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Denisov, Yu. I.; Podorolsky, A. N.; Ryumin, S. P.; Kudela, K.; Rojko, J.

    A set of scientific instruments SCR (Solar Cosmic Rays) was developed by the scientists of SINP MSU and IEP SAS in order to study relations between the radiation conditions in the near-Earth space and solar activity. This set of instruments was installed on board the satellites CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F launched to the orbit on March 2, 1994, and July 30, 2001, respectively. Detailed description of the instruments is presented.

  9. Novel gene sets improve set-level classification of prokaryotic gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Holec, Matěj; Kuželka, Ondřej; Železný, Filip

    2015-10-28

    Set-level classification of gene expression data has received significant attention recently. In this setting, high-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to genes are converted into lower-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to biologically interpretable gene sets. The dimensionality reduction brings the promise of a decreased risk of overfitting, potentially resulting in improved accuracy of the learned classifiers. However, recent empirical research has not confirmed this expectation. Here we hypothesize that the reported unfavorable classification results in the set-level framework were due to the adoption of unsuitable gene sets defined typically on the basis of the Gene ontology and the KEGG database of metabolic networks. We explore an alternative approach to defining gene sets, based on regulatory interactions, which we expect to collect genes with more correlated expression. We hypothesize that such more correlated gene sets will enable to learn more accurate classifiers. We define two families of gene sets using information on regulatory interactions, and evaluate them on phenotype-classification tasks using public prokaryotic gene expression data sets. From each of the two gene-set families, we first select the best-performing subtype. The two selected subtypes are then evaluated on independent (testing) data sets against state-of-the-art gene sets and against the conventional gene-level approach. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. Novel gene sets defined on the basis of regulatory interactions improve set-level classification of gene expression data. The experimental scripts and other material needed to reproduce the experiments are available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/novelgenesets.tar.gz.

  10. The non-integer operation associated to random variation sets of the self-similar set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu-Yao; Liang, Jin-Rong

    2000-10-01

    When memory sets are random variation sets of the self-similar set and the total number of remaining states in each stage of the division of this set is normalized to unity, the corresponding flux and fractional integral are “robust” and stable under some conditions. This answers an open problem proposed by Alian Le Mehaute et al. in their book entitled Irreversibilitê Temporel et Geometrie Fractale.

  11. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  12. Borderline Personality in the Medical Setting.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior. In contrast, it appears that individuals with borderline personality disorder in medical settings manifest physical symptoms that are medically difficult to substantiate. Through a review of the literature, we examine 2 symptom manifestations among patients with borderline personality in primary care and general medical settings-namely pain sensitivity and multiple somatic complaints. In addition to reviewing the research of others, we also highlight our own investigations into these 2 areas. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database and a previous version of the PsycINFO search engine (no restrictions). Search terms included borderline personality, borderline personality disorder, personality disorders; chronic pain, pain, pain syndromes; and somatization disorder, Briquet's syndrome, somatic preoccupation, somatic. Published articles related to borderline personality, pain and somatic symptoms (ie, somatization disorder, somatic preoccupation) were examined. According to our review, the literature indicates higher-than-expected rates of borderline personality disorder among patients in primary care and general medical settings who present with chronic pain conditions and/or somatic preoccupation. Unlike patients with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings, who tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior, patients with borderline personality disorder in primary care settings tend to present with unsubstantiated chronic pain of various types as well as somatic preoccupation.

  13. Display techniques for integrated data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Susan B.; Bolivar, Stephen L.; Weaver, Thomas A.

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, geoscientists have assembled and integrated 30 geological, geophysical, and geochemical data sets with four Landsat bands for the Montrose 1° × 2° quadrangle, Colorado. Three graphical displays were developed to determine if visual analysis of the data facilitated interpretation. Two displays project the data spatially: gray-level maps project values of a single data set, and three-color overlays project the values of three data sets simultaneously. The third display, a three-dimensional plot, graphs three data sets and allows examination of relationships in parameter space. Two examples illustrate the potential applications of the display techniques. Uranium in sediments, uranium in waters, and equivalent uranium each provide unique information about uranium distribution in the quadrangle. However, the combined data convey more information than each data set separately. Copper, lead, and zinc displays allow identification of all the basemetal districts and convey information about the geochemical character of the deposits. Visual displays greatly increase efficiency of analysis and interpretability of diverse geologic data sets.

  14. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  15. Entire functions whose Julia sets include any finitely many copies of quadratic Julia sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagata, Koh

    2017-06-01

    We prove that for any finite collection of quadratic Julia sets, a polynomial and a transcendental entire function exist whose Julia sets include copies of the given quadratic Julia sets. In order to prove the result, we construct quasiregular maps with required dynamics and employ the quasiconformal surgery to obtain the desired functions.

  16. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  17. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  18. Issues in and Challenges to Professionalism in Africa's Cultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    2010-01-01

    This article explores critical issues linked to early child development (ECD) professionalism in African childhood contexts in the light of rights-based consideration. Against the backdrop of acculturation being a reality in Africa, it accepts professionalism as a "good thing" for ECD programmes in Africa. The article sketches a portrait…

  19. Linear structures, causal sets and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudetz, Laurenz

    2015-11-01

    Causal set theory and the theory of linear structures (which has recently been developed by Tim Maudlin as an alternative to standard topology) share some of their main motivations. In view of that, I raise and answer the question how these two theories are related to each other and to standard topology. I show that causal set theory can be embedded into Maudlin's more general framework and I characterise what Maudlin's topological concepts boil down to when applied to discrete linear structures that correspond to causal sets. Moreover, I show that all topological aspects of causal sets that can be described in Maudlin's theory can also be described in the framework of standard topology. Finally, I discuss why these results are relevant for evaluating Maudlin's theory. The value of this theory depends crucially on whether it is true that (a) its conceptual framework is as expressive as that of standard topology when it comes to describing well-known continuous as well as discrete models of spacetime and (b) it is even more expressive or fruitful when it comes to analysing topological aspects of discrete structures that are intended as models of spacetime. On one hand, my theorems support (a). The theory is rich enough to incorporate causal set theory and its definitions of topological notions yield a plausible outcome in the case of causal sets. On the other hand, the results undermine (b). Standard topology, too, has the conceptual resources to capture those topological aspects of causal sets that are analysable within Maudlin's framework. This fact poses a challenge for the proponents of Maudlin's theory to prove it fruitful.

