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Sample records for in-and out-patient setting

  1. [Using arts therapies in psycho-oncology: evaluation of an exploratory study implemented in an out-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Zimoch, A

    2013-01-01

    According to the state-of-the-art in health psychology and psycho-oncology, a cancerous disease, as well as the accompanying medical treatments, is a source ofintense emotional stress. As feelings of insecurity and anxiety are likely to induce negative effects on immune defences, those effects may overlap with the cancerous disease and complicate its evolution. As arts therapies tend to favour the imaginary and symbolic elaboration of the tensions of daily life, as well as the re appropriation of one's body and personal history, different artistic mediations may occupy an important function in the psychological follow-up of the patient. Following an exploratory study in a hospital, we carried out an action-research in an out-patient setting during six moths. The arts therapeutic treatment comprehended alternatively drawing and writing sessions while listening to music, opening tracks for a thorough verbal elaboration. The evaluation was based on psychometric scales (HADS and MDBF), rating scales for the pictorial and literary production and a semi-structured interview. According to the results of the quantitative analyses, based on non parametric statistical procedures for small groups and non metric data, as well as to the qualitative content analyses, arts therapies could become a valuable treating measure within a multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social approach.

  2. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting

    PubMed Central

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care. PMID:26915921

  3. Using simulation in out-patient queues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huarng, F; Lee, M H

    1996-01-01

    Overwork and overcrowding in some periods was an important issue for the out-patient department of a local hospital in Chia-Yi in Taiwan. The hospital administrators wanted to manage the patient flow effectively. Describes a study which focused on the utilization of doctors and staff in the out-patient department, the time spent in the hospital by an out-patient, and the length of the out-patient queue. Explains how a computer simulation model was developed to study how changes in the appointment system, staffing policies and service units would affect the observed bottleneck. The results show that the waiting time was greatly reduced and the workload of the doctor was also reduced to a reasonable rate in the overwork and overcrowding periods.

  4. Out-Patient Nurse Involvement--An Answer to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Ruth J.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the planning and implementation of a continuing education inservice program for out-patient clinic nursing staff. Educational needs were assessed through interviews. Brief, twice-monthly seminar sessions stressed participant involvement. Copies of evaluation instruments are included which indicate favorable participant…

  5. Management of lower respiratory tract infections in out-patients.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, M

    1997-10-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most frequent medical conditions seen in out-patients. They all cause morbidity, and although most are minor some may be life-threatening, thus appropriate disease management is important. Clinical features are usually used to classify LRTIs, but this approach may be inaccurate. It may therefore be simpler to describe a patient's symptoms without applying a label, such as "bronchitis", since the latter means different things to different people. Classification of LRTIs should aim to aid management. The two main management decisions are: whether to manage the patient at home; and whether to prescribe antibiotics. Investigations are carried out in the hospital environment to aid these decisions, however in the community investigation in only a minority of cases are done as they are costly and impractical. Markers of severity of LRTI have been identified in a number of studies and their value in clinical practice is now being assessed, however most studies suggest that severely ill patients are correctly identified and admitted to hospital. Currently, antibiotics are used liberally for lower respiratory tract infections. However most infections are not bacterial in origin and will not be affected by such therapy. The idea that antibiotics are harmless placebos for such illnesses is no longer tenable since the appearance and rapid spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Only in community-acquired pneumonia and some patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis do antibiotics actually alter the course of the illness. In those groups antibiotics should be targetted at the casual pathogens and in other groups such therapy should be avoided. Much current research interest is focused on determining which (if any) is the best antibiotic in these situations. PMID:9510671

  6. Hot water irrigation as treatment for intractable posterior epistaxis in an out-patient setting.

    PubMed

    Novoa, E; Schlegel-Wagner, C

    2012-01-01

    The management of intractable posterior epistaxis is challenging for any physician. Nasal packing, often combined with use of an endonasal balloon system, is painful for the patient, and torturous to maintain for two to three days. If conservative treatment fails, the most commonly used treatment options are currently invasive procedures such as endoscopic coagulation of bleeding arteries, external ligation and, rarely, embolisation. This paper describes a simple, non-invasive technique of treating posterior epistaxis with hot water irrigation. Technical information is presented, and the benefits of the method are discussed. PMID:21888749

  7. [Individual in-patient and out-patient prevention in occupational skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Skudlik, C; Weisshaar, E

    2015-03-01

    Concerning all occupation-related diseases, one-third of those reported in Germany are skin diseases. Among them, contact dermatitis is the most frequent skin disease. It usually presents as hand eczema leading to a loss of function and ability to work as well as reduced quality of life. Due to the high demand a number of prevention programmes were introduced. They comprise measures of secondary (out-patient) and tertiary (in-patient) prevention. Out-patient prevention measures include dermatologist's report and occupation-tailored teaching and prevention programmes. If the occupational skin disease is severe, therapy is not successful or the diagnosis is not clear measures of tertiary prevention can be offered as an in-patient treatment and prevention programme. All this aims to prevent the job loss of the patient. Preventive measures in occupational dermatology have proven to be very effective in recent years, especially measures of individual in-patient and out-patient prevention as components of a complex hierarchical prevention concept. This integrated concept of an in-patient/out-patient disease management reveals remarkable pertinent effectivity for patients with severe occupational dermatoses in risk professions.

  8. Improving the quality of NHS out-patient clinics: the applications and misapplications of TQM.

    PubMed

    Hart, M

    1996-01-01

    Presents and discusses the results of a monitoring programme instituted to comply with the objectives laid down in The Patient's Charter. Explores the dangers inherent in attempting to assess the quality of out-patient clinics by the use of single, simplistic indicators such as a waiting time. Examines the ways in which total quality management has been deployed in a health-service context and pays particular attention to the way in which the concept of ¿the customer¿ may need considerable refinement. Suggests incorporating more user-centered approaches into evaluations of quality in the National Health Service, such as the patient satisfaction survey and the application of the SERVQUAL model of consumer satisfaction. Refines the concept of ¿ecological validity¿ in an attempt to capture the perceptions and world views of all of the participants in episodes of out-patient care in order to derive more complete measures of quality. PMID:10157561

  9. Improving the quality of NHS out-patient clinics: the applications and misapplications of TQM.

    PubMed

    Hart, M

    1996-01-01

    Presents and discusses the results of a monitoring programme instituted to comply with the objectives laid down in The Patient's Charter. Explores the dangers inherent in attempting to assess the quality of out-patient clinics by the use of single, simplistic indicators such as a waiting time. Examines the ways in which total quality management has been deployed in a health-service context and pays particular attention to the way in which the concept of ¿the customer¿ may need considerable refinement. Suggests incorporating more user-centered approaches into evaluations of quality in the National Health Service, such as the patient satisfaction survey and the application of the SERVQUAL model of consumer satisfaction. Refines the concept of ¿ecological validity¿ in an attempt to capture the perceptions and world views of all of the participants in episodes of out-patient care in order to derive more complete measures of quality.

  10. Rasch analysis of the Psychiatric Out-Patient Experiences Questionnaire (POPEQ)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Psychiatric Out-Patient Experiences Questionnaire (POPEQ) is an 11-item core measure of psychiatric out-patients experiences of the perceived outcome of the treatment, the quality of interaction with the clinician, and the quality of information provision. The POPEQ was found to have evidence for reliability and validity following the application of classical test theory but has not previously been assessed by Rasch analysis. Methods Two national postal surveys of psychiatric outpatients took place in Norway in 2004 and 2007. The performance of the POPEQ, including item functioning and differential item functioning, was assessed by Rasch analysis. Principal component analysis of item residuals was used to assess the presence of subdimensions. Results 6,677 (43.3%) and 11,085 (35.2%) psychiatric out patients responded to the questionnaire in 2004 and 2007, respectively. All items in the scale were retained after the Rasch analysis. The resulting scale had reasonably good fit to the Rasch model. The items performed the same for the two survey years and there was no differential item functioning relating to patient characteristics. Principal component analysis of the residuals confirmed that the measure to a high degree is unidimensional. However, the data also reflects three potential subscales, each relating to one of the three included aspects of health care. Conclusions The POPEQ had excellent psychometric properties and Rasch analysis further supported the construct validity of the scale by also identifying the three subdimensions originally included as components in the instrument development. The 11-item instrument is recommended in future research on psychiatric out-patient experiences. Future development may lead to the construction of more precise measures of the three subdomains that the POPEQ is based on. PMID:20920164

  11. Non-attendance at out-patient clinics: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mason, C

    1992-05-01

    Non-attendance at out-patient clinics is a persistent, worldwide problem. In contrast with previous research, a qualitative approach was used in this study to examine reasons for non-attendance at out-patient clinics in one Belfast hospital, by exploring perspectives of general practitioners (GPs), hospital staff and defaulters. Findings revealed conflicts of opinion between GPs and hospital staff on appropriate management of certain medical and postnatal patients. Patients' reasons for defaulting were wide-ranging; however, 32% of those interviewed did not attend, or were recorded as non-attenders, for reasons relating to inefficient hospital administration. It is concluded that the causes of non-attendance were multifactorial, and non-attenders could not be stereotyped as irresponsible. Suggested measures to alleviate the problem include discussion between groups of professionals on responsibility for care of medical and postnatal patients, increased negotiation between patients and physicians in order to develop agreed programmes of care, and, where possible, a shifting of the onus of responsibility for making and cancelling appointments onto patients.

  12. A national survey of disinfection techniques for flexible nasendoscopes in UK ENT out-patient departments.

    PubMed

    Banfield, G K; Hinton, A E

    2000-03-01

    Flexible fibre-optic nasendoscopes have become a ubiquitous ENT out-patient tool for the inspection of the nasopharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. Disinfection of the instrument between patient use is important to prevent potential spread of infection but the methods used vary considerably. We designed a questionnaire which was piloted and then sent to 115 UK ENT out-patient departments to establish current UK practice. Most units (67 per cent) use a chemical soak system but the type of chemical disinfectant, the method of delivery and the duration of soak varied considerably. A few hospitals use a disposable plastic sheath system and others simply wipe the instrument with an alcohol swab in between patient use. The protocols for disinfection after high risk patients e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B varied from hospital to hospital. The results demonstrate a lack of standard practice that is wasteful of financial resources and may expose patients to unnecessary risk. There is a need for an authoritative ENT body to publish national guidelines as may be found in other specialties and other countries.

  13. [Local treatment of chronic skin wounds in a Swiss out-patient wound centre 2010].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Marc; Tanner, Daniel; Hunziker, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    In Switzerland around 30,000 patients suffer from chronic skin wounds. Appropriate topical wound care along with treatment of the causes of the wounds enables to heal a lot of these patients and to avoid secondary disease such as infections. Thereby, the final goal of wound care is stable reepithelisation. Based on experience with chronic leg ulcers mainly in our out-patient wound centre, we give a survey of the wound dressings we actually use and discuss their wound-phase adapted application. Furthermore, we address the two tissue engineering products reimbursed in Switzerland, Apligraf and EpiDex, as well as the biological matrix product Oasis. The crucial question, which treatment options will be offered in future to the wound patients by our health regulatory and insurance systems, is open to debate.

  14. Excess cause-specific mortality in out-patients with personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Björkenstam, Emma; Gerdin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Summary Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased overall mortality. In patients hospitalised with a principal diagnosis of PD, this is observed for all clusters and for natural as well as unnatural causes of death. Data from Swedish nationwide registers were used to assess whether this was also true for the majority of patients diagnosed with PDs not severe enough to lead to hospitalisation. There was an increased mortality in all clusters, and for natural as well as unnatural death, also in patients treated as out-patients only, although not to the same extent as in those hospitalised. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703723

  15. Impact of involuntary out-patient commitment on reducing hospital services: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Castells-Aulet, Laura; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Jiménez-Martos, Jesús; Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To evaluate whether involuntary out-patient commitment (OPC) in patients with severe mental disorder reduces their use of hospital services. This is a retrospective case-control study comparing a group of patients on OPC (n = 75) and a control group (n = 75) which was composed of patients whose sociodemographic variables and clinical characteristics were similar to those of the OPC group. Each control case is paired with an OPC case, so the control case must have an involuntary admission in the month that the index OPC case admission occurred. Emergency room visits, admissions and average length of hospital stay over a 2-year follow-up after the initiation of OPC were compared. Results No statistically significant evidence was found in the use of mental healthcare services between the two groups. Different reasons for admission found between the groups limit similarity when comparing the two. Clinical implications The findings cast doubt over the effectiveness of this legal measure to reduce emergency visits, the number of admissions and the length of stay in the hospital. PMID:26755954

  16. Evaluating Infection Prevention Strategies in Out-Patient Dialysis Units Using Agent-Based Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Lawson, Barry; Shemin, Douglas; D'Agata, Erika M C

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD) are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO. We also hypothesize that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. To address our hypotheses, we built an agent-based model to simulate different treatment strategies in a dialysis unit. Our results suggest that reducing antimicrobial treatment, either by reducing the number of patients receiving treatment or by reducing the duration of the treatment, markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. Our results also suggest that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments is an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates. These findings have important implications for the development and implementation of future infection prevention strategies. PMID:27195984

  17. [Anxiety disorders in private practice psychiatric out-patients: prevalence, comorbidity and burden (DELTA study)].

    PubMed

    Pélissolo, A; André, C; Chignon, J-M; Dutoit, D; Martin, P; Richard-Berthe, C; Tignol, J

    2002-01-01

    Few data are currently available on the prevalence and associated characteristics of anxiety disorders in psychiatric out-patients in France, in particular in the private health-care. However, this represents one of the principal systems of care for patients suffering from anxiety disorders, with a possible direct access and several types of treatments available (pharmacotherapy but also different kinds of psychotherapy). The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a large sample of patients consulting in the private sector, and in addition to study the comorbidity, the severity of the disorders, their consequences on quality of life and health care consumption. The studied patients were included and assessed by 501 psychiatrists from all the country, at the time of a first visit. Inclusions were to be made in a consecutive way, but with the exclusion of psychotic disorders and dementia. A sample of 1 955 patients was obtained, and all subjects had a standardized diagnostic assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and with various dimensional scales of symptomatology severity, quality of life, and health care consumption. On the whole, at least one current anxiety disorder was found in 64.3% of the patients, while 55% had a depressive disorder. Individually, the prevalence rates are 29.4% for generalized anxiety disorder, 25.9% for agoraphobia, 19.2% for panic disorder, 15.3% for social phobia, 11.4% for obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 5.4% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of suicide attempts was found in 12-20% of patients, and an elevated suicide risk was found for example in 25% of PTSD patients. The scores of the symptomatic scales, adaptation and quality of life measure show a very significant anxious symptomatology, with serious functional consequences. Approximately 75% of patients had another medical consultation during the three previous months, and 9% have been

  18. Evaluation of Hand Written and Computerized Out-Patient Prescriptions in Urban Part of Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Jatin; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusion As compared to handwritten prescriptions, computerized prescriptions appeared to be associated with relatively lower rates of error. Since out-patient prescription errors are abundant and often occur in handwritten prescriptions, prescribers need to adapt themselves to computerized prescription order entry in their daily practice. PMID:27504305

  19. [THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRAUMATOLOGICAL ORTHOPEDIC OUT-PATIENT CARE TO POPULATION OF THE PRIVOLJSKII FEDERAL OKRUG].

    PubMed

    Norkin, I A; Baratov, A W; Andreeva, T M; Yushina, B S; Fedonnikov, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis ofmanpower support of specialized out-patient traumatological orthopedic care in the Privoljskii federal okrug. The manpower deficiency of traumatologist-orthopedist at the out-patient stage was established especially especially in rural area. This is cause of low indicators ofdispensary monitoring of patients with consequences of traumas and diseases of musculo-skeletal system and factual unavailability of rehabilitation care to patients of given profile. The experience oftraining and re-training of traumatologist-orthopedist is presented. The organization of hospital-substituting forms of medical service of profile patients in the Saratovskaia oblast. The directions of development of organization of specialized out-patient care to population of the region.

  20. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles

    2004-08-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention.

  1. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles

    2004-08-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention. PMID:15177835

  2. [Rheoencephlographic studies during general halothane anesthesia and laughing gas in stomatological treatment of children at the out-patient department].

    PubMed

    Novkova, A; Săbev, K

    1989-01-01

    Thirty two children, aged from 6 to 14 were studied by the rheoencephalographic method during general halothane and laughing gas anesthesia, stomatologically treated under out-patient department conditions. The quantitative analysis of the rheoencephalographic curves made of the method of differentia, the data being compared one hour before the general anesthesia, during the stage of surgical anesthesia and one hour after it. Statistically significant data were established showing pulse supply improvement and reduction of vascular tone of the brain blood vessels during general anesthesia and one hour after it. The expedience of the application of the rheoencephalographic method during general anesthesia is stressed upon as well as the potentialities of its application in the stomatological practice. The positive qualities of the method of general anesthesia applied for the stomatological treatment of children under out-patient department conditions are confirmed. PMID:2520867

  3. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.

  4. Predictors of non-compliance in autologous hematopoietic SCT patients undergoing out-patient transplants.

    PubMed

    Mumby, P B; Hurley, C; Samsi, M; Thilges, S; Parthasarathy, M; Stiff, P J

    2012-04-01

    Non-compliance has received significant attention in medicine, yet few studies have examined its correlates in autologous hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) patients. This study examined predictors of non-compliance in a sample of 151 AHSCT patients treated in an outpatient setting. Before AHSCT, participants completed a validated measure of mood and retrospective chart reviews were conducted to assess non-compliance during AHSCT, defined as refusal of oral hygiene, prescribed exercise programs, oral nutrition and/or prescribed medications. We found 121 patients (80%) were non-compliant with an aspect of the AHSCT regimen on 1 or more days; mean percentage of non-compliant days was 16.6 (s.d. 15.6). Men were more likely than women to be non-compliant (P<0.05); as were participants with an elevated depression score (P<0.05). Stepwise regression models identified significant predictors of non-compliance: gender, depression, global distress and nausea and vomiting severity (P-values all <0.01). Further analysis revealed that the interaction of the psychological variables with gender was a more robust predictor of non-compliance (P<0.001). For outpatient AHSCT, our findings suggest the need to broaden conceptualizations of risk factors for non-compliance and the importance of assessing patient barriers to compliance to ensure optimal treatment outcome.

  5. [Influence of out-patient training on locus of control and health-relevant attitudes in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Pötz, Hermann; Kurz, Robert W; Pirker, Hans; Dörrscheidt, Waltraud; Uhlir, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    Therapy of essential hypertension needs a comprehensive and broad assessment that includes somatic as well as psychological aims. We examined the effects of out-patient training for hypertensive patients on somatic parameters as well as locus of control and different relevant attitudes of patients. Psychological results are described in this paper. Out of the 50 patients analysis of somatic data distinguish so-called "responders" with clear improvement that permitted reduction of drugs from another group, called "non-responders", for which no reduction of drugs was possible. Analyses of psychological data show that "responders" develop a higher awareness of their body, a more positive attitude towards health, a freer attitude towards pleasure of life, sexuality, play and creativity. Their will to work and produce becomes less important. Internal locus of control (conviction that one is able to influence illness by oneself) is higher in "responders". Furthermore social external locus of control (conviction that following the suggestions of therapists is helpful) rises. Remnants of these effects were found in a follow up 18 months later.

  6. [Specialised out-patient palliative care (SAPV) in Bavaria: efficiency, structural and process-related effects and rural care].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Eichner, E; Thoms, U; Stadelbacher, S; Kopitzsch, F

    2015-03-01

    Empirical indications show that specialised out-patient palliative care (SAPV), introduced in Germany in 2007, allows critically ill and dying patients to pass away within their own home even under complex symptoms. SAPV avoids emergency and hospital interferences, and the patient's wish to stay at home until the very end can be respected in most cases. The performance of SAPV is not solely focused on medical and patient-care aspects. It includes consulting and coordination work and also psycho-social support both of patients and family members. Within this framework, different active factors could be identified that are essential for high-quality care. Furthermore, the results show that the general ambulant care commodities on site determine the need, the extent and even the efficiency of SAPV. At the same time, SAPV changes also the respective care environment: it changes the roles of previous care providers and offers new resources, though not all existing resources (e. g., hospice services) are taken into account.

  7. The influence of immediate physiotherapy in the out-patient management of acute knee injuries: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, M A; Venner, R M; Ford, I; Todd, B D

    1990-01-01

    All patients who presented to our Accident & Emergency Department over a 6-month period with an acute knee injury were randomly assigned to receive either immediate physiotherapy or not prior to further follow up at an out-patient clinic. Patients with trivial injuries not requiring follow up and patients with severe injuries requiring immediate admission were excluded from the study. Patients not immediately referred for physiotherapy could be referred if this was thought necessary at later follow up. There was no statistical difference in the number of outpatient follow up appointments or the length of time to discharge from the clinic between the groups. Those patients referred for physiotherapy immediately had a significantly greater number of total attendances at the physiotherapy department. However more patients in the 'no physiotherapy' group ultimately required arthroscopy for suspected meniscal injury. We conclude that a blanket referral of all acute knee injury patients is unjustified and wasteful of resources. However physiotherapy may be indicated in patients initially suspected of having meniscal injury. PMID:2099163

  8. Effects of Chronic Illness on the Quality of Life in Psychiatric out patients of the Iraq – Iran War

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid; Karami, Gholamreza; Masoomi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Quality of life measures can provide an important source of medical information for promoting the health status of chronically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate health related quality of life in psychiatric veterans of the Iraq- Iran war of the 1980s. Methods They were out patients diagnosed with various psychiatric symptoms. The present study used a cross sectional design, in which 971 psychiatric veterans were selected by Systematic-randomized sampling and evaluated using the SF36 questionnaire. Results Findings revealed that veterans who suffered from one or more chronic conditions/illnesses reported significantly more bodily pain and significantly less vitality, mental and general health compared to those veterans without chronic conditions. Moreover, specific aspects of poor quality of life were more salient in specific chronic conditions/illnesses than others. Conclusion Based on these findings, chronic conditions, especially respiratory problems, can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life in psychiatric war veterans. PMID:23682246

  9. Empirical models of demand for out-patient physician services and their relevance to the assessment of patient payment policies: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Skriabikova, Olga; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee) or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  10. [Socio-economic and health organizational problems of emergency and out-patient care for elderly and senile patients with arterial hypertension (according to the sociological monitoring)].

    PubMed

    Davydov, E L; Kapitonov, V F; Khar'kov, E I; Kapitonov, F V; Popov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The article contains data about the peculiarities of socio-economic and health-organization factors in the rendering emergency and out-patient care for elderly and senile patients with arterial hypertension. The results of study of satisfaction by medical care quality depending on the age and gender of the patients are discussed. A large number of living alone and widowed patients among elderly patients is marked. About half of the respondents in both groups are low-income; among middle-income respondents a low proportion of the elderly is observed. The majority of patients can be admitted to the doctor in the polyclinic no earlier than 2 to 7 days from the moment of entry. The obtained data should be taken into account when forming a model of medical-social care for patients with arterial hypertension in older age groups.

  11. Clinical utility of PKD2 mutation testing in a polycystic kidney disease cohort attending a specialist nephrology out-patient clinic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADPKD affects approximately 1:1000 of the worldwide population. It is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Although allelic variation has some influence on disease severity, genic effects are strong, with PKD2 mutations predicting later onset of ESRF by up to 20 years. We therefore screened a cohort of ADPKD patients attending a nephrology out-patient clinic for PKD2 mutations, to identify factors that can be used to offer targeted gene testing and to provide patients with improved prognostic information. Methods 142 consecutive individuals presenting to a hospital nephrology out-patient service with a diagnosis of ADPKD and CKD stage 4 or less were screened for mutations in PKD2, following clinical evaluation and provision of a detailed family history (FH). Results PKD2 mutations were identified in one fifth of cases. 12% of non-PKD2 patients progressed to ESRF during this study whilst none with a PKD2 mutation did (median 38.5 months of follow-up, range 16–88 months, p < 0.03). A significant difference was found in age at ESRF of affected family members (non-PKD2 vs. PKD2, 54 yrs vs. 65 yrs; p < 0.0001). No PKD2 mutations were identified in patients with a FH of ESRF occurring before age 50 yrs, whereas a PKD2 mutation was predicted by a positive FH without ESRF. Conclusions PKD2 testing has a clinically significant detection rate in the pre-ESRF population. It did not accurately distinguish those individuals with milder renal disease defined by stage of CKD but did identify a group less likely to progress to ESRF. When used with detailed FH, it offers useful prognostic information for individuals and their families. It can therefore be offered to all but those whose relatives have developed ESRF before age 50. PMID:22863349

  12. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) among psychiatric out-patients in Sweden: relations with season, age, ethnic origin and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Humble, Mats B; Gustafsson, Sven; Bejerot, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    In a chart review at a psychiatric out-patient department, latitude 59.3 degrees N, a sample of patients with tests of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was collected, together with demographic data and psychiatric diagnoses. During 19 months, 117 patients were included. Their median 25-OHD was 45 nmol/l; considerably lower than published reports on Swedish healthy populations. Only 14.5% had recommended levels (over 75). In 56.4%, 25-OHD was under 50 nmol/l, which is related to several unfavourable health outcomes. Seasonal variation of 25-OHD was blunted. Patients with ADHD had unexpectedly low iPTH levels. Middle East, South-East Asian or African ethnic origin, being a young male and having a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia predicted low 25-OHD levels. Hence, the diagnoses that have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, schizophrenia and autism, had the lowest 25-OHD levels in this adult sample, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. This is further supported by the considerable psychiatric improvement that coincided with vitamin D treatment in some of the patients whose deficiency was treated. PMID:20214992

  13. Household cost of out-patient treatment of Buruli ulcer in Ghana: a case study of Obom in Ga South Municipality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The economic burden of diseases has become increasingly relevant to policy makers as healthcare expenditure keep rising in the face of limited and competing resources. Buruli ulcer (BU), a neglected but treatable tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, the only known environmental mycobacterium is capable of causing long term disability when left untreated. However, most BU studies have tended to focused on its bacteriology, epidemiology, entomology and other social determinants to the neglect of its economic evaluation. This paper reports estimated the household economic costs of BU and describe the intangible cost suffered by BU patients in an endemic area. Methods Retrospective one year cost data was used. A total of 63 confirmed BU cases were randomly sampled for the study. Economic cost and cost burden of BU were estimated. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of the cost estimates. Intangible cost measured stigmatization, pain, functional limitation and social isolation of children. Results The annual total household economic cost was US$35,915.98, of which about 65% was cost incurred by children with a mean cost of US$521.04. The mean annual household cost was US$570.09. The direct cost was 96% of the total cost. Non-medical cost accounts for about 97% of the direct cost with a mean cost of US$529.27. The mean medical cost was US$18.94. The main cost drivers of the household costs were transportation (78%) and food (12%). Caregivers and adult patients lost a total of 535 productive days seeking care, which gives an indirect cost valued at US$1,378.67 with a mean of US$21.88. A total of 365 school days (about 1 year) were lost by 19 BU patients (mean, 19.2 days). Functional loss and pain were low, and stigma rated moderate. Most children suffering from BU (84%) were socially isolated. Conclusion Household cost burden of out-patient BU ulcer treatment was high. Household cost of BU is therefore essential in the

  14. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  15. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  16. Experiences of and perspectives on genetic testing for breast/ovarian cancer in and outside of the customary clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, A M; Gallagher, P

    2010-11-01

    Recently, genetic testing has begun to move from the customary clinical setting (with restrictive entry criteria) into the offices of GPs and the homes of consumers (Williams-Jones, 2003). This research aimed to look at participants' experiences of genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in a clinical environment, and subsequently ascertain potential psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing outside the customary clinical setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight female participants who had undergone genetic testing within a clinical setting. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three super-ordinate themes emerged. Participants' 'battle for control' reflected a perceived loss of control due to their cancer experiences. The 'psychological impact of having experienced/witnessed cancer' highlighted the psychological burden that many participants and their family members lived with. Finally, 'scepticism towards testing outside the clinical setting' was expressed by all participants; they were suspicious of this method of testing. These themes highlighted the potential psychological strain of undergoing genetic testing outside the clinical setting. They also highlighted the wariness with which participants approached the possible introduction of testing outside the customary clinical setting. Psychosocial implications of genetic testing outside the clinical setting were discussed in light of these findings.

  17. Out-Patient Management of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Asthma, seen primarily as an inflammatory disease with secondary airway hyper-responsiveness, causes symptoms through contraction of the airway's smooth muscles. The management of chronic asthma relies on bronchodilators for symptomatic relief of bronchospasm, while primary therapy is used to either prevent or reverse the inflammatory component of the disease. Anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies include environmental control (where relevant), sodium cromoglycate (where appropriate), and both inhaled and oral glucocorticosteroids. Management of acute severe asthma is similar; bronchodilators are used to ”buy time” while systemic corticosteroids control the inflammatory process. PMID:21248908

  18. Kairos: An Out-Patient Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Betty Anne

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of Kairos, a Canadian outpatient drug rehabilitation program. A survey of 43 former clients showed all made some improvement as measured by a social rating scale, and most had positive comments about the program. Clients felt they had learned coping strategies for use with future problems. (JAC)

  19. ["Practical tuberculosis care outside the hospital stands and falls with the tuberculosis nurse". Challenges in out-patient care, using the example of tuberculosis nurses in the first third of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2014-01-01

    Once it had become apparent that tuberculosis sanatoriums were unable to stop this widespread disease, out-patient tuberculosis clinics were established for patients and their relatives in the German Reich. These clinics, which started in the late nineteenth century, employed physicians and tuberculosis nurses. The nurses were generally community or parish nurses, specialized carers not being trained until later. On the one hand, their tasks included the work at these clinics, where they assisted the physician, admitted patients and carried out x-rays and lab tests. On the other hand--and this was their main task--they visited the sick and their families at home, informed them about tuberculosis, instructed them on questions of hygiene and the appropriate behaviour and made sure these instructions were adhered to. If they were able to offer material help as well, they were received more willingly--and they could only make their visits with a patient's consent. Due to the lack of tuberculosis medicines, the work of the tuberculosis nurses was a mainstay in the fight against this highly infectious disease. They often had to overcome the resistance of general practitioners and also of some patients and their families. But they loved doing their job because they were appreciated by the tuberculosis doctors, had a relatively high degree of freedom, authority and responsibility as health visitors and achieved visible results through personal commitment.

  20. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  1. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutsch, Jason

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus a pathological set becomes a bit more friendly. Finally, a number of interesting open problems are left for the inspired reader.

  2. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  3. Acronical Risings and Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  4. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Fact Sheet on Noroviruses [PDF - 61 ...

  5. Embeddings of Causal Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, David D.

    2009-07-06

    A key postulate of the causal set program is that this discrete partial order offers a sufficiently rich structure to make it a viable model of spacetime for quantum gravity. If the deep structure of spacetime is that of a causal set, then the correspondence principle (with the spacetimes of general relativity) must be obeyed. Therefore, one of the requirements of this program is to establish that the causal set structure is in fact, not just in principle, fully consistent with our macroscopic notion of spacetime as a Lorentzian manifold. An important component of any such 'manifold test' is the ability to find embeddings of causal sets into Lorentzian manifolds.

  6. Frequency set on systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, W. A.; Brett, A. R. H.

    Frequency set on techniques used in ECM applications include repeater jammers, frequency memory loops (RF and optical), coherent digital RF memories, and closed loop VCO set on systems. Closed loop frequency set on systems using analog phase and frequency locking are considered to have a number of cost and performance advantages. Their performance is discussed in terms of frequency accuracy, bandwidth, locking time, stability, and simultaneous signals. Some experimental results are presented which show typical locking performance. Future ECM systems might require a response to very short pulses. Acoustooptic and fiber-optic pulse stretching techniques can be used to meet such requirements.

  7. Setting standards: Legislative proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-11-01

    This article, second of a two-part series examining the standard-setting process reviews legislative proposals that would change the way drinking water standards are set. How drinking water standards should be set and which contaminants should be regulated is a central issue for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) reauthorization. Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum of issues. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Others note that the high costs associated with meeting increasingly strict standards are not justified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits.

  8. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Minority" Youth Finds Them at Risk of Violence September 02, 2016 The Weekly Spark Stay Connected! Subscribe Settings Schools, workplaces, hospitals, nursing homes—every place where people ...

  9. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  10. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  11. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  12. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  13. Set Equation Transformation System.

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  14. Quantum mechanics over sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerman, David

    2014-03-01

    In models of QM over finite fields (e.g., Schumacher's ``modal quantum theory'' MQT), one finite field stands out, Z2, since Z2 vectors represent sets. QM (finite-dimensional) mathematics can be transported to sets resulting in quantum mechanics over sets or QM/sets. This gives a full probability calculus (unlike MQT with only zero-one modalities) that leads to a fulsome theory of QM/sets including ``logical'' models of the double-slit experiment, Bell's Theorem, QIT, and QC. In QC over Z2 (where gates are non-singular matrices as in MQT), a simple quantum algorithm (one gate plus one function evaluation) solves the Parity SAT problem (finding the parity of the sum of all values of an n-ary Boolean function). Classically, the Parity SAT problem requires 2n function evaluations in contrast to the one function evaluation required in the quantum algorithm. This is quantum speedup but with all the calculations over Z2 just like classical computing. This shows definitively that the source of quantum speedup is not in the greater power of computing over the complex numbers, and confirms the idea that the source is in superposition.

  15. The Crystal Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  16. Group Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis C.

    1978-01-01

    Action goal setting uses power of peer influence in a healthy and constructive manner, and provides appropriate follow-up for many counseling and classroom activities. This process could help individuals of all ages to take more control over their behavior and create life-styles congruent with their abilities, interests, and values. (Author)

  17. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  18. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.

    2007-10-15

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.

  19. Therapists in Oncology Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…

  20. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  1. Keyworth urges setting priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A strong advocate of scientists setting priorities within their disciplines, George A. Keyworth, II, President Reagan's science advisor and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, recently offered three possible consequences if such priorities are not set.‘I'm especially worried about the continued inability—or unwillingness—of the science community to agree among themselves about priorities—or to abide by their decisions when they can agree,’ he said [emphasis his]. ‘I wouldn't think it necessary that I remind them that these are tough times. I'll add that for anyone depending on federal funding, they're going to remain tough, times for quite a while,’ Keyworth told the American Physical Society at its mid-April meeting in Baltimore, Md.

  2. Setting mastery learning standards.

    PubMed

    Yudkowsky, Rachel; Park, Yoon Soo; Lineberry, Matthew; Knox, Aaron; Ritter, E Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Mastery learning is an instructional approach in which educational progress is based on demonstrated performance, not curricular time. Learners practice and retest repeatedly until they reach a designated mastery level; the final level of achievement is the same for all, although time to mastery may vary. Given the unique properties of mastery learning assessments, a thoughtful approach to establishing the performance levels and metrics that determine when a learner has demonstrated mastery is essential.Standard-setting procedures require modification when used for mastery learning settings in health care, particularly regarding the use of evidence-based performance data, the determination of appropriate benchmark or comparison groups, and consideration of patient safety consequences. Information about learner outcomes and past performance data of learners successful at the subsequent level of training can be more helpful than traditional information about test performance of past examinees. The marginally competent "borderline student" or "borderline group" referenced in traditional item-based and examinee-based procedures will generally need to be redefined in mastery settings. Patient safety considerations support conjunctive standards for key knowledge and skill subdomains and for items that have an impact on clinical outcomes. Finally, traditional psychometric indices used to evaluate the quality of standards do not necessarily reflect critical measurement properties of mastery assessments. Mastery learning and testing are essential to the achievement and assessment of entrustable professional activities and residency milestones. With careful attention, sound mastery standard-setting procedures can provide an essential step toward improving the effectiveness of health professions education, patient safety, and patient care. PMID:26375263

  3. The Crystal Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-04-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought I knew, but actually did not.

  4. [Prescribing drugs to patients receiving out-patient care].

    PubMed

    Garjón Parra, F J

    2009-01-01

    Drug prescription has evolved to deal mainly with chronic diseases. Nowadays, repeating prescriptions using computers results in problems if this is not done with adequate control. Steps proposed for appropriate prescription are: defining the problem; specifying the objective; selecting the drug; initiating therapy with appropriate details; giving information; regular evaluation; considering cost; and using tools to reduce errors. Published recommendations for prescription, which have focused on elderly patients, include: avoiding polypharmacy; carrying out a regular medication review; stopping any current drugs that are not indicated and prescribing new drugs that have a clear indication; avoiding drugs that have deleterious effects; using dosages that are suitable for the age and renal function; using simple drug regimes and appropriate administration systems; considering non-pharmacological treatments; limiting the number of practitioners prescribing for each patient; and avoiding treating adverse drug reactions with further drugs. Examples of compliance with those recommendations in the Navarre Health Service, extracted from the prescription information system, are provided. The measures for improving prescription are: education, auditing, collaboration between health professionals and use of electronic tools.

  5. Interventions by pharmacists in out-patient pharmaceutical care.

    PubMed

    Al Rahbi, Hussain Abdullah Mubarak; Al-Sabri, Raid Mahmood; Chitme, Havagiray R

    2014-04-01

    Interventions by the pharmacists have always been considered as a valuable input by the health care community in the patient care process by reducing the medication errors, rationalizing the therapy and reducing the cost of therapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the number and types of medication errors intervened by the dispensing pharmacists at OPD pharmacy in the Khoula Hospital during 2009 retrospectively. The interventions filed by the pharmacists and assistant pharmacists in OPD pharmacy were collected. Then they were categorized and analyzed after a detailed review. The results show that 72.3% of the interventions were minor of which 40.5% were about change medication order. Comparatively more numbers of prescriptions were intervened in female patients than male patients. 98.2% of the interventions were accepted by the prescribers reflecting the awareness of the doctors about the importance of the pharmacy practice. In this study only 688 interventions were due to prescribing errors of which 40.5% interventions were done in changing the medication order of clarifying the medicine. 14.9% of the interventions were related to administrative issues, 8.7% of the interventions were related to selection of medications as well as errors due to ignorance of history of patients. 8.2% of the interventions were to address the overdose of medications. Moderately significant interventions were observed in 19.4% and 7.5% of them were having the impact on major medication errors. Pharmacists have intervened 20.8% of the prescriptions to prevent complications, 25.1% were to rationalize the treatment, 7.9% of them were to improve compliance. Based on the results we conclude that the role of pharmacist in improving the health care system is vital. We recommend more number of such research based studies to bring awareness among health care professionals, provide solution to the prescription and dispensing problems, as it can also improve the documentation system, emphasize the importance of it, reduce prescribing errors, and update the knowledge of pharmacists and other health care professionals. PMID:24648820

  6. Methodological approaches to ADR detection in out-patient children.

    PubMed

    Sanz, E J

    1991-12-01

    Drugs are extensively used in both ill and healthy people, all over the world and at all ages. But, in fact, children are prone to receive a drug after every consultation. As drugs are not just "healing substances" but also chemicals able to interfere with the body and cause harm, the physician has to keep a balance between effects and side-effects: a risk/benefit analysis. Two potential ways of causing harm can be distinguished: the classical "Adverse Drug Reactions" (ADR), based upon the biochemical and physiological interactions between the drug and the body, and the so called "Drug Related Problems" (DRP). The last ones are situations in which a patient gets worse because a good medication has been stopped or the adequate treatment was never prescribed, overdosages and intoxications, or even the changes in the patient's conceptions and attitudes to drugs due to an unhealthy use of medicines. The incidence of ADR in children is very low (0.7 to 4% in outpatient children), but some methods for detecting and controlling these adverse effects must be at hand for making it possible to discover new, serious, unexpected ADRs. The most important characteristics of the main system used, such as the "Spontaneous Reporting System", "Record Linkage in Computerized Databases", "Prescription-Event Monitoring" or the "Sample Monitoring" and Therapeutic Audits", are discussed in the paper. (Fig. 2, Ref. 29.) PMID:1806175

  7. Gene set enrichment analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilford, Charles A; Siemers, Nathan O

    2009-01-01

    Set enrichment analytical methods have become commonplace tools applied to the analysis and interpretation of biological data. The statistical techniques are used to identify categorical biases within lists of genes, proteins, or metabolites. The goal is to discover the shared functions or properties of the biological items represented within the lists. Application of these methods can provide great biological insight, including the discovery of participation in the same biological activity or pathway, shared interacting genes or regulators, common cellular compartmentalization, or association with disease. The methods require ordered or unordered lists of biological items as input, understanding of the reference set from which the lists were selected, categorical classifiers describing the items, and a statistical algorithm to assess bias of each classifier. Due to the complexity of most algorithms and the number of calculations performed, computer software is almost always used for execution of the algorithm, as well as for presentation of the results. This chapter will provide an overview of the statistical methods used to perform an enrichment analysis. Guidelines for assembly of the requisite information will be presented, with a focus on careful definition of the sets used by the statistical algorithms. The need for multiple test correction when working with large libraries of classifiers is emphasized, and we outline several options for performing the corrections. Finally, interpreting the results of such analysis will be discussed along with examples of recent research utilizing the techniques.

  8. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  9. Telemedicine in educational settings.

    PubMed

    Newton, Heather

    The use of telemedicine to enhance patient care is well documented in the literature (Currell et al 2001); however, its use in educational settings requires further exploration. Technological advances in electronic communication have been the catalyst for enabling the transmission and storage of large volumes of data. This, in turn, has allowed still and video images to be used for clinical consultation and the advancement of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills. This article discusses the use of telemedicine in healthcare practices and explores its value as an educational tool, particularly in the field of wound care.

  10. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  11. Tool setting device

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.

  12. Telemedicine in clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    The telemedicine department of a hospital is an emerging branch in upcoming hospitals and may become an essential component of every hospital. It basically utilizes the information technologies along with telecommunication systems in order to provide clinical care and assistance. Furthermore, the branch of telemedicine offers significant opportunities for the process of developmental freedom from illness, early death, and preventable diseases. It advances development by providing relevant drugs and the necessary care aimed to alleviate patient suffering. It is also beneficial for patients in rural remote areas who usually do not have adequate access to advanced hospitals. Telemedicine in these remote areas allows for timely treatment of emergency cases. Thus, it contributes towards remote emergency critical care in order to save lives in crucial cases. Additionally, the emerging advances have now enabled telemedicine to transfer large amounts of clinical informatics data including images, and test reports to the specifically specialized health professionals in some serious cases. However, as in the case of many emerging technologies, organizing information and understanding the field has significant challenges. The present review article aimed to discuss important aspects of the field with regard to the better management of patients in clinical settings. PMID:27703503

  13. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  14. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  15. Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig

    2013-12-01

    In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24051816

  16. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  17. Motivating Athletes Through Goal Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This article provides some guidelines for coaches and athletes for goal setting strategies: (1) set realistic goals; (2) write down goals, so that they are remembered and understood by all persons involved; (3) set measurable objective goals; and (4) have coach act as facilitator. (CJ)

  18. Fuzzy Sets and Mathematical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsina, C.; Trillas, E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents the concept of "Fuzzy Sets" and gives some ideas for its potential interest in mathematics education. Defines what a Fuzzy Set is, describes why we need to teach fuzziness, gives some examples of fuzzy questions, and offers some examples of activities related to fuzzy sets. (MDH)

  19. Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to determine how "stimulus-set" and "response-set" components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration…

  20. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. The Mapmark Standard Setting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2005-01-01

    A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

  2. Chemistry Sets Face Uncertain Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen C.

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry sets, often a child's first contact with chemistry, are becoming less attractive to manufacturers as the market for these items decreases. There is a tendency for recently manufactured chemistry sets to be less adequate than those selling in the same price range in past years. Manuals vary in quality among manufacturers. (RE)

  3. Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.

  4. Penrose tilings as model sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, A. V.; Maleev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The Baake construction, based on generating a set of vertices of Penrose tilings as a model set, is refined. An algorithm and a corresponding computer program for constructing an uncountable set of locally indistinguishable Penrose tilings are developed proceeding from this refined construction. Based on an analysis of the parameters of tiling vertices, 62 versions of rhomb combinations at the tiling center are determined. The combinatorial structure of Penrose tiling worms is established. A concept of flip transformations of tilings is introduced that makes it possible to construct Penrose tilings that cannot be implemented in the Baake construction.

  5. Outbreaks in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Sood, Geeta; Perl, Trish M

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in health care settings can be complex and should be evaluated systematically using epidemiologic tools. Laboratory testing is an important part of an outbreak evaluation. Health care personnel, equipment, supplies, water, ventilation systems, and the hospital environment have been associated with health care outbreaks. Settings including the neonatal intensive care unit, endoscopy, oncology, and transplant units are areas that have specific issues which impact the approach to outbreak investigation and control. Certain organisms have a predilection for health care settings because of the illnesses of patients, the procedures performed, and the care provided. PMID:27515142

  6. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  7. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  8. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  9. An inability to set independent attentional control settings by hemifield.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mark W; Ravizza, Susan M; Peltier, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that people can simultaneously activate attentional control setting for two distinct colors. However, it is unclear whether both attentional control settings must operate globally across the visual field or whether each can be constrained to a particular spatial location. Using two different paradigms, we investigated participants' ability to apply independent color attentional control settings to distinct regions of space. In both experiments, participants were told to identify red letters in one hemifield and green letters in the opposite hemifield. Additionally, some trials used a "relevant distractor"-a letter that matched the opposite side's target color. In Experiment 1, eight letters appeared (four per hemifield) simultaneously for a brief amount of time and then were masked. Relevant distractors increased the error rate and resulted in a greater number of distractor intrusions than irrelevant distractors. Similar results were observed in Experiment 2 in which red and green targets were presented in two rapid serial visual presentation streams. Relevant distractors were found to produce an attentional blink similar in magnitude to an actual target. The results of both experiments suggest that letters matching either attentional control setting were selected by attention and were processed as if they were targets, providing strong evidence that both attentional control settings were applied globally, rather than being constrained to a particular location. PMID:26220268

  10. Suicide in the Medical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Pao, Maryland; Henderson, David; Lee, Laura M.; Bostwick, J. Michael; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Little is known about suicide in the hospital setting. Although suicide is a major public health concern, the literature on suicide in the medical setting is limited, and accurate data on hospital-based suicides are unavailable. Consequently, the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and risk factors for suicide in this population are unknown. The literature on completed suicides in medical or surgical wards of a general hospital was summarized to generate hypotheses for further investigation regarding in-hospital suicides. Methods MEDLINE, PsycINFO, IndexCat, and Scopus were queried for English-language articles on inpatient suicides in a general hospital. These data were compared with reports of suicide by psychiatric inpatients and the annual suicide statistics from the U.S. general population. Results Twelve articles detailing 335 suicides in the medical setting were included. Published data on hospital-based suicides are limited by selection bias, incomplete reporting, and a small number of completed suicides. Consequently, no significant setting-specific findings emerge from the existing literature. Reported cases suggest that inpatients who commit suicide in the medical setting may have a different demographic profile and employ different methods of suicide in comparison with individuals who commit suicide in psychiatric settings or the general population. Discussion Given the absence of systematic data collection and the highly variable nature of reported suicides, it coult not be determined if clinically relevant distinctions exist between suicides in different health care settings. Prospective and more detailed data collection are needed because a more complete characterization of suicide in medical inpatients may be useful in both prevention approaches and institutional policies with respect to hospital-based suicides. PMID:18714750

  11. Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dockery, John; Littman, David

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.

  12. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  13. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated. PMID:22948916

  14. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated.

  15. Setting standards: Risk assessment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    How drinking water standards are set and which contaminants should be regulated are central issues in reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Other note that the high cost associated with meeting increasingly strict standards is unjustified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits. This article takes a look at the issues involved in developing a rational approach for establishing drinking water standards. It reviews the current approach used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to set standards.

  16. Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.

    PubMed

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings. PMID:21092916

  17. Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.

    PubMed

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings.

  18. Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…

  19. Input in an Institutional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the nature of input available to learners in the institutional setting of the academic advising session. Results indicate that evidence for the realization of speech acts, positive evidence from peers and status unequals, the effect of stereotypes, and limitations of a learner's pragmatic and grammatical competence are influential…

  20. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  1. Ethical Issues in Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Linda L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four papers on ethical issues in physical education clinical settings are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Teaching" (L. Bain); (2) "Ethics in Professional Advising and Academic Counseling of Graduate Students" (G. Roberts); (3) "Ethical Issues in Clinical Services" (R. Singer); and (4) a reaction to the three previous papers by Bonnie Berger.…

  2. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  3. Informal Learning in Experiential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neathery, Madelyn Faye

    1998-01-01

    Assesses informal learning in experiential settings. Elementary teachers (n=20) from public and private schools participated in an on-site seminar involving experiential learning in science centers, a wildlife refuge, and a zoological sanctuary. The significance of instruction provided by guides, types of exhibits, and the use of informational…

  4. Teaching Quality across School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julie; Brown, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Districts are increasingly making personnel decisions based on teachers' impact on student-achievement gains and classroom observations. In some schools, however, a teacher's practices and their students' achievement may reflect not just individual but collaborative efforts. In other settings, teachers' instruction benefits less from the insights…

  5. A distributed telerobotics construction set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James D.

    1994-01-01

    During the course of our research on distributed telerobotic systems, we have assembled a collection of generic, reusable software modules and an infrastructure for connecting them to form a variety of telerobotic configurations. This paper describes the structure of this 'Telerobotics Construction Set' and lists some of the components which comprise it.

  6. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  7. "Trap Setting" in Didactic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdal, Pamela

    1984-01-01

    Trap setting is a concept based on a psycholinguistic explanation of the acquisition of second language skills emphasizing cognitive and creative processes over the auditory, visual, and imitative. It proposes that opportunities for repeated attempts at solving new problems through constant testing and retesting of creative hypotheses bring the…

  8. Organizational Constraints and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, Frederick B.; Wotman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Management modeling techniques are applied to setting operational and capital goals using cost analysis techniques in this case study at the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The model was created as a planning tool used in developing a financially feasible operating plan and a 100 percent physical renewal plan. (LBH)

  9. Families & School. Best of "set."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N., Ed.; Richards, Llyn, Ed.

    Published to celebrate the United Nations' International Year of the Family, this special issue presents selected articles from "set," a twice yearly journal of research information for teachers. These articles look at the contribution of educational research on the relationships between schools and families, and families and learning in Australia…

  10. Setting Time Limits on Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…

  11. Communicable Diseases in Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networks, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter addresses managing the spread of communicable diseases in childhood settings as well as educational program concerns for children who are HIV infected. Noting that communicable diseases are a source of concern no matter how minor they might appear, the newsletter suggests that it is important for individuals who work with the…

  12. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  13. Promoting Literacy in Multilingual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo; Young, Catherine; Malone, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of resource papers and findings is from a regional workshop on mother-tongue/bilingual literacy programmes for ethnic and linguistic minorities in multilingual settings. It was organized by Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Bangkok, 6-10 December…

  14. States Set Common Standards, IF...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    Whether differences in the standards states have set can be explained by something other than regional differences is explored. In addition, a way in which standards can be compared is defined, and the standard of proficiency that seems to be widely shared across the country is illustrated. The Trial State Assessment (TSA) data from the National…

  15. The Sun Sets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On Sol 20 of its journey, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity woke up around 5:30 in the martian afternoon to watch the sunset. A series of five sets of three-color images from the rover's panoramic camera was acquired looking toward the southwest. Each set used an infrared, green and violet filter, rather than the human red-green-blue, so that the maximum panoramic camera wavelength range could be covered by the observations, enhancing the scientific value of the measurements.

    A color image was made from the first post-sunset sequence of calibrated color images, with the color balance set to approximate what the sunset color would have looked like to the human eye. The color seen in this first post-sunset image was then used to colorize each image in the sequence. Approximately one-minute gaps between consecutive color images meant the Sun's position changed within each color set, so the images had to be manually shifted to compensate for this motion. In this fashion, the position and brightness of the Sun are taken from each individual image, but the color is taken from a single set of images. The images were then combined into a movie where one color set fades gracefully into the next. Analysis of the five color sets shows that there were only small color variations during the sunset, so most of the real variations are captured in the movie.

    The rapid dimming of the Sun near the horizon is due to the dust in the sky. There is nearly twice as much dust as there was when the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which landed on Mars in 1997, imaged the sunset. This causes the Sun to be many times fainter. The sky above the Sun has the same blue tint observed by Pathfinder and also by Viking, which landed on Mars in 1976. This is because dust in the martian atmosphere scatters blue light forward toward the observer much more efficiently than it scatters red light forward. Therefore, a 'halo' of blueish sky color is always observed close to the Sun. We're only seeing

  16. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  17. Caseview: building the reference set.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Pierre P

    2004-01-01

    There is a worldwide consensus for using the diagnosis related groups (DRG) when considering hospital activity. This tool leads to the production of tables of numbers (case mix), the interpretation of which is difficult. Therefore, methods aimed at facilitating this interpretation are needed. One of such methods is the case view, i.e. a graphical representation of the case mix. It reduces, in a way, each DRG to a "pixel", the set of the DRGs being an image (the case view). The reference set should be organized according to three criteria: medical/surgical, nosological and economic. This method can be used to answer theoretical questions or to visualize activity at the level of a hospital or at the level of a department. The purpose of this paper is to present important principles inherent in this graphic representation, both at the level of the method and at the level of the user.

  18. Optical set-reset latch

    DOEpatents

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  19. Less than a Class Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  20. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  1. Quantum gate-set tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Quantum information technology is built on (1) physical qubits and (2) precise, accurate quantum logic gates that transform their states. Developing quantum logic gates requires good characterization - both in the development phase, where we need to identify a device's flaws so as to fix them, and in the production phase, where we need to make sure that the device works within specs and predict residual error rates and types. This task falls to quantum state and process tomography. But until recently, protocols for tomography relied on a pre-existing and perfectly calibrated reference frame comprising the measurements (and, for process tomography, input states) used to characterize the device. In practice, these measurements are neither independent nor perfectly known - they are usually implemented via exactly the same gates that we are trying to characterize! In the past year, several partial solutions to this self-consistency problem have been proposed. I will present a framework (gate set tomography, or GST) that addresses and resolves this problem, by self-consistently characterizing an entire set of quantum logic gates on a black-box quantum device. In particular, it contains an explicit closed-form protocol for linear-inversion gate set tomography (LGST), which is immune to both calibration error and technical pathologies like local maxima of the likelihood (which plagued earlier methods). GST also demonstrates significant (multiple orders of magnitude) improvements in efficiency over standard tomography by using data derived from long sequences of gates (much like randomized benchmarking). GST has now been applied to qubit devices in multiple technologies. I will present and discuss results of GST experiments in technologies including a single trapped-ion qubit and a silicon quantum dot qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  2. Setting yourself up for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    So, as the school year is ending, are you just trying to survive your "season" or are you thinking ahead and preparing yourself for a great next season? I want to encourage you to consider the steps you should take now to set yourself up for success next year and beyond. By establishing a few timely habits, you can come into the next school year in a much better position. Some habits are simply keeping track of what happens this year so you can repeat the good and toss the bad. Others involve maintaining a dedication to lifelong learning.

  3. Consecutive projections onto convex sets.

    PubMed

    Degenhard, A; Hayes, C; Leach, M O

    2002-03-21

    In this note we describe and evaluate the performance of a novel approach to information recovery that involves consecutive projection onto convex sets (POCS). The method is applied to a time series of medical image data and the results are compared to images reconstructed using the standard POCS reconstruction method. The consecutive POCS method converges in a desired step-wise manner producing reconstructed images of superior quality compared to the standard scheme and can speed up the reconstruction process. The proposed method is of value for many finite sampling imaging problems including, in particular, fast-scan magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  4. Communicating science in social settings

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  5. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiala, Zdenek

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). > Generalized logarithmic strain. > Consistent linearization. > Incremental principle of virtual power. > Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.

  6. Eastern Hemisphere set for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Give yourself an edge by acquiring quick access to over 40,000 names and titles of key operating personnel in the industry throughout more than 100 countries in a part of the world which is crucial to international petroleum activity. Both the European Petroleum Directory and the Asia-Pacific/Africa-Middle East Petroleum Directory provide complete names, addresses, personnel, phone numbers, fax numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers for companies involved in drilling, refining, exploration, pipelines, engineering, field services, construction and many other petroleum-related operations. This book is a source of information for updating mailing lists and prospect files and for shopping for competitive bids on equipment and services. Also provided is the Oil Gas Journal's Worldwide Production Survey for all the countries included in the set.

  7. On Setting Limits for Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeon, Paul; Toback, David

    2004-10-01

    When searching for new particles two separate production mechanisms from the same theory may produce the same final state. For example, in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with \\chi^0_1arrow γ tildeG at least two production mechanisms, \\chi^0_1\\chi^±1 and \\chi^0_2\\chi^±_1, can cascade to produce events with two photons and missing transverse energy. If there is no discovery one wants to set the best possible limits. While it seems obvious that the goal is to find the lowest possible cross section limit, one should be careful and focus on excluding the largest amount of parameter space for a theory. We show that the combined cross section limit from both (or all) production mechanisms that produce the same final state is the most sensitive way to attempt to exclude a theory.

  8. Communicating science in social settings.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  9. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  10. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  11. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-03-01

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  12. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-07-12

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  13. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  14. Schmidt game and fat cantor sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We study a class of Cantor sets in [0, 1]. We show that the complement of the Cantor set is winning for Schmidt game if and only if the Cantor set is not "fat". This provides some open dense sets of full Lebesgue measure that are not winning for Schmidt game.

  15. Children's health in slum settings.

    PubMed

    Unger, Alon

    2013-10-01

    Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide.

  16. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  17. TMX Upgrade magnet-set geometry design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.

    1981-09-24

    A magnet set, consisting of 24 coils, has been designed for the TMX Upgrade. Like the coil set designed for the TMX experiment, the coils for TMX Upgrade consist of a central-cell set with a minimum-B plug set on each end. Between the central cell and each end plug, there is a flux bundle recircularizing transition set. Physics considerations require that the TMX Upgrade magnet set be almost twice as long as the TMX magnet set (14 m between the outer mirrors). The central circular coils are the only coils used from TMX. The TMX transition set of two C-coils and an octupole is replaced by a C-coil and an Ioffe coil. The TMX plug composed of a baseball coil and two C-coils is replaced by an Ioffe coil, two C-coils and two circular coils. A comparison between the TMX and TMX Upgrade magnet sets is shown.

  18. A new MCNP{trademark} test set

    SciTech Connect

    Brockhoff, R.C.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The MCNP test set is used to test the MCNP code after installation on various computer platforms. For MCNP4 and MCNP4A this test set included 25 test problems designed to test as many features of the MCNP code as possible. A new and better test set has been devised to increase coverage of the code from 85% to 97% with 28 problems. The new test set is as fast as and shorter than the MCNP4A test set. The authors describe the methodology for devising the new test set, the features that were not covered in the MCNP4A test set, and the changes in the MCNP4A test set that have been made for MCNP4B and its developmental versions. Finally, new bugs uncovered by the new test set and a compilation of all known MCNP4A bugs are presented.

  19. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  20. Guide for SDEC Set up

    SciTech Connect

    Bibby, R; Guthrie, E

    2009-01-30

    The instrument has four collection vials that must be filled with ethylene glycol before operation. Each of the four vials should be labeled 1 through 4 and the empty weights recorded. Fill each vial with 80 mL of ethylene glycol and record the weight again. In order for the instrument to operate properly, the collection vials should always have less than 160 mL of total liquid in them. After completing a sample run, remove the collection vials, use a transfer pipette to remove any liquid that might still be on the air paddler, wipe off any condensation from the exterior of the collection vial and record weight. From the instrument, record the ending volume and the time of operation. The solution mixed in the scintillation vial will be 2 ml of a 95% to 50% ethylene glycol to water mixture. To determine the efficiency of counting at all of these concentrations, a series of vials should be set up that consist of 18 ml of Ultima Gold LLT cocktail mixed with standard, regular deionized water and ethylene glycol. The efficiency curve should be counted in the 'Low Level' count mode with the Luminescence Correction ON and the Color Quench Correction ON. Once the tSIE values are determined, chart the cpm against the tSIE numbers and find the best fit for the data. The resulting equation is to be used to converting tSIE values from the collection vials to efficiency. To determine the background cpm value of the ethylene glycol, count a 2 ml sample of ethylene glycol with 18 ml of Ultima Gold for 100 minutes. To determine the total activity of the sample, take two 2 ml aliquots of sample from the first vial and place in separate scintillation vials. Record the weight of each aliquot. Determine the percentage of total sample each aliquot represents by dividing the aliquot weight by the total solution weight from the vial. Also, determine the percentage of ethylene glycol in the sample by dividing the initial solution weight by the final solution weight and multiplying by 100

  1. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  2. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  3. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  4. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  5. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  6. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  7. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  8. Revisiting separation properties of convex fuzzy sets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of convex sets by hyperplanes has been extensively studied on crisp sets. In a seminal paper separability and convexity are investigated, however there is a flaw on the definition of degree of separation. We revisited separation on convex fuzzy sets that have level-wise (crisp) disjointne...

  9. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  10. 34 CFR 104.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational setting. 104.34 Section 104.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 34 CFR 300.117 - Nonacademic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonacademic settings. 300.117 Section 300.117 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Least Restrictive Environment (lre) § 300.117 Nonacademic settings. In providing... meals, recess periods, and the services and activities set forth in § 300.107, each public agency...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  13. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Integrated settings. 36.203 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings. (a... accommodations to an individual with a disability in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  15. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  16. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  17. 38 CFR 18.434 - Education setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education setting. 18.434... Adult Education § 18.434 Education setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who...

  18. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  19. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  20. Analysis of the heat setting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besler, N.; Gloy, Y. S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Heat setting is an expensive and energy elaborative textile process. Heat setting is necessary to guarantee size accuracy and dimensional stability for textile materials. Depending on the material different heat setting methods such as saturated steam or hot air are used for the fixation. The research aim is to define the influence of heat setting on mechanical characteristics and to analyse the correlation of heat setting parameters for polyester. With the help of a “one factor at a time” experimental design heat setting parameters are varied. Mechanical characteristics and the material quality of heat set and not heat set material are evaluated to analyse the heat setting influence. In the described experimental design up to a temperature of 195 °C and a dwell time of 30 seconds the material shrinkage of polyester is increasing with increasing temperature and dwell time. Shrinkage in wales direction is higher than in course direction. The tensile strength in course direction stays constant whereas the tensile strength in wales direction can be increased by heat setting.

  1. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/Lα two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1.

  2. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  3. Exceptional sets for nonuniformly expanding maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sara; Gelfert, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Given a rational map of the Riemann sphere and a subset A of its Julia set, we study the A-exceptional set, that is, the set of points whose orbit does not accumulate at A. We prove that if the topological entropy of A is less than the topological entropy of the full system then the A-exceptional set has full topological entropy. Furthermore, if the Hausdorff dimension of A is smaller than the dynamical dimension of the system then the Hausdorff dimension of the A-exceptional set is larger than or equal to the dynamical dimension, with equality in the particular case when the dynamical dimension and the Hausdorff dimension coincide. We also discuss the case of a general conformal {{C}1+α} dynamical system and, in particular, certain multimodal interval maps on their Julia set.

  4. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  5. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  6. Construction of Weak and Strong Similarity Measures for Ordered Sets of Documents Using Fuzzy Set Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.; Michel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ordered sets (OS) of documents are encountered more and more in information distribution systems, such as information retrieval systems. Classical similarity measures for ordinary sets of documents need to be extended to these ordered sets. This is done in this article using fuzzy set techniques. The practical usability of the OS-measures is…

  7. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  8. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  9. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  10. Bilinguals Use Language-Specific Articulatory Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has shown that monolingual French and English speakers use distinct articulatory settings, the underlying articulatory posture of a language. In the present article, the authors report on an experiment in which they investigated articulatory settings in bilingual speakers. The authors first tested the hypothesis that in…

  11. A Conceptual Examination of Setting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Driscoll, Coralie

    2007-01-01

    Setting events are typically seen as antecedent contextual variables that influence behaviour. They are thought to act independently of Skinner's three-term contingency, which consists of a discriminative stimulus, response, and reinforcing consequence. There has been increasing interest in setting events in education from both a theoretical and…

  12. Diffraction from fractal grating Cantor sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have generalized the Fα-calculus by suggesting Fourier and Laplace transformations of the function with support of the fractals set which are the subset of the real line. Using this generalization, we have found the diffraction fringes from the fractal grating Cantor sets.

  13. Subspace Identification with Multiple Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Laurent; Feron, Eric; Paduano, James D.; Brenner, Marty

    1995-01-01

    Most existing subspace identification algorithms assume that a single input to output data set is available. Motivated by a real life problem on the F18-SRA experimental aircraft, we show how these algorithms are readily adapted to handle multiple data sets. We show by means of an example the relevance of such an improvement.

  14. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9875 Transfer set....

  15. Application of Rough Sets to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Sadaaki

    1998-01-01

    Develops a method of rough retrieval, an application of the rough set theory to information retrieval. The aim is to: (1) show that rough sets are naturally applied to information retrieval in which categorized information structure is used; and (2) show that a fuzzy retrieval scheme is induced from the rough retrieval. (AEF)

  16. 28 CFR 36.203 - Integrated settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Integrated settings. 36.203 Section 36.203 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.203 Integrated settings....

  17. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart...

  18. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  19. Two Special Community College Student Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    Recent research efforts undertaken by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have resulted in the construction of two data sets on community college students which can assist two-year colleges in institutional planning and policy making. The first data set is the result of the administration of the General Academic Assessment (GAA), a…

  20. SET: Research Information for Teachers, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Llyn, Ed.; Wright, Judith, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of "SET" published during 1989. Each SET issue consists of a packet of brief reports, leaflets, pamphlets, etc., all reporting on educational research and designed for private study, staff-meetings, in-service courses, or small group discussions. (LL/ND)

  1. 45 CFR 84.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified handicapped person in...

  2. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall educate, or shall provide for the education of, each qualified...

  3. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  4. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  5. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  6. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  7. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  8. Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

    2008-01-01

    Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets," causes…

  9. Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

    2008-01-01

    Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory, for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets," causes…

  10. Working with Negative Emotions in Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This account draws upon learning from an incident in an action learning set where an individual challenged a mandatory organisational requirement. As a facilitator I reflect upon my initial defensive reaction to this challenge. The use of critical action learning to inform ourselves as facilitators of the underlying tensions between set members…

  11. Client Confidentiality in Police Social Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick Almond; Lutkus, Anita M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey that questioned police social workers regarding the protection of client confidentiality in police settings revealed several problems related to the unique character of the setting and to the identification of social workers with the goals and practices of police. Results raise questions about the protection of client…

  12. Service Learning in Domestic and International Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pre-service teacher outcomes associated with service learning in domestic and international settings. One group of upper-division undergraduate level pre service teachers participated in supervised experiences in domestic settings. A second group of upper-division undergraduate level pre-service teachers participated in…

  13. Psychotherapy Outcome in a Private Practice Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhart, Kathryn A.; And Others

    Although almost one-third of licensed psychologists who work in health care settings are employed primarily in private practice, no major study of outcomes in this setting has been undertaken. Outcomes in a private practice were investigated with 33 adult clients who planned to pursue psychotherapy until release by their therapist. The clients…

  14. Student Learning in an International Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores student learning in an international setting and the importance that students place on the international setting when they are considering where to study abroad. It examines how the social distance of foreign sites from America has been reduced in recent years due to globalization, politics, the Internet, internationalization…

  15. Feedback Mechanisms in Learning Virtual Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Luigi; Comai, Alessio; Davi, Filippo; Molinari, Andrea; Villa, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of services for the creation of on-line surveys, questionnaires, exams and self-assessment tests within a virtual community system used in e-learning settings. The system, called "Online Communities", is a dynamic web application used as platform for blended learning activities by the Faculty of Economics of the…

  16. A smooth introduction to the wavefront set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouder, Christian; Viet Dang, Nguyen; Hélein, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    The wavefront set of a distribution describes not only the points where the distribution is singular, but also the ‘directions’ of the singularities. Because of its ability to control the product of distributions, the wavefront set was a key element of recent progress in renormalized quantum field theory in curved spacetime, quantum gravity, the discussion of time machines or quantum energy inequalitites. However, the wavefront set is a somewhat subtle concept whose standard definition is not easy to grasp. This paper is a step-by-step introduction to the wavefront set, with examples and motivation. Many different definitions and new interpretations of the wavefront set are presented. Some of them involve a Radon transform.

  17. Setting Time Measurement Using Ultrasonic Wave Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Suraneni, Prannoy; Popovics, John S.; Struble, Leslie J.

    2012-01-09

    Ultrasonic shear wave reflection was used to investigate setting times of cement pastes by measuring the reflection coefficient at the interface between hydrating cement pastes of varying water-to-cement ratio and an ultrasonic buffer material. Several different buffer materials were employed, and the choice of buffer was seen to strongly affect measurement sensitivity; high impact polystyrene showed the highest sensitivity to setting processes because it had the lowest acoustic impedance value. The results show that ultrasonic shear-wave reflection can be used successfully to monitor early setting processes of cement paste with good sensitivity when such a very low impedance buffer is employed. Criteria are proposed to define set times, and the resulting initial and final set times agreed broadly with those determined using the standard penetration resistance test.

  18. Goal-setting in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K

    1999-07-01

    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  19. Topological Integer Additive Set-Graceful Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudev, N. K.; P., K.; Germina, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    Let $\\mathbb{N}_0$ denote the set of all non-negative integers and $X$ be any subset of $X$. Also denote the power set of $X$ by $\\mathcal{P}(X)$. An integer additive set-labeling (IASL) of a graph $G$ is an injective function $f:V(G)\\to \\mathcal{P}(X)$ such that the induced function $f^+:E(G) \\to \\mathcal{P}(X)$ is defined by $f^+ (uv) = f(u)+ f(v)$, where $f(u)+f(v)$ is the sumset of $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. An IASL $f$ is said to be a topological IASL (Top-IASL) if $f(V(G))\\cup \\{\\emptyset\\}$ is a topology of the ground set $X$. An IASL is said to be an integer additive set-graceful labeling (IASGL) if for the induced edge-function $f^+$, $f^+(E(G))= \\mathcal{P}(X)-\\{\\emptyset, \\{0\\}\\}$. In this paper, we study certain types of IASL of a given graph $G$, which is a topological integer additive set-labeling as well as an integer additive set-graceful labeling of $G$.

  20. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rice, D; Mehta, S; Shapiro, A; Pope, J; Harth, M; Morley-Forster, P; Sequeira, K; Teasell, R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic. PMID:27445623

  1. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. Methodology 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. Results The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (p<0.001) at different inter arm blood pressure difference levels. Conclusion This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases. PMID:27103905

  2. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D.; Mehta, S.; Shapiro, A.; Pope, J.; Harth, M.; Morley-Forster, P.; Sequeira, K.; Teasell, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic. PMID:27445623

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Out Patient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jesmin, Akhter; Rahman, Khan Muhammad Zillur; Muntasir, Maruf Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Psychiatric disorders are increasingly recognized among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Our study was designed to determine the psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient departments of tertiary care hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2012 to February 2013 in pediatric outpatient departments of three prime tertiary level hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A purposive sampling technique was used. A total of 240 male and female children aged 5 to 16 years old were included in the study. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and other relevant clinical information about the children and their families from their parents or caregivers and a validated parent version of the Bangla Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) for measuring psychopathology. Results The mean age of the children was 9.0± 2.6 years. The majority (71%) of children were in the 5–10 year age group. The male/female ratio was 1.2:1. Among the respondents, 18% were found to have a psychiatric disorder. Behavioral disorders, emotional disorders, and developmental disorders were found in 9.0%, 15.0% and 0.4% respectively. Hyperkinetic disorder was the single most frequent (5.0%) psychiatric disorder. Conclusions A significant number of children were found to have psychiatric disorders. Our study indicates the importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions among the pediatric population. PMID:27403237

  4. [Payment of out-patient dental service according to tariffs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Boikov, M I; Butova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Cost price of dental services in system of obligatory medical insurance is higher two fold than officially determined tariffs. Costs of the same services in medical organizations of the same federal region in Russia tend to varyMeasures directed at the stimulation of reduction of expenses connected with the keep of those medical organizations that have increased expenses (compared to other medical organizations) should be considered.

  5. Effectiveness and predictors of outcome in routine out-patient mental health care for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2014-04-23

    ABSTRACT Background: Meta-analyses show efficacy of several psychological and pharmacological interventions for late-life psychiatric disorders, but generalization of effects to routine mental health care for older people remains unknown. Aim of this study is to investigate the improvement of functioning within one year of referral to an outpatient mental health clinic for older adults. Methods: Pre-post measurement of the Health of Nations Outcome Scale 65+ (HoNOS 65+) in 704 older people referred for psychiatric problems (no dementia) to any of the seven participating mental health care organizations. Results: The pre-post-test Cohen's d effect size was 1.08 in the total group and 1.23 in depressed patients, the largest subgroup. Linear regression identified better functioning at baseline, comorbid personality disorder, somatic comorbidity and life events during treatment as determinants of a worse outcome. Conclusions: Functioning of older persons with psychiatric problems largely improves after treatment in routine mental health care.

  6. Health Expenditure and Catastrophic Costs for Inpatient- and Out-patient Care in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ebrazeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protecting households from risk of impoverishment due to out-of-pocket costs in health care is a major challenge for health systems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating some health expenditure of inpatient and outpatient care as well as assessing the predictors of catastrophic costs for inpatient care in one of central provinces of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 760 household were selected by multistage sampling method in Markazi province of Iran and interviewed in order to complete a standard questionnaire. Catastrophic costs were evaluated in a scale that varied from 0 (no money for care) to 100 (spending all income and wealth). Patients who were paid over 20% of household financial sources or 40% of month income were regarded as being exposed to catastrophic costs. Negative binomial model with robust estimator logit function was used for prediction of catastrophic costs. Results: Based on data analysis, 42.6% of hospitalized subjects encountered catastrophic costs. Moreover, 11.2% households faced catastrophic cost among all participated households and 39.3% were reported to need inpatient need care. Multivariate regression model showed that age range 40-59 years and being in the lower levels of wealth index were significant predictors of facing catastrophic costs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Lack of money is the most important cause of un-seeking care. Hospitalizations due to inpatient care needs, household members aged 40-59 years old, especially with chronic diseases and nonrich status of the household were the highest predictors of facing catastrophic costs. Reducing out-of-pocket costs can increase health care utilization. PMID:25489451

  7. [Diagnosis of postpartal disorders of adaptation in hospital delivery of out patients].

    PubMed

    Luttkus, A; Frank, H D; Stauber, M

    1987-11-01

    Delivery in a hospital on an outpatient basis is increasingly accepted in obstetrics. In West Berlin about 15% of the mothers consider this as desirable, and about 10% actually utilize it. Delivery at home, which is associated with safety hazards, is getting less frequent. Since the problem of disturbed adaptation of the infant can be quite difficult, the method of choice is the easily manageable noninvasive monitoring of heart and respiratory frequency of the newborn during the first hour after birth. This can help to detect latent disturbances of adaptation and premature discharge of the infant from hospital is avoided. The following aspects must be considered: 1. Monitoring is noninvasive and does not exercise stress on the infant. 2. Mother and child are not separated during the monitoring. Hence, the early mother-child relationship is not disturbed. 3. The obstetrician can assess the state of adaptation of the newborn more clearly with the help of the cardiorespiratory diagram. This makes it easier for him to decide whether a child may be released or ought to stay in hospital. 4. If the paediatrician is consulted, he has at his command useful data on a child he does not know with the exception of a few anamnestic data and the actual examination findings.

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic adult out-patients in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mpondo, Bonaventura C T; Neilson, Eric; Ernest, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of patients with Diabetes Mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa, the magnitude of chronic kidney disease among diabetics has not been well established. A study done by Janmohamed et al. found chronic kidney disease in 83.7 % of diabetics which is relatively higher than the prevalence reported elsewhere. However this study was conducted in schistosoma endemic area along the shores of Lake Victoria. Schistosomiasis has been reported to cause a range of renal diseases. Interpretation of these findings should therefore take into account the possibility of schistosomiasis as a possible confounder. PMID:27391318

  9. [Payment of out-patient dental service according to tariffs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Boikov, M I; Butova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Cost price of dental services in system of obligatory medical insurance is higher two fold than officially determined tariffs. Costs of the same services in medical organizations of the same federal region in Russia tend to varyMeasures directed at the stimulation of reduction of expenses connected with the keep of those medical organizations that have increased expenses (compared to other medical organizations) should be considered. PMID:27636755

  10. [Managment of the suicidal patient in the out-patient practice].

    PubMed

    Lazic, Slavica; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Hättenschwiler, Josef; Modestin, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate handling of suicidal tendencies is for certain one of the most important duties within ambulant treatment. As various examples show, occurrence of a suicidal tendency can be chronical as well as acute. Well-known risk factors including current psychopathology and psychodynamics help to identify and assess a suicidal tendency and to take necessary therapeutic options. Some of these can be applied in general, others have to be tailored specifically with respect to the mental disorder in question. Suicide often occurs in an interpersonal context. This fact underlines on one hand the importance and the therapeutic potential of the relationship between the patient and the therapist, on the other hand it results in many cases in a highly stressful situation for the therapist. Significant attention has to be paid to counter transference and its control. Development of an emergency plan and challenges of a „non-suicidal-contract“ are discussed. We recommend an agreement with the patient to contact the therapist in case of not feeling able to control his/her own actions. This agreement includes our guarantee of permanent reachability. PMID:26423885

  11. From blacklist to beacon, a case study in reducing dermatology out-patient waiting times.

    PubMed

    Appleby, A; Lawrence, C

    2001-09-01

    At its worst our dermatology department had a waiting list for routine appointments of 57 weeks. As a result we started to lose contract income and consequently were unable to replace a retiring consultant. The service faced fragmentation and loss of the inpatient ward. Using a series of internally planned and driven initiatives it was possible to retrieve the situation. Our efforts were recognized by a national waiting list Beacon award in 1999. This study describes the methods used to increase new patient throughput, reduce demand and hence reduce waiting time for new patient appointments. Change was achieved only when medical, nursing staff, general practitioners, managers and health authorities were involved in the process. The changes needed to be led by a consultant enthusiast and managed effectively. There remains a constantly increasing demand for the service and reducing the waiting list simply invites a further increase in referral. In a resource-limited health care system the provider must be able to limit demand by using agreed referral exclusion criteria in order to balance supply and demand.

  12. Cancer-related neuropathic pain in out-patient oncology clinics: a European survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although pain is frequently experienced by patients with cancer, it remains under-treated. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-related neuropathic pain (CRNP) in patients with chronic pain who attended an outpatient clinic for standard care in Europe (irrespective of the reason or stage of the cancer). The secondary aims of this study were to characterise pain and cancer in patients with CRNP (including treatment) and to evaluate the usefulness of the painDETECT (PD-Q) screening tool to help physicians identify a potential neuropathic component of cancer-related pain. Methods An observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre study of adult patients with cancer using patient and physician case report forms (CRFs). Patients with CRNP were identified by physicians’ clinical assessments after examining the completed PD-Q. Results A total of 951 patients visiting outpatient clinics across Europe were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and July 2011. Of these, 310 patients (32.60%; 95% confidence interval 29.62, 35.58) were identified as having CRNP. Twenty-nine of 39 (74.4%) physicians who completed the CRF relating to the PD-Q considered it a useful tool to help detect CRNP in daily practice and 28 of 39 (71.8%) indicated that they would use this tool in the future for most or some of their patients. Data from physicians before and after review of the completed PD-Qs showed a shift in clinical opinion (either to positive CRNP diagnosis [yes] or negative CRNP diagnosis [no]) in respect of 142 patients; about half of which (74) were categorised with an initial diagnosis of unknown. Opinions also shifted from a no to a yes diagnosis in 10 patients and from a yes to a no diagnosis in 51 patients. Conclusions Approximately one-third of adults with cancer experiencing chronic pain attending outpatient clinics as part of routine care were considered to have CRNP in the opinion of the physicians after considering scores on the PD-Q. While physicians did not consider the PD-Q to be a useful tool for all patients, shifts in diagnosis before and after the use of this tool indicate that it may help physicians identify CRNP, especially where there is initial uncertainty. PMID:24200014

  13. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  14. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  15. Hospital antimicrobial stewardship in the nonuniversity setting.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Kavita K; Kuper, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Inappropriate antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance persist across the healthcare continuum. Antimicrobial stewardship guidelines assist healthcare institutions in establishing antimicrobial stewardship programs but rely on infectious diseases expertise and leadership, which are not available in all settings. Despite this, many institutions have found ways to use available resources to perform stewardship activities, with improvements in antimicrobial use and reductions in resistance and cost. This article highlights success stories in nonuniversity hospital settings and proposes antimicrobial stewardship strategies that may be more feasible in settings with limited infectious diseases expertise, information technology, or financial resources.

  16. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  17. Issues in and Challenges to Professionalism in Africa's Cultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    2010-01-01

    This article explores critical issues linked to early child development (ECD) professionalism in African childhood contexts in the light of rights-based consideration. Against the backdrop of acculturation being a reality in Africa, it accepts professionalism as a "good thing" for ECD programmes in Africa. The article sketches a portrait of…

  18. Using Water-Testing Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varrella, Gary F.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates an approach to teaching environmentally related studies based on constructivism. Presents an activity that makes use of data on chemicals in the water supply, and discusses obtaining and using data sets in the classroom. (LZ)

  19. Finding dominant sets in microarray data.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuping; Teng, Li; Li, Yao; Chen, Wenbin; Mao, Yumin; Shen, I-Fan; Xie, Yi

    2005-01-01

    Clustering allows us to extract groups of genes that are tightly coexpressed from Microarray data. In this paper, a new method DSF_Clust is developed to find dominant sets (clusters). We have preformed DSF_Clust on several gene expression datasets and given the evaluation with some criteria. The results showed that this approach could cluster dominant sets of good quality compared to kmeans method. DSF_Clust deals with three issues that have bedeviled clustering, some dominant sets being statistically determined in a significance level, predefining cluster structure being not required, and the quality of a dominant set being ensured. We have also applied this approach to analyze published data of yeast cell cycle gene expression and found some biologically meaningful gene groups to be dug out. Furthermore, DSF_Clust is a potentially good tool to search for putative regulatory signals.

  20. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  1. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  2. QUEST2: Sysdtem architecture deliverable set

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document contains the system architecture and related documents which were developed during the Preliminary Analysis/System Architecture phase of the Quality, Environmental, Safety T-racking System redesign (QUEST2) project. Each discreet document in this deliverable set applies to a analytic effort supporting the architectural model of QUEST2. The P+ methodology cites a list of P+ documents normally included in a ``typical`` system architecture. Some of these were deferred to the release development phase of the project. The documents included in this deliverable set represent the system architecture itself. Related to that architecture are some decision support documents which provided needed information for management reviews that occurred during April. Consequently, the deliverables in this set were logically grouped and provided to support customer requirements. The remaining System Architecture Phase deliverables will be provided as a ``Supporting Documents`` deliverable set for the first release.

  3. Automatic computation of data-set definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical method for the construction of a computer program data set description from a computer program contains detailed declarative information. Cartesian products and disjoint-union operators are used to yield a series of recursive group equations.

  4. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  5. Set-Theory and Logic in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that the emphasis on logic and set theory in the school mathematics program is unnecessary and possibly harmful. He discusses briefly the relationships between semantics and logic. (SD)

  6. Level Set Method for Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tony F.; Li, Hongwei; Lysaker, Marius; Tai, Xue-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET), a radioactive compound is injected into the body to promote a tissue-dependent emission rate. Expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction algorithms are iterative techniques which estimate the concentration coefficients that provide the best fitted solution, for example, a maximum likelihood estimate. In this paper, we combine the EM algorithm with a level set approach. The level set method is used to capture the coarse scale information and the discontinuities of the concentration coefficients. An intrinsic advantage of the level set formulation is that anatomical information can be efficiently incorporated and used in an easy and natural way. We utilize a multiple level set formulation to represent the geometry of the objects in the scene. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any PET configuration, without major modifications. PMID:18354724

  7. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  8. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms In Healthcare Settings, 2006 Print page Get email ... Ventilator-associated Pneumonia FAQs about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs ...

  9. Diseases and Organisms in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term care facilities and hospitals. For more information visit: Infection Control in Health Care Facilities Prevention Strategies for Seasonal Influenza in Healthcare Settings CDC’s Influenza ...

  10. Tensile set behavior of Foley catheter balloons.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R; Ramesh, P; Sivakumar, R

    1999-01-01

    The removal of indwelling urinary balloon catheters from patients is usually associated with many problems. The problems such as balloon deflation failure; encrustations on balloons, eyes, and lumen; and catheter associated infections are widely discussed in the literature. The tensile set exhibited by the catheter balloon material could also play a role and further complicate the removal process. This article addresses this issue by comparing the tensile set behavior of the balloon material from three commercially available Foley catheters. The balloon materials were subjected to aging in synthetic urine at 37 degrees C for 28 days to simulate clinical conditions. The deflation time of catheter balloons aged in similar conditions were also measured. It was found that different brands of catheters exhibited statistically significant differences in their properties. The tensile set data of the aged samples could be correlated with the deflation time of the balloons. The clinical significance of the tensile set is also highlighted.

  11. Teaching Nursing Research Using Large Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Christine A.; Eriksen, Lillian R.; Lin, Yu-Feng

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for teaching nursing research via secondary analysis of data sets from the National Center for Health Statistics. Addresses advantages, potential problems and limitations, guidelines for students, and evaluation methods. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)

  12. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  13. On Fuzzy Sets: Reply to Cerny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Responds to Barbara A. Cerny's reaction to Robinson's article on the role of fuzzy set theory in information science, addressing Cerny's points about probability theory and statistical uncertainty. (FM)

  14. General Information about MRSA in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can cause sepsis and death. MRSA is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics. In a healthcare setting, such as a hospital ...

  15. Interlaboratory Collaborations in the Undergraduate Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megehee, Elise G.; Hyslop, Alison G.; Rosso, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach to cross-disciplinary and group learning, known as interlaboratory collaborations, was developed. The method mimics an industrial or research setting, fosters teamwork, and emphasizes the importance of good communication skills in the sciences.

  16. Software engineering environment tool set integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selfridge, William P.

    1986-01-01

    Space Transportation System Division (STSD) Engineering has a program to promote excellence within the engineering function. This program resulted in a capital funded facility based on a VAX cluster called the Rockwell Operational Engineering System (ROSES). The second phase of a three phase plan to establish an integrated software engineering environment for ROSES is examined. It discusses briefly phase one which establishes the basic capability for a modern software development environment to include a tool set, training and standards. Phase two is a tool set integration. The tool set is primarily off-the-shelf tools acquired through vendors or government agencies (public domain). These tools were placed into categories of software development. These categories are: requirements, design, and construction support; verification and validation support; and software management support. The integration of the tool set is being performed through concept prototyping and development of tools specifically designed to support the life cycle and provide transition from one phase to the next.

  17. Response sets of Japanese and American students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Leonard V.; Kikuchi, Akio

    1970-01-01

    The School Environment Preference Schedule or SEPS measures the extent to which the student accepts those attitudes, values, and behaviors fostered in traditional school environments. Inferences regarding cultural differences must include consideration of response sets. (DB)

  18. Systematization of a set of closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F

    2011-11-01

    Approximations in population dynamics are gaining popularity since stochastic models in large populations are time consuming even on a computer. Stochastic modeling causes an infinite set of ordinary differential equations for the moments. Closure models are useful since they recast this infinite set into a finite set of ordinary differential equations. This paper systematizes a set of closure approximations. We develop a system, which we call a power p closure of n moments, where 0≤p≤n. Keeling's (2000a,b) approximation with third order moments is shown to be an instantiation of this system which we call a power 3 closure of 3 moments. We present an epidemiological example and evaluate the system for third and fourth moments compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Wales as a Setting for Children's Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Barbara Z.

    1982-01-01

    Examines three works of fantasy that have been awarded the Newbery or Carnegie Medal during the last 15 years ("The High King,""The Owl Service," and "The Grey King") and that have used Wales as their setting. (HOD)

  20. Planning and Role Setting: Alone or Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the recent American Library Association publication, "Planning and Role Setting for Public Libraries: A Manual of Options and Procedures," noting omissions in its approach. Several reasons for including the larger library community in the planning process are discussed. (MES)

  1. On the arithmetic sums of Cantor sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgar Eroglu, Kemal

    2007-05-01

    Let Cλ and Cγ be two affine Cantor sets in \\mathbb{R} with similarity dimensions dλ and dγ, respectively. We define an analogue of the Bandt-Graf condition for self-similar systems and use it to give necessary and sufficient conditions for having \\xyHa^{d_\\xyla+d_\\xyga}(C_\\xyla + C_\\xyga)>0 where Cλ + Cγ denotes the arithmetic sum of the sets. We use this result to analyse the orthogonal projection properties of sets of the form Cλ × Cγ. We prove that for Lebesgue almost all directions θ for which the projection is not one-to-one, the projection has zero (dλ + dγ)-dimensional Hausdorff measure. We demonstrate the results in the case when Cλ and Cγ are the middle-(1-2λ) and middle-(1-2γ) sets.

  2. Implementing innovations in health care settings.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, V; Muir, J

    1996-10-01

    Innovations in health care settings are occurring at an unprecedented rate. New methods and ideas include computerized pumps, computer systems for documentation and communication, and alternative approaches to patient care. To be successfully adopted by nurses, innovations require well-planned administrative, educational and clinical support. A multi-agency research study has revealed factors that should be considered when planning innovations in health care settings. PMID:9118058

  3. Sets that Contain Their Circle Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Say that a subset S of the plane is a "circle-center set" if S is not a subset of a line, and whenever we choose three non-collinear points from S, the center of the circle through those three points is also an element of S. A problem appearing on the Macalester College Problem of the Week website stated that a finite set of points in the plane,…

  4. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  5. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  6. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  7. Linear structures, causal sets and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudetz, Laurenz

    2015-11-01

    Causal set theory and the theory of linear structures (which has recently been developed by Tim Maudlin as an alternative to standard topology) share some of their main motivations. In view of that, I raise and answer the question how these two theories are related to each other and to standard topology. I show that causal set theory can be embedded into Maudlin's more general framework and I characterise what Maudlin's topological concepts boil down to when applied to discrete linear structures that correspond to causal sets. Moreover, I show that all topological aspects of causal sets that can be described in Maudlin's theory can also be described in the framework of standard topology. Finally, I discuss why these results are relevant for evaluating Maudlin's theory. The value of this theory depends crucially on whether it is true that (a) its conceptual framework is as expressive as that of standard topology when it comes to describing well-known continuous as well as discrete models of spacetime and (b) it is even more expressive or fruitful when it comes to analysing topological aspects of discrete structures that are intended as models of spacetime. On one hand, my theorems support (a). The theory is rich enough to incorporate causal set theory and its definitions of topological notions yield a plausible outcome in the case of causal sets. On the other hand, the results undermine (b). Standard topology, too, has the conceptual resources to capture those topological aspects of causal sets that are analysable within Maudlin's framework. This fact poses a challenge for the proponents of Maudlin's theory to prove it fruitful.

  8. Emergence of infection control surveillance in alternative health care settings.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, health care delivery has undergone enormous changes. The nationwide growth in managed care organizations and the changing methods of provider reimbursement are restructuring the entire health care system. Diversification and integration strategies have blurred historical separations between the activities of hospitals, nursing homes, physicians, and other providers. Services are being offered in and shifting to less costly settings, such as ambulatory clinics, work sites, and homes. Many factors have contributed to the increasing trend of health care delivery outside hospitals. This presentation will provide insight to the management and surveillance of infection prevention in these health care settings.

  9. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  10. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Lehtola, Susi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond. PMID:25747068

  11. Settings for learning: the community beyond.

    PubMed

    Okasha, A

    1995-01-01

    or broken. It does mean that essential health should be accessible to all individuals and families in an acceptable and affordable way, and with their full involvement. Health personnel should be trained according to the plans of integrated health services and health manpower development (HSMD), with a view of placing at the disposal of the system the right kind of manpower, in the right numbers, at the right time, in the right place (WHO 1979, 1985, 1987). Graduates of programmes based on problem-based, community-oriented tracks as opposed to the traditional track should certainly be able to: respond to the health needs and expressed demands of the community, work with the community, stimulate healthy lifestyles and self-care, educate the community as well as their co-workers, solve and stimulate the resolve of both individual and community health problems, orient their own as well as community efforts to health promotion, prevent disease, unnecessary suffering, disability and death, work in and with health teams, if necessary provide leadership to such teams, continue learning lifelong so as to keep competence up to date, and improve this competence as much as possible (Fülöp 1990). A limited literature is available comparing innovative and conventional medical curricula, where the innovative one is based on problem-solving learning with a community-oriented track geared towards community needs (Schmidt 1983). This approach showed that the outcome is better, if directed towards the health needs of the community.

  12. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  13. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    2016-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species. PMID:26873018

  14. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  15. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-13

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  16. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-14

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  17. First Wartsila 200 diesel generator set shipped

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1995-09-01

    In early June, Wartsila SACM Diesel shipped its first Wartsila 200 diesel generator set from Mulhouse, France. This 12-cylinder generator set, rated 1870 kW at 1500 r/min, is being installed in India for base-load power generation service on a floating crane. The Cummins Wartsila Engine Company will have the responsibility to continue the development and production of the 200 series engine and a new 170 mm bore series that will be launched in 1996. Marine applications include diesel-electric propulsion, because of high specific output, relatively low cost and compact size of the gen-sets. Other applications include main propulsion for fishing boats, fast ferries and various coastal and inland waterways commercial vessels such as tugs and push boats. 2 figs.

  18. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance.

    2000-02-21

    Version 00 SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependentmore » components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  19. INFECTION CONTROL IN ALTERNATIVE HEALTHCARE SETTINGS

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Elaine; Chopra, Teena; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the changing healthcare delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, as well as at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various healthcare settings face unique challenges requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in skilled nursing facilities should address: surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs. Infection control programs in ambulatory clinics should address: Triage and standard – transmission based precautions, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization principles, surveillance in surgical clinics, safe injection practices, and bioterrorism and disaster planning for ambulatory clinics. PMID:21316005

  20. ASBench: benchmarking sets for allosteric discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Guanqiao; Shen, Qiancheng; Liu, Xinyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Geng, Lv; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Allostery allows for the fine-tuning of protein function. Targeting allosteric sites is gaining increasing recognition as a novel strategy in drug design. The key challenge in the discovery of allosteric sites has strongly motivated the development of computational methods and thus high-quality, publicly accessible standard data have become indispensable. Here, we report benchmarking data for experimentally determined allosteric sites through a complex process, including a 'Core set' with 235 unique allosteric sites and a 'Core-Diversity set' with 147 structurally diverse allosteric sites. These benchmarking sets can be exploited to develop efficient computational methods to predict unknown allosteric sites in proteins and reveal unique allosteric ligand-protein interactions to guide allosteric drug design.

  1. Task representation in individual and joint settings

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework for task representation and discusses applications to interference tasks in individual and joint settings. The framework is derived from the Theory of Event Coding (TEC). This theory regards task sets as transient assemblies of event codes in which stimulus and response codes interact and shape each other in particular ways. On the one hand, stimulus and response codes compete with each other within their respective subsets (horizontal interactions). On the other hand, stimulus and response code cooperate with each other (vertical interactions). Code interactions instantiating competition and cooperation apply to two time scales: on-line performance (i.e., doing the task) and off-line implementation (i.e., setting the task). Interference arises when stimulus and response codes overlap in features that are irrelevant for stimulus identification, but relevant for response selection. To resolve this dilemma, the feature profiles of event codes may become restructured in various ways. The framework is applied to three kinds of interference paradigms. Special emphasis is given to joint settings where tasks are shared between two participants. Major conclusions derived from these applications include: (1) Response competition is the chief driver of interference. Likewise, different modes of response competition give rise to different patterns of interference; (2) The type of features in which stimulus and response codes overlap is also a crucial factor. Different types of such features give likewise rise to different patterns of interference; and (3) Task sets for joint settings conflate intraindividual conflicts between responses (what), with interindividual conflicts between responding agents (whom). Features of response codes may, therefore, not only address responses, but also responding agents (both physically and socially). PMID:26029085

  2. The evolution of phylogeographic data sets.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Hyseni, Chaz; Morales, Ariadna; Pelletier, Tara A; Perez, Manolo F; Rice, Edwin; Satler, Jordan D; Symula, Rebecca E; Thomé, Maria Tereza C; Carstens, Bryan C

    2015-03-01

    Empirical phylogeographic studies have progressively sampled greater numbers of loci over time, in part motivated by theoretical papers showing that estimates of key demographic parameters improve as the number of loci increases. Recently, next-generation sequencing has been applied to questions about organismal history, with the promise of revolutionizing the field. However, no systematic assessment of how phylogeographic data sets have changed over time with respect to overall size and information content has been performed. Here, we quantify the changing nature of these genetic data sets over the past 20 years, focusing on papers published in Molecular Ecology. We found that the number of independent loci, the total number of alleles sampled and the total number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per data set has improved over time, with particularly dramatic increases within the past 5 years. Interestingly, uniparentally inherited organellar markers (e.g. animal mitochondrial and plant chloroplast DNA) continue to represent an important component of phylogeographic data. Single-species studies (cf. comparative studies) that focus on vertebrates (particularly fish and to some extent, birds) represent the gold standard of phylogeographic data collection. Based on the current trajectory seen in our survey data, forecast modelling indicates that the median number of SNPs per data set for studies published by the end of the year 2016 may approach ~20,000. This survey provides baseline information for understanding the evolution of phylogeographic data sets and underscores the fact that development of analytical methods for handling very large genetic data sets will be critical for facilitating growth of the field.

  3. Validation of simulated OCR data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, G.

    1994-12-31

    Recent interest in synthetic data sets for improving classifier performance raises the question whether pseudo-random defect models provide a good approximation to live data from an OCR perspective. A proposal is presented to evaluate artificial data sets by comparing the confusion matrices genuerated on scanned and synthesized data by a given classifier. The proposed measure applies, in principle, to both isolated character recognition and to printed text. It is argued that the proposed method is more practical than direct comparison of synthetic data with real data.

  4. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  5. Pseudo noise test set operation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G.

    1977-01-01

    Pseudonoise (PN) test set was designed to provide a reliable, operationally simple unit which allows the previously mentioned analog rms end-to-end error measurement of most communication systems to be easily performed. It also provides a band-limited pseudorandom noise as input, thereby escaping the disadvantages of most deterministic signals while retaining the advantages of using true-band-limited noise. In addition, the PN test set has the capability to be used as a means with which the autocorrelation function and impulse response may be determined for certain systems.

  6. [Non invasive ventilation in the emergency setting].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Laetitia; Della Santa, Vincent; Hanhart, Walter-Alexandre

    2015-08-12

    Before the development of non invasive ventilation (NIV), endotracheal intubation was the only ventilatory therapy available in case of severe respiratory distress and acute respiratory failure. NIV used to be employed in intensive care settings only. Nowadays, the use of NIV has been democratized to include the emergency room, and the pre-hospital care setting for treatment of acute respiratory failure. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute exacerbation of COPD are indications of choice, since NIV improves mortality. The efficiency of the therapy depends on early treatment; however, endotracheal intubation should not be delayed when it becomes necessary. PMID:26449102

  7. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, William F.; Winiecki, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  8. Unraveling the signal scenario of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Long-term goals to impact or modify fruit quality and yield have been the target of researchers for many years. Different approaches such as traditional breeding,mutation breeding, and transgenic approaches have revealed a regulatory network where several hormones concur in a complex way to regulate fruit set and development,and these networks are shared in some way among species with different kinds of fruits. Understanding the molecular and biochemical networks of fruit set and development could be very useful for breeders to meet the current and future challenges of agricultural problems. PMID:24659051

  9. Eating Disorders in the Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Sangvai, Devdutta

    2016-06-01

    Eating disorders are a complex set of illnesses most commonly affecting white adolescent girls and young women. The most common eating disorders seen in the primary care setting are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Treatment in the primary care environment ideally involves a physician, therapist, and nutritionist, although complex cases may require psychiatric and other specialist care. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved outcomes, whereas the consequences of untreated eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, can be devastating, including death. PMID:27262009

  10. Exploring nurses' and patients' perspectives of limit setting in a forensic mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Tessa; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish

    2014-04-01

    Limit setting is an intervention that is frequently used by mental health nurses. However, limit setting is poorly conceptualized, its purpose is unclear, and there are few evidence-based guidelines to assist nurses to set limits in a safe and effective manner. What is known is that the manner in which nurses set limits influences patients' perceptions of the interactions and their emotional and behavioural responses. In this qualitative study, 12 nurses and 12 patients participated in personal, semistructured interviews that aimed to explore limit setting and to propose principles to guide practice. The findings suggested that: (i) limit setting is important to safety in mental health hospitals; (ii) engaging patients in an empathic manner is necessary when setting limits (when nurses engage in an empathic manner, the therapeutic relationship is more likely to be preserved and the risk of aggressive responses is reduced); and (iii) an authoritative (fair, respectful, consistent, and knowledgeable), rather than authoritarian (controlling and indifferent), limit-setting style enhances positive outcomes with regards to adherence, reduced likelihood of aggression, and preservation of the therapeutic relationship. In conclusion, a limit-setting style characterized by empathic responding and an authoritative, rather than authoritarian interpersonal, style is recommended. Elucidating the components of this style is critical for effective training and best practice of mental health nurses, and to reduce aggressive responses from limit setting.

  11. Exploring nurses' and patients' perspectives of limit setting in a forensic mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Tessa; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish

    2014-04-01

    Limit setting is an intervention that is frequently used by mental health nurses. However, limit setting is poorly conceptualized, its purpose is unclear, and there are few evidence-based guidelines to assist nurses to set limits in a safe and effective manner. What is known is that the manner in which nurses set limits influences patients' perceptions of the interactions and their emotional and behavioural responses. In this qualitative study, 12 nurses and 12 patients participated in personal, semistructured interviews that aimed to explore limit setting and to propose principles to guide practice. The findings suggested that: (i) limit setting is important to safety in mental health hospitals; (ii) engaging patients in an empathic manner is necessary when setting limits (when nurses engage in an empathic manner, the therapeutic relationship is more likely to be preserved and the risk of aggressive responses is reduced); and (iii) an authoritative (fair, respectful, consistent, and knowledgeable), rather than authoritarian (controlling and indifferent), limit-setting style enhances positive outcomes with regards to adherence, reduced likelihood of aggression, and preservation of the therapeutic relationship. In conclusion, a limit-setting style characterized by empathic responding and an authoritative, rather than authoritarian interpersonal, style is recommended. Elucidating the components of this style is critical for effective training and best practice of mental health nurses, and to reduce aggressive responses from limit setting. PMID:23822138

  12. Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Raheem J; Taylor, Wendell C; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal-setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults (M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p < .05). No statistically significant changes in PA or goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal-setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

  13. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.

  14. Spin foam models as energetic causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Energetic causal sets are causal sets endowed by a flow of energy-momentum between causally related events. These incorporate a novel mechanism for the emergence of space-time from causal relations [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014); Phys. Rev. D 90, 044035 (2014)]. Here we construct a spin foam model which is also an energetic causal set model. This model is closely related to the model introduced in parallel by Wolfgang Wieland in [Classical Quantum Gravity 32, 015016 (2015)]. What makes a spin foam model also an energetic causal set is Wieland's identification of new degrees of freedom analogous to momenta, conserved at events (or four-simplices), whose norms are not mass, but the volume of tetrahedra. This realizes the torsion constraints, which are missing in previous spin foam models, and are needed to relate the connection dynamics to those of the metric, as in general relativity. This identification makes it possible to apply the new mechanism for the emergence of space-time to a spin foam model. Our formulation also makes use of Markopoulou's causal formulation of spin foams [arXiv:gr-qc/9704013]. These are generated by evolving spin networks with dual Pachner moves. This endows the spin foam history with causal structure given by a partial ordering of the events which are dual to four-simplices.

  15. Nominees Set High Standards, Support Student Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Describes the winner and other nominees for the "Administrator of the Year" award presented nationally by the Journalism Education Association. Explains that W. Charles Dill, Don Senti, Juan Gonzales, Christy Slagle, Linda Quinn, Gary Davis, and Lucinda Lee Katz all set high standards, valued student press rights, and supported students. (PM)

  16. Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal-setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults (M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p < .05). No statistically significant changes in PA or goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal-setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults. PMID:24482731

  17. Variables Affecting Stuttering Therapy in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallard, A. R.; Westbrook, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports on a two-year project to describe factors related to conducting stuttering therapy with 20 elementary school children (mostly Mexican-American) in public school settings. Both the "stutter fluently" and the "speak fluently" approaches were used. Therapy results, scheduling difficulties, and cultural considerations are presented.…

  18. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay...

  19. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  20. Adolescents' Moral Engagement in Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents who live in urban settings regularly encounter a complex array of people and circumstances that require sophisticated decision-making skills. Using their personal standards, adolescents coordinate moral thoughts and emotions when deciding how to act. After defining what the author refers to as moral engagement, several empirical…

  1. Common Criteria Set for Federal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

  2. Settings: In a Variety of Place. . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairo, Peter; And Others

    This document consists of the fourth section of a book of readings on issues related to adult career development. The four chapters in this fourth section focus on settings in which adult career development counseling may take place. "Career Planning and Development in Organizations" (Peter Cairo) discusses several concepts and definitions…

  3. Technology Integration in a Seminary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HeeKap; Baek, Eun-Ok; Spinner, Denny

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology integration in higher education focuses on an information technology project in a seminary setting that created a campus computer network, trained faculty and library staff in computer technology use and provided appropriate hardware and software, and created an endowment to support technology maintenance and updating.…

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  5. Educational Needs in the Psychiatric Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluckin, Andy; Hanna, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Case studies in Norwich, England, identified issues in the provision of adult education in psychiatric settings: differing definitions of the role of adult education; role conflict between adult educators and health professionals; and opposing beliefs about outsiders entering an institution. The cases also affirmed the therapeutic value of…

  6. Biology. USMES Beginning "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of two booklets for primary grades, students learn how to make a home for their animals (amphibians, insects, fish, crayfish) and a home for their rodents (hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, mice). The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range investigations of…

  7. Note Taking in Multi-Media Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kelly; Yao, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    We provide a preliminary exploration into the use of note taking when combined with video examples. Student volunteers were divided into three groups and asked to perform two problems. The first problem was explored in a classroom setting and the other problem was a novel problem. The students were asked to complete the two questions. Furthermore,…

  8. Management of eclampsia in the prehospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alonso A Mateos; Vellisca, Miguel Ángel Benito

    2007-01-01

    Eclampsia is an uncommon and serious condition, particularly in the pre‐hospital setting. Immediate treatment is required and should include airway control, administration of oxygen, anti‐epileptics and magnesium, hypertension control, and urgent delivery of the baby. PMID:17582050

  9. A rough set approach to speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigang

    1992-09-01

    Speech recognition is a very difficult classification problem due to the variations in loudness, speed, and tone of voice. In the last 40 years, many methodologies have been developed to solve this problem, but most lack learning ability and depend fully on the knowledge of human experts. Systems of this kind are hard to develop and difficult to maintain and upgrade. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a machine learning approach in solving speech recognition problems. The system is based on rough set theory. It first generates a set of decision rules using a set of reference words called training samples, and then uses the decision rules to recognize new words. The main feature of this system is that, under the supervision of human experts, the machine learns and applies knowledge on its own to the designated tasks. The main advantages of this system over a traditional system are its simplicity and adaptiveness, which suggest that it may have significant potential in practical applications of computer speech recognition. Furthermore, the studies presented demonstrate the potential application of rough-set based learning systems in solving other important pattern classification problems, such as character recognition, system fault detection, and trainable robotic control.

  10. Regularized Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Abdi, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (Generalized CANO or GCANO for short) is an important technique because it subsumes a number of interesting multivariate data analysis techniques as special cases. More recently, it has also been recognized as an important technique for integrating information from multiple sources. In this paper, we…

  11. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  12. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  13. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  14. The Agenda-Setting of Ivy Lee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    Journalism historians in recent years have made good use of agenda-setting theory in research, but there has been one drawback: in concentrating on the political and economic views of publishers, editors, and reporters, the agendas of those working behind the scenes, the public relations men and women have been overlooked. The public relations…

  15. Appendix B: Maternal Behavior Q-Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; Moran, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Maternal Behavior Q-Set, a 90-item assessment that describes a wide range of maternal behavior including interactive style, her sensitivity to her infant's state, feeding interactions, and the extent to which the home reflects the infant's needs. (HTH)

  16. Students at Risk. SET Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Judith, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue of the serial SET for 1996 contains seven newly commissioned articles and four reprints all related to the education of children at risk. This issue includes: (1) "Students at Risk: An Overview" (Margaret Batten, Graeme Withers, and Jean Russell); (2) "Inquiry into Children in Education at Risk through Truancy and Behavioural…

  17. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  18. Problem Based Learning in a Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Michael W.; Borsting, Eric

    1990-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach emphasizing problem solving and self-directed learning was designed for third-year students entering vision therapy clinic rotations. The approach's use in a clinical setting, student and faculty response, and preliminary conclusions about the approach's advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  19. Science and Judgment in Environmental Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Several major types of environmental standards (design, performance, exposure, safety, and behavioral) are discussed, and their points of contact with educational standards are reviewed. Some areas of judgment are common to both standard-setting processes, and experiences in the environmental area can be extended to the educational arena. (SLD)

  20. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-10-18

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  1. Fuzzy Set Theoretical Approach to Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1979-01-01

    Presents a new method of document retrieval based on the fundamental operations of fuzzy set theory. Basic notions are introduced. Then the syntax and semantics of the proposed language for document retrieval is given, and an algorithm allocating documents to particular queries is described and its properties are discussed. (Author/CWM)

  2. Report Pans How States Set the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The random and sometimes erratic nature of state proficiency standards makes for an assessment system that is "slipshod," obscure, and potentially unreliable, contends an outspoken think tank's analysis of the testing benchmarks set by 26 states. The range of expectations--3rd grade reading proficiency can mean performing at the 6th percentile on…

  3. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  4. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  5. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  6. The Case Against Homogeneous Sets in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    A point-by-point criticism is made of F. H. Flynn's article, The Case for Homogeneous Sets in Mathematics'' (Mathematics in School, Volume 1 Number 2, 1972) in an attempt to show that the arguments used in trying to justify homogeneous grouping in mathematics are invalid. (Editor/DT)

  7. Electricity. USMES Beginning "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of five booklets on electricity, primary grade students learn how to make simple circuits, make a circuit stay together, add things to a circuit, make and use switches, and fix a circuit. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range investigations of real…

  8. Ethnographic Positioning in a Boarding House Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Wee Loon

    2010-01-01

    The research sought to find out how international students came to terms with cultural differences and positioned themselves in a complex environment such as a boarding school. This article considers how a researcher's insider position can enrich the understanding in a multicultural school setting while identifying the hidden dilemmas. The…

  9. Modeling block detectors in SimSET.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert; Gillispie, Steven; Schmitz, Ruth; Lewellen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We have added a block detector model to the Simulation System for Emission Tomography (SimSET) software version 2.9. METHODS: The new model simulates the detector system as a collection of right rectangular boxes and allows for very flexible positioning of these boxes. This model allows users to simulate typical block-based cylindrical tomographs, pixelated positron emission mammography (PEM) detectors, and many more imaginative tomograph designs. We have tested the block detector software against analytically derived results and against SimSET simulations of dual-headed and cylindrical detector tomographs. We have also compared experimental and simulated sensitivities for a General Electric DSTE PET for 3 different phantom diameters in 2d and 3d acquisition modes. RESULTS: The tests against analytically derived results and against simulations were validated both statistically using the t-test and visually by comparing profiles through the sinograms. Within the limits of statistical fluctuation, the new software passed all tests. In comparisons with data from the PET scanner, the simulation showed better agreement than previous SimSET releases, but still showed substantially increased coincidence sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: We believe the increased sensitivity is a result of the very simple default models used for energy resolution and scintillation light collection, and the lack of any livetime correction. The new release provides a user-modifiable function where all these factors can be realistically modeled for a given tomograph. The SimSET software, including source code, remains in the public domain.

  10. Excursion-Set-Mediated Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah

    1995-01-01

    Excursion-set-mediated genetic algorithm (ESMGA) is embodiment of method of searching for and optimizing computerized mathematical models. Incorporates powerful search and optimization techniques based on concepts analogous to natural selection and laws of genetics. In comparison with other genetic algorithms, this one achieves stronger condition for implicit parallelism. Includes three stages of operations in each cycle, analogous to biological generation.

  11. Controlling Setting Events in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Paula E.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers face the challenging job of differentiating instruction for the diverse needs of their students. This task is difficult enough with happy students who are eager to learn; unfortunately students often enter the classroom in a bad mood because of events that happened outside the classroom walls. These events--called setting events--can…

  12. User manual for storage simulation construction set

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, Anil; Volz, Richard A.

    1999-04-01

    The Storage Simulation Set (SSCS) is a tool for composing storage system models using Telegrip. It is an application written in C++ and motif. With this system, the models of a storage system can be composed rapidly and accurately. The aspects of the SSCS are described within this report.

  13. Teaching Music in the Urban Classroom Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The change needed in urban music education not only relates to the idea that music should be at the center of the curriculum; rather, it is that culturally relevant music should be a creative force at the center of reform in urban education. This set is the start of a national-level conversation aimed at making that goal a reality. In both…

  14. Residential Settings for Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kirsty

    1985-01-01

    Suggestions for an "ideal" residential setting are based on the author's 4 month visit to the Instituut Voor Doven, Sint-Michielsgestel, Netherlands, where considerable success is achieved in developing deaf students' language skills. The paper outlines the philosophy of the school and indicates how this success might be achieved. (Author/CL)

  15. Metaphors of Literacy: Dialogues in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causarano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of metaphors in education and in inclusive settings in particular. Metaphors are seen as the fabric of collaboration through dialogue across the curriculum. The article analyzes the dialogues among the Language Arts, Social Studies, and inclusion teacher in a large middle school in the Southwest of the United…

  16. Seymour Sarason and the Creation of Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherniss, Cary

    2012-01-01

    One of Seymour Sarason's most original and important works was his book, The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (Sarason, 1972). In it, he offered numerous insights about what goes wrong when "two or more people come together in new relationships over a sustained period of time in order to achieve certain goals." His hope in writing the…

  17. Occupational Therapy in School-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinth, Yvonne; Chandler, Barbara; Hanft, Barbara; Jackson, Leslie; Shepherd, Jayne

    2004-01-01

    For the past ten years, concerns have been voiced about the preservice preparation of occupational therapy (OT) practitioners to work in schools and early childhood programs. States and local districts have long complained of shortages of occupational therapists (OTs) in these settings. In addition, the "Twenty-Second Annual Report to Congress on…

  18. 7 CFR 15b.23 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Educational setting. 15b.23 Section 15b.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR... handicapped person. A recipient shall place a handicapped person in the regular educational...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.23 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational setting. 15b.23 Section 15b.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR... handicapped person. A recipient shall place a handicapped person in the regular educational...

  20. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  1. Reflections on Learning in Interdisciplinary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Asa; Kalman, Hildur

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, we will reflect on some didactic challenges and possibilities that emerge when teaching in interdisciplinary settings, and we will use and discuss the journey as a metaphor for learning. We argue that teaching in interdisciplinary studies rests on movements between different understandings, and that it gives ample…

  2. Documenting Collective Development in Online Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Chrystal; Silverman, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors explored the question of collective understanding in online mathematics education settings and presented a brief overview of traditional methods for documenting norms and collective mathematical practices. A method for documenting collective development was proposed that builds on existing methods and frameworks yet is…

  3. Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  4. Cheating Perceptions and Prevalence across Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honz, Kelly; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Yang, Ya-Shu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated high school students' perceptions of cheating and its prevalence. Students were administered the Academic Honesty Survey to determine their perceptions and prevalence of cheating across three academic settings: tests, homework, and report writing. Overall, students had traditional perceptions of what constitutes cheating.…

  5. Engagement in a Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, David

    2013-01-01

    There is an abundance of research concerning the definition measurement, and promotion of engagement across various work-related organizations. However, little is known about how we might begin to understand and facilitate engagement among community college faculty. Community college faculty face a unique set of challenges that render them at…

  6. Practice Setting Modification and Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    One hindrance to maximizing the amount of time students are actively engaged in quality practice is the wait time that results from limited equipment (e.g. basketball goals) and/or facilities (e.g. shot put ring). A possible solution to counteract this problem would be to modify the natural performance setting. Empirical evidence regarding the…

  7. Assessing Excellence/Effectiveness in Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    Urban community colleges can be distinguished from other community colleges in terms of their settings, clientele, richness and diversity of staff resources, and importance to the segments of the population who cluster in major national centers of commerce and government. In light of their unique characteristics, these institutions require study…

  8. A Guide to Monitoring Residential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    The guide provides some basic strategies and tools for monitoring residential settings--both institutions and community residences--for the quality of services provided to persons with developmental disabilities. An introductory chapter explains the purpose and layout of the document. Chapter II describes how to find and understand public…

  9. Procrastination in a Distance University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Fries, Stefan; Horz, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Procrastination, putting off until tomorrow what should have been done today, is a self-regulation failure that is widespread among students. Although plenty of research has emerged regarding academic procrastination, hardly any research endeavor regarding procrastination in distance university settings exists. This lack of research is even more…

  10. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of..., to 29.92″ Hg. (b) The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in...

  11. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of..., to 29.92″ Hg. (b) The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in...

  12. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of..., to 29.92″ Hg. (b) The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in...

  13. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of..., to 29.92″ Hg. (b) The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in...

  14. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... settings. (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of..., to 29.92″ Hg. (b) The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in...

  15. Setting Standards in Australian Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Whiteside, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In view of recent legislation to introduce the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency in Australia, greater emphasis is being placed on the notion of standards in higher education. A standards-based audit or assessment implies that institutions need to demonstrate performance or achievement against a set of explicit thresholds. This…

  16. Novelty detection using level set methods.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuemei; Li, Yuhua; Belatreche, Ammar; Maguire, Liam P

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a level set boundary description (LSBD) approach for novelty detection that treats the nonlinear boundary directly in the input space. The proposed approach consists of level set function (LSF) construction, boundary evolution, and termination of the training process. It employs kernel density estimation to construct the LSF of the initial boundary for the training data set. Then, a sign of the LSF-based algorithm is proposed to evolve the boundary and make it fit more tightly in the data distribution. The training process terminates when an expected fraction of rejected normal data is reached. The evolution process utilizes the signs of the LSF values at all training data points to decide whether to expand or shrink the boundary. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark data sets to evaluate the proposed LSBD method and compare it against four representative novelty detection methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the novelty detector modeled with the proposed LSBD can effectively detect anomalies. PMID:25720011

  17. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  18. Borderline Personality in the Medical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior. In contrast, it appears that individuals with borderline personality disorder in medical settings manifest physical symptoms that are medically difficult to substantiate. Through a review of the literature, we examine 2 symptom manifestations among patients with borderline personality in primary care and general medical settings—namely pain sensitivity and multiple somatic complaints. In addition to reviewing the research of others, we also highlight our own investigations into these 2 areas. Data Sources: We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database and a previous version of the PsycINFO search engine (no restrictions). Search terms included borderline personality, borderline personality disorder, personality disorders; chronic pain, pain, pain syndromes; and somatization disorder, Briquet’s syndrome, somatic preoccupation, somatic. Study Selection: Published articles related to borderline personality, pain and somatic symptoms (ie, somatization disorder, somatic preoccupation) were examined. Results: According to our review, the literature indicates higher-than-expected rates of borderline personality disorder among patients in primary care and general medical settings who present with chronic pain conditions and/or somatic preoccupation. Conclusions: Unlike patients with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings, who tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior, patients with borderline personality disorder in primary care settings tend to present with unsubstantiated chronic pain of various types as well as somatic preoccupation. PMID:26644960

  19. Exclusivity principle forbids sets of correlations larger than the quantum set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2014-03-01

    We show that the exclusivity (E) principle singles out the set of quantum correlations associated with any exclusivity graph assuming the set of quantum correlations for the complementary graph. Moreover, we prove that, for self-complementary graphs, the E principle, by itself (i.e., without further assumptions), excludes any set of correlations strictly larger than the quantum set. Finally, we prove that, for vertex-transitive graphs, the E principle singles out the maximum value for the quantum correlations assuming only the quantum maximum for the complementary graph. This opens the door for testing the impossibility of higher-than-quantum correlations in experiments.

  20. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  1. Using Growth Norms to Set Instructional Goals for Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…

  2. 48 CFR 1319.502-3 - Partial set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial set-asides. 1319... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502-3 Partial set-asides. A partial set... and one small) will respond with offers unless the set-aside is authorized by the designee set...

  3. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  4. Yongmin Kim: setting the pace for bioengineers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Early in his career, Yongmin Kim adopted an interdisciplinary approach to research that a more ego-driven researcher would have shied away from. He teamed with statisticians, electrical engineers, medical doctors, computer scientists, and industry executives to produce a steady stream of around 450 publications and a slew of innovations to medical imaging equipment that he has often had the pleasure of seeing put to use in hospitals in as short as two years. But Kim did not sit back and bask in his accomplishments. The moment he reached a goal, he set his sights on the next one. Having helped build the University of Washington's Bioengineering Department, where he led students and faculty for 29 years, the IEEE Fellow and former Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) president resigned his tenured faculty position and set out to meet another challenge: serving as president of South Korea's Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). PMID:22344945

  5. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.

  6. Management of hypereosinophilia in tropical settings

    PubMed Central

    Law, Arjun Datt; Varma, Subhash Chander

    2014-01-01

    Hypereosinophilia includes a group of commonly encountered clinical situations with symptoms ranging from mild and clinically innocuous to devastating presentations with high morbidity and mortality. The presentations and complications can be easily missed if the clinician is unaware of the diverse entities responsible for hypereosinophilia. The hypereosinophilic syndromes encompass entities that are associated with varying degrees of organ dysfunction either directly due to eosinophilic infiltration or as a result of substances secreted by the eosinophils. These conditions may be neoplastic or reactive in aetiology and a diligent search for secondary causes is essential. Evaluation and management algorithms in the tropical setting and in developing countries may differ from elsewhere. A review of hypereosinophilia and hypereosinophilic syndromes is presented with a diagnostic and therapeutic decision making algorithm modified for use in the tropical setting. PMID:25609866

  7. SAGE 2 satellite data set validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Wang, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a validation study of data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 satellite experiment (SAGE 2) are given. Preliminary SAGE 2 data have been available for the period October, 1984 to May, 1985. In addition, the results of two correlative experimental measurement series have been studied in detail, as well as climatological data obtained by other techniques, including ground-based and airborne lidar. The study shows the SAGE 2 data to be of great potential value to studies of the microphyiscs of stratospheric aerosols, the chemistry of trace gases and stratospheric dynamics. A small number of unidentified errors in the current preliminary data set are described. These will be removed from the next version of the data set which is anticipated to be of archival quality.

  8. Learning to learn in informal science settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Janette

    1994-12-01

    Visits to museums and science centres are a part of most school science programs- but are they really learning experiences? By accompanying classes on visits and talking with the teachers and students during and after these visits, information has been gathered on the ways in which school groups currently use visits to two informal science learning settings in Sydney- a science education centre and a large museum. Comparison of the teacher and student behaviours on these visits with current views on good teaching/learning practice, reveals considerable anomalies. At the same time, reported studies of museum visitors suggest that family groups use museums for learning in ways which are quite different from the way most school groups do. Can these apparent mismatches be translated into a pathway for developing new approaches to learning in informal settings?

  9. Detecting novel associations in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reshef, David N; Reshef, Yakir A; Finucane, Hilary K; Grossman, Sharon R; McVean, Gilean; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Lander, Eric S; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2011-12-16

    Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of variables in large data sets is increasingly important. Here, we present a measure of dependence for two-variable relationships: the maximal information coefficient (MIC). MIC captures a wide range of associations both functional and not, and for functional relationships provides a score that roughly equals the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the data relative to the regression function. MIC belongs to a larger class of maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) statistics for identifying and classifying relationships. We apply MIC and MINE to data sets in global health, gene expression, major-league baseball, and the human gut microbiota and identify known and novel relationships. PMID:22174245

  10. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  11. New Test Set for Video Quality Benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raventos, Joaquin

    A new test set design and benchmarking approach (US Patent pending) allows a "standard observer" to assess the end-to-end image quality characteristics of video imaging systems operating in day time or low-light conditions. It uses randomized targets based on extensive application of Photometry, Geometrical Optics, and Digital Media. The benchmarking takes into account the target's contrast sensitivity, its color characteristics, and several aspects of human vision such as visual acuity and dynamic response. The standard observer is part of the "extended video imaging system" (EVIS). The new test set allows image quality benchmarking by a panel of standard observers at the same time. The new approach shows that an unbiased assessment can be guaranteed. Manufacturers, system integrators, and end users will assess end-to-end performance by simulating a choice of different colors, luminance levels, and dynamic conditions in the laboratory or in permanent video systems installations.

  12. Conceptual frameworks for setting environmental standards.

    PubMed

    Philipp, R

    1996-01-01

    Following the Second European Conference on Environment and Health, held from 20 to 22 June 1994 in Helsinki, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a National Environmental Health Action Plan pilot project. During 1995, and as part of its work for this project with the WHO European Environmental Health Committee, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution began to seek evidence for the basis of setting environmental standards and to ask if a more consistent and robust basis can be found for establishing them. This paper explores the conceptual frameworks needed to help establish policy and address practical questions associated with different pollutants, exposures and environmental settings. It addresses sustainable development, inter-generational equity and environmental quality, the European Charter on Environment and Health, the Treaty of Maastricht, economic, educational and training issues, risk assessment, the role of environmental epidemiology, and definitions of environmental quality objectives, environmental health indicators, environmental epidemiology and environmental impact assessment.

  13. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  14. Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting.

    PubMed

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-06-01

    A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors' intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations.

  15. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  16. Detecting novel associations in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reshef, David N; Reshef, Yakir A; Finucane, Hilary K; Grossman, Sharon R; McVean, Gilean; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Lander, Eric S; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2011-12-16

    Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of variables in large data sets is increasingly important. Here, we present a measure of dependence for two-variable relationships: the maximal information coefficient (MIC). MIC captures a wide range of associations both functional and not, and for functional relationships provides a score that roughly equals the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the data relative to the regression function. MIC belongs to a larger class of maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) statistics for identifying and classifying relationships. We apply MIC and MINE to data sets in global health, gene expression, major-league baseball, and the human gut microbiota and identify known and novel relationships.

  17. Geologic setting of the apollo 15 samples.

    PubMed

    1972-01-28

    The samples and photographs returned from the Apollo 15 site show that Hadley Delta is largely underlain by breccias whose clasts are mainly fragments of coarse-grained feldspathic rocks and nonmare-type basalt. Conspicuous sets of lineaments, visible in surface and orbital photographs of Mount Hadley and Hadley Delta, may represent systematic layering or fracture sets. The mare surface, with regolith about 5 meters thick, is underlain by two major basalt types, at least one of which has extensive lateral continuity and is exposed in the upper wall of Hadley Rille. Gradual erosional recession of the edges and filing of the interior of the rille by talus have contributed to the present cross sectional profile.

  18. Setting on the Sidewalk: Using Chalk Drawing to Teach Narrative Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a fun outdoor assignment whereby secondary school students form into groups of four or five and learn about the importance of narrative setting by drawing on sidewalks with chalk. Reviews the five basic elements of setting: temporal, geographical, cultural, historical, and environmental. (TB)

  19. Priority setting: what constitutes success? A conceptual framework for successful priority setting

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Singer, Peter A; Upshur, Ross; Martin, Douglas K

    2009-01-01

    Background The sustainability of healthcare systems worldwide is threatened by a growing demand for services and expensive innovative technologies. Decision makers struggle in this environment to set priorities appropriately, particularly because they lack consensus about which values should guide their decisions. One way to approach this problem is to determine what all relevant stakeholders understand successful priority setting to mean. The goal of this research was to develop a conceptual framework for successful priority setting. Methods Three separate empirical studies were completed using qualitative data collection methods (one-on-one interviews with healthcare decision makers from across Canada; focus groups with representation of patients, caregivers and policy makers; and Delphi study including scholars and decision makers from five countries). Results This paper synthesizes the findings from three studies into a framework of ten separate but interconnected elements germane to successful priority setting: stakeholder understanding, shifted priorities/reallocation of resources, decision making quality, stakeholder acceptance and satisfaction, positive externalities, stakeholder engagement, use of explicit process, information management, consideration of values and context, and revision or appeals mechanism. Conclusion The ten elements specify both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of priority setting and relate to both process and outcome components. To our knowledge, this is the first framework that describes successful priority setting. The ten elements identified in this research provide guidance for decision makers and a common language to discuss priority setting success and work toward improving priority setting efforts. PMID:19265518

  20. A Comparison of Web-Based Standard Setting and Monitored Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Anne L.; Way, Walter D.

    Standard setting, when carefully done, can be an expensive and time-consuming process. The modified Angoff method and the benchmark method, as utilized in this study, employ representative panels of judges to provide recommended passing scores to standard setting decision-makers. It has been considered preferable to have the judges meet in a…

  1. Reflections and Learning from Using Action Learning Sets in a Healthcare Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Liz; Proctor, Gillian; Bartlett, Ruth; Haslam, Mark; Wood, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the delivery of action learning sets to students on the peer educator course provided by the Dementia Studies Department at University of Bradford. Our understanding of action learning sets is laid out together with our rationale for their use on this course. Feedback is presented that described a conflicted, even confused…

  2. Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of…

  3. All Set! Evidence of Simultaneous Attentional Control Settings for Multiple Target Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Jessica L.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional…

  4. Sets of Mutually Orthogonal Sudoku Latin Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, Timothy; Petersen, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    A Latin square of order "n" is an "n" x "n" array using n symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and column. A set of Latin squares is c ordered pairs of symbols appearing in the cells of the array are distinct. The popular puzzle Sudoku involves Latin squares with n = 9, along with the added condition that each of the 9…

  5. Systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting.

    PubMed

    Sagt, Cees M J

    2013-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is based on systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering and is now also applied in industry. Industrial use of systems metabolic engineering focuses on strain and process optimization. Since ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs are key in an industrial setting, the use of effective and robust methods in systems metabolic engineering is becoming very important. Major improvements in the field of proteomics and metabolomics have been crucial in the development of genome-wide approaches in strain and process development. This is accompanied by a rapid increase in DNA sequencing and synthesis capacity. These developments enable the use of systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting. Industrial systems metabolic engineering can be defined as the combined use of genome-wide genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to modify strains or processes. This approach has become very common since the technology for generating large data sets of all levels of the cellular processes has developed quite fast into robust, reliable, and affordable methods. The main challenge and scope of this mini review is how to translate these large data sets in relevant biological leads which can be tested for strain or process improvements. Experimental setup, heterogeneity of the culture, and sample pretreatment are important issues which are easily underrated. In addition, the process of structuring, filtering, and visualization of data is important, but also, the availability of a genetic toolbox and equipment for medium/high-throughput fermentation is a key success factor. For an efficient bioprocess, all the different components in this process have to work together. Therefore, mutual tuning of these components is an important strategy.

  6. Sequencing device utilizing planetary gear set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A planetary (epicyclic) gear set is provided with a reversible rotating input shaft and individual outputs shafts actuated, respectively, by the ring gear and planet gear carrier. Latch means is positioned to selectively and automatically stop the ring gear or carrier member while releasing the other to provide the desired sequential output operation. The output shafts are reversed in sequence and direction of rotation by reversing rotational direction of the input shaft.

  7. Postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Adams, M G; Kelly, P J; Kodkany, B S; Derman, R J

    2006-03-01

    Despite the strong interest of international health agencies, worldwide maternal mortality has not declined substantially over the past 10 years. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death across the world, responsible for more than 25% of deaths annually. Although effective tools for prevention and treatment of PPH are available, most are not feasible or practical for use in the developing world where many births still occur at home with untrained birth attendants. Application of many available clinical solutions in rural areas would necessitate substantial changes in government infrastructure and in local culture and customs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth. Before treatment can be administered, prompt and accurate diagnosis must be made, which requires training and appropriate blood measurement tools. After diagnosis, appropriate interventions that can be applied in remote settings are needed. Many uterotonics known to be effective in reducing PPH in tertiary care settings may not be useful in community settings because they require refrigeration and/or skilled administration. Moreover, rapid transfer to a higher level of care must be available, a challenge in many settings because of distance and lack of transportation. In light of these barriers, low-technological replacements for treatments commonly applied in the developed-world must be utilized. Community education, improvements to emergency care systems, training for birth attendants, misoprostol, and Uniject have shown promise as potential solutions. In the short term, it is expedient to capitalize on practical opportunities that utilize the existing strengths and resources in each community or region in order to implement appropriate solutions to save the lives of women during childbirth.

  8. Prolonged grief: setting the research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged grief disorder is proposed for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), though it was rejected as a diagnosis for DSM-5. Objective This review outlines findings and defines important areas for future research viewed from a lifespan perspective. Results The development and psychometric evaluation of measures for the new diagnosis is paramount, specifically for children and adolescents. Treatments need to be adapted for specific subgroups and research findings have to be disseminated into various professional settings. PMID:25994020

  9. Postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Adams, M G; Kelly, P J; Kodkany, B S; Derman, R J

    2006-03-01

    Despite the strong interest of international health agencies, worldwide maternal mortality has not declined substantially over the past 10 years. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death across the world, responsible for more than 25% of deaths annually. Although effective tools for prevention and treatment of PPH are available, most are not feasible or practical for use in the developing world where many births still occur at home with untrained birth attendants. Application of many available clinical solutions in rural areas would necessitate substantial changes in government infrastructure and in local culture and customs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth. Before treatment can be administered, prompt and accurate diagnosis must be made, which requires training and appropriate blood measurement tools. After diagnosis, appropriate interventions that can be applied in remote settings are needed. Many uterotonics known to be effective in reducing PPH in tertiary care settings may not be useful in community settings because they require refrigeration and/or skilled administration. Moreover, rapid transfer to a higher level of care must be available, a challenge in many settings because of distance and lack of transportation. In light of these barriers, low-technological replacements for treatments commonly applied in the developed-world must be utilized. Community education, improvements to emergency care systems, training for birth attendants, misoprostol, and Uniject have shown promise as potential solutions. In the short term, it is expedient to capitalize on practical opportunities that utilize the existing strengths and resources in each community or region in order to implement appropriate solutions to save the lives of women during childbirth. PMID:16427056

  10. Recharge monitoring in an interplaya setting

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Liang, J.

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to monitor infiltration in response to precipitation events in an interplaya setting. The authors evaluated data gathered from the interplaya recharge monitoring installation at the Pantex Plant from March through December 1998. They monitored thermocouple psychrometer (TCP) instruments to measure water potential and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes to measure water content and bulk soil conductivity. Heat-dissipation sensor (HDS) instruments were monitored to supplement the TCP data.

  11. Science Changes Set to Inspire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, John

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the Government set out its vision and agenda for 14-19 education in the Green Paper "14-19: Opportunity and Excellence". As a result, the DfES asked the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) to revise its programme of study for science at Key Stage 4 (14-16). These revisions come into force in September 2006 and schools are being…

  12. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work.

  13. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  14. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work. PMID:21468293

  15. Powered nasal polypectomy in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Krouse, J H; Christmas, D A

    1996-09-01

    The use of powered instrumentation has revolutionized the practice of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. We have expanded the role of the instrument to the treatment of polypoid disease of the nose within the office setting. We have found the technique to be both safe and effective, and to allow thorough exenteration of nasal polyps with minimal bleeding and discomfort. We recommend the use of the powered device as the primary tool in the surgical treatment of nasal polyps in the office.

  16. Polar narcosis: Designing a suitable training set

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, E.U.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Verhaar, H.J.M.; Hermens, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    Substituted phenols, anilines, pyridines and nitrobenzenes can be classified as polar narcotics. These chemicals differ from non-polar narcotic compounds not only in that they exhibit a 5 to 10 times higher toxicity, but also in their Fish Acute Toxic Syndromes, together suggesting a different mode of action. For 97 polar narcotics, which are not ionized under physiological conditions, 11 physico-chemical and quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated. Using Principal Components Analysis 91% of the total variance could be explained by three Principal Components, which were subsequently used as factors in a Statistical Design. Eleven compounds were selected based on a two-level full factorial design, including three compounds near the center (2{sup 3} + 3). QSARs were developed for both, the design set and a set of 63 polar narcotics for which guppy and/or fathead minnow data were available in the literature. Both QSAR, based on PLS, resulted in good models (R{sup 2} = 0.96 and Q{sup 2} = 0.8{sup 2}; R{sup 2}= 0.86 and Q{sup 2} = 0.83 respectively) and gave similar Pseudo Regression Coefficients. In addition the model based on the designed chemicals was able to predict the toxicity of the 63 compounds (R{sup 2} = 0.85). These results show that these 11 chemicals are a well-balanced set for further studies of polar narcosis.

  17. Deep Reconstruction Models for Image Set Classification.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Munawar; Bennamoun, Mohammed; An, Senjian

    2015-04-01

    Image set classification finds its applications in a number of real-life scenarios such as classification from surveillance videos, multi-view camera networks and personal albums. Compared with single image based classification, it offers more promises and has therefore attracted significant research attention in recent years. Unlike many existing methods which assume images of a set to lie on a certain geometric surface, this paper introduces a deep learning framework which makes no such prior assumptions and can automatically discover the underlying geometric structure. Specifically, a Template Deep Reconstruction Model (TDRM) is defined whose parameters are initialized by performing unsupervised pre-training in a layer-wise fashion using Gaussian Restricted Boltzmann Machines (GRBMs). The initialized TDRM is then separately trained for images of each class and class-specific DRMs are learnt. Based on the minimum reconstruction errors from the learnt class-specific models, three different voting strategies are devised for classification. Extensive experiments are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed framework for the tasks of face and object recognition from image sets. Experimental results show that the proposed method consistently outperforms the existing state of the art methods. PMID:26353289

  18. Intrusion detection using rough set classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-hua; Zhang, Guan-hua; Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ying-cai

    2004-09-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of "IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  19. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  20. Tropical cyclones in reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluates and compares tropical cyclones (TCs) in state-of-the-art reanalysis data sets including the following: the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), Japanese 25-year Reanalysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-40, Interim Reanalysis, National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and NASA's Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA). Most of the reanalyses reproduce a reasonable global spatial distribution of observed TCs and temporal interannual variation of total TC frequency. Of the six reanalysis data sets, JRA-55 appears to be the best in terms of the following: the highest skill for spatial and temporal distribution of TC frequency of occurrence, highest TC hitting rate, lower false alarm rate, reasonable TC structure in terms of the relationship between maximum surface wind speed and sea level pressure, and higher correlation coefficients for interannual variations of TC frequency. These results also suggest that the finest-resolution reanalysis data sets, like MERRA, are not always the best in terms of TC climatology.

  1. Statistical considerations in setting product specifications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi; Shen, Meiyu

    2015-01-01

    According to ICH Q6A (1999), a specification is defined as a list of tests, references to analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria, which are numerical limits, ranges, or other criteria for the tests described. For drug products, specifications usually consist of test methods and acceptance criteria for assay, impurities, pH, dissolution, moisture, and microbial limits, depending on the dosage forms. They are usually proposed by the manufacturers and subject to the regulatory approval for use. When the acceptance criteria in product specifications cannot be pre-defined based on prior knowledge, the conventional approach is to use data from a limited number of clinical batches during the clinical development phases. Often in time, such acceptance criterion is set as an interval bounded by the sample mean plus and minus two to four standard deviations. This interval may be revised with the accumulated data collected from released batches after drug approval. In this article, we describe and discuss the statistical issues of commonly used approaches in setting or revising specifications (usually tighten the limits), including reference interval, (Min, Max) method, tolerance interval, and confidence limit of percentiles. We also compare their performance in terms of the interval width and the intended coverage. Based on our study results and review experiences, we make some recommendations on how to select the appropriate statistical methods in setting product specifications to better ensure the product quality.

  2. Test result management in global health settings.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D; Dalal, Anuj K

    2012-09-01

    Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly "static"-key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings.

  3. Analyzing Document Retrievability in Patent Retrieval Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shariq; Rauber, Andreas

    Most information retrieval settings, such as web search, are typically precision-oriented, i.e. they focus on retrieving a small number of highly relevant documents. However, in specific domains, such as patent retrieval or law, recall becomes more relevant than precision: in these cases the goal is to find all relevant documents, requiring algorithms to be tuned more towards recall at the cost of precision. This raises important questions with respect to retrievability and search engine bias: depending on how the similarity between a query and documents is measured, certain documents may be more or less retrievable in certain systems, up to some documents not being retrievable at all within common threshold settings. Biases may be oriented towards popularity of documents (increasing weight of references), towards length of documents, favour the use of rare or common words; rely on structural information such as metadata or headings, etc. Existing accessibility measurement techniques are limited as they measure retrievability with respect to all possible queries. In this paper, we improve accessibility measurement by considering sets of relevant and irrelevant queries for each document. This simulates how recall oriented users create their queries when searching for relevant information. We evaluate retrievability scores using a corpus of patents from US Patent and Trademark Office.

  4. A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Scott D.; Slutz, Ralph J.; Jenne, Roy L.; Steurer, Peter M.

    1987-10-01

    Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)-the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and easily used data set. As background, a historical overview is given of how archiving of these marine data has evolved from 1854, when systematic recording of shipboard meteorological and oceanographic observations was first established as an international activity. Input data sets used for COADS are described, as well as the processing steps used to pack input data into compact binary formats and to apply quality controls for identification of suspect weather elements and duplicate marine reports. Seventy-million unique marine reports for 1854-1979 were output from initial processing. Further processing is described, which created statistical summaries for each month of each year of the period, using 2° latitude × 2° longitude boxes. Monthly summary products are available giving 14 statistics (such as the median and the mean) for each of eight observed variables (air and sea-surface temperatures, scalar and vector wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness), plus 11 derived variables. Examples of known temporal, spatial, and methodological inhomogeneities in marine data, and plans for periodic updates to COADS, including an update through 1986 scheduled for completion by early 1988, are presented.

  5. Handling Imbalanced Data Sets in Multistage Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.

    Multistage classification is a logical approach, based on a divide-and-conquer solution, for dealing with problems with a high number of classes. The classification problem is divided into several sequential steps, each one associated to a single classifier that works with subgroups of the original classes. In each level, the current set of classes is split into smaller subgroups of classes until they (the subgroups) are composed of only one class. The resulting chain of classifiers can be represented as a tree, which (1) simplifies the classification process by using fewer categories in each classifier and (2) makes it possible to combine several algorithms or use different attributes in each stage. Most of the classification algorithms can be biased in the sense of selecting the most populated class in overlapping areas of the input space. This can degrade a multistage classifier performance if the training set sample frequencies do not reflect the real prevalence in the population. Several techniques such as applying prior probabilities, assigning weights to the classes, or replicating instances have been developed to overcome this handicap. Most of them are designed for two-class (accept-reject) problems. In this article, we evaluate several of these techniques as applied to multistage classification and analyze how they can be useful for astronomy. We compare the results obtained by classifying a data set based on Hipparcos with and without these methods.

  6. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, John F.

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering and rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.

  7. On your histone mark, SET, methylate!

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Lysine methylation of histones and non-histone proteins has emerged in recent years as a posttranslational modification with wide-ranging cellular implications beyond epigenetic regulation. The molecular interactions between lysine methyltransferases and their substrates appear to be regulated by posttranslational modifications surrounding the lysine methyl acceptor. Two very interesting examples of this cross-talk between methyl-lysine sites are found in the SET (Su(var)3–9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax) domain-containing lysine methyltransferases SET7 and SETDB1, whereby the histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) modification prevents methylation by SETDB1 on H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and the histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) modification prevents methylation by SET7 on H3K4. A similar cross-talk between posttranslational modifications regulates the functions of non-histone proteins such as the tumor suppressor p53 and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Herein, in cis effects of acetylation, phosphorylation, as well as arginine and lysine methylation on lysine methylation events will be discussed. PMID:23625014

  8. Inverting sets and the packing problem

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Goldberg, M.K.; Knill, E.; Spencer, T.H.

    1992-12-01

    Given a set V, a subset S, and a permutation {pi} of V, we say that {pi} permutes S if {pi}(S) {intersection} S = {theta}. Given a collection S = (V; S{sub 1}..., S{sub m}), where S{sub i} {improper_subset} V (i = 1,...,m), we say that S is invertible if there is a permutation {pi} of V such that {pi}(S{sub i}) {improper_subset} V -- S{sub i}. In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of a collection and construct a polynomial algorithm which determines whether a given collection is invertible. For an arbitrary collection, we give a lower bound for the maximum number of sets that can be inverted. Finally, we consider the problem of constructing a collection of sets such that no sub-collection of size three is invertible. Our constructions of such collections come from solutions to the packing problem with unbounded block sizes. We prove several new lower and upper bounds for the packing problem and present a new explicit construction of packing.

  9. Inverting sets and the packing problem

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V. ); Goldberg, M.K. . Dept. of Computer Science); Knill, E. . School of Computer Science); Spencer, T.H. . Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)

    1992-01-01

    Given a set V, a subset S, and a permutation [pi] of V, we say that [pi] permutes S if [pi](S) [intersection] S = [theta]. Given a collection S = (V; S[sub 1]..., S[sub m]), where S[sub i] [improper subset] V (i = 1,...,m), we say that S is invertible if there is a permutation [pi] of V such that [pi](S[sub i]) [improper subset] V -- S[sub i]. In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of a collection and construct a polynomial algorithm which determines whether a given collection is invertible. For an arbitrary collection, we give a lower bound for the maximum number of sets that can be inverted. Finally, we consider the problem of constructing a collection of sets such that no sub-collection of size three is invertible. Our constructions of such collections come from solutions to the packing problem with unbounded block sizes. We prove several new lower and upper bounds for the packing problem and present a new explicit construction of packing.

  10. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering andmore » rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.« less

  11. Music Therapy in School Settings: Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Smith; Hairston

    1999-01-01

    The practice of music therapy in school settings was the focus of this study. Survey forms were mailed to 244 NAMT members who indicated school setting as their place of employment. A total of 190 forms were received, 138 of which fit the qualifications for inclusion and were included in the data summaries. Greater numbers of respondents lived in Texas (21), New York (17), and Michigan (11), and were employed full-time (60&percent;). Employers were more typically school systems (53&percent;) for the highest percentage of full-time respondents (80&percent;), and self-employers (25&percent;) for the highest percentage of part-time respondents (80&percent;). A considerably higher percentage of time was spent each week in direct service delivery (62&percent;) than in consultation (13&percent;), travel (18&percent;), documentation (11&percent;), or preparation (14&percent;). Over 40&percent; of the respondents had been music therapists for more than 8 years, but not necessarily in their current positions. Almost 40&percent; needed a valid teaching certificate for employment, while over 50&percent; currently held one. Respondents most frequently worked with persons who were developmentally disabled (80&percent;). The impact of employer and the inclusion movement on professional practice issues was discussed, as were possible trends in the practice of music therapy in school settings.

  12. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting. PMID:26035012

  13. Neonatal hypothermia in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, LC

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia among newborns is considered an important contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality in low resource settings. However, in these settings only limited progress has been made towards understanding the risk of mortality subsequent to hypothermia, describing how this relationship is dependent on both the degree or severity of exposure and the gestational age and weight status of the baby, and implementing interventions to mitigate both exposure and the associated risk of poor outcomes. Given the centrality of averting neonatal mortality to achieving global milestones towards reductions in child mortality by 2015, recent years have seen substantial resources and efforts to improve understanding of global epidemiology of neonatal health. In this seminar, a summary of the burden, consequences, and risk factors of neonatal hypothermia in low-resources settings is presented, with a particular focus on community-based data. Context-appropriate interventions for reducing hypothermia exposure and the role of these interventions in reducing global neonatal mortality burden are explored. PMID:21094417

  14. Colored HOMFLY and generalized Mandelbrot set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mandelbrot set is a closure of the set of zeroes of resultant x ( F n , F m ) for iterated maps F n ( x) = f ° n ( x) - x in the moduli space of maps f ( x). The wonderful fact is that for a given n all zeroes are not chaotically scattered around the moduli space, but lie on smooth curves, with just a few cusps, located at zeroes of discriminant x ( F n ). We call this phenomenon the Mandelbrot property. If approached by the cabling method, symmetrically-colored HOMFLY polynomials {H}_n^{{K}}(A|q.) can be considered as linear forms on the n-th "power" of the knot {K} , and one can wonder if zeroes of resultant q 2 ( H n , H m ) can also possess the Mandelbrot property. We present and discuss such resultant-zeroes patterns in the complex- A plane. Though A is hardly an adequate parameter to describe the moduli space of knots, the Mandelbrot-like structure is clearly seen — in full accord with the vision of hep-th/0501235 , that concrete slicing of the Universal Mandelbrot set is not essential for revealing its structure.

  15. Test Result Management in Global Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831

  16. Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.

  17. Inattentional blindness: A combination of a relational set and a feature inhibition set?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Rebecca R; Beck, Melissa R

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to directly test the feature set hypothesis and the relational set hypothesis in an inattentional blindness task. The feature set hypothesis predicts that unexpected objects that match the to-be-attended stimuli will be reported most. The relational set hypothesis predicts that unexpected objects that match the relationship between the to-be-attended and the to-be-ignored stimuli will be reported the most. Experiment 1 manipulated the luminance of the stimuli. Participants were instructed to monitor the gray letter shapes and to ignore either black or white letter shapes. The unexpected objects that exhibited the luminance relation of the to-be-attended to the to-be-ignored stimuli were reported by participants the most. Experiment 2 manipulated the color of the stimuli. Participants were instructed to monitor the yellower orange or the redder orange letter shapes and to ignore the redder orange or yellower letter shapes. The unexpected objects that exhibited the color relation of the to-be-attended to the to-be-ignored stimuli were reported the most. The results do not support the use of a feature set to accomplish the task and instead support the use of a relational set. In addition, the results point to the concurrent use of multiple attentional sets that are both excitatory and inhibitory.

  18. A set oriented definition of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and coherent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Ross, Shane D.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of phase space transport, which is of interest from both the theoretical and practical point of view, has been investigated extensively using geometric and probabilistic methods. Two important tools to study this problem that have emerged in recent years are finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) and the Perron-Frobenius operator. The FTLE measures the averaged local stretching around reference trajectories. Regions with high stretching are used to identify phase space transport barriers. One probabilistic method is to consider the spectrum of the Perron-Frobenius operator of the flow to identify almost-invariant densities. These almost-invariant densities are used to identify almost invariant sets. In this paper, a set-oriented definition of the FTLE is proposed which is applicable to phase space sets of finite size and reduces to the usual definition of FTLE in the limit of infinitesimal phase space elements. This definition offers a straightforward connection between the evolution of probability densities and finite-time stretching experienced by phase space curves. This definition also addresses some concerns with the standard computation of the FTLE. For the case of autonomous and periodic vector fields we provide a simplified method to calculate the set-oriented FTLE using the Perron-Frobenius operator. Based on the new definition of the FTLE we propose a simple definition of finite-time coherent sets applicable to vector fields of general time-dependence, which are the analogues of almost-invariant sets in autonomous and time-periodic vector fields. The coherent sets we identify will necessarily be separated from one another by ridges of high FTLE, providing a link between the framework of coherent sets and that of codimension one Lagrangian coherent structures. Our identification of coherent sets is applied to three examples.

  19. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations [Set 15 (362-388) and Set 16 (389-441), with an Index Listing the Contents of Each Set (Sets 1-16) and a Cumulative Subject Index (Sets 1-16)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This document consists of 80 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared by the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory. Set 15 consists of 27 packages; set 16 consists of 53 packages. Each software review lists producer, time and place of evaluation,…

  20. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  1. Spatial occupancy models for large data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Devin S.; Conn, Paul B.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Ray, Justina C.; Pond, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its development, occupancy modeling has become a popular and useful tool for ecologists wishing to learn about the dynamics of species occurrence over time and space. Such models require presence–absence data to be collected at spatially indexed survey units. However, only recently have researchers recognized the need to correct for spatially induced overdisperison by explicitly accounting for spatial autocorrelation in occupancy probability. Previous efforts to incorporate such autocorrelation have largely focused on logit-normal formulations for occupancy, with spatial autocorrelation induced by a random effect within a hierarchical modeling framework. Although useful, computational time generally limits such an approach to relatively small data sets, and there are often problems with algorithm instability, yielding unsatisfactory results. Further, recent research has revealed a hidden form of multicollinearity in such applications, which may lead to parameter bias if not explicitly addressed. Combining several techniques, we present a unifying hierarchical spatial occupancy model specification that is particularly effective over large spatial extents. This approach employs a probit mixture framework for occupancy and can easily accommodate a reduced-dimensional spatial process to resolve issues with multicollinearity and spatial confounding while improving algorithm convergence. Using open-source software, we demonstrate this new model specification using a case study involving occupancy of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) over a set of 1080 survey units spanning a large contiguous region (108 000 km2) in northern Ontario, Canada. Overall, the combination of a more efficient specification and open-source software allows for a facile and stable implementation of spatial occupancy models for large data sets.

  2. Setting up the Pediatric Endoscopy Unit.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Diana G; Pall, Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    As pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy continues to develop and evolve, pediatric gastroenterologists are more frequently called on to develop and direct a pediatric endoscopy unit. Lack of published literature and focused training in fellowship can render decision making about design, capacity, operation, equipment purchasing, and staffing challenging. To help guide management decisions, we distributed a short survey to 18 pediatric gastroenterology centers throughout the United States and Canada. This article provides practical guidance by summarizing available expert opinions on the topic of setting up a pediatric endoscopy unit. PMID:26616893

  3. Elliptic Functions with Disconnected Julia Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Lorelei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate elliptic functions of the form fΛ = 1/(1 + (℘Λ)2), where ℘Λ is the Weierstrass elliptic function on a real rhombic lattice. We show that a typical function in this family has a superattracting fixed point at the origin and five other equivalence classes of critical points. We investigate conditions on the lattice which guarantee that fΛ has a double toral band, and we show that this family contains the first known examples of elliptic functions for which the Julia set is disconnected but not Cantor.

  4. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    PubMed

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  5. Trappers set up trap for lizard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In hope of catching a large monitor lizard seen in the area, state-licensed animal trappers Dewey Kessler and James Dean (at left), with Gary Povitch (kneeling) of the U.S. Wildlife and Dan Turner (standing) set up a trap on KSC. The lizard has been spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. Turner is a monitor expert. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  6. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  7. Asthma Care in Resource-Poor Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Asthma prevalence in low-to middle-income countries is at least the same or higher than in rich countries, but with increased severity. Lack of control in these settings is due to various factors such as low accessibility to effective medications, multiple and uncoordinated weak infrastructures of medical services for the management of chronic diseases such as asthma, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, lack of asthma education, and social and cultural factors. There is an urgent requirement for the implementation of better ways to treat asthma in underserved populations, enhancing the access to preventive medications and educational approaches with modern technological methods. PMID:23282401

  8. Stereo Electro-optical Tracking System (SETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    The SETS is a remote, non-contacting, high-accuracy tracking system for the measurement of deflection of models in the National Transonic Facility at Langley Research Center. The system consists of four electronically scanned image dissector trackers which locate the position of Light Emitting Diodes embedded in the wing or body of aircraft models. Target location data is recorded on magnetic tape for later 3-D processing. Up to 63 targets per model may be tracked at typical rates of 1280 targets per second and to precision of 0.02mm at the target under the cold (-193 C) environment of the NTF tunnel.

  9. Breast cancer: agenda setting through activism.

    PubMed

    Brendtro, M J

    1998-01-01

    Breast cancer has long been one of the leading causes of death among women in the United States. The disease did not gain serious attention in the public policy arena, however, until the 1990s. Using Kingdon's agenda-setting model as a framework, this article describes how breast cancer moved to a place of prominence on the national health care agenda. The role of breast cancer activists in this effort is examined. Suggestions are then made concerning why and how advanced practice nurses might effectively influence the health policy agenda through political activism. PMID:9874938

  10. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  11. College Physics in a Studio Setting*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swez, John A.

    1998-04-01

    In June 1996 the National Science Foundation awarded the ISU Physics Department a grant of $44,766 (plus matching funds) for the development of 'College Physics in a Studio Setting'. This combines the separate lab and lecture learning environment. Students sit in pairs at stations where they can run physics experiments, computer simulations and interactive tutorials. The room (which can accommodate 40 students) is also fully equipped for multimedia presentations. Two multimedia learning modules have been developed stressing the integration of computer simulations with on-line lecture notes. A summary presentaiton of the active learning components of the studio including student run simulations and computerized experiments will be presented.

  12. [Antimicrobial stewardship in primary care setting].

    PubMed

    Mombelli, Matteo; Plüss-Suard, Catherine; Niquille, Anne; Zanetti, Giorgio; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie

    2016-04-13

    Antibiotic overuse in primary care setting is a major contributor to the development of resistant bacteria. Antibiotic consumption is low in Switzerland compared to neighbour countries, but improvement is possible and has to be pursued. Antibiotic stewardship helps physician to better recognize patients who need antibiotic (guidelines implementation, electronic decision support and laboratory testing) and educate patients about the uselessness of antibiotics in a given situation (delayed prescription and shared decision making). Clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of these interventions in reducing antibiotic consumption, mainly in acute respiratory infections, without affecting patients' clinical outcome.

  13. Soybean canopy reflectance modeling data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.

  14. Choosing efficient feature sets for video classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of choosing appropriate features to describe the content of still pictures or video sequences, including audio. As the computational analysis of these features is often time- consuming, it is useful to identify a minimal set allowing for an automatic classification of some class or genre. Further, it can be shown that deleting the coherence of the features characterizing some class, is not suitable to guarantee an optimal classification result. The central question of the paper is thus, which features should be selected, and how they should be weighted to optimize a classification problem.

  15. Managing concussion in the school setting.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2014-09-01

    Concussion is a significant injury that can occur in physical education, during recreational activities, and during sports. School nurses should be included as an integral member of the concussion management team and assist with education, evaluation, and management of a concussed student. Recent and updated sport-related concussion management recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers' Association Research and Education Foundation as published in the March 2014 Journal of Athletic Training are reviewed to provide an understanding of best practices for concussion management in the school setting.

  16. Fuzzy set classifier for waste classification tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.

    1992-11-04

    We have developed an expert system based on fuzzy logic theory to fuse the data from multiple sensors and make classification decisions for objects in a waste reprocessing stream. Fuzzy set theory has been applied in decision and control applications with some success, particularly by the Japanese. We have found that the fuzzy logic system is rather easy to design and train, a feature that can cut development costs considerably. With proper training, the classification accuracy is quite high. We performed several tests sorting radioactive test samples using a gamma spectrometer to compare fuzzy logic to more conventional sorting schemes.

  17. Probabilities for separating sets of order statistics.

    PubMed

    Glueck, D H; Karimpour-Fard, A; Mandel, J; Muller, K E

    2010-04-01

    Consider a set of order statistics that arise from sorting samples from two different populations, each with their own, possibly different distribution functions. The probability that these order statistics fall in disjoint, ordered intervals and that of the smallest statistics, a certain number come from the first populations is given in terms of the two distribution functions. The result is applied to computing the joint probability of the number of rejections and the number of false rejections for the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate procedure.

  18. Set-based corral control in stochastic dynamical systems: Making almost invariant sets more invariant

    PubMed Central

    Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; Yecko, Philip; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of stochastic prediction and control in a time-dependent stochastic environment, such as the ocean, where escape from an almost invariant region occurs due to random fluctuations. We determine high-probability control-actuation sets by computing regions of uncertainty, almost invariant sets, and Lagrangian coherent structures. The combination of geometric and probabilistic methods allows us to design regions of control, which provide an increase in loitering time while minimizing the amount of control actuation. We show how the loitering time in almost invariant sets scales exponentially with respect to the control actuation, causing an exponential increase in loitering times with only small changes in actuation force. The result is that the control actuation makes almost invariant sets more invariant. PMID:21456830

  19. Etch Profile Simulation Using Level Set Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Etching and deposition of materials are critical steps in semiconductor processing for device manufacturing. Both etching and deposition may have isotropic and anisotropic components, due to directional sputtering and redeposition of materials, for example. Previous attempts at modeling profile evolution have used so-called "string theory" to simulate the moving solid-gas interface between the semiconductor and the plasma. One complication of this method is that extensive de-looping schemes are required at the profile corners. We will present a 2D profile evolution simulation using level set theory to model the surface. (1) By embedding the location of the interface in a field variable, the need for de-looping schemes is eliminated and profile corners are more accurately modeled. This level set profile evolution model will calculate both isotropic and anisotropic etch and deposition rates of a substrate in low pressure (10s mTorr) plasmas, considering the incident ion energy angular distribution functions and neutral fluxes. We will present etching profiles of Si substrates in Ar/Cl2 discharges for various incident ion energies and trench geometries.

  20. Simulation of Etching Profiles Using Level Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Using plasma discharges to etch trenches and via holes in substrates is an important process in semiconductor manufacturing. Ion enhanced etching involves both neutral fluxes, which are isotropic, and ion fluxes, which are anisotropic. The angular distributions for the ions determines the degree of vertical etch, while the amount of the neutral fluxes determines the etch rate. We have developed a 2D profile evolution simulation which uses level set methods to model the plasma-substrate interface. Using level sets instead of traditional string models avoids the use of complicated delooping algorithms. The simulation calculates the etch rate based on the fluxes and distribution functions of both ions and neutrals. We will present etching profiles of Si substrates in low pressure (10s mTorr) Ar/Cl2 discharges for a variety of incident ion angular distributions. Both ion and neutral re-emission fluxes are included in the calculation of the etch rate, and their contributions to the total etch profile will be demonstrated. In addition, we will show RIE lag effects as a function of different trench aspect ratios. (For sample profiles, please see http://www.ipt.arc.nasa.gov/hwangfig1.html)

  1. Compositing multitemporal remote sensing data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, J.; Huete, A.R.; Hood, J.; Kerr, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To eliminate cloud and atmosphere-affected pixels, the compositing of multi temporal remote sensing data sets is done by selecting the maximum vale of the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) within a compositing period. The NDVI classifier, however, is strongly affected by surface type and anisotropic properties, sensor viewing geometries, and atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external effects. To improve the accuracy of compositing products, two key approaches can be taken: one is to refine the compositing classifier (NDVI) and the other is to improve existing compositing algorithms. In this project, an alternative classifier was developed and an alternative pixel selection criterion was proposed for compositing. The new classifier and the alternative compositing algorithm were applied to an advanced very high resolution radiometer data set of different biome types in the United States. The results were compared with the maximum value compositing and the best index slope extraction algorithms. The new approaches greatly reduced the high frequency noises related to the external factors and repainted more reliable data. The results suggest that the geometric-optical canopy properties of specific biomes may be needed in compositing. Limitations of the new approaches include the dependency of pixel selection on the length of the composite period and data discontinuity.

  2. Probing a SET nanomagnet with shot noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Pulido, L. D.; Fernandez-Rossier, J.; Aguado, R.

    2008-03-01

    Although recent experiments show that single atomic spins [1] and molecular magnets [2] can be proved via transport measurements, their magnetic properties can hardly be tuned once they are fabricated. In a recent Letter [3], we have shown that a single-electron transistor (SET) based upon a II--VI semiconductor quantum dot and doped with a single-Mn ion behaves like a quantum nanomagnet with magnetic properties which can be controlled electrically. Conversely, the electrical properties of this SET depend on the quantum state of the Mn spin. Here, we extend these previous ideas and study the shot noise of this kind of nanomagnets. Our results reveal that shot noise contains much more information that the one contained in the average current. Interestingly, important quantities of the nanomagnet like the spin relaxation time and information about current-induced spin precession can be directly extracted from shot noise measurements. [1] Cyrus F. Hirjibehedin et al, Science, 317, 1199 (2007). [2] Moon-Ho Jo et al, Nanoletters, 6, 2014, (2006); H. B. Heersche et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 206801 (2006). [3] J. Fernandez-Rossier and R. Aguado, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 106805 (2007).

  3. Yoga in school settings: a research review.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany

    2016-06-01

    Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. PMID:26919395

  4. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J Mark G

    2010-12-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whether such interventions might alter CGS. Study 1 examined the correlation between changes in dispositional mindfulness and changes in CGS over a 3-4 month period in patients participating in a pilot randomised controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Results indicated that increases in dispositional mindfulness were significantly associated with decreases in CGS, although this effect could not be attributed specifically to the group who had received training in meditation. Study 2 explored the impact of brief periods of either breathing or loving kindness meditation on CGS in 55 healthy participants. Contrary to expectation, a brief period of meditation increased CGS. Further analyses indicated that this effect was restricted to participants low in goal re-engagement ability who were allocated to loving kindness meditation. Longer term changes in dispositional mindfulness are associated with reductions in CGS in patients with depressed mood. However initial reactions to meditation, and in particular loving kindness meditation, may be counterintuitive and further research is required in order to determine the relationship between initial reactions and longer-term benefits of meditation practice.

  5. Sequential Auctions in Uncertain Information Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Shaheen; Wooldridge, Michael; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    This paper analyzes sequential auctions for private value objects using second-price sealed-bid rules. Now, the equilibrium bids for such auctions depend on the information uncertainty of the bidders. Specifically, there are three key auction parameters that the bidders could be uncertain about: the valuations of the objects for sale, the number of objects for sale, and the number of participating bidders. We analyse the bidding behaviour for each of these three sources of uncertainty. For each setting, we first find the equilibrium bidding strategies for the individual auctions that comprise a series. Then we analyze the effect of these uncertainties on the computational and economic properties of the equilibrium solution. The former analysis is essential if we want to use software agents to bid on our behalf. The latter is essential because both the auctioneer and the bidders want to know how these uncertainties affect their profits. Thus we compare the outcomes for these settings from the perspective of the bidders (i.e., in terms of their profits), from the perspective of the auctioneer (i.e., in terms of his revenue), and from a global perspective (i.e., in terms of auction efficiency).

  6. Addressing HIV stigma in protected medical settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the implementation of universal precaution (UP) plays a role in reducing HIV stigma. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention on UP compliance and explore whether UP compliance could potentially influence HIV stigma reduction in medical settings. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in two provinces of China with 1760 healthcare service providers recruited from 40 county-level hospitals. Longitudinal analyses included data collection at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. Using a hierarchical modeling approach, we estimated the intervention effect for each provider’s UP compliance and its potential mediating role on HIV stigma with the bootstrapping method. A significant intervention effect on UP compliance was observed at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. The intervention effect on provider avoidance intent was partially mediated by the provider’s own UP compliance at the two follow-up points. This study provides evidence that UP compliance should be part of HIV stigma reduction programs, especially in resource-restrained countries. Findings suggest that a protected work environment may be necessary but not sufficient to address HIV stigma in medical settings. PMID:26608559

  7. Divergent gastrointestinal stromal tumors in syndromic settings.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Maria, Giorgio; Cassano, Alessandra; Larocca, Luigi Maria

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occur as sporadic tumors. Rarely, however, these neoplasms can arise in syndromic contexts. Under these circumstances, GISTs are often multiple and associated with accompanying signs peculiar of the hosting syndrome. Moreover, syndromic GISTs themselves tend to show heterogeneous features depending on the underlying condition. Multiple inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) and a jejunal spindle-cell GIST were resected in a germline PDGFRA-mutant individual. Although the association of IFP and GIST is typical of this genetic setting (PDGFRA mutations can in fact trigger both these tumor types), PDGFRA-mutant GISTs are usually epithelioid and gastric. This discrepancy was settled evidencing a somatic KIT mutation in the GIST. The awareness of possible somatic mutations can be critical in the management of high-risk/malignant GISTs arising in syndromic settings. GIST features unusual for a given GIST-predisposing syndrome are a valuable tool in the hands of physicians for suspecting these "extra" triggers, which could not be sought for once a diagnosis of GIST-prone syndrome is well established, in a bona fide cost/benefit perspective. PMID:27318444

  8. Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marilyn; Hancock, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    In this commentary the urban setting is explored from the perspective of ecological sustainability and social equity. Urban-related issues are highlighted related to social inequality, deficits in urban infrastructures, behavior-related illnesses and risks, global ecological changes, and urban sprawl. Approaches to addressing these issues are described from the perspective of urban governance, urban planning and design, social determinants of health, health promotion, and personal and community empowerment. Examples of successful strategies are provided from Latin America, including using participatory instruments (assessments, evaluation, participatory budgeting, etc.), establishing intersectoral committees, increasing participation of civil society organizations, and developing virtual forums and networks to channel participatory and collaborative processes. A way forward is proposed, using the urban setting to show the imperative of creating intersectoral policies and programs that produce environments that are both healthy and sustainable. It will be important to include new forms of social participation and use social media to facilitate citizen decision-making and active participation of all sectors of society, especially excluded groups.

  9. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioral paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in Pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:24058336

  10. Turbulence on a Fractal Fourier Set.

    PubMed

    Lanotte, Alessandra S; Benzi, Roberto; Malapaka, Shiva K; Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca

    2015-12-31

    A novel investigation of the nature of intermittency in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence is performed by a numerical study of the Navier-Stokes equations constrained on a fractal Fourier set. The robustness of the energy transfer and of the vortex stretching mechanisms is tested by changing the fractal dimension D from the original three dimensional case to a strongly decimated system with D=2.5, where only about 3% of the Fourier modes interact. This is a unique methodology to probe the statistical properties of the turbulent energy cascade, without breaking any of the original symmetries of the equations. While the direct energy cascade persists, deviations from the Kolmogorov scaling are observed in the kinetic energy spectra. A model in terms of a correction with a linear dependency on the codimension of the fractal set E(k)∼k(-5/3+3-D) explains the results. At small scales, the intermittency of the vorticity field is observed to be quasisingular as a function of the fractal mode reduction, leading to an almost Gaussian statistics already at D∼2.98. These effects must be connected to a genuine modification in the triad-to-triad nonlinear energy transfer mechanism. PMID:26764993

  11. Partially ordered sets in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Qi; Du, Fang; Wu, Tie-Jun

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a partial-order relation is defined among vertices of a network to describe which vertex is more important than another on its contribution to the connectivity of the network. A maximum linearly ordered subset of vertices is defined as a chain and the chains sharing the same end-vertex are grouped as a family. Through combining the same vertices appearing in different chains, a directed chain graph is obtained. Based on these definitions, a series of new network measurements, such as chain length distribution, family diversity distribution, as well as the centrality of families, are proposed. By studying the partially ordered sets in three kinds of real-world networks, many interesting results are revealed. For instance, the similar approximately power-law chain length distribution may be attributed to a chain-based positive feedback mechanism, i.e. new vertices prefer to participate in longer chains, which can be inferred by combining the notable preferential attachment rule with a well-ordered recommendation manner. Moreover, the relatively large average incoming degree of the chain graphs may indicate an efficient substitution mechanism in these networks. Most of the partially ordered set-based properties cannot be explained by the current well-known scale-free network models; therefore, we are required to propose more appropriate network models in the future.

  12. Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marilyn; Hancock, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    In this commentary the urban setting is explored from the perspective of ecological sustainability and social equity. Urban-related issues are highlighted related to social inequality, deficits in urban infrastructures, behavior-related illnesses and risks, global ecological changes, and urban sprawl. Approaches to addressing these issues are described from the perspective of urban governance, urban planning and design, social determinants of health, health promotion, and personal and community empowerment. Examples of successful strategies are provided from Latin America, including using participatory instruments (assessments, evaluation, participatory budgeting, etc.), establishing intersectoral committees, increasing participation of civil society organizations, and developing virtual forums and networks to channel participatory and collaborative processes. A way forward is proposed, using the urban setting to show the imperative of creating intersectoral policies and programs that produce environments that are both healthy and sustainable. It will be important to include new forms of social participation and use social media to facilitate citizen decision-making and active participation of all sectors of society, especially excluded groups. PMID:27199023

  13. Hypoglycemia Revisited in the Acute Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Hung; Lin, Yen-Yue; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Cheng, Chien-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common finding in both daily clinical practice and acute care settings. The causes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) are multi-factorial and the major etiologies are iatrogenic, infectious diseases with sepsis and tumor or autoimmune diseases. With the advent of aggressive lowering of HbA1c values to achieve optimal glycemic control, patients are at increased risk of hypoglycemic episodes. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia can cause recurrent morbidity, sometime irreversible neurologic complications and even death, and further preclude maintenance of euglycemia over a lifetime of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that hypoglycemia is associated with adverse outcomes in many acute illnesses. In addition, hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality among elderly and non-diabetic hospitalized patients. Clinicians should have high clinical suspicion of subtle symptoms of hypoglycemia and provide prompt treatment. Clinicians should know that hypoglycemia is associated with considerable adverse outcomes in many acute critical illnesses. In order to reduce hypoglycemia-associated morbidity and mortality, timely health education programs and close monitoring should be applied to those diabetic patients presenting to the Emergency Department with SH. ED disposition strategies should be further validated and justified to achieve balance between the benefits of euglycemia and the risks of SH. We discuss relevant issues regarding hypoglycemia in emergency and critical care settings. PMID:22028152

  14. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  15. Statistical mechanics of the hitting set problem.

    PubMed

    Mézard, Marc; Tarzia, Marco

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we present a detailed study of the hitting set (HS) problem. This problem is a generalization of the standard vertex cover to hypergraphs: one seeks a configuration of particles with minimal density such that every hyperedge of the hypergraph contains at least one particle. It can also be used in important practical tasks, such as the group testing procedures where one wants to detect defective items in a large group by pool testing. Using a statistical mechanics approach based on the cavity method, we study the phase diagram of the HS problem, in the case of random regular hypergraphs. Depending on the values of the variables and tests degrees different situations can occur: The HS problem can be either in a replica symmetric phase, or in a one-step replica symmetry breaking one. In these two cases, we give explicit results on the minimal density of particles, and the structure of the phase space. These problems are thus in some sense simpler than the original vertex cover problem, where the need for a full replica symmetry breaking has prevented the derivation of exact results so far. Finally, we show that decimation procedures based on the belief propagation and the survey propagation algorithms provide very efficient strategies to solve large individual instances of the hitting set problem.

  16. Nurses’ experiences of humour in clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Shali, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing holistic nursing care when there is a shortage of personnel and equipment exposes nurses to stress and a higher risk of occupational burnout. Humour can promote nurses’ health and influence nursing care. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of humour in clinical settings and factors affecting it. Methods: This qualitative study investigated nurses’ experiences of humour. Five hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences provided the setting for this study. The participants comprised of 17 nurses with master’s and Baccalaureate degrees (BSN) in nursing. These nurses worked at educational hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and had minimum work experience of 12 months in various clinical wards. Nurses from all wards were invited to participate in this study. The data were collected through semi structure interviews using guides comprising probing questions. Telephonic interviews were used to further supplement the data. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: The data were classified into five themes including the dynamics of humour, condition enforcement, Risk making probability, Instrumental use and Change: opportunities and threats. Conclusion: Understanding nurses’ perceptions and experiences of humour helps identify its contributing factors and provides valuable guidelines for enhancing nurses and patients’ mental, emotional and physical health. Spreading a culture of humour through teaching methods can improve workplace cheerfulness and highlights the importance of humour in patient care in nurses and nursing students. PMID:26034735

  17. Restorative effects of virtual nature settings.

    PubMed

    Valtchanov, Deltcho; Barton, Kevin R; Ellard, Colin

    2010-10-01

    Previous research regarding the potential benefits of exposing individuals to surrogate nature (photographs and videos) has found that such immersion results in restorative effects such as increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and decreased stress. In the current experiment, we examined whether immersion in a virtual computer-generated nature setting could produce restorative effects. Twenty-two participants were equally divided between two conditions, while controlling for gender. In each condition, participants performed a stress-induction task, and were then immersed in virtual reality (VR) for 10 minutes. The control condition featured a slide show in VR, and the nature experimental condition featured an active exploration of a virtual forest. Participants in the nature condition were found to exhibit increased positive affect and decreased stress after immersion in VR when compared to those in the control condition. The results suggest that immersion in virtual nature settings has similar beneficial effects as exposure to surrogate nature. These results also suggest that VR can be used as a tool to study and understand restorative effects.

  18. Paleoenvironmental setting of Paleozoic mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R. . Dept. Geological Sciences); Tedesco, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate mud mounds formed above storm wave base, which in many settings was in moderate to extremely shallow water. This is concluded by a comparative analysis of sedimentary structures, fabrics and small scale sequences occurring in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian mounds and in modern mud mounds and Halimeda bioherms. Most small mounds studied contain a shallowing sequence that represents shallowing into the zone of daily agitation. The bulk of each mound sequence is detrital deposition of layered mudstones to wackestones in the mound core and packstones to grainstones on the flanks and shoal cap. If macroskeletal fauna and flora are present, an autochthonous skeletal packstone may occur in the upper portion of the shallowing sequence beneath the detrital grainstone cap. Burrow excavations and grainy tubular tempestite infillings partially to completely modify the primary depositional fabric of all of these facies. Larger mounds studied are a composite of several to numerous smaller mound depositional sequences. High vertical relief of some larger mounds may be more the result of continued accommodation space provided by subsidence/downfaulting than be deposition in extremely deep water. Although the biotic components of carbonate mounds vary greatly through the Paleozoic, the contained sedimentary structures, fabrics and fundamental depositional sequences remain very similar. This suggests a general similarity in the mechanism and depositional setting of mound formation.

  19. Priority setting for health in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Giedion, Ursula; McQueston, Kate

    2013-05-01

    The use of health technology assessment research in emerging economies is becoming an increasingly important tool to determine the uses of health spending. As low- and middle-income countries' gross domestic product grows, the funding available for health has increased in tandem. There is growing evidence that comparative effectiveness research and cost-effectiveness can be used to improve health outcomes within a predefined financial space. The use of these evaluation tools, combined with a systematized process of priority setting, can help inform national and global health payers. This review of country institutions for health technology assessment illustrates two points: the efforts underway to use research to inform priorities are widespread and not confined to wealthier countries; and many countries' efforts to create evidence-based policy are incomplete and more country-specific research will be needed. Further evidence shows that there is scope to reduce these gaps and opportunity to support better incorporation of data through better-defined priority-setting processes.

  20. Incompatible Sets of Gradients and Metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. M.; James, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    We give a mathematical analysis of a concept of metastability induced by incompatibility. The physical setting is a single parent phase, just about to undergo transformation to a product phase of lower energy density. Under certain conditions of incompatibility of the energy wells of this energy density, we show that the parent phase is metastable in a strong sense, namely it is a local minimizer of the free energy in an L 1 neighbourhood of its deformation. The reason behind this result is that, due to the incompatibility of the energy wells, a small nucleus of the product phase is necessarily accompanied by a stressed transition layer whose energetic cost exceeds the energy lowering capacity of the nucleus. We define and characterize incompatible sets of matrices, in terms of which the transition layer estimate at the heart of the proof of metastability is expressed. Finally we discuss connections with experiments and place this concept of metastability in the wider context of recent theoretical and experimental research on metastability and hysteresis.

  1. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  2. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Knox, Lerry

    1997-01-01

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  3. U.S. MOPEX DATA SET

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, J; Cong, S; Duan, Q

    2006-05-08

    A key step in applying land surface parameterization schemes is to estimate model parameters that vary spatially and are unique to each computational element. Improved methods for parameter estimation (especially for parameters important to runoff response) are needed and require data from a wide range of climate regimes throughout the world. Accordingly, the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP) endorsed the concept of an international Model Parameter Estimation Project (MOPEX) at its Toronto meeting, August 1996. Phase I of MOPEX was funded by NOAA in FY 1997, Phase II in FY 2000 and Phase III in FY 2003. MOPEX was adopted as projects of the IAHS/WMO Committee on GEWEX and of the WMO Commission on Hydrology (CHy) and now is a contributor to the Combine Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). In 2004 MOPEX became a Working Group of the IAHS Prediction for Ungaged Basins (PUB) Initiative. MOPEX also is expected to contribute to the work of the Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX) (Franz et al, 2005). The primary goal of MOPEX is to develop techniques for the a priori estimation of the parameters used in land surface parameterization schemes of atmospheric models and in hydrologic models. A major early effort of MOPEX has been to assemble a large number of high quality historical hydrometeorological and river basin characteristics data sets for a wide range of river basins (500-10,000 km{sup 2}) throughout the world. MOPEX data sets are available via the Internet (ftp://hydrology.nws.noaa.gov). This paper documents the development of data sets for U.S. river basins. Several highly successful parameter estimation workshops have been organized by MOPEX. The first was held as part of the IAHS meeting in Birmingham, England in July, 1999. The second workshop was hosted April, 2002 in Tucson, AZ by SAHRA/University of Arizona. The third MOPEX workshop was held as part of the IAHS meeting in Sapporo, July, 2003. The fourth

  4. All set, indeed! N2pc components reveal simultaneous attentional control settings for multiple target colors.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    To study whether top-down attentional control processes can be set simultaneously for different visual features, we employed a spatial cueing procedure to measure behavioral and electrophysiological markers of task-set contingent attentional capture during search for targets defined by 1 or 2 possible colors (one-color and two-color tasks). Search arrays were preceded by spatially nonpredictive color singleton cues. Behavioral spatial cueing effects indicative of attentional capture were elicited only by target-matching but not by distractor-color cues. However, when search displays contained 1 target-color and 1 distractor-color object among gray nontargets, N2pc components were triggered not only by target-color but also by distractor-color cues both in the one-color and two-color task, demonstrating that task-set nonmatching items attracted attention. When search displays contained 6 items in 6 different colors, so that participants had to adopt a fully feature-specific task set, the N2pc to distractor-color cues was eliminated in both tasks, indicating that nonmatching items were now successfully excluded from attentional processing. These results demonstrate that when observers adopt a feature-specific search mode, attentional task sets can be configured flexibly for multiple features within the same dimension, resulting in the rapid allocation of attention to task-set matching objects only. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Methodological insights: fuzzy sets in medicine.

    PubMed

    Vineis, P

    2008-03-01

    In this paper I wish to introduce some ideas about scientific reasoning that have reached the epidemiological community only marginally. They have to do with how we classify things (diseases), and how we formulate hypotheses (causes). According to a simplified and currently untenable model, we come to defining what a disease, or a protone or a chromosome, is by progressive simplification--that is, by extracting an essence from the individual characters of disease. At the end of this inductive process a single element, which guarantees the unequivocal inclusion in the category, is identified. This is what has been called "Merkmal-definition" (Merkmal meaning distinctive sign)--that is, the definition of disease would be allowed by the isolation of a crucial property, a necessary and sufficient condition, which makes that disease unique (and a chair out of a chair, a proton out of a proton, etc). However many objections have been raised by Wittgenstein, Eleanor Rosch and others to this idea: a Merkmal is not always identifiable, and more often a word is used to indicate not a homogeneous and unequivocal set of observations, but a confused constellation with blurred borders. This constellation has been called a fuzzy set and is at the basis of the semantic theory of metaphors proposed by MacCormac and the prototype theory proposed by Rosch. In this way the concept of disease, for example, abandons monothetic definitions, amenable to a necessary and sufficient characteristic, to become "polythetic." I explain how these concepts can help medicine and epidemiology to clarify some open issues in the definition of disease and the identification of causes, through examples taken from oncology, psychiatry, cardiology and infectious diseases. The definition of a malignant tumour, for example, seems to correspond to the concept of "family resemblance," since there is no single criterion that allows us to define unequivocally the concept of cancer: not morphology (there are

  6. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy; Lox, Curt; Rose, Paul; Reid, Steven

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m−2) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~ 400 kJ day−1) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~ 15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~ 35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout. PMID:20886227

  7. Multimedia telehomecare system using standard TV set.

    PubMed

    Guillén, S; Arredondo, M T; Traver, V; García, J M; Fernández, C

    2002-12-01

    Nowadays, there are a very large number of patients that need specific health support at home. The deployment of broadband communication networks is making feasible the provision of home care services with a proper quality of service. This paper presents a telehomecare multimedia platform that runs over integrated services digital network and internet protocol using videoconferencing standards H.320 and H.323, and standard TV set for patient interaction. This platform allows online remote monitoring: ECG, heart sound, blood pressure. Usability, affordability, and interoperability were considered for the design and development of its hardware and software components. A first evaluation of technical and usability aspects were carried forward with 52 patients of a private clinic and 10 students in the University. Results show a high rate (mean = 4.33, standard deviation--SD = 1.63 in a five-points Likert scale) in the global perception of users on the quality of images, voice, and feeling of virtual presence.

  8. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  9. Assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Dubin, W R; Wilson, S J; Mercer, C

    1988-09-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 3800 psychiatrists in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware to investigate assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings. Ninety-one questionnaires were returned: 32 psychiatrists reported serious assaults (gun or knife), and 59 reported less serious assaults (object or physical attack). Significantly more personal injury and property damage resulted from the less serious assaults. Coping strategy was significantly related to the type of assault; positive verbal intervention was the most effective. Thirty-one (36%) of 87 respondents stated that they had moderate to strong feelings before the attack that the patient was potentially violent. Experienced psychiatrists were as likely to be victims of assault as were inexperienced psychiatrists. Forty-eight (59%) of 81 psychiatrists continued to treat the patients who had assaulted them. Only 20 (23%) of 87 psychiatrists had security arrangements at the time of the assault. The authors present four case vignettes which typify the different types of assaults, interventions, and outcomes.

  10. Setting up of ambulatory hysteroscopy service.

    PubMed

    Kolhe, Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    There is an obvious trend towards developing ambulatory procedures in gynaecology with ambulatory hysteroscopy as its mainstay. In the recent years, the fast pace of modern technological advances in gynaecologic endoscopy, and particularly in the field of hysteroscopy, have been both thrilling and spectacular. Despite this, the uptake of operative hysteroscopy in ambulatory settings has been relatively slow. There is some apprehension amongst gynaecologists to embark on therapeutic outpatient hysteroscopy, and an organisational change is required to alter the mindset. Although there are best practice guidelines for outpatient hysteroscopy, there are unresolved issues around adequate training and accreditation of future hysteroscopists. Virtual-reality simulation training for operative hysteroscopy has shown promising preliminary results, and it is being aggressively evaluated and validated. This review article is an attempt to provide a useful practical guide to all those who wish to implement ambulatory hysteroscopy services in their outpatient departments. PMID:25979350

  11. Multimedia telehomecare system using standard TV set.

    PubMed

    Guillén, S; Arredondo, M T; Traver, V; García, J M; Fernández, C

    2002-12-01

    Nowadays, there are a very large number of patients that need specific health support at home. The deployment of broadband communication networks is making feasible the provision of home care services with a proper quality of service. This paper presents a telehomecare multimedia platform that runs over integrated services digital network and internet protocol using videoconferencing standards H.320 and H.323, and standard TV set for patient interaction. This platform allows online remote monitoring: ECG, heart sound, blood pressure. Usability, affordability, and interoperability were considered for the design and development of its hardware and software components. A first evaluation of technical and usability aspects were carried forward with 52 patients of a private clinic and 10 students in the University. Results show a high rate (mean = 4.33, standard deviation--SD = 1.63 in a five-points Likert scale) in the global perception of users on the quality of images, voice, and feeling of virtual presence. PMID:12542238

  12. Solar Brayton engine/alternator set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, L.; Elkins, R.

    1981-01-01

    Work on the Mod O solar Brayton engine/alternator set is redirected to utilize solarized components of the automotive advanced gas turbine (AGT). The new configuration is referred to as the Mod I. Commercialization of solar Brayton engines thus should be enhanced not only by relating the design to an engine expected to reach the high quantity, low cost production rates associated with the automotive market, but also by the potential the AGT components provide for growth of efficiency and power rating. This growth would be achieved through use of ceramics in later versions making operation possible at temperatures up to 2500 F. The longer program duration and higher cost of the Mod I is considered.

  13. Design of Structurally Efficient Tapered Struts (SETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi; Benner, Harry; Vincent, Dawson; Olason, Eric; Harrison, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop mass efficient composite struts. A closed-form design methodology for composite struts was developed using well established analyses to predict Euler buckling, local wall buckling; compression strength, damage tolerance, and interlaminar shear at geometric gradients. The methodology was coded in a spreadsheet suitable for convenient and rapid sizing of tapered composite struts. This spreadsheet analysis was used to determine the influence of several variables such as material stiffness, strut diameter, and material allowables on strut weight for given loading conditions. The comparison showed that, while the Park Aerospace design method was well suited to preliminary sizing for a conservative design, the closed-form-analyses-based spreadsheet accounts for all possible failure modes and is a good optimum strut design tool. The report concludes with a set of recommendations for future work in analytical design and analysis methodology enhancements.

  14. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    SciTech Connect

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-12

    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  16. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% {sup 235}U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for {sup 235}U/({sup 235}U+{sup 238}U) isotope ratios was {+-}3%; it declined to {+-}15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described.

  17. Analysis of the Westland Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Fang; Willett, Peter; Deb, Somnath

    2001-01-01

    The "Westland" set of empirical accelerometer helicopter data with seeded and labeled faults is analyzed with the aim of condition monitoring. The autoregressive (AR) coefficients from a simple linear model encapsulate a great deal of information in a relatively few measurements; and it has also been found that augmentation of these by harmonic and other parameters call improve classification significantly. Several techniques have been explored, among these restricted Coulomb energy (RCE) networks, learning vector quantization (LVQ), Gaussian mixture classifiers and decision trees. A problem with these approaches, and in common with many classification paradigms, is that augmentation of the feature dimension can degrade classification ability. Thus, we also introduce the Bayesian data reduction algorithm (BDRA), which imposes a Dirichlet prior oil training data and is thus able to quantify probability of error in all exact manner, such that features may be discarded or coarsened appropriately.

  18. Burgers Turbulence on a Fractal Fourier set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi

    2014-11-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the effects introduced by a fractal decimation in Fourier space on stochastically forced one-dimensional Burgers equations. The aim is to understand the statistical robustness of the shock singularity under different reductions of the number of the degrees of freedom. We perform a series of direct numerical simulations by using a pseudo-spectral code with resolution up to 16384 points and for various dimensions of the fractal set of Fourier modes DF <1. We present results concerning the scaling properties of statistical measures in real space and the probability distribution functions of local and non-local triads in Fourier space. Partially supported by ERC Grant No 339032.

  19. Gate Set Tomography on two qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Erik; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Gamble, John; Rudinger, Kenneth

    Gate set tomography (GST) is a method for characterizing quantum gates that does not require pre-calibrated operations, and has been used to both certify and improve the operation of single qubits. We analyze the performance of GST applied to a simulated two-qubit system, and show that Heisenberg scaling is achieved in this case. We present a GST analysis of preliminary two-qubit experimental data, and draw comparisons with the simulated data case. Finally, we will discuss recent theoretical developments that have improved the efficiency of GST estimation procedures, and which are particularly beneficial when characterizing two qubit systems. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Parameter Estimation in Atmospheric Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenig, Mark; Colarco, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study the structure tensor technique is used to estimate dynamical parameters in atmospheric data sets. The structure tensor is a common tool for estimating motion in image sequences. This technique can be extended to estimate other dynamical parameters such as diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. As a test scenario this technique will be applied to modeled dust data. In this case vertically integrated dust concentrations were used to derive wind information. Those results can be compared to the wind vector fields which served as input to the model. Based on this analysis, a method to compute atmospheric data parameter fields will be presented. .

  1. Perception of intimidation in a perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Dull, David L; Fox, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Intimidation in health care settings can negatively affect patient safety. Following an adverse event in 2006 at Spectrum Health, a 7-hospital health care system in Grand Rapids, Michigan, leadership of the Grand Rapids perioperative services department led an initiative to evaluate and reduce the incidence of intimidation in the department. Physicians were surveyed to ascertain their beliefs about behaviors that constitute intimidation and to correlate those findings with definitions of intimidation identified by several national professional organizations. Our findings suggest that a majority of physicians in perioperative services agree that behaviors identified as intimidating by national organizations actually constitute intimidation in only 4 of 9 instances and that, for even the most egregious behaviors, there is lack of complete agreement that the behavior constitutes intimidation.These findings suggest reasons why traditional means of addressing intimidating behavior may not be effective and also suggest alternative means of handling behaviors that disrupt the care environment.

  2. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  3. Many-Body Basis Set Superposition Effect.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, John F; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2015-11-10

    The basis set superposition effect (BSSE) arises in electronic structure calculations of molecular clusters when questions relating to interactions between monomers within the larger cluster are asked. The binding energy, or total energy, of the cluster may be broken down into many smaller subcluster calculations and the energies of these subsystems linearly combined to, hopefully, produce the desired quantity of interest. Unfortunately, BSSE can plague these smaller fragment calculations. In this work, we carefully examine the major sources of error associated with reproducing the binding energy and total energy of a molecular cluster. In order to do so, we decompose these energies in terms of a many-body expansion (MBE), where a "body" here refers to the monomers that make up the cluster. In our analysis, we found it necessary to introduce something we designate here as a many-ghost many-body expansion (MGMBE). The work presented here produces some surprising results, but perhaps the most significant of all is that BSSE effects up to the order of truncation in a MBE of the total energy cancel exactly. In the case of the binding energy, the only BSSE correction terms remaining arise from the removal of the one-body monomer total energies. Nevertheless, our earlier work indicated that BSSE effects continued to remain in the total energy of the cluster up to very high truncation order in the MBE. We show in this work that the vast majority of these high-order many-body effects arise from BSSE associated with the one-body monomer total energies. Also, we found that, remarkably, the complete basis set limit values for the three-body and four-body interactions differed very little from that at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level for the respective subclusters embedded within a larger cluster. PMID:26574311

  4. Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.

  5. Impact of Contraceptive Counseling in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Tregear, Stephen J.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Tiller, Marie; Pazol, Karen; Mautone-Smith, Nancy; Gavin, Loretta E.

    2015-01-01

    Context This systematic review evaluated the evidence on the impact of contraceptive counseling provided in clinical settings on reproductive health outcomes to provide information to guide national recommendations on quality family planning services. Evidence acquisition Multiple databases were searched during 2010–2011 for peer-reviewed articles published in English from January 1985 through February 2011 describing studies that evaluated contraceptive counseling interventions in clinical settings. Studies were excluded if they focused primarily on prevention of HIV or sexually transmitted infections, focused solely on men, or were conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand. Evidence synthesis The initial search identified 12,327 articles, of which 22 studies (from 23 articles) met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined the impact of contraceptive counseling among adolescents, with four finding a significant positive impact on at least one outcome of interest. Sixteen studies examined the impact of counseling among adults or mixed populations (adults and adolescents), with 11 finding a significant positive impact on at least one outcome of interest. Conclusions Promising components of contraceptive counseling were identified despite the diversity of interventions and inability to compare the relative effectiveness of one approach versus another. The evidence base would be strengthened by improved documentation of counseling procedures; assessment of intervention implementation and fidelity to put study findings into context; and development and inclusion of more RCTs, studies conducted among general samples of women, and studies with sample sizes sufficient to detect important behavioral outcomes at least 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26190845

  6. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  7. Medicine, economics and agenda-setting.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J M; Considine, M

    1999-02-01

    The filtering of potential policy issues from a large range of possibilities to a relatively small list of agenda items allows the organisation of power and influence within a policy sector to be examined. This study investigated power and influence in health policy agenda-setting in one State of Australia (Victoria) in the years 1991, 1992 and 1993. The actors seen as influential were predominantly medically trained and working in academia, health bureaucracies and public teaching hospitals. This research supports an elite model of health policy agenda-setting, in which outcomes are dependent on the structured interests within the policy field. However, while the corporate elite of the profession is influential, the frontline service providers are not, as indicated by the location of influentials in large and prestigious organisations. Politicians and professional associations and unions are less well represented, and consumer and community groups are virtually absent. In 1993 there was a sharp increase in economists being nominated as influentials, with a subsequent decrease in influentials with medical training. This relates to a (perceived or real) shift in influence from the medical profession to senior health bureaucrats. Economic concerns appear to be shaping the visible health policy agenda, through an increased number of influentials with economics training, but also through an apparent ability to shape the issues that other influentials are adding as agenda items. The corporate elite of medicine remains powerful, but their range of concerns has been effectively limited to cost containment or cost reduction, better planning and efficiency. This limiting of concerns occurs within an international policy context, where the general trends of globalisation and an emphasis on neo-liberal economics impact on the direction of health policy in individual countries. PMID:10077286

  8. Medicine, economics and agenda-setting.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J M; Considine, M

    1999-02-01

    The filtering of potential policy issues from a large range of possibilities to a relatively small list of agenda items allows the organisation of power and influence within a policy sector to be examined. This study investigated power and influence in health policy agenda-setting in one State of Australia (Victoria) in the years 1991, 1992 and 1993. The actors seen as influential were predominantly medically trained and working in academia, health bureaucracies and public teaching hospitals. This research supports an elite model of health policy agenda-setting, in which outcomes are dependent on the structured interests within the policy field. However, while the corporate elite of the profession is influential, the frontline service providers are not, as indicated by the location of influentials in large and prestigious organisations. Politicians and professional associations and unions are less well represented, and consumer and community groups are virtually absent. In 1993 there was a sharp increase in economists being nominated as influentials, with a subsequent decrease in influentials with medical training. This relates to a (perceived or real) shift in influence from the medical profession to senior health bureaucrats. Economic concerns appear to be shaping the visible health policy agenda, through an increased number of influentials with economics training, but also through an apparent ability to shape the issues that other influentials are adding as agenda items. The corporate elite of medicine remains powerful, but their range of concerns has been effectively limited to cost containment or cost reduction, better planning and efficiency. This limiting of concerns occurs within an international policy context, where the general trends of globalisation and an emphasis on neo-liberal economics impact on the direction of health policy in individual countries.

  9. Bayesian photometric redshifts with empirical training sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We combine in a single framework the two complementary benefits of χ2 template fits and empirical training sets used e.g. in neural nets: χ2 is more reliable when its probability density functions (PDFs) are inspected for multiple peaks, while empirical training is more accurate when calibration and priors of query data and training set match. We present a χ2 empirical method that derives PDFs from empirical models as a subclass of kernel regression methods, and apply it to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample of >75000 quasi-stellar objects, which is full of ambiguities. Objects with single-peak PDFs show <1 per cent outliers, rms redshift errors <0.05 and vanishing redshift bias. At z > 2.5, these figures are two times better. Outliers result purely from the discrete nature and limited size of the model, and rms errors are dominated by the intrinsic variety of object colours. PDFs classed as ambiguous provide accurate probabilities for alternative solutions and thus weights for using both solutions and avoiding needless outliers. E.g. the PDFs predict 78.0 per cent of the stronger peaks to be correct, which is true for 77.9 per cent of them. Redshift incompleteness is common in faint spectroscopic surveys and turns into a massive undetectable outlier risk above other performance limitations, but we can quantify residual outlier risks stemming from size and completeness of the model. We propose a matched χ2 error scale for noisy data and show that it produces correct error estimates and redshift distributions accurate within Poisson errors. Our method can easily be applied to future large galaxy surveys, which will benefit from the reliability in ambiguity detection and residual risk quantification.

  10. The Effects of Self-Set, Participatively Set and Assigned Goals on the Performance of Government Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary P.; Marshall, Herbert A.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the importance of assigned versus participative goal setting in defining effective supervisory behavior. Government employees (N=57) were assigned to self-set, participatively set, and assigned goal setting conditions. Results showed no significant difference in goal difficulty between those with participatively set goals and self-set…

  11. Certain and possible rules for decision making using rough set theory extended to fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekorvin, Andre; Shipley, Margaret F.

    1993-01-01

    Uncertainty may be caused by the ambiguity in the terms used to describe a specific situation. It may also be caused by skepticism of rules used to describe a course of action or by missing and/or erroneous data. To deal with uncertainty, techniques other than classical logic need to be developed. Although, statistics may be the best tool available for handling likelihood, it is not always adequate for dealing with knowledge acquisition under uncertainty. Inadequacies caused by estimating probabilities in statistical processes can be alleviated through use of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Fuzzy set theory is another tool used to deal with uncertainty where ambiguous terms are present. Other methods include rough sets, the theory of endorsements and nonmonotonic logic. J. Grzymala-Busse has defined the concept of lower and upper approximation of a (crisp) set and has used that concept to extract rules from a set of examples. We will define the fuzzy analogs of lower and upper approximations and use these to obtain certain and possible rules from a set of examples where the data is fuzzy. Central to these concepts will be the idea of the degree to which a fuzzy set A is contained in another fuzzy set B, and the degree of intersection of a set A with set B. These concepts will also give meaning to the statement; A implies B. The two meanings will be: (1) if x is certainly in A then it is certainly in B, and (2) if x is possibly in A then it is possibly in B. Next, classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification is well externally definable then it is well internally definable, and if it is poorly externally definable then it is poorly internally definable, thus generalizing a result of Grzymala-Busse. Finally, some ideas of how to define consensus and group options to form clusters of rules will be given.

  12. What's in a ray set: moving towards a unified ray set format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschaweck, Julius

    2011-10-01

    For the purpose of optical simulation, a plethora of formats exist to describe the properties of a light source. Except for the EULUMDAT and IES formats which describe sources in terms of aperture area and far field intensity, all these formats are vendor specific, and no generally accepted standard exists. Most illumination simulation software vendors use their own format for ray sets, which describe sources in terms of many rays. Some of them keep their format definition proprietary. Thus, software packages typically can read or write only their own specific format, although the actual data content is not so different. Typically, they describe origin and direction of each ray in 3D vectors, and use one more single number for magnitude, where magnitude may denote radiant flux, luminous flux (equivalently tristimulus Y), or tristimulus X and Z. Sometimes each ray also carries its wavelength, while other formats allow to specify an overall spectrum for the whole source. In addition, in at least one format, polarization properties are also included for each ray. This situation makes it inefficient and potentially error prone for light source manufacturers to provide ray data sets for their sources in many different formats. Furthermore, near field goniometer vendors again use their proprietary formats to store the source description in terms of luminance data, and offer their proprietary software to generate ray sets from this data base. Again, the plethora of ray sets make the ray set production inefficient and potentially error prone. In this paper, we propose to describe ray data sets in terms of phase space, as a step towards a standardized ray set format. It is well known that luminance and radiance can be defined as flux density in phase space: luminance is flux divided by etendue. Therefore, single rays can be thought of as center points of phase space cells, where each cell possesses its volume (i.e. etendue), its flux, and therefore its luminance. In

  13. On friendly index sets and product-cordial index sets of gear graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gee-Choon; Lee, Sin-Min; Ng, Ho-Kuen

    2014-07-01

    Let G = (V,E) be a simple connected graph. A vertex labeling of f:V→{0,1} of G induces two edge labelings f+, f*:E→{0,1} defined by f+(xy) = f(x)+f(y)(mod2) and f*(xy) = f(x)f(y) for each edge xy ∈ E. For i∈{0,1}, let vf(i) = |{v∈V:f(v) = i}|, ef+(i) = |{e∈E:f+(e) = i}| and ef*(i) = |e∈E:f*(e) = i}|. A labeling f is called friendly if |vf(1)-vf(0)|≤1. The friendly index set and the product-cordial index set of G are defined as the sets {|ef+(0)-ef+(1)|:f is friendly} and {|ef*(0)-ef*(1)|:f is friendly}. In this paper, we completely determine the friendly index sets and product-cordial index sets of gear graphs. We also show that the product-cordial indices of a graph can be obtained from its adjacency matrix.

  14. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1995-12-31

    This invention relates to a method for producing concrete, and more specifically, this invention relates to a method for producing quick-setting concrete while simultaneously minimizing the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, said release of carbon dioxide inherent in cement production. A method for producing quick setting concrete comprises hydrating a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  15. Local Area Weather Radar in Alpine Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.

    2012-04-01

    Space-time variability of precipitation in orographically complex regions is a challenging research topic. The difficult accessibility of remote regions and the high elevations make difficult the operation of conventional raingauges and reduce the visibility of large scale radars. A solution to this limitation might be the use of a number of cost-effective short-range X-band radars as complement to raingauges and conventional, large and expensive weather radars. This paper presents the results of a pilot experiment, which aimed at i) developing and assessing the performance of a cost-effective X-band Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) located in the orographically complex Alpine region and ii) testing whether it could lead to better understanding of the nature of the precipitation process, e.g. identifying any possible dependence between precipitation and topography. The LAWR was deployed between August 2007 and October 2011 on the summit of the Kl. Matterhorn, located in the Swiss Alps at 3883 m a.s.l. (Valais, Switzerland). This was the first time that a cost-effective X-band radar was installed at such elevation and could be tested in operation-like conditions. Beside the technological improvements that were necessary for a reliable functioning of the LAWR hardware, much effort went into the development of a set of radar corrections and into the design of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which includes the algorithms necessary to convert radar received echoes into precipitation rates, specifically accounting for the presence of the pronounced topography. The ARCOM was developed and tested on the basis of a set of precipitation events for which precipitation was measured also by 43 automatic raingauges located within 60 km range from the radar antenna. Conversely to the state-of-the-art conversion models, ARCOM accounts not only for the seasonal climatological condition but also of geometric and orographic forcings such as partial beam filling and beam

  16. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This study shows that our

  17. Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority Setting

    PubMed Central

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors’ intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. Seis Errores Comunes en la Definición de Prioridades de Conservación Resumen Se ha desarrollado un vasto número de esquemas de priorización para ayudar a que la conservación navegue entre decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la asignación de recursos finitos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de métodos cuantitativos para la definición de prioridades en la conservación frecuentemente incluye errores que pueden socavar la intención de sus autores de ser más rigurosos y científicos en la manera en que se establecen las prioridades y se asignan los recursos. Con base en los bien establecidos principios de la ciencia de la decisión, resaltamos seis errores comúnmente asociados con la definición de prioridades para la conservación: no reconocer que los planes de conservación son priorizaciones; tratar de resolver un problema mal definido; no priorizar acciones; arbitrariedad; juicios de valor ocultos y no reconocer el riesgo de fracasar. Explicamos estos errores y ofrecemos un camino para que planificadores de la conservación no cometan los mismos errores en priorizaciones

  18. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1997-04-29

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising mixing a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring. 2 figs.

  19. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  20. STILTS -- Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    STILTS is a set of command-line tools for processing tabular data. It has been designed for, but is not restricted to, use on astronomical data such as source catalogues. It contains both generic (format-independent) table processing tools and tools for processing VOTable documents. Facilities offered include crossmatching, format conversion, format validation, column calculation and rearrangement, row selection, sorting, plotting, statistical calculations and metadata display. Calculations on cell data can be performed using a powerful and extensible expression language. The package is written in pure Java and based on STIL, the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library. This gives it high portability, support for many data formats (including FITS, VOTable, text-based formats and SQL databases), extensibility and scalability. Where possible the tools are written to accept streamed data so the size of tables which can be processed is not limited by available memory. As well as the tutorial and reference information in this document, detailed on-line help is available from the tools themselves. STILTS is available under the GNU General Public Licence.

  1. Multimodality imaging of hypoxia in preclinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ralph P.; Zhao, Dawen; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Cui, Weina; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Gulaka, Praveen K.; Hao, Guiyang; Thorpe, Philip; Hahn, Eric W.; Peschke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has long been recognized to influence solid tumor response to therapy. Increasingly, hypoxia has also been implicated in tumor aggressiveness, including growth, development and metastatic potential. Thus, there is a fundamental, as well as a clinical interest, in assessing in situ tumor hypoxia. This review will examine diverse approaches focusing on the pre-clinical setting, particularly, in rodents. The strategies are inevitably a compromise in terms of sensitivity, precision, temporal and spatial resolution, as well as cost, feasibility, ease and robustness of implementation. We will review capabilities of multiple modalities and examine what makes them particularly suitable for investigating specific aspects of tumor pathophysiology. Current approaches range from nuclear imaging to magnetic resonance and optical, with varying degrees of invasiveness and ability to examine spatial heterogeneity, as well as dynamic response to interventions. Ideally, measurements would be non-invasive, exploiting endogenous reporters to reveal quantitatively local oxygen tension dynamics. A primary focus of this review is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques, such as 19F MRI oximetry, which reveals not only hypoxia in vivo, but more significantly, spatial distribution of pO2 quantitatively, with a precision relevant to radiobiology. It should be noted that pre-clinical methods may have very different criteria for acceptance, as compared with potential investigations for prognostic radiology or predictive biomarkers suitable for use in patients. PMID:20639813

  2. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts. PMID:26082540

  3. Does stress training generalize to novel settings?

    PubMed

    Driskell, J E; Johnston, J H; Salas, E

    2001-01-01

    Many high-stress task environments are complex and dynamic, and it is often difficult during training to anticipate the exact conditions that may be encountered in these settings. We conducted an empirical study to examine whether the positive effects of stress training that addressed one specific type of stressor and task would remain when trainees performed under a novel stressor or performed a novel task. Participants performed a laboratory task under stress conditions. Measures of task performance and self-reported stress were obtained at three performance trials: (a) prior to stress training, (b) after a stress training intervention targeted to that specific task environment, and (c) under novel stressor/task conditions. Results indicated that the beneficial effects of stress training were retained when participants performed under a novel stressor and performed a novel task. We discuss the implications of this study with regard to their application in the design of stress training and the transfer of learning to complex, dynamic task environments.

  4. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-06-16

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts. PMID:26082540

  5. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-06-16

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts.

  6. Glycemic management in the inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, Lowell R; Ferrise, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Hyperglycemia occurs frequently in hospitalized patients and affects patient outcomes, including mortality, inpatient complications, hospital length of stay, and overall hospital costs. Various degrees of glycemic control have been studied and consensus statements from the American Diabetes Association/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and The Endocrine Society recommend a target blood glucose range of 140 to 180 mg/dL in most hospitalized patients. Insulin is the preferred modality for treating all hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia, as it is adaptable to changing patient physiology over the course of hospitalization. Critically ill patients should receive intravenous insulin infusion, and all noncritically ill patients with hyperglycemia (individuals with and without diabetes) should be managed using a subcutaneous insulin algorithm with basal, nutritional, and correctional dose components. Hypoglycemia remains a limiting factor to achieving optimal glycemic targets. Similar to hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia is an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in hospitalized patients. Improvement in glycemic control throughout the hospital includes efforts from all health care providers. Institutions can encourage safe insulin use by using insulin algorithms, preprinted order sets, and hypoglycemia protocols, as well as by supporting patient and health care provider education. PMID:22615078

  7. Chemically Induced Surface Evolutions with Level Sets

    2006-11-17

    ChISELS is used for the theoretical modeling of detailed surface chemistry and consomitant surface evolutions occurring during microsystem fabrication processes conducted at low pressures. Examples include physical vapor deposition (PVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and plasma etching. Evolving interfaces are represented using the level-set method and the evolution equations time integrated using a Semi-Lagrangian approach. A Ballistic transport model is employed to solve for the fluxes incident on each of the surface elements.more » Surface chemistry leading to etching or deposition is computed by either coupling to Surface Chemkin (a commercially available code) or by providing user defined subroutines. The computational meshes used are quad-trees (2-D) and oct-trees (3-D), constructed such that grid refinement is localized to regions near the surface interfaces. As the interface evolves, the mesh is dynamically reconstructed as needed for the grid to remain fine only around the interface. For parallel computation, a domain decomposition scheme with dynamic load balancing is used to distribute the computational work across processors.« less

  8. Breast Cancer Detection with Reduced Feature Set

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Niyazi; Bilgili, Erdem

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores feature reduction properties of independent component analysis (ICA) on breast cancer decision support system. Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer (WDBC) dataset is reduced to one-dimensional feature vector computing an independent component (IC). The original data with 30 features and reduced one feature (IC) are used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of the classifiers such as k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), artificial neural network (ANN), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and support vector machine (SVM). The comparison of the proposed classification using the IC with original feature set is also tested on different validation (5/10-fold cross-validations) and partitioning (20%–40%) methods. These classifiers are evaluated how to effectively categorize tumors as benign and malignant in terms of specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, F-score, Youden's index, discriminant power, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with its criterion values including area under curve (AUC) and 95% confidential interval (CI). This represents an improvement in diagnostic decision support system, while reducing computational complexity. PMID:26078774

  9. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  10. Theater Blood Support in the Prehospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Audra L; Corley, Jason B

    2016-01-01

    The Army Blood Program (ABP) is charged with the responsibility of supporting the Warfighter on the battlefield, in addition to meeting garrison hospital blood requirements on a daily basis. Blood support concepts developed in response to Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom combat operations are the cornerstone to maintaining current capabilities and shaping future endeavors.. The ABP is actively engaged with research, advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy for both our conventional and operational forces. The feasibility of frozen/deglycerolized red blood cell use in theater has been demonstrated. The use of Blood Group A plasma in the place of Blood Group AB plasma has been successful. Placement of cryoprecipitate at Role 2 medical facilities and the placement of blood products on MEDEVAC (Vampire Program missions) have proven invaluable in moving transfusion therapy closer to the point of Injury. The improved patient outcomes from earlier transfusion of blood products has driven the requirement for far-forward blood support. Now (more than ever), there are products and processes in place to meet the requirements for blood use in the prehospital setting. PMID:27215865

  11. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  12. Setting the Triggering Thresholds on Swift

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Palmer, David; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Parsons, A.

    2004-09-28

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has two main types of 'rate' triggers: short and long. Short trigger time scales range from 4ms to 64ms, while long triggers are 64ms to {approx_equal} 16 seconds. While both short and long trigger have criteria with one background sample (traditional 'one-sided' triggers), the long triggers can also have criteria with two background samples ('bracketed' triggers) which remove trends in the background. Both long and short triggers can select energy ranges of 15-25, 15-50, 25-100 and 50-350 KeV. There are more than 180 short triggering criteria and approximately 500 long triggering criteria used to detect gamma ray bursts. To fully utilize these criteria, the thresholds must be set correctly. The optimum thresholds are determined by a tradeoff between avoiding false triggers and capturing as many bursts as possible. We use realistic simulated orbital variations, which are the prime cause of false triggers.

  13. Platform for setting up interactive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Danilo; Dias, Paulo; Santos, Daniel; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces pSIVE, a platform that allows the easy setting up of Virtual Environments, with interactive information (for instance, a video or a document about a machine that is present in the virtual world) to be accessed for different 3D elements. The main goal is to create for evaluation and training on a virtual factory - but generic enough to be applied in different contexts by non-expert users (academic and touristic for instance). We show some preliminary results obtained from two different scenarios: first a production line of a factory with contextualized information associated to different elements which aimed the training of employees. Second a testing environment, to compare and assess two different selection styles that were integrated in pSIVE and to allow different users to interact with an environment created with pSIVE to collect opinions about the system. The conclusions show that the overall satisfaction was high and the comments will be considered in further platform development.

  14. Microfluidic diagnostics for low-resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2010-02-01

    Diagnostics for low-resource settings need to be foremost inexpensive, but also accurate, reliable, rugged and suited to the contexts of the developing world. Diagnostics for global health, based on minimally-instrumented, microfluidicsbased platforms employing low-cost disposables, has become a very active research area recently-thanks, in part, to new funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and other sources. This has led to a number of interesting prototype devices that are now in advanced development or clinical validation. These devices include disposables and instruments that perform multiplexed PCR-based assays for enteric, febrile, and vaginal diseases, as well as immunoassays for diseases such as malaria, HIV, and various sexually transmitted diseases. More recently, instrument-free diagnostic disposables based on isothermal nucleic-acid amplification have been developed. Regardless of platform, however, the search for truly low-cost manufacturing methods that would enable affordable systems (at volume, in the appropriate context) remains a significant challenge. Here we give an overview of existing platform development efforts, present some original research in this area at PATH, and reiterate a call to action for more.

  15. Facial mimicry in its social setting

    PubMed Central

    Seibt, Beate; Mühlberger, Andreas; Likowski, Katja U.; Weyers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting. PMID:26321970

  16. Topological entropy of catalytic sets: Hypercycles revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of catalytic networks have been widely studied over the last decades because of their implications in several fields like prebiotic evolution, virology, neural networks, immunology or ecology. One of the most studied mathematical bodies for catalytic networks was initially formulated in the context of prebiotic evolution, by means of the hypercycle theory. The hypercycle is a set of self-replicating species able to catalyze other replicator species within a cyclic architecture. Hypercyclic organization might arise from a quasispecies as a way to increase the informational containt surpassing the so-called error threshold. The catalytic coupling between replicators makes all the species to behave like a single and coherent evolutionary multimolecular unit. The inherent nonlinearities of catalytic interactions are responsible for the emergence of several types of dynamics, among them, chaos. In this article we begin with a brief review of the hypercycle theory focusing on its evolutionary implications as well as on different dynamics associated to different types of small catalytic networks. Then we study the properties of chaotic hypercycles with error-prone replication with symbolic dynamics theory, characterizing, by means of the theory of topological Markov chains, the topological entropy and the periods of the orbits of unimodal-like iterated maps obtained from the strange attractor. We will focus our study on some key parameters responsible for the structure of the catalytic network: mutation rates, autocatalytic and cross-catalytic interactions.

  17. HBN guidance sets out key principles.

    PubMed

    Pantzartzis, Efthimia; Pascale, Federica; Price, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    With an ageing population in many countries, health and social care providers are under growing pressure to improve the quality and safety of care environments for older people, and ensure they are fit-for-purpose for caring for those with age-related conditions, including dementia. Health Building Note 08-02: Dementia-friendly health and social care environments, recently published, is the first HBN to offer specific guidance on the subject. Here Loughborough University research associates, Efthimia Pantzartzis and Federica Pascale, and Andrew Price, who is Professor of Project Management at the University, explain the background to the new HBN, and offer insights into its structure and content. June's HEJ reported on 115 Department of Health-funded pilot projects undertaken throughout England in 2013-2014 aimed at creating more 'dementia-friendly' environments in health and social care settings implemented under the DH Capital Programme, Improving the environment of care for people with dementia. The results and findings helped shape the new HBN guidance.

  18. Einstellung defused: Interactivity and mental set.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Euden, Gemma; Hearn, Vanessa

    2011-10-01

    Mental set is observed when a familiar problem-solving strategy is applied to new problems that can be solved in simpler, more efficient ways. It is most famously illustrated in the water jar problems (Luchins, 1942 ). In these volume measurement problems, participants learn a rule to obtain an exact volume of liquid involving a complex combination of liquid transfer. Participants persevere in using this rule for new problems that can be solved with a much simpler rule. In two experiments presented here, participants completed the water jar task either in interactive conditions with actual water jars at a sink or in noninteractive conditions, with the problems presented on paper, as in the original Luchins procedure. Interactivity significantly reduced the degree of perseverance. In addition, participants' visuospatial skills significantly predicted the rate of perseverance (and the latencies to solution) in interactive but not in noninteractive conditions. These results underscore the importance of designing problem-solving experiments that engineer distributed cognitive systems in which participants coordinate internal and external resources in thinking.

  19. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  20. HBN guidance sets out key principles.

    PubMed

    Pantzartzis, Efthimia; Pascale, Federica; Price, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    With an ageing population in many countries, health and social care providers are under growing pressure to improve the quality and safety of care environments for older people, and ensure they are fit-for-purpose for caring for those with age-related conditions, including dementia. Health Building Note 08-02: Dementia-friendly health and social care environments, recently published, is the first HBN to offer specific guidance on the subject. Here Loughborough University research associates, Efthimia Pantzartzis and Federica Pascale, and Andrew Price, who is Professor of Project Management at the University, explain the background to the new HBN, and offer insights into its structure and content. June's HEJ reported on 115 Department of Health-funded pilot projects undertaken throughout England in 2013-2014 aimed at creating more 'dementia-friendly' environments in health and social care settings implemented under the DH Capital Programme, Improving the environment of care for people with dementia. The results and findings helped shape the new HBN guidance. PMID:26495558