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Sample records for in-situ electric field

  1. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  2. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  3. Formation of electroactive colloids via in situ coprecipitation under electric field: erbium chloride alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-09-15

    For the first time, a new ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system was demonstrated by designing commercial ErCl3 salt electrode in alkaline aqueous electrolyte, where the materials synthesis and subsequently integrating into practical electrode structures occur at the same spatial and temporal scale. Highly electroactive ErOOH colloids were in-situ crystallized via electric field assisted chemical coprecipitation of ErCl3 in KOH aqueous electrolyte. These electroactive ErOOH colloids absorbed by carbon black and PVDF matrix were highly redox-reactive with higher cation utilization ratio of 86 % and specific capacitance values of 1811F/g, exceeding the one-electron redox theoretical capacitance (Er(3+)↔Er(2+)). We believe that additional two-electron (Er(2+)↔Er) or three-electron (Er(3+)↔Er) reactions can occur in our designed ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system. The specific electrode configuration with ErOOH colloids grown among the carbon black/PVDF matrix can create short ion diffusion and electron transfer length to enable the fast and reversible Faradaic reactions. This work shows promising for finding high-performance electrical energy storage systems via designing the colloidal state of electroactive cations with the utilization of in-situ crystallization route.

  4. In situ speciation studies of copper in the electroplating sludge under an electric field.

    PubMed

    Liu, S-H; Wang, H Paul

    2004-08-01

    Speciation of copper in the electrokinetic treatments of an industrial sludge was studied by in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structural (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structural (XANES) spectroscopies in the present work. The least-square fits (LSF) of the XANES spectra indicated that the main copper species in the sludge were Cu(NO)(3) (82%) and adsorbed copper (Cu/SiO(2)) (17%). Copper in the sludge possessed a Cu-O bond distance of 1.97A with a coordination number (CN) of 3.8. In the second shells, the bond distance of Cu-(O)-Si was 3.03A with a CN of 1.5. Most of Cu/SiO(2) was dissolved in the aqueous phase since little Cu-(O)-Si species in the sludge was found after 180 min of the electrokinetic treatments. About 69% of total Cu(II) was dissolved into the aqueous phase and 51% of which was migrated to the cathode under the electric field (5V cm(-1)) for 180 min.

  5. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-07

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver's seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm.

  6. In situ electric-field-induced contrast imaging of electronic transport pathways in nanotube-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesse, Stephen; Guillorn, Michael A.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Howe, Jane Y.; Britt, Phillip F.; Geohegan, David B.

    2006-07-01

    An electric-field-induced contrast mechanism for scanning electron microscopy is reported which permits the visualization of embedded nanomaterials inside various matrices with high contrast and high definition. The high contrast is proposed to result from localized enhancement of secondary electron emission from the nanomaterials due to electric-field-induced changes in their work functions. By utilizing a stage that allows in situ current-voltage measurements inside a scanning electron microscope, single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded within polymethyl methacrylate films were visualized directly. In addition to the rapid assessment of nanotube dispersion within polymers, electric-field-induced contrast imaging enables the determination of percolation pathways. From the contrast in the images, the relative voltage at all points in the electron micrograph can be determined, providing a new mechanism to understand electronic percolation through nanoscale networks.

  7. In Situ Electric-Field-Induced Contrast Imaging of Electronic Transport Pathways in Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Guillorn, Michael A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Howe, Jane Y; Britt, Phillip F; Geohegan, David B

    2006-01-01

    An electric-field-induced contrast mechanism for scanning electron microscopy is reported which permits the visualization of embedded nanomaterials inside various matrices with high contrast and high definition. The high contrast is proposed to result from localized enhancement of secondary electron emission from the nanomaterials due to electric-field-induced changes in their work functions. By utilizing a stage that allows in situ current-voltage measurements inside a scanning electron microscope, single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded within polymethyl methacrylate films were visualized directly. In addition to the rapid assessment of nanotube dispersion within polymers, electric-field-induced contrast imaging enables the determination of percolation pathways. From the contrast in the images, the relative voltage at all points in the electron micrograph can be determined, providing a new mechanism to understand electronic percolation through nanoscale networks.

  8. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscope Observation of Carbon Nanotubes in Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Makoto; Fujieda, Tadashi; Hidaka, Kishio; Muneyoshi, Takahiko; Yaguchi, Tomio

    2005-04-01

    Transmission electron microscope is used to examine the movements of carbon nanotubes in electric fields. Carbon nanotubes lying along the surface of the cathode electrode start to move into alignment with the electric field vector when the field strength reaches 0.5 V/μm and become increasingly well-aligned with the vector as field strength increases. The carbon nanotubes return to their original positions when the electric field strength returns to zero. We also examine the abrupt breakdown of carbon nanotubes when the electric field is maintained at 5.5 V/μm. The corresponding breakdown emission current density is estimated as 3.4× 107 A/cm2. The distance between the nearest nanotubes standing to align with the electric field vector is approximately 2 μm. This fact means that emission site density could be increased up to 3× 107 points/cm2 (which corresponds to one tube for each 2 μm square).