  20. Determining the appropriate oral surgery anesthesia modality, setting, and team.

    PubMed

    Stronczek, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the anesthesia modalities available to the practicing oral and maxillofacial surgeon, including the anesthesia TEAM makeup. If office-based anesthesia is not the best option for the patient, alternative locations are discussed including out-patient surgery centers and hospitals. The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) has fought long and hard to establish and maintain our ability to provide office-based anesthesia. This is our Standard of Care! Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  2. Therapeutic Factors Experienced by Members of an Out-Patient Therapy Group for Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1993-01-01

    The Yalom curative factors Q-sort was administered to eight members of an outpatient therapy group for older women, who were also interviewed on the group experiences they had viewed as helpful. Results indicated that Existential Awareness was seen as the most helpful mechanism, in contrast to other studies in which interpersonal factors have been…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Out Patient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jesmin, Akhter; Rahman, Khan Muhammad Zillur; Muntasir, Maruf Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Psychiatric disorders are increasingly recognized among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Our study was designed to determine the psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient departments of tertiary care hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2012 to February 2013 in pediatric outpatient departments of three prime tertiary level hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A purposive sampling technique was used. A total of 240 male and female children aged 5 to 16 years old were included in the study. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and other relevant clinical information about the children and their families from their parents or caregivers and a validated parent version of the Bangla Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) for measuring psychopathology. Results The mean age of the children was 9.0± 2.6 years. The majority (71%) of children were in the 5–10 year age group. The male/female ratio was 1.2:1. Among the respondents, 18% were found to have a psychiatric disorder. Behavioral disorders, emotional disorders, and developmental disorders were found in 9.0%, 15.0% and 0.4% respectively. Hyperkinetic disorder was the single most frequent (5.0%) psychiatric disorder. Conclusions A significant number of children were found to have psychiatric disorders. Our study indicates the importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions among the pediatric population. PMID:27403237

  4. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. Methodology 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. Results The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (p<0.001) at different inter arm blood pressure difference levels. Conclusion This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases. PMID:27103905

  5. Discharge planning in a cardiology out-patient clinic: a clinical audit.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Shirley; Khan, Barkat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to audit the active discharge (DC) planning process in a general cardiology clinic, by pre-assessing patients' medical notes and highlighting those suitable for potential DC to the clinic physician. The cardiology clinical nurse specialist (CNS) identified patients' for nine- to 12-month return visits one week prior to attendance. The previous consultation letter was accessed and information was documented by the CNS in the medical record. The key performance indicator (KPI) used was patient DCs for each clinic visit. The process was audited at three separate times to reflect recommended action carried out. The CNS pre-assessment and presence at the clinics significantly increased total DCs during the first period compared to usual care, 11 vs 34 per cent (p < 0.0001). During the third audit period, DCs fell (9 per cent) with a reduction in CNS pre-assessed DCs (10 per cent). Recommendations were implemented. The process was continued by clinic administration staff, colour coding all nine- to 12-month returns, resulted in a 19 per cent DC rate in 2012. CNS pre-assessment and highlighting DC suitability increased the number of patient DCs. As the CNS presence at the clinic reduced so did the rate of DC. Specific personnel need to be responsible for monitoring and reminding staff of the process; this does not always have to be medical or nursing. Implementing positive discharging procedures is aimed at improving quality, increasing efficiency and accessibility of services for patients. This audit describes a process to promote DC planning from cardiology outpatients.

  6. [Managment of the suicidal patient in the out-patient practice].

    PubMed

    Lazic, Slavica; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Hättenschwiler, Josef; Modestin, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate handling of suicidal tendencies is for certain one of the most important duties within ambulant treatment. As various examples show, occurrence of a suicidal tendency can be chronical as well as acute. Well-known risk factors including current psychopathology and psychodynamics help to identify and assess a suicidal tendency and to take necessary therapeutic options. Some of these can be applied in general, others have to be tailored specifically with respect to the mental disorder in question. Suicide often occurs in an interpersonal context. This fact underlines on one hand the importance and the therapeutic potential of the relationship between the patient and the therapist, on the other hand it results in many cases in a highly stressful situation for the therapist. Significant attention has to be paid to counter transference and its control. Development of an emergency plan and challenges of a „non-suicidal-contract“ are discussed. We recommend an agreement with the patient to contact the therapist in case of not feeling able to control his/her own actions. This agreement includes our guarantee of permanent reachability.

  7. Medical student dress code in the orthopaedic out-patient department.

    PubMed

    Jabbal, Abhimanyu

    2014-12-01

    Currently, medical students are not given specific guidance on how to dress, which allows them to wear what they interpret as being appropriate, which may not always be optimal. Many studies have shown that a doctor's attire can greatly affect the consultation; however, no studies have been carried out for patient response to medical student attire. A patient questionnaire was issued, based on pictures of medical students in various clothing styles: with a white coat; without a white coat but smartly dressed; and without a white coat and dressed in smart casual attire. This was followed by a second live phase, where patients were seen by medical students dressed with or without white coats and were asked to complete a survey assessing their response to the student and consultation, based solely on their mode of dress. Patients favour medical students wearing white coats. White coats scored highest in trust and confidence, cleanliness, and professionalism; they were not more intimidating. Ninety per cent of respondents thought that it was important how medical students dressed, and 78 per cent would like to be able to distinguish medical students from doctors. Currently, medical students are not given specific guidance on how to dress The results show that medical student attire is an important issue for patients. It has been shown that patients did not find students dressed in white coats intimidating, and that white coats make students come across as more professional, thereby enhancing the patient experience. We recommend that medical students should be given more direction in how to dress so as to help instill higher levels of satisfaction in patients. Furthermore, the opinions on white coats should be further explored and their reinstitution considered. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cancer-related neuropathic pain in out-patient oncology clinics: a European survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although pain is frequently experienced by patients with cancer, it remains under-treated. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-related neuropathic pain (CRNP) in patients with chronic pain who attended an outpatient clinic for standard care in Europe (irrespective of the reason or stage of the cancer). The secondary aims of this study were to characterise pain and cancer in patients with CRNP (including treatment) and to evaluate the usefulness of the painDETECT (PD-Q) screening tool to help physicians identify a potential neuropathic component of cancer-related pain. Methods An observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre study of adult patients with cancer using patient and physician case report forms (CRFs). Patients with CRNP were identified by physicians’ clinical assessments after examining the completed PD-Q. Results A total of 951 patients visiting outpatient clinics across Europe were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and July 2011. Of these, 310 patients (32.60%; 95% confidence interval 29.62, 35.58) were identified as having CRNP. Twenty-nine of 39 (74.4%) physicians who completed the CRF relating to the PD-Q considered it a useful tool to help detect CRNP in daily practice and 28 of 39 (71.8%) indicated that they would use this tool in the future for most or some of their patients. Data from physicians before and after review of the completed PD-Qs showed a shift in clinical opinion (either to positive CRNP diagnosis [yes] or negative CRNP diagnosis [no]) in respect of 142 patients; about half of which (74) were categorised with an initial diagnosis of unknown. Opinions also shifted from a no to a yes diagnosis in 10 patients and from a yes to a no diagnosis in 51 patients. Conclusions Approximately one-third of adults with cancer experiencing chronic pain attending outpatient clinics as part of routine care were considered to have CRNP in the opinion of the physicians after considering scores on the PD-Q. While physicians did not consider the PD-Q to be a useful tool for all patients, shifts in diagnosis before and after the use of this tool indicate that it may help physicians identify CRNP, especially where there is initial uncertainty. PMID:24200014

  9. [Out-patient dental service visit costs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Butova, V G; Boikov, M I

    2016-01-01

    Significant vary of cost price is being observed in the medical organizations not only in the different subjects of the Russian Federation, but in the same federal region of the Russian Federation. So in the medical organizations of the Central Federal Region the fourfold difference of cost price of attendance with the prophylactic aim is observed. These facts make the planning of financial recourses difficult by elaborating the plans of state tasks and programs of state guarantees in general.

  10. [Payment of out-patient dental service according to tariffs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Boikov, M I; Butova, V G

    Cost price of dental services in system of obligatory medical insurance is higher two fold than officially determined tariffs. Costs of the same services in medical organizations of the same federal region in Russia tend to varyMeasures directed at the stimulation of reduction of expenses connected with the keep of those medical organizations that have increased expenses (compared to other medical organizations) should be considered.

  11. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D.; Mehta, S.; Shapiro, A.; Pope, J.; Harth, M.; Morley-Forster, P.; Sequeira, K.; Teasell, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic. PMID:27445623

  12. Microbiological contamination of cubicle curtains in an out-patient podiatry clinic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to potential pathogens on contaminated healthcare garments and curtains can occur through direct or indirect contact. This study aimed to identify the microorganisms present on podiatry clinic curtains and measure the contamination pre and post a standard hospital laundry process. Method Baseline swabs were taken to determine colony counts present on cubical curtains before laundering. Curtains were swabbed again immediately after, one and three weeks post laundering. Total colony counts were calculated and compared to baseline, with identification of micro-organisms. Results Total colony counts increased very slightly by 3% immediately after laundry, which was not statistically significant, and declined significantly (p = 0.0002) by 56% one-week post laundry. Three weeks post laundry colony counts had increased by 16%; although clinically relevant, this was not statistically significant. The two most frequent microorganisms present throughout were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species. Laundering was not completely effective, as both species demonstrated no significant change following laundry. Conclusion This work suggests current laundry procedures may not be 100% effective in killing all microorganisms found on curtains, although a delayed decrease in total colony counts was evident. Cubicle curtains may act as a reservoir for microorganisms creating potential for cross contamination. This highlights the need for additional cleaning methods to decrease the risk of cross infection and the importance of maintaining good hand hygiene. PMID:21087486

  13. [Good prescription practice for out-patients-quality requirements of prescriptions in Germany].

    PubMed

    Faller, Christine K; Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-06-01

    Because the written prescription is a central communication medium between the prescribing physician and the dispensing pharmacist measures to improve the prescription quality are top priorities. While most primary care physicians in Germany use electronic systems, in outpatient clinics and nursing homes and on special occasions such as emergency services and home visits, many prescriptions are still handwritten. Incorrectly and illegibly issued prescriptions impair the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship and thus represent a risk factor in the context of medication safety. Well issued prescriptions expedite the dispensing and thus the continuity of treatment of the patients and spare human resources by avoiding queries and unnecessary steps in the care process. At the same time, legible and unequivocal prescriptions facilitate measures for quality assurance by the dispensing pharmacists and are essential preconditions needed for insurance reimbursement. Probably the most important step to high quality prescriptions is the consistent use of suitable electronic prescription software. This is only possible if physicians are willing to cooperate and understand the significance and benefits of an electronic prescription system.

  14. Medication non-adherence among adult psychiatric out patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfay, Kenfe; Girma, Eshetu; Negash, Alemayehu; Tesfaye, Markos; Dehning, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Information on adherence of adult psychiatric patients to biological modes of treatment is scarce in Ethiopia. Knowledge on adherence is essential in terms of future prognosis, quality of life and functionality of such patients. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of non-adherence to medication. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2011 at the psychiatry facility of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, which provides service to more than 10 mill people. A sample of 422 adults with psychiatric illness in the follow-up outpatients was selected consecutively. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview and from patient medical records. The four-item Morisky scale was used to assess degree of medication adherence. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive, chi-square test and logistic regression statistical methods were used. P-Value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant in the final model. Out of the 422 patients, 40.3% were females and 59.7% males. The prevalence rate for non-adherence was 41.2%, non-affective psychoses diagnosis contributing the highest rate (44.5%). From the total non-adherent respondents, 78.2% attributed their non-adherence to forgetting. Irregular follow-up, poor social support and complex drug regimen were independently associated variables with non-adherence. The result of the study showed that non-adherence among psychiatric patients in Southwest Ethiopia is high and revealed possible associated factors. Adherence needs integrated efforts in creating a mechanism in enhancing regular follow-up, informal social support system and ongoing awareness creation among professionals.

  15. Efficacy of an out-patient pain management programme for people with joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Daniel, Clare; Grahame, Rodney

    2014-11-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is common in patients presenting to rheumatologists and can cause a range of symptoms leading to physical and psychological distress. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with JHS often responds poorly to analgesics, and a pain management approach may be helpful. Since patients with JHS often have beliefs and experiences different to those of other chronic pain patients, they could fare better in JHS-specific programmes. Here, we report on the outcomes of patients in a JHS cognitive behavioural pain management programme. Patients fulfilling the Brighton criteria for JHS, who had suffered pain for at least 3 months, were assessed by a psychologist and physiotherapist for suitability for this programme. Those accepted took part in a programme of 8 days spread over 6 weeks, delivered by a multidisciplinary team and incorporating a cognitive behavioural approach. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1- and 5-month post-programme using validated outcome measures. Outcome measures at baseline and 1-month were available for 87 patients (96 % female, mean age 35 years). There were significant improvements in self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, depression, anxiety, frustration, impact of pain and average pain intensity (all P < 0.001). Although by 5 months all these outcomes had regressed towards pre-programme levels there remained significant improvements compared to baseline in all except average pain intensity. This open study shows that patients with JHS experienced significant benefits after attending a JHS-specific pain management programme, which were still evident 5 months later. Longer-term controlled studies are required.

  16. Flumazenil used in the antagonizing of diazepam and midazolam sedation in out-patients undergoing gastroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S; Knudsen, L; Kirkegaard, L

    1988-01-01

    In two double-blind, randomized trials the efficacy and safety of flumazenil, the first benzodiazepine antagonist, were assessed in 100 adult patients undergoing gastroscopy under diazepam or midazolam sedation. The criteria of efficacy were the degree of sedation and anterograde amnesia. The median gastroscopy time was 20 min (range 5-40 min). The diazepam group received median 30 mg (range 15-60 mg) Diazemuls and the midazolam group median 15 mg (range 10-40 mg) Dormicum. Both groups were antagonized by median 0.42 mg flumazenil (range 0.4-0.6 mg). There was no inter-group difference with regard to blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate. There was a significantly faster recovery of the patients after injection of flumazenil than after placebo. Patients were awake shortly after flumazenil, but remained drowsy or asleep after placebo administration. All patients, regardless of diazepam or midazolam sedation, antagonized with flumazenil were awake within 5 min and remained awake during the whole observation period of 3 h. The amnesia was totally eliminated by flumazenil. There were no significant differences in side-effects between the groups.

  17. Patients with cardiac disease: Changes observed through last decade in out-patient clinics

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Alberto; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Mazón, Pilar; Fácila, Lorenzo; Cosín, Juan; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Rodriguez, Moisés; Andrés, Eva; Galve, Enrique; Lekuona, Iñaki; González-Juanatey, Jose R

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe current profile of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and assessing changes through last decade. METHODS: Comparison of patients with established CVD from two similar cross-sectional registries performed in 1999 (n = 6194) and 2009 (n = 4639). The types of CVD were coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients were collected from outpatient clinics. Investigators were 80% cardiologist and 20% primary care practitioners. Clinical antecedents, major diagnosis, blood test results and medical treatments were collected from all patients. RESULTS: An increase in all risk factors, except for smoking, was observed; a 54.4% relative increase in BP control was noted. CHD was the most prevalent CVD but HF and AF increased significantly, 41.5% and 33.7%, respectively. A significant reduction in serum lipid levels was observed. The use of statins increased by 141.1% as did all cardiovascular treatments. Moreover, the use of angiotensin-renin system inhibitors in patients with HF, beta-blockers in CHD patients or oral anticoagulants in AF patients increased by 83.0%, 80.3% and 156.0%, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of all cardiovascular risk factors has increased in patients with CVD through last decade. HF and AF have experienced the largest increases. PMID:24009818

  18. [The peripheral vestibular disorders encountered in the routine out-patient practical work].

    PubMed

    Zamergrad, M V; Parfenov, V A; Morozova, S V; Mel'nikov, O A; Antonenko, L M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the frequency of causes underlying the development of dizziness and vertigo in the patients seeking advice and care at an outpatient healthcare facility. A total of 590 patients with complaints of dizziness and vertigo were examined. It was found out that the peripheral disorders of the vestibular analyzer were the most frequent causes of dizziness and vertigo in the majority of the examined patients. These conditions were documented to occur in more than 65% of the patients. The most common forms of peripheral vestibular disorders were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere's disease, and vestibular neuronitis. The central vestibular disorders occurred considerably less frequently than peripheral ones and were diagnosed only in 10.9% of the patients. The results of the study provided a basis for the development of the algorithm forthe bedside examination of the patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness associated with peripheral vestibular disorders. It is emphasized that such examination should include, besides the standard neurological studies, the neuro-otological tests making it possible to detect the most common forms of peripheral vestibular disorders.

  19. Attitude toward the out-patient cardiac rehabilitation program and facilitators for maintenance of exercise behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eliza M L; Zhong, Xue Bing; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Leung, Carmen; Leung, K C

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the attitudes of Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) toward the outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCRP), as well as their exercise behavior, intention, maintenance and related factors. A qualitative descriptive study design was used, and 22 CHD patients were recruited in Hong Kong in 2014. In-depth interviews and content analyses were conducted. The tripartite model of attitudes was adopted as research framework. Two themes were identified: (1) informant attitude (perception, affection, and practice) toward the OCRP and (2) Exercise Behavior - intention, maintenance and its related factors. Most informants showed positive perception and affection regarding the outpatient rehabilitation program, leading to regular practice of exercise in the program and at home. Peer, group dynamic, social support and Chinese culture influences on exercise behavior may serve as major facilitators to maintain exercise behavior. Positive attitude toward the OCRP enhanced the participation rate, whereas peer and social support from the family and workplace were useful to improve the maintenance of exercise behavior. Overall, this study provides insights into strategic planning for the OCRP and continual support for CHD patients in the community.

  20. Religion, coping and outcome in out-patients with depression or diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Amadi, K U; Uwakwe, R; Odinka, P C; Ndukuba, A C; Muomah, C R; Ohaeri, J U

    2016-06-01

    The study assesses the association between religiosity and coping style with the outcome of depression and diabetes. Using a simple random sampling, we recruited 112 participants with diabetes and an equal number with depression consecutively, matching for gender. Religiosity was determined using Religious Orientation Scale (revised) (ROS-R), coping styles with Brief Religious Coping (Brief RCOPE) scale and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale (adapted). Primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated using Sheehan's Disability Scale (SDS) and Becks Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Among participants with diabetes, BDI-II total scores correlated negatively with ROS-R Extrinsic Social (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.3, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). SDS global scores correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.3, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). Among participants with depression, BDI-II total scores correlated negatively with Intrinsic religiosity (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.6, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.7, P < 0.05). SDS global scores correlated negatively with Intrinsic religiosity (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.5, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). High intrinsic and extrinsic religiosities are likely to be associated with positive coping skills and better treatment outcome in patients with depression or diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy and appropriateness of general practitioner referrals to a dermatology out-patient clinic.

    PubMed

    Basarab, T; Munn, S E; Jones, R R

    1996-07-01

    A study was undertaken of new referrals by GPs to a dermatology clinic in a district general hospital over a 6-month period. Six hundred and eighty-six consecutive referrals to one consultant were analysed for diagnostic accuracy and requirement for referral. Only 47% of referral letters contained the correct diagnosis. Viral warts and psoriasis were best diagnosed (82 and 78%, respectively), but seborrhoeic warts and dermatofibromas caused difficulty (22 and 19%, respectively). Cutaneous malignancy was correctly diagnosed in 45% of referrals, and eczema, the commonest condition referred, in 54% of cases. Sixty-eight percent of referrals required hospital-based facilities for diagnosis (31%) or treatment/management (37%). Twenty-one per cent of patients referred attended for once-only visits, requiring no specialized diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Such referrals should decrease with improved GP education. Eleven percent of referrals were for minor surgical procedures such as curettage, shave biopsy, or cryotherapy and would become unnecessary if such facilities were available in the community. Our data demonstrate the potential for management of up to one-third of current dermatological referrals within the community by improving education of GPs and providing appropriate facilities within the community. However, over two-thirds of patients required hospital facilities, a finding of considerable relevance to the future location of dermatological services.

  2. Patients with cardiac disease: Changes observed through last decade in out-patient clinics.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Alberto; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Mazón, Pilar; Fácila, Lorenzo; Cosín, Juan; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Rodriguez, Moisés; Andrés, Eva; Galve, Enrique; Lekuona, Iñaki; González-Juanatey, Jose R

    2013-08-26

    To describe current profile of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and assessing changes through last decade. Comparison of patients with established CVD from two similar cross-sectional registries performed in 1999 (n = 6194) and 2009 (n = 4639). The types of CVD were coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients were collected from outpatient clinics. Investigators were 80% cardiologist and 20% primary care practitioners. Clinical antecedents, major diagnosis, blood test results and medical treatments were collected from all patients. An increase in all risk factors, except for smoking, was observed; a 54.4% relative increase in BP control was noted. CHD was the most prevalent CVD but HF and AF increased significantly, 41.5% and 33.7%, respectively. A significant reduction in serum lipid levels was observed. The use of statins increased by 141.1% as did all cardiovascular treatments. Moreover, the use of angiotensin-renin system inhibitors in patients with HF, beta-blockers in CHD patients or oral anticoagulants in AF patients increased by 83.0%, 80.3% and 156.0%, respectively (P < 0.01). The prevalence of all cardiovascular risk factors has increased in patients with CVD through last decade. HF and AF have experienced the largest increases.

  3. Out-Patient Diagnostic and Remedial Services for Children with Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Howard L.

    The activities of a child guidance clinic which diagnoses and treats children with minimal cerebral dysfunction are described. Minimal brain dysfunction is explained, and diagnostic steps are discussed. As a major function of the program, neurological, optometric, auditory, oral, general physical, educational, and psychological evaluations are…

  4. Splitting in-patient and out-patient responsibility does not improve patient care.

    PubMed

    Burns, Tom; Baggaley, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 15 years there has been a move away from consultants having responsibility for the care of patients both in the community and when in hospital towards a functional split in responsibility. In this article Tom Burns and Martin Baggaley debate the merits or otherwise of the split, identifying leadership, expertise and continuity of care as key issues; both recognise that this move is not evidence based.

  5. Education through telemedicine networks: setting quality standards.

    PubMed

    Shershneva, Marianna B; Olson, Curtis A

    2005-01-01

    Quality standards for educational programming have received limited attention in telemedicine. We selected five sets of standards from the distance education literature established by: (1) the American Council on Education; (2) the American Distance Education Consortium; (3) the Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions; (4) the Distance Education and Training Council; (5) the Innovations in Distance Education Project. The standards were reviewed to determine the purposes they were intended to serve and the process by which they were established. The content of the five sets of standards were summarized around the 'four commonplaces' of education: learner, teacher, curriculum and context. Four major findings emerged. First, none of the sets of standards addresses all of the issues that are potentially relevant to telemedicine education; all emphasize certain topics while neglecting others. Second, there are some important aspects of telemedicine that are not addressed at all, such as patient confidentiality. Third, the standards generally provide a framework for defining high quality in distance education, leaving to those at the local level the task of deciding how a standard applies in their setting. Finally, the standards reviewed have many elements that could potentially apply to telemedicine education. Setting quality standards for education through telemedicine requires a systematic approach and a means for continuous improvement of those standards.

  6. On the optimization of Gaussian basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, George A.; Zhong, Shijun; Montgomery, John A.; Frisch, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A new procedure for the optimization of the exponents, αj, of Gaussian basis functions, Ylm(ϑ,φ)rle-αjr2, is proposed and evaluated. The direct optimization of the exponents is hindered by the very strong coupling between these nonlinear variational parameters. However, expansion of the logarithms of the exponents in the orthonormal Legendre polynomials, Pk, of the index, j: ln αj=∑k=0kmaxAkPk((2j-2)/(Nprim-1)-1), yields a new set of well-conditioned parameters, Ak, and a complete sequence of well-conditioned exponent optimizations proceeding from the even-tempered basis set (kmax=1) to a fully optimized basis set (kmax=Nprim-1). The error relative to the exact numerical self-consistent field limit for a six-term expansion is consistently no more than 25% larger than the error for the completely optimized basis set. Thus, there is no need to optimize more than six well-conditioned variational parameters, even for the largest sets of Gaussian primitives.

  7. Trellis coding with multidimensional QAM signal sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrobon, Steven S.; Costello, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Trellis coding using multidimensional QAM signal sets is investigated. Finite-size 2D signal sets are presented that have minimum average energy, are 90-deg rotationally symmetric, and have from 16 to 1024 points. The best trellis codes using the finite 16-QAM signal set with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are found by computer search (the multidimensional signal set is constructed from the 2D signal set). The best moderate complexity trellis codes for infinite lattices with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are also found. The minimum free squared Euclidean distance and number of nearest neighbors for these codes were used as the selection criteria. Many of the multidimensional codes are fully rotationally invariant and give asymptotic coding gains up to 6.0 dB. From the infinite lattice codes, the best codes for transmitting J, J + 1/4, J + 1/3, J + 1/2, J + 2/3, and J + 3/4 bit/sym (J an integer) are presented.

  8. Internal Medicine Training in the Inpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Di Francesco; Pistoria, Michael J; Auerbach, Andrew D; Nardino, Robert J; Holmboe, Eric S

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Although the inpatient setting has served as the predominant educational site of internal medicine training programs, many changes and factors are currently affecting education in this setting. As a result, many educational organizations are calling for reforms in inpatient training. This report reviews the available literature on specific internal medicine inpatient educational interventions and proposes recommendations for improving internal medicine training in this setting. METHOD We searched Medline for articles published between 1966 and August 2004 which focused on internal medicine training interventions in the inpatient setting; bibliographies of Medline-identified articles, as well as articles suggested by experts in the field provided additional citations. We then reviewed, classified, and abstracted only articles where an assessment of learner outcomes was included. RESULTS Thirteen studies of inpatient internal medicine educational interventions were found that included an outcome assessment. All were single institution studies. The majority of these studies was of poor methodological quality and focused on specific content areas of internal medicine. None assessed the effectiveness or impact of internal medicine core inpatient experiences or curriculum. CONCLUSION This review identifies significant gaps in our understanding of what constitutes effective inpatient education. The paucity of high quality research in the internal medicine inpatient setting highlights the urgent need to formally define and study what constitutes an effective “core” inpatient curriculum. PMID:16423111

  9. The problem of convexity of Chebyshev sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaganskii, V. S.; Vlasov, L. P.

    1996-12-01

    Contents Introduction §1. Definitions and notation §2. Reference theorems §3. Some results Chapter I. Characterization of Banach spaces by means of the relations between approximation properties of sets §1. Existence, uniqueness §2. Prom approximate compactness to 'sun'-property §3. From 'sun'-property to approximate compactness §4. Differentiability in the direction of the gradient is sufficient for Fréchet and Gâteaux differentiability §5. Sets with convex complement Chapter II. The structure of Chebyshev and related sets §1. The isolated point method §2. Restrictions of the type \\vert\\overline{W}\\vert < \\vert X\\vert §3. The case where M is locally compact §4. The case where W lies in a hyperplane §5. Other cases Chapter III. Selected results §1. Some applications of the theory of monotone operators §2. A non-convex Chebyshev set in pre-Hilbert space §3. The example of Klee (discrete Chebyshev set) §4. A survey of some other results Conclusion Bibliography

  10. Does precision decrease with set size?

    PubMed Central

    Mazyar, Helga; van den Berg, Ronald; Ma, Wei Ji

    2012-01-01

    The brain encodes visual information with limited precision. Contradictory evidence exists as to whether the precision with which an item is encoded depends on the number of stimuli in a display (set size). Some studies have found evidence that precision decreases with set size, but others have reported constant precision. These groups of studies differed in two ways. The studies that reported a decrease used displays with heterogeneous stimuli and tasks with a short-term memory component, while the ones that reported constancy used homogeneous stimuli and tasks that did not require short-term memory. To disentangle the effects of heterogeneity and short-memory involvement, we conducted two main experiments. In Experiment 1, stimuli were heterogeneous, and we compared a condition in which target identity was revealed before the stimulus display with one in which it was revealed afterward. In Experiment 2, target identity was fixed, and we compared heterogeneous and homogeneous distractor conditions. In both experiments, we compared an optimal-observer model in which precision is constant with set size with one in which it depends on set size. We found that precision decreases with set size when the distractors are heterogeneous, regardless of whether short-term memory is involved, but not when it is homogeneous. This suggests that heterogeneity, not short-term memory, is the critical factor. In addition, we found that precision exhibits variability across items and trials, which may partly be caused by attentional fluctuations. PMID:22685337

  11. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species.

  12. Maximally Entangled Set of Multipartite Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, J. I.; Spee, C.; Kraus, B.

    2013-09-01

    Entanglement is a resource in quantum information theory when state manipulation is restricted to local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). It is therefore of paramount importance to decide which LOCC transformations are possible and, particularly, which states are maximally useful under this restriction. While the bipartite maximally entangled state is well known (it is the only state that cannot be obtained from any other and, at the same time, it can be transformed to any other by LOCC), no such state exists in the multipartite case. In order to cope with this fact, we introduce here the notion of the maximally entangled set (MES) of n-partite states. This is the set of states which are maximally useful under LOCC manipulation; i.e., any state outside of this set can be obtained via LOCC from one of the states within the set and no state in the set can be obtained from any other state via LOCC. We determine the MES for states of three and four qubits and provide a simple characterization for them. In both cases, infinitely many states are required. However, while the MES is of measure zero for 3-qubit states, almost all 4-qubit states are in the MES. This is because, in contrast to the 3-qubit case, deterministic LOCC transformations are almost never possible among fully entangled four-partite states. We determine the measure-zero subset of the MES of LOCC convertible states. This is the only relevant class of states for entanglement manipulation.

  13. Trellis coding with multidimensional QAM signal sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrobon, Steven S.; Costello, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Trellis coding using multidimensional QAM signal sets is investigated. Finite-size 2D signal sets are presented that have minimum average energy, are 90-deg rotationally symmetric, and have from 16 to 1024 points. The best trellis codes using the finite 16-QAM signal set with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are found by computer search (the multidimensional signal set is constructed from the 2D signal set). The best moderate complexity trellis codes for infinite lattices with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are also found. The minimum free squared Euclidean distance and number of nearest neighbors for these codes were used as the selection criteria. Many of the multidimensional codes are fully rotationally invariant and give asymptotic coding gains up to 6.0 dB. From the infinite lattice codes, the best codes for transmitting J, J + 1/4, J + 1/3, J + 1/2, J + 2/3, and J + 3/4 bit/sym (J an integer) are presented.

  14. Ocular stability and set-point adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zee, D S; Jareonsettasin, P; Leigh, R J

    2017-04-19

    A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push-pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements. The semicircular canals, working in coplanar pairs, one in each labyrinth, are reciprocally excited and inhibited as they transduce head rotations. The relative change in activity is relayed to the vestibular nuclei, which operate around a set-point of stable balanced activity. When a pathological imbalance occurs, producing unwanted nystagmus without head movement, an adaptive mechanism restores the proper set-point and eliminates the nystagmus. Here we used 90 min of continuous 7 T magnetic field labyrinthine stimulation (MVS) in normal humans to produce sustained nystagmus simulating vestibular imbalance. We identified multiple time-scale processes towards a new zero set-point showing that MVS is an excellent paradigm to investigate the neurobiology of set-point adaptation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  15. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  16. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  17. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P < 0.0001). Posttransfusion platelet counts were ordered for 7.0% of platelet transfusions when the initial default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P < 0.0001), and then decreased to 7.5% when the default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7

  18. Task set determines the amount of crowding.

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke

    2007-11-01

    The present study deals with the question of how crowding effects, which are interactions among adjacent features or characters, emerges automatically or by so-called higher level controlled processing. Two experiments are presented comparing performances during detecting, localizing, and identifying a flanked target in same strings when the target was defined on the basis of either its form or its category. Detection and localization performances were better for form- relative to category-defined targets whereas the reverse was observed for identification performance. This shows that the interacting information is indeed high level in that it is affected by task settings like the defining target feature and the observers' task set. The results suggest that crowding effects do not emerge due to processes depending on the parameters of stimulus presentation, but due to processes activated by certain task sets.

  19. First Wartsila 200 diesel generator set shipped

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1995-09-01

    In early June, Wartsila SACM Diesel shipped its first Wartsila 200 diesel generator set from Mulhouse, France. This 12-cylinder generator set, rated 1870 kW at 1500 r/min, is being installed in India for base-load power generation service on a floating crane. The Cummins Wartsila Engine Company will have the responsibility to continue the development and production of the 200 series engine and a new 170 mm bore series that will be launched in 1996. Marine applications include diesel-electric propulsion, because of high specific output, relatively low cost and compact size of the gen-sets. Other applications include main propulsion for fishing boats, fast ferries and various coastal and inland waterways commercial vessels such as tugs and push boats. 2 figs.

  20. On-Orbit Range Set Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    2011-09-01

    History and methodology of ∆v range set computation is briefly reviewed, followed by a short summary of the ∆v optimal spacecraft servicing problem literature. Service vehicle placement is approached from a ∆v range set viewpoint, providing a framework under which the analysis becomes quite geometric and intuitive. The optimal servicing tour design problem is shown to be a specific instantiation of the metric- Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), which in general is an NP-hard problem. The ∆v-TSP is argued to be quite similar to the Euclidean-TSP, for which approximate optimal solutions may be found in polynomial time. Applications of range sets are demonstrated using analytical and simulation results.

  1. ASBench: benchmarking sets for allosteric discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Guanqiao; Shen, Qiancheng; Liu, Xinyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Geng, Lv; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Allostery allows for the fine-tuning of protein function. Targeting allosteric sites is gaining increasing recognition as a novel strategy in drug design. The key challenge in the discovery of allosteric sites has strongly motivated the development of computational methods and thus high-quality, publicly accessible standard data have become indispensable. Here, we report benchmarking data for experimentally determined allosteric sites through a complex process, including a 'Core set' with 235 unique allosteric sites and a 'Core-Diversity set' with 147 structurally diverse allosteric sites. These benchmarking sets can be exploited to develop efficient computational methods to predict unknown allosteric sites in proteins and reveal unique allosteric ligand-protein interactions to guide allosteric drug design. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Convex set and linear mixing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, P.; Greeley, R.

    1993-01-01

    A major goal of optical remote sensing is to determine surface compositions of the earth and other planetary objects. For assessment of composition, single pixels in multi-spectral images usually record a mixture of the signals from various materials within the corresponding surface area. In this report, we introduce a closed and bounded convex set as a mathematical model for linear mixing. This model has a clear geometric implication because the closed and bounded convex set is a natural generalization of a triangle in n-space. The endmembers are extreme points of the convex set. Every point in the convex closure of the endmembers is a linear mixture of those endmembers, which is exactly how linear mixing is defined. With this model, some general criteria for selecting endmembers could be described. This model can lead to a better understanding of linear mixing models.

  3. Leukocyte set points in metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Justin I; Chawla, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate tissues comprise precise admixtures of parenchymal and hematopoietic cells, whose interactions are vital to proper tissue function. By regulating this interaction, vertebrates are able to mitigate environmental stress and coordinate dramatic physiologic adaptations. For instance, under conditions of chronic nutrient excess, leukocyte recruitment and activation increase in an effort to decrease excess nutrient storage and alleviate adipocyte stress. While basal equilibria may be reestablished upon normalization of nutrient intake, a new set point characterized by insulin resistance and chronic inflammation is established if the stress persists. Consequently, although this response is adaptive in settings of acute overfeeding and infection, it has catastrophic health consequences in the modern context of obesity. Understanding how leukocyte set points (numbers and activation status) are established, maintained, and regulated in tissues is, thus, critical to our understanding of, and intervention in, chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes.

  4. [Priority setting for the health technology assessment].

    PubMed

    Poblete-Vargas, Sergio; Castillo-Laborde, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the different approaches of priority setting for health technology assessments (HTA). First, the paper identifies the reasons that make necessary to establish priorities and its importance for the success of the HTA models. Second, it studies the main stages that consider the determination of priorities based on the analysis of the models currently used by HTA agencies of developed countries. In the third place, the article describes the different criteria, methods of scoring and deliberation bodies included in the mechanism of priority setting of those agencies. Finally, the paper concludes mentioning lessons from the international experience that potentially can be an input for the design of a model of priority setting for HTA in our country.

  5. A time and motion study of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment implementation in health-care settings.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Alexander J; Dowd, William N; Landwehr, Justin; Barbosa, Carolina; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    Screening and brief intervention for harmful substance use in medical settings is being promoted heavily in the United States. To justify service provision fiscally, the field needs accurate estimates of the number and type of staff required to provide services, and thus the time taken to perform activities used to deliver services. This study analyzed the time spent in activities for the component services of the substance misuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program implemented in emergency departments, in-patient units and ambulatory clinics. Observers timed activities according to 18 distinct codes among SBIRT practitioners. Twenty-six US sites within four grantees. Five hundred and one practitioner-patient interactions; 63 SBIRT practitioners. Timing of practitioner activities. Delivery of component services of SBIRT. The mean (standard error) time to deliver services was 1:19 (0:06) for a pre-screen (n = 210), 4:28 (0:24) for a screen (n = 97) and 6:51 (0:38) for a brief intervention (n = 66). Estimates of service duration varied by setting. Overall, practitioners spent 40% of their time supporting SBIRT delivery to patients and 13% of their time delivering services. In the United States, support activities (e.g. reviewing the patient's chart, locating the patient, writing case-notes) for substance abuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment require more staff time than delivery of services. Support time for screens and brief interventions in the emergency department/trauma setting was high compared with the out-patient setting. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Task representation in individual and joint settings

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework for task representation and discusses applications to interference tasks in individual and joint settings. The framework is derived from the Theory of Event Coding (TEC). This theory regards task sets as transient assemblies of event codes in which stimulus and response codes interact and shape each other in particular ways. On the one hand, stimulus and response codes compete with each other within their respective subsets (horizontal interactions). On the other hand, stimulus and response code cooperate with each other (vertical interactions). Code interactions instantiating competition and cooperation apply to two time scales: on-line performance (i.e., doing the task) and off-line implementation (i.e., setting the task). Interference arises when stimulus and response codes overlap in features that are irrelevant for stimulus identification, but relevant for response selection. To resolve this dilemma, the feature profiles of event codes may become restructured in various ways. The framework is applied to three kinds of interference paradigms. Special emphasis is given to joint settings where tasks are shared between two participants. Major conclusions derived from these applications include: (1) Response competition is the chief driver of interference. Likewise, different modes of response competition give rise to different patterns of interference; (2) The type of features in which stimulus and response codes overlap is also a crucial factor. Different types of such features give likewise rise to different patterns of interference; and (3) Task sets for joint settings conflate intraindividual conflicts between responses (what), with interindividual conflicts between responding agents (whom). Features of response codes may, therefore, not only address responses, but also responding agents (both physically and socially). PMID:26029085

  7. Core outcome sets and trial registries.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula

    2015-05-14

    Some reasons for registering trials might be considered as self-serving, such as satisfying the requirements of a journal in which the researchers wish to publish their eventual findings or publicising the trial to boost recruitment. Registry entries also help others, including systematic reviewers, to know about ongoing or unpublished studies and contribute to reducing research waste by making it clear what studies are ongoing. Other sources of research waste include inconsistency in outcome measurement across trials in the same area, missing data on important outcomes from some trials, and selective reporting of outcomes. One way to reduce this waste is through the use of core outcome sets: standardised sets of outcomes for research in specific areas of health and social care. These do not restrict the outcomes that will be measured, but provide the minimum to include if a trial is to be of the most use to potential users. We propose that trial registries, such as ISRCTN, encourage researchers to note their use of a core outcome set in their entry. This will help people searching for trials and those worried about selective reporting in closed trials. Trial registries can facilitate these efforts to make new trials as useful as possible and reduce waste. The outcomes section in the entry could prompt the researcher to consider using a core outcome set and facilitate the specification of that core outcome set and its component outcomes through linking to the original core outcome set. In doing this, registries will contribute to the global effort to ensure that trials answer important uncertainties, can be brought together in systematic reviews, and better serve their ultimate aim of improving health and well-being through improving health and social care.

  8. Setting research priorities for Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, R; Snow, R; Daly, A C; Crowe, S; Matyka, K; Hall, B; Petrie, J

    2012-10-01

    Research priorities are often set by academic researchers or the pharmaceutical industry. The interests of patients, carers and clinicians may therefore be overlooked and research questions that matter may be neglected. The aims of this study were to collect uncertainties about the treatment of Type 1 diabetes from patients, carers and health professionals, and to collate and prioritize these uncertainties to develop a top 10 list of research priorities, using a structured priority-setting partnership of patients, carers, health professionals and diabetes organizations, as described by the James Lind Alliance. A partnership of interested organizations was set up, and from this a steering committee of 10 individuals was formed. An online and paper survey was used to identify uncertainties. These were collated, and the steering group carried out an interim priority-setting exercise with partner organizations. This group of uncertainties was then voted on to give a smaller list that went forward to the final priority-setting workshop. At this meeting, a final list of the top 10 research priorities was agreed. An initial 1141 uncertainties were described. These were reduced to 88 indicative questions, 47 of which went out for voting. Twenty-four were then taken forward to a final priority-setting workshop. This workshop resulted in a list of top 10 research priorities in Type 1 diabetes. We have shown that it is possible using the James Lind Alliance process to develop an agreed top 10 list of research priorities for Type 1 diabetes from health professionals, patients and carers. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  9. Criteria for a sediment data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of sediment through a hydrologic system or basin is an extremely complex phenomenon. Many factors affect this movement. Criteria are established for an 'ultimate' or complete sediment data set, and guidelines are given for the collection of alluvial data. The paper describes what parameters need to be measured and stored to obtain a complete sediment and hydraulic data set that could be used to compute sediment transport using any prominently known sediment-transport equation. The criteria address only the collection of data for noncohesive sediment.

  10. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  11. Hailstone classifier based on Rough Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Huisong; Jiang, Shuming; Wei, Zhiqiang; Li, Jian; Li, Fengjiao

    2017-09-01

    The Rough Set Theory was used for the construction of the hailstone classifier. Firstly, the database of the radar image feature was constructed. It included transforming the base data reflected by the Doppler radar into the bitmap format which can be seen. Then through the image processing, the color, texture, shape and other dimensional features should be extracted and saved as the characteristic database to provide data support for the follow-up work. Secondly, Through the Rough Set Theory, a machine for hailstone classifications can be built to achieve the hailstone samples’ auto-classification.

  12. Pseudo noise test set operation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G.

    1977-01-01

    Pseudonoise (PN) test set was designed to provide a reliable, operationally simple unit which allows the previously mentioned analog rms end-to-end error measurement of most communication systems to be easily performed. It also provides a band-limited pseudorandom noise as input, thereby escaping the disadvantages of most deterministic signals while retaining the advantages of using true-band-limited noise. In addition, the PN test set has the capability to be used as a means with which the autocorrelation function and impulse response may be determined for certain systems.

  13. Intrinsic Probability of a Multifractal Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Iwao

    1991-12-01

    It is shown that a self-similar measure isotropically distributed in a d-dimensional set should have its own intermittency exponents equivalent to its own generalized dimensions (in the sense of Hentschel and Procaccia), and that the intermittency exponents are completely designated by an intrinsic probability which governs the spatial distribution of the measure. Based on this, it is proven that the intrinsic probability uniquely determines the spatial distribution of the scaling index α of the measure as well as the so-called f-α spectrum of the multifractal set.

  14. Cantor-Type Sets in Hyperbolic Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, A. S.; Bory-Reyes, J.; Luna-Elizarrarás, M. E.; Shapiro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The construction of the ternary Cantor set is generalized into the context of hyperbolic numbers. The partial order structure of hyperbolic numbers is revealed and the notion of hyperbolic interval is defined. This allows us to define a general framework of the fractal geometry on the hyperbolic plane. Three types of the hyperbolic analogues of the real Cantor set are identified. The complementary nature of the real Cantor dust and the real Sierpinski carpet on the hyperbolic plane are outlined. The relevance of these findings in the context of modern physics are briefly discussed.

  15. Eye trackers in an oculary clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahimin, Mizhanim M.; Shahimin, Mukhzeer M.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared eye tracker has been demonstrated to provide a more objective and quantitative results of the cover test measurement in eye care practices. This paper reviews the application of eye trackers in oculary clinical setting. It highlights the different types of eye movement recording system (EMRS) available, the advantages and disadvantages of each and their use in a clinical setting. This paper also discusses the parameters that can be derived from the EMRS and the significance of the parameters in a clinical interpretation. Using an eye tracker would make available to the clinician a simple system for making quantitative measurements when performing the cover test in an eye examination.

  16. Prostacyclin in the intensive care setting.

    PubMed

    Ivy, D Dunbar

    2010-03-01

    The prostacyclins-prostanoids were one of the first medications used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Three prostanoids have been developed to treat PAH: epoprostenol, treprostinil, and iloprost. In the acute setting, experience is growing, using the inhaled forms of these three medications. Inhalation may improve ventilation/perfusion matching, whereas in the intravenous form these medications may cause nonselective pulmonary vasodilation and may worsen ventilation/perfusion matching. Currently, there are no universal recommendations for dosing delivery of inhaled prostanoids to intubated patients in the intensive care unit setting.

  17. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, William F.; Winiecki, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  18. Sepsis Resuscitation in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian; Staton, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Our evolving understanding of the physiologic processes that lead to sepsis has led to updated consensus guidelines outlining priorities in the recognition and treatment of septic patients. However, an enormous question remains when considering how to best implement these guidelines in settings with limited resources, which include rural US emergency departments and low- and middle-income countries. The core principles of sepsis management should be a priority in community emergency departments. Similarly, cost-effective interventions are key priorities in low- and middle-income countries; however, consideration must be given to the unique challenges associated with such settings.

  19. Set and setting, psychedelics and the placebo response: An extra-pharmacological perspective on psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Hartogsohn, Ido

    2016-12-01

    Placebo response theory and set and setting theory are two fields which examine how non-biological factors shape the response to therapy. Both consider factors such as expectancy, preparation and beliefs to be crucial for understanding the extra-pharmacological processes which shape the response to drugs. Yet there are also fundamental differences between the two theories. Set and setting concerns itself with response to psychoactive drugs only; placebo theory relates to all therapeutic interventions. Placebo theory is aimed at medical professionals; set and setting theory is aimed at professionals and drug users alike. Placebo theory is primarily descriptive, describing how placebo acts; set and setting theory is primarily prescriptive, educating therapists and users on how to control and optimize the effects of drugs. This paper examines how placebo theory and set and setting theory can complement and benefit each other, broadening our understanding of how non-biological factors shape response to drugs and other treatment interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Exploring nurses' and patients' perspectives of limit setting in a forensic mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Tessa; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish

    2014-04-01

    Limit setting is an intervention that is frequently used by mental health nurses. However, limit setting is poorly conceptualized, its purpose is unclear, and there are few evidence-based guidelines to assist nurses to set limits in a safe and effective manner. What is known is that the manner in which nurses set limits influences patients' perceptions of the interactions and their emotional and behavioural responses. In this qualitative study, 12 nurses and 12 patients participated in personal, semistructured interviews that aimed to explore limit setting and to propose principles to guide practice. The findings suggested that: (i) limit setting is important to safety in mental health hospitals; (ii) engaging patients in an empathic manner is necessary when setting limits (when nurses engage in an empathic manner, the therapeutic relationship is more likely to be preserved and the risk of aggressive responses is reduced); and (iii) an authoritative (fair, respectful, consistent, and knowledgeable), rather than authoritarian (controlling and indifferent), limit-setting style enhances positive outcomes with regards to adherence, reduced likelihood of aggression, and preservation of the therapeutic relationship. In conclusion, a limit-setting style characterized by empathic responding and an authoritative, rather than authoritarian interpersonal, style is recommended. Elucidating the components of this style is critical for effective training and best practice of mental health nurses, and to reduce aggressive responses from limit setting. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.