  9. Analysis of in situ electric field and specific absorption rate in human models for wireless power transfer system with induction coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Onishi, Teruo

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the in situ electric field in anatomically based human models for the magnetic field from an inductive wireless power transfer system developed on the basis of the specifications of the wireless power consortium. The transfer system consists of two induction coils covered by magnetic sheets. Both the waiting and charging conditions are considered. The transfer frequency considered in this study is 140 kHz, which is within the range where the magneto-quasi-static approximation is valid. The SAR and in situ electric field in the chest and arm of the models are calculated by numerically solving the scalar potential finite difference equation. The electromagnetic modelling of the coils in the wireless power transfer system is verified by comparing the computed and measured magnetic field distributions. The results indicate that the peak value of the SAR averaged over a 10 g of tissue and that of the in situ electric field are 72 nW kg-1 and 91 mV m-1 for a transmitted power of 1 W, Consequently, the maximum allowable transmitted powers satisfying the exposure limits of the SAR (2 W kg-1) and the in situ electric field (18.9 V m-1) are found to be 28 MW and 43 kW. The computational results show that the in situ electric field in the chest is the most restrictive factor when compliance with the wireless power transfer system is evaluated according to international guidelines.

  10. On the importance of body posture and skin modelling with respect to in situ electric field strengths in magnetic field exposure scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Hirtl, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values for magnetic fields that are currently used have been derived from basic restrictions under the assumption of upright standing body models in a standard posture, i.e. with arms laterally down and without contact with metallic objects. Moreover, if anatomical modelling of the body was used at all, the skin was represented as a single homogeneous tissue layer. In the present paper we addressed the possible impacts of posture and skin modelling in scenarios of exposure to a 50 Hz uniform magnetic field on the in situ electric field strength in peripheral tissues, which must be limited in order to avoid peripheral nerve stimulation. We considered different body postures including situations where body parts form large induction loops (e.g. clasped hands) with skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact spots and compared the results obtained with a homogeneous single-layer skin model to results obtained with a more realistic two-layer skin representation consisting of a low-conductivity stratum corneum layer on top of a combined layer for the cellular epidermis and dermis. Our results clearly indicated that postures with loops formed of body parts may lead to substantially higher maximum values of induced in situ electric field strengths than in the case of standard postures due to a highly concentrated current density and in situ electric field strength in the skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact regions. With a homogeneous single-layer skin, as is used for even the most recent anatomical body models in exposure assessment, the in situ electric field strength may exceed the basic restrictions in such situations, even when the reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values are not exceeded. However, when using the more realistic two-layer skin model the obtained in situ electric field strengths were substantially lower and no violations of the basic restrictions occurred, which can be explained by the

  11. Analysis of in situ electric field and specific absorption rate in human models for wireless power transfer system with induction coupling.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Onishi, Teruo

    2014-07-21

    This study investigates the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the in situ electric field in anatomically based human models for the magnetic field from an inductive wireless power transfer system developed on the basis of the specifications of the wireless power consortium. The transfer system consists of two induction coils covered by magnetic sheets. Both the waiting and charging conditions are considered. The transfer frequency considered in this study is 140 kHz, which is within the range where the magneto-quasi-static approximation is valid. The SAR and in situ electric field in the chest and arm of the models are calculated by numerically solving the scalar potential finite difference equation. The electromagnetic modelling of the coils in the wireless power transfer system is verified by comparing the computed and measured magnetic field distributions. The results indicate that the peak value of the SAR averaged over a 10 g of tissue and that of the in situ electric field are 72 nW kg(-1) and 91 mV m(-1) for a transmitted power of 1 W, Consequently, the maximum allowable transmitted powers satisfying the exposure limits of the SAR (2 W kg(-1)) and the in situ electric field (18.9 V m(-1)) are found to be 28 MW and 43 kW. The computational results show that the in situ electric field in the chest is the most restrictive factor when compliance with the wireless power transfer system is evaluated according to international guidelines.

  12. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-21

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  13. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-01

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  14. The mixing effect of amine and carboxyl groups on electrorheological properties and its analysis by in situ FT-IR under an electric field.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Gun; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Park, Yong Sung; Woo, Je Wan; Choi, Ung Su

    2013-10-21

    Herein, the mixing effect of amine and carboxyl groups on electrorheological (ER) properties has been presented with the chitosan and alginic acid dispersed suspensions. Chitosan (for the amine group) and alginic acid (for the carboxyl group) are used to investigate the mixing effect of the amine and carboxyl groups on ER properties with the control of their mixing ratio in the silicone oil. The surface-chemical structure of the mixture of the chitosan and alginic acid particles in the silicone oil is demonstrated by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy at various electric fields for the first time. This study focuses on whether the mixture of chemical groups in the ER fluid can promote ER properties or not, and in situ FT-IR analysis of the interface between ER particles in the silicone oil at various DC electric fields. The ER fluids exhibited the increase of the yield stress values with the increase of the counter group addition up to the weight ratio of 50 : 50 (chitosan : alginic acid). A noteworthy result is that the mixing effect of the amine and carboxyl groups resulting in enhanced ER properties is clearly proved. In the in situ FT-IR study, the complex form of amine and carboxyl groups of particles in the ER fluid was confirmed under the electric field.

  15. In situ neutron diffraction studies of a commercial, soft lead zirconate titanate ceramic: response to electric fields and mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Cottrell, Michelle A.; Lee, Wayne; Studer, Andrew J.; An, Ke; Hubbard, Camden R.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-06-01

    Structural changes in commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics (EC-65) under the application of electric fields and mechanical stress were measured using neutron diffraction instruments at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural changes during electric-field application were measured on the WOMBAT beamline at ANSTO and include non-180° domain switching, lattice strains and field-induced phase transformations. Using time-resolved data acquisition capabilities, lattice strains were measured under cyclic electric fields at times as short as 30 μs. Structural changes including the (002) and (200) lattice strains and non-180° domain switching were measured during uniaxial mechanical compression on the NRSF2 instrument at ORNL. Contraction of the crystallographic polarization axis, (002), and reorientation of non-180° domains occur at lowest stresses, followed by (200) elastic strains at higher stresses.

  16. High performance PbS quantum dot sensitized solar cells via electric field assisted in situ chemical deposition on modulated TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Tao, Liang; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Hong; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-21

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are attractive photovoltaic devices due to their simplicity and low material requirements. However, efforts to realize high efficiencies in QDSSCs have often been offset by complicated processes and expensive or toxic materials, significantly limiting their useful application. In this work, we have realized for the first time, high performance PbS QDSSCs based on TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) via an in situ chemical deposition method controlled by a low electric field. An efficiency, η, of ~3.41% under full sun illumination has been achieved, which is 133.6% higher than the best result previously reported for a simple system without doping or co-sensitizing, and comparable to systems with additional chemicals. Furthermore, a high open-circuit voltage (0.64 V), short-circuit current (8.48 mA cm(-2)) and fill factor (0.63) have been achieved. A great increase in the quantity of the loaded quantum dots (QDs) in the NTAs was obtained from the in situ electric field assisted chemical bath deposition (EACBD) process, which was the most significant contributing factor with respect to the high JSC. The high VOC and FF have been attributed to a much shorter electron path, less structural and electronic defects, and lower recombination in the ordered TiO2 NTAs produced by oscillating anodic voltage. Besides, the optimal film thickness (~4 μm) based on the NTAs was much thinner than that of the control cell based on nanoporous film (~30.0 μm). This investigation can hopefully offer an effective way of realizing high performance QDSSCs and QD growth/installation in other nanostructures as well.

  17. Novel method for rapid in-situ hybridization of HER2 using non-contact alternating-current electric-field mixing

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshitaro; Imai, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ryuta; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Terata, Kaori; Konno, Hayato; Akagami, Yoichi; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted agents are an effective approach to treating HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, the lack of survival benefit in HER2-negative patients as well as the toxic effects and high cost of the drugs highlight the need for accurate and prompt assessment of HER2 status. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel rapid dual in-situ hybridization (RISH) method developed to facilitate hybridization. The method takes advantage of the non-contact mixing effect of an alternating current (AC) electric field. One hundred sixty-three specimens were used from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancers identified immunohistochemically as HER2 0/1(+), (2+) or (3+). The specimens were all tested using conventional dual in-situ hybridization (DISH), DISH with an automated slide stainer, and RISH. With RISH the HER2 test was completed within 6 h, as compared to 20–22 h needed for the standard protocol. Although RISH produced results more promptly using smaller amounts of labeled antibody, the staining and accuracy of HER2 status evaluation with RISH was equal to or greater than with DISH. These results suggest RISH could be used as a clinical tool to promptly determine HER2 status. PMID:27443187

  18. An In Situ Electric Field Study of Magnetoelectric Coupling in PZT-LSMO Thin Film Heterostructures Using Polarized Neutron Reflectometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgeon, Steven; Sloppy, Jennifer; Huang, Esther; Vasudevan, Rama; Lofland, Samuel; Lauter, Valeria; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Taheri, Mitra

    2013-03-01

    The development of ``spintronics'' devices based on charge and spin transport has signaled a paradigm shift in the design of data storage and computing technologies. Magnetoelectric materials, which exhibit intrinsic coupling between electronic and magnetic order, are ideal for these applications. Unfortunately, single-phase magnetoelectrics are exceedingly rare in nature and attention has turned to composite heterostructures that display coupled functionalities at interfaces. A promising system in which to explore this coupling is a thin film oxide heterostructure of the piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) and the half-metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO). We show that it is possible to construct a capacitor-type device structure from these materials that may form the basis for an electrically-switched magnetic memory. We conduct polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) measurements and measure changes in the magnetization depth profile throughout the composite under the reversal of an in situ electric field. We then correlate these PNR results to local strain and chemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We find that a combination of charge doping and strain mechanisms governs coupling in this system.

  19. Modeling the steady-state ISV (in situ vitrification) process: A 3-D finite element analysis of coupled thermal-electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    Steady-state modeling considerations for simulating the in situ vitrification (ISV) process are documented based upon the finite element numerical approach. Recommendations regarding boundary condition specifications and mesh discretization are presented. The effects of several parameters on the ISV process response are calculated and the results discussed. The parameters investigated include: (1) electrode depth, (2) ambient temperature, (3) supplied current, (4) electrical conductivity, (5) electrode separation, and (6) soil/waste characterization. 13 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  20. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process. PMID:27339815

  1. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  2. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K W

    2016-06-24

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr(3+), owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  3. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L.

    1996-10-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  4. In situ Electric Field Observations of Schumann Resonances in the Low Latitude Ionosphere and Their Implications for Tropospheric-Ionospheric Electromagnetic Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K. R.; Martin, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite investigates the electrodynamics of the low latitude ionosphere using a low inclination (13 degree) orbit with perigee and apogee of 401 and 867 km, respectively. The satellite is equipped with a three-axis double probe electric field detector, which provides continuous DC and AC electric field measurements. Among the most intriguing data acquired thus far, the electric field probe on C/NOFS unexpectedly detected Schumann resonances in the nightside ionosphere on a number of orbits within the satellite altitude sampling region. The Schumann resonance data are generally very low amplitude (~ 1 µV/m) signatures with a distinct spectral structure that corresponds precisely to the frequency modes predicted by the Schumman resonance waveguide cavity response; up to 10 ten peaks have been observed. These observations suggest major implications for Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic wave propagation in the earth’s ionosphere, namely the global electric circuit, lightning detection, and cavity leakage mechanisms. These findings provide a fresh approach to the study of tropospheric-space weather coupling mechanisms and transient luminous events, imply the need for a significant revision of the “standard” ELF wave propagation model, and offer a new, remote sensing technique for the investigation of planetary atmospheric electricity.

  5. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  6. A binary A(x)B(1-x) ionic alkaline pseudocapacitor system involving manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel: formation of electroactive colloids via in situ electric field assisted coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Yin, Shu; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-01-21

    A new "combinatorial transition-metal cation pseudocapacitor" was demonstrated by designing combinatorial transition-metal cation pseudocapacitors with binary AxB1-x salt electrodes involving manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel cations in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte. Binary multi-valence cations were crystallized in the colloidal state through an in situ coprecipitation under an electric field. These electroactive colloids absorbed by carbon black and the PVDF matrix are highly redox-reactive with high specific capacitance values, where the specific electrode configuration can create short ion diffusion paths to enable fast and reversible Faradaic reactions. This work shows huge promise for developing high-performance electrical energy storage systems via designing the colloidal state of electroactive cations. Multiple redox cations in the colloidal state can show high redox activities, making them more suitable for potential application in pseudocapacitor systems.

  7. In-situ absolute calibration of electric-field amplitude measurements with the LPDA radio detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briechle, Florian

    2017-03-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) located at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio emission of extensive air showers is observed. To exploit the physics potential of AERA, electric-field amplitude measurements with the radio detector stations need to be well-calibrated on an absolute level. A convenient tool for far-field calibration campaigns is a flying drone. Here we make use of an octocopter to place a calibrated source at freely chosen positions above the radio detector array. Special emphasis is put on the reconstruction of the octocopter position and its accuracy during the flights. The antenna response pattern of the radio detector stations was measured in a recent calibration campaign. Results of these measurements are presented and compared to simulations. It is found that measurements and simulations are in good agreement.

  8. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and

  9. Estimating Upper Mantle Hydration from In Situ Electrical Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, J.; Constable, S.; Heinson, G.; Everett, M.; Weiss, C.; Key, K.

    2004-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of 35-40 Ma Pacific plate has been measured in situ; one robust result is the presence of bulk anisotropy in the lithospheric upper mantle. We interpret this anisotropy to be a result of hydrothermal circulation into the upper mantle along spreading-ridge-parallel normal faults: the associated zones of serpentinized peridotite provide the pathways of enhanced electrical conductivity required by the data. Our modeling bounds the range of possible anisotropic ratios, which are then used to estimate the amount of water required to serpentinize the requisite amounts of peridotite. These data sets, however, do not indicate anisotropy in the bulk conductivity of the crust, nor in the asthenospheric mantle. This second point is significant, as recent measurements of sub-continental asthenospheric conductivity have been interpreted to indicate anisotropy aligned with present plate motion, with the diffusion of hydrogen through olivine advanced as an explanation.

  10. Continuous in-situ methane measurements at paddy fields in a rural area of India with poor electric infrastructure, using a low-cost instrument based on open-path near-IR laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidemori, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Sasago, H.; Takahashi, K.; Imasu, R.; Takeuchi, W.; Adachi, M.; Machida, T.; Terao, Y.; Nomura, S.; Dhaka, S. K.; Singh, J.

    2015-12-01

    In southeast and south Asia, the previous satellite observations suggest that the methane emission from rice paddies is significant and important source of methane during rainy season. Since it is difficult to measure methane stably and continuously at rural areas such as the paddy fields in terms of infrastructures and maintenances, there are large uncertainties in quantitative estimation of methane emission in these areas and there are needs for more certification between satellite and ground based measurements. To measure methane concentrations continuously at difficult situations such as the center of paddy fields and wetlands, we developed the continuous in-situ measurement system, not to look for your lost keys under the streetlight. The methane gas sensor is used an open-path laser based measurement instrument (LaserMethane, ANRITSU CORPORATION), which can quickly and selectively detect average methane concentrations on the optical path of the laser beam. The developed system has the power supply and telecommunication system to run the laser gas sensor in rural areas with poor electricity infrastructure.The methane measurement system was installed at paddy fields of Sonepat, Haryana on the north of Delhi in India and has been operated from the end of 2014. The air sampling along with our measurement has been carried out once a week during daytime to calibrate the laser instrument. We found that the seasonal variation of methane concentrations was different from the satellite observations and there were significant diurnal variations, which it was difficult to detect from occasional air samplings. We will present details of the measurement system and recent results of continuous methane measurements in India.

  11. In-situ utilization of generated electricity in an electrochemical membrane bioreactor to mitigate membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Li, Wen-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-01

    How to mitigate membrane fouling remains a critical challenge for widespread application of membrane bioreactors. Herein, an antifouling electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed based on in-situ utilization of the generated electricity for fouling control. In this system, a maximum power density of 1.43 W/m(3) and a current density of 18.49 A/m(3) were obtained. The results demonstrate that the formed electric field reduced the deposition of sludge on membrane surface by enhancing the electrostatic repulsive force between them. The produced H2O2 at the cathode also contributed to the fouling mitigation by in-situ removing the membrane foulants. In addition, 93.7% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 96.5% NH4(+)-N removal in average as well as a low effluent turbidity of below 2 NTU were achieved, indicating a good wastewater treatment performance of the EMBR. This work provides a proof-of-concept study of an antifouling MBR with high wastewater treatment efficiency and electricity recovery, and implies that electrochemical control might provide another promising avenue to in-situ suppress the membrane fouling in MBRs.

  12. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  13. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  14. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the

  15. An integrated approach to monitoring a field test of in situ contaminant destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Carrigan, C; Chiarappa, M; Eaker, C; Elsholtz, A; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1998-12-01

    The development of in situ thermal remediation techniques requires parallel development of techniques capable of monitoring the physical and chemical changes for purposes of process control. Recent research indicates that many common contaminants can be destroyed in situ by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), eliminating the need for costly surface treatment and disposal. Steam injection, combined with supplemental air, can create the conditions in which HP0 occurs. Field testing of this process, conducted in the summer of 1997, indicates rapid destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previous work established a suite of underground geophysical imaging techniques capable of providing sufficient knowledge of the physical changes in the subsurface during thermal treatment at sufficient frequencies to be used to monitor and guide the heating and extraction processes. In this field test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and temperature measurements provided the primary information regarding the temporal and spatial distribution of the heated zones. Verifying the in situ chemical destruction posed new challenges. We developed field methods for sampling and analyzing hot water for contaminants, oxygen, intermediates and products of reaction. Since the addition of air or oxygen to the contaminated region is a critical aspect of HPO, noble gas tracers were used to identify fluids from different sources. The combination of physical monitoring with noble gas identification of the native and injected fluids and accurate fluid sampling resulted in an excellent temporal and spatial evaluation of the subsurface processes, from which the amount of in situ destruction occurring in the treated region could be quantified. The experimental field results constrain the destruction rates throughout the site, and enable site management to make accurate estimates of total in situ destruction based on the recovered carbon. As of October, 1998, over 400,000 kg (900

  16. Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Macbeth, Tamzen; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Mackley, Rob D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Sandberg, Greg; Powell, Thomas; Powers, Jeff; Pitre, Emile; Michalsen, Mandy M.; Ballock-Dixon, Sage; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2011-06-27

    The effectiveness of in situ treatment using zero-valent iron to remediate sites with non-aqueous phase or significant sediment-associated contaminant mass can be limited by relatively low rates of mass transfer to bring contaminants in contact with the reactive media. For a field test in a trichloroethene source area, combining moderate-temperature (maximum 50oC) subsurface electrical resistance heating with in situ ZVI treatment was shown to accelerate dechlorination and dissolution rates by a factor of 4 to 6 based on organic daughter products and a factor 8-16 using a chloride concentrations. A mass-discharge-based analysis was used to evaluate reaction, dissolution, and volatilization at ambient groundwater temperature (~10oC) and as temperature was increased up to about 50oC. Increased reaction and contaminant dissolution were observed with increased temperature, but volatilization was minimal during the test because in situ reactions maintained low aqueous-phase TCE concentrations.

  17. In-situ field tests for site characterization and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    An effort is under way at the Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory National Test Site at Dover AFB to conduct a field demonstration of bioventing of a controlled release containing a mixture of JP-4 jet fuel and trichloroethylene (TCE). The main objective of the field experiment is to demonstrate that the fuel vapors will support the biological co-oxidation of TCE under the aerobic conditions provided by the bioventing system. Some highly chlorinated compounds, such as perchloroethylene (PCE), cannot be biodegraded under aerobic conditions. However, under the proper anaerobic conditions, PCE can be transformed to harmless degradation products via a series of sequential reductive dechlorination steps. A collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy and EPA is taking place at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, to determine if complete dechlorination of PCE can be efficiently stimulated in situ by the addition of suitable electron donors. Descriptions of these Air Force research demonstrations and results to date will be discussed in this presentation.

  18. Tokamak with in situ magnetohydrodynamic generation of toroidal magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A tokamak apparatus includes an electrically conductive metal pressure vessel for defining a chamber and confining liquid therein. A liner disposed within said chamber defines a toroidal space within the liner and confines gas therein. The metal vessel provides an electrically conductive path linking the toroidal space. Liquid metal is forced outwardly through the chamber outside of the toroidal space to generate electric current in the conductive path and thereby generate a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  19. Field emission from in situ-grown vertically aligned SnO2 nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned SnO2 nanowire arrays have been in situ fabricated on a silicon substrate via thermal evaporation method in the presence of a Pt catalyst. The field emission properties of the SnO2 nanowire arrays have been investigated. Low turn-on fields of 1.6 to 2.8 V/μm were obtained at anode-cathode separations of 100 to 200 μm. The current density fluctuation was lower than 5% during a 120-min stability test measured at a fixed applied electric field of 5 V/μm. The favorable field-emission performance indicates that the fabricated SnO2 nanowire arrays are promising candidates as field emitters. PMID:22330800

  20. Rock matrix diffusivity determinations by in-situ electrical conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Y; Löfgren, M; Neretnieks, I

    2001-02-01

    A fast method to determine rock matrix diffusion properties directly in the bedrock would be valuable in the investigation of a possible site for disposal of nuclear waste. An "effective diffusivity borehole log" would provide important information on the variability of this entity over the area studied. As opposed to traditional matrix diffusion laboratory experiments, electrical conductivity measurements are fast, inexpensive and also easy to carry out in-situ. In this study, electrical resistivity data from borehole logging, as well as from measurements on the actual core, is evaluated with the purpose of extracting matrix diffusivity data. The influence of migration of ions in the electrical double layer, which can be of great importance in low ionic strength pore water, is also considered in evaluating the in-situ data to accurately determine the effective pore diffusivity. The in-situ data compare fairly well to those measured in the rock core.

  1. Application of in-situ electrical resistance measurements to the study of phase transformations in ferrous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbiš, Peter; Anžel, Ivan; Brunčko, Mihael

    2016-11-01

    Phase transformations have been studied in a variety of different steels with the use of "in situ" electrical resistance measurements. The results were evaluated by metallography of the initial and final microstructures and with consideration of data from the published literature. On this basis a good correlation has been established and it was shown that this method is suitable for such investigations. It even presents certain advantages, thus providing a more complete understanding of the physical metallurgy of steels. We out-lined the field in which the measurement of electrical resistance is particularly suitable and an example of processes that are difficult to monitor using other commonly used methods.

  2. Electric field generation in martian dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Mars in situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the Macroscopic Triboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system. Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  3. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-08-01

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity.

  4. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity. PMID:26245937

  5. Final report on the in situ testing of electrical components and devices at TMI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Soberano, F T

    1984-06-01

    A total of 88 electrical components and devices were in situ tested. Of these, 11 totally failed and 21 suffered degradation that varied from mild to severe. The equipment that failed or incurred severe degradation was located in areas of known environmental extremes. Several motor operated valves in the Reactor Building basement failed because of submersion in water. Others severely degraded from contamination tracking, resulting in the alteration of their circuit electrical characteristics - a circumstance that could compromise their designed function. One backup oil lift pump motor for a reactor coolant pump motor, although located well above the Reactor Building basement high water mark, failed because of a break in its armature and field circuits; this failure was surmised to be a result of corrosion. The limit switch of a Class 1E solenoid valve likewise failed due to moisture intrusion. Components that noticeably degraded exhibited anomalies, likely due to the incursion of moisture, that varied from high capacitance to increased circuit resistance. The effect of the other degenerating conditions that existed during the accident, such as high temperature, high radiation levels, and the hydrogen burn, could not be evaluated individually or synergistically.

  6. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  7. Electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua Reynolds

    The physical user interface is an increasingly significant factor limiting the effectiveness of our interactions with and through technology. This thesis introduces Electric Field Imaging, a new physical channel and inference framework for machine perception of human action. Though electric field sensing is an important sensory modality for several species of fish, it has not been seriously explored as a channel for machine perception. Technological applications of field sensing, from the Theremin to the capacitive elevator button, have been limited to simple proximity detection tasks. This thesis presents a solution to the inverse problem of inferring geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from electric field measurements. It also presents simple, inexpensive hardware and signal processing techniques for makin the field measurements, and several new applications of electric field sensing. The signal processing contribution includes synchronous undersampling, a narrowband, phase sensitive detection technique that is well matched to the capabilities of contemporary microcontrollers. In hardware, the primary contributions are the School of Fish, a scalable network of microcontroller-based transceive electrodes, and the LazyFish, a small footprint integrated sensing board. Connecting n School of Fish electrodes results in an array capable of making heterodyne measurements of any or all n(n - 1) off-diagonal entries in the capacitance matrix. The LazyFish uses synchronous undersampling to provide up to 8 high signal- to-noise homodyne measurements in a very small package. The inverse electrostatics portion of the thesis presents a fast, general method for extracting geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from field measurements. The method is based on the Sphere Expansion, a novel fast method for generating approximate solutions to the Laplace equation. Finally, the thesis describes a variety

  8. Three dimensional graphene scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering and in-situ electrical recording.

    PubMed

    Ameri, S K; Singh, P K; D'Angelo, R; Stoppel, W; Black, L; Sonkusale, S R

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional graphene foam made of few layers of CVD grown graphene as a scaffold for growing cardiac cells and recording their electrical activity. Our results show that graphene foam not only provides an excellent extra-cellular matrix (ECM) for the culture of such electrogenic cells but also enables recording of its extracellular electrical activity in-situ. Recording is possible due to graphene's excellent conductivity. In this paper, we present our results on the fabrication of the graphene scaffold and initial studies on the culture of cardiac cell lines such as HL-1 and recording of their real-time electrical activity.

  9. Field Testing of an In-Situ Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, W. C.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the utility of using in-situ neutron spectroscopy to measure water content on planetary surfaces, we have developed a field site for carrying out neutron spectroscopy measurements. Specifically, our objectives in developing the field site are: 1) Demonstrate in-situ neutron measurements in a realistic field test scenario; 2) Demonstrate our ability to accurately model neutron measurements for various conditions and identify measurement factors that need to be controlled and/or accounted for such as detailed stratigraphy; 3) Provide a field test location for future in-situ neutron measurements using a variety of instrument and soil configurations.

  10. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  11. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  12. In situ electrical conductivity measurements of H2O under static pressure up to 28 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bao; Gao, Yang; Han, Yonghao; Ma, Yanzhang; Gao, Chunxiao

    2016-08-01

    The in situ electrical conductivity measurements on water in both solid state and liquid state were performed under pressure up to 28 GPa and temperature from 77 K to 300 K using a microcircuit fabricated on a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Water chemically ionization mainly contributes to electrical conduction in liquid state, which is in accord with the results obtained under dynamic pressure. Energy band theory of liquid water was used to understand effect of static pressure on electrical conduction of water. The electric conductivity of H2O decreased discontinuously by four orders of magnitude at 0.7-0.96 GPa, indicating water frozen at this P-T condition. Correspondingly, the conduction of H2O in solid state is determined by arrangement and bending of H-bond in ice VI and ice VII. Based on Jaccard theory, we have concluded that the charge carriers of ice are already existing ions and Bjerrum defects.

  13. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  14. Instrument for x-ray absorption spectroscopy with in situ electrical control characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chun-Chao; Chang, Shu-Jui; Yang, Chao-Yao; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Chou, Hsiung

    2013-12-15

    We report a synchrotron-based setup capable of performing x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism with simultaneous electrical control characterizations. The setup can enable research concerning electrical transport, element- and orbital-selective magnetization with an in situ fashion. It is a unique approach to the real-time change of spin-polarized electronic state of a material/device exhibiting magneto-electric responses. The performance of the setup was tested by probing the spin-polarized states of cobalt and oxygen of Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O dilute magnetic semiconductor under applied voltages, both at low (∼20 K) and room temperatures, and signal variations upon the change of applied voltage were clearly detected.

  15. A new probe for measuring small electric fields in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    A dipolar double probe has been developed for in situ measurements of small electric fields in laboratory plasmas. The probe measures dc to ac electric fields (f values between 0 and 20 MHz) with high sensitivity (Emin about 10 microV/cm) and responds to both space charge electric fields and inductive electric fields. Using voltage-to-frequency conversion, the probe signal is obtained free of errors and loading effects by a transmission line. Various examples of useful applications for the new probe are presented, such as measurements of dc ambipolar fields, ac space-charge fields of ion acoustic waves, ac inductive fields of whistler waves, and mixed inductive and space-charge electric fields in current-carrying magnetoplasmas.

  16. In situ magnetic field observations of the AMPTE artificial comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dunlop, M. W.; Mier-Jedrzejowicz, W. A. C.; Rijnbeek, R. P.; Six, M.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetometers aboard the IRM and UKS spacecraft monitored the magnetic field during the AMPTE artificial comet experiment of Dec. 27, 1984. Rapid photoionization of the released barium vapor resulted in the formation of a magnetic cavity, shielded from the ambient magnetic field.The presence of this highly conductive obstacle caused draping and compression of the solar wind magnetic field.

  17. A load-lock compatible system for in situ electrical resistivity measurements during thin film growth.

    PubMed

    Colin, J J; Diot, Y; Guerin, Ph; Lamongie, B; Berneau, F; Michel, A; Jaouen, C; Abadias, G

    2016-02-01

    An experimental setup designed for in situ electrical resistance measurement during thin film growth is described. The custom-built sample holder with a four-point probe arrangement can be loaded into a high-vacuum magnetron sputter-deposition chamber through a load-lock transfer system, allowing measurements on series of samples without venting the main chamber. Electrical contact is ensured with circular copper tracks inserted in a Teflon plate on a mounting holder station inside the deposition chamber. This configuration creates the possibility to measure thickness-dependent electrical resistance changes with sub-monolayer resolution and is compatible with use of sample rotation during growth. Examples are presented for metallic films with high adatom mobility growing in a Volmer-Weber mode (Ag and Pd) as well as for refractory metal (Mo) with low adatom mobility. Evidence for an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition at a film thickness of 2.6 nm is reported during growth of Mo on an amorphous Si underlayer, supporting previous findings based on in situ wafer curvature measurements.

  18. Increasing electrical conductivity of upconversion materials by in situ binding with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Suli; Sun, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Jiacheng; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Shufen

    2016-08-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) hold promise as near-infrared light converters to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. However, the prevalent use of UCNPs in solar cells is restricted by their poor electrical conductivity and low emission efficiency. Here reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ composites are proposed to achieve good electrical conductivity due to the high charge carrier mobility of rGO. Composites of rGO and UCNPs combined by a chemical bond are in situ synthesized by the hydrothermal method, followed by a reduction process. The contact of UCNPs with rGO is proved by SEM, and the binding between the rGO-UCNP composites is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The composites are doped into the photoanode of a solar cell. As anticipated, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirms the good electrical conductivity of the in situ synthesized rGO-UCNPs. Furthermore, the use of rGO-UCNPs in solar cells enables an enhancement in short-circuit current density and overall efficiency by about 10%. These findings reveal that the combination of UCNPs with rGO opens up new opportunities of extending the use of UCNPs in the area of solar energy harvesting.

  19. A load-lock compatible system for in situ electrical resistivity measurements during thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, J. J.; Diot, Y.; Guerin, Ph.; Lamongie, B.; Berneau, F.; Michel, A.; Jaouen, C.; Abadias, G.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental setup designed for in situ electrical resistance measurement during thin film growth is described. The custom-built sample holder with a four-point probe arrangement can be loaded into a high-vacuum magnetron sputter-deposition chamber through a load-lock transfer system, allowing measurements on series of samples without venting the main chamber. Electrical contact is ensured with circular copper tracks inserted in a Teflon plate on a mounting holder station inside the deposition chamber. This configuration creates the possibility to measure thickness-dependent electrical resistance changes with sub-monolayer resolution and is compatible with use of sample rotation during growth. Examples are presented for metallic films with high adatom mobility growing in a Volmer-Weber mode (Ag and Pd) as well as for refractory metal (Mo) with low adatom mobility. Evidence for an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition at a film thickness of 2.6 nm is reported during growth of Mo on an amorphous Si underlayer, supporting previous findings based on in situ wafer curvature measurements.

  20. Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S.

    1980-04-01

    A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

  1. In situ electrical resistance and activation energy of solid C60 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Cai-Long; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2013-09-01

    The in situ electrical resistance and transport activation energies of solid C60 fullerene have been measured under high pressure up to 25 GPa in the temperature range of 300-423 K by using a designed diamond anvil cell. In the experiment, four parts of boron-doped diamond films fabricated on one anvil were used as electrical measurement probes and a W—Ta thin film thermocouple which was integrated on the other diamond anvil was used to measure the temperature. The current results indicate that the measured high-pressure resistances are bigger than those reported before at the same pressure and there is no pressure-independent resistance increase before 8 GPa. From the temperature dependence of the resistivity, the C60 behaviors as a semiconductor and the activation energies of the cubic C60 fullerene are 0.49, 0.43, and 0.36 eV at 13, 15, and 19 GPa, respectively.

  2. Versatile variable temperature insert at the DEIMOS beamline for in situ electrical transport measurements.

    PubMed

    Joly, L; Muller, B; Sternitzky, E; Faullumel, J G; Boulard, A; Otero, E; Choueikani, F; Kappler, J P; Studniarek, M; Bowen, M; Ohresser, P

    2016-05-01

    The design and the first experiments are described of a versatile cryogenic insert used for its electrical transport capabilities. The insert is designed for the cryomagnet installed on the DEIMOS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron dedicated to magnetic characterizations through X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. This development was spurred by the multifunctional properties of novel materials such as multiferroics, in which, for example, the magnetic and electrical orders are intertwined and may be probed using XAS. The insert thus enables XAS to in situ probe this interplay. The implementation of redundant wiring and careful shielding also enables studies on operating electronic devices. Measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions illustrate the potential of the equipment toward XAS studies of in operando electronic devices.

  3. FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

  4. In situ electrical resistivity measurements of vanadium thin films performed in vacuum during different annealing cycles.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Paulo; Cote, Jean-Marc; Martin, Nicolas; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Billard, Alain

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes a sputtering and in situ vacuum electrical resistivity setup that allows a more efficient sputtering-oxidation coupling process for the fabrication of oxide compounds like vanadium dioxide, VO2. After the sputtering deposition of pure V thin films, the proposed setup enables the sample holder to be transferred from the sputtering to the in situ annealing + resistivity chamber without venting the whole system. The thermal oxidation of the V films was studied by implementing two different temperature cycles up to 550 °C, both in air (using a different resistivity setup) and vacuum conditions. Main results show that the proposed system is able to accurately follow the different temperature setpoints, presenting clean and low-noise resistivity curves. Furthermore, it is possible to identify the formation of different vanadium oxide phases in air, taking into account the distinct temperature cycles used. The metallic-like electrical properties of the annealed coatings are maintained in vacuum whereas those heated in air produce a vanadium oxide phase mixture.

  5. Electrical in-situ characterisation of interface stabilised organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Striedinger, Bernd; Fian, Alexander; Petritz, Andreas; Lassnig, Roman; Winkler, Adolf; Stadlober, Barbara

    2015-07-14

    We report on the electrical in-situ characterisation of organic thin film transistors under high vacuum conditions. Model devices in a bottom-gate/bottom-contact (coplanar) configuration are electrically characterised in-situ, monolayer by monolayer (ML), while the organic semiconductor (OSC) is evaporated by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Thermal SiO2 with an optional polymer interface stabilisation layer serves as the gate dielectric and pentacene is chosen as the organic semiconductor. The evolution of transistor parameters is studied on a bi-layer dielectric of a 150 nm of SiO2 and 20 nm of poly((±)endo,exo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, diphenylester) (PNDPE) and compared to the behaviour on a pure SiO2 dielectric. The thin layer of PNDPE, which is an intrinsically photo-patternable organic dielectric, shows an excellent stabilisation performance, significantly reducing the calculated interface trap density at the OSC/dielectric interface up to two orders of magnitude, and thus remarkably improving the transistor performance.

  6. Electrical in-situ characterisation of interface stabilised organic thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Striedinger, Bernd; Fian, Alexander; Petritz, Andreas; Lassnig, Roman; Winkler, Adolf; Stadlober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical in-situ characterisation of organic thin film transistors under high vacuum conditions. Model devices in a bottom-gate/bottom-contact (coplanar) configuration are electrically characterised in-situ, monolayer by monolayer (ML), while the organic semiconductor (OSC) is evaporated by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Thermal SiO2 with an optional polymer interface stabilisation layer serves as the gate dielectric and pentacene is chosen as the organic semiconductor. The evolution of transistor parameters is studied on a bi-layer dielectric of a 150 nm of SiO2 and 20 nm of poly((±)endo,exo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, diphenylester) (PNDPE) and compared to the behaviour on a pure SiO2 dielectric. The thin layer of PNDPE, which is an intrinsically photo-patternable organic dielectric, shows an excellent stabilisation performance, significantly reducing the calculated interface trap density at the OSC/dielectric interface up to two orders of magnitude, and thus remarkably improving the transistor performance. PMID:26457122

  7. In situ electrical resistivity measurements of vanadium thin films performed in vacuum during different annealing cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, Paulo; Cote, Jean-Marc; Martin, Nicolas; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Billard, Alain

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes a sputtering and in situ vacuum electrical resistivity setup that allows a more efficient sputtering-oxidation coupling process for the fabrication of oxide compounds like vanadium dioxide, VO2. After the sputtering deposition of pure V thin films, the proposed setup enables the sample holder to be transferred from the sputtering to the in situ annealing + resistivity chamber without venting the whole system. The thermal oxidation of the V films was studied by implementing two different temperature cycles up to 550 °C, both in air (using a different resistivity setup) and vacuum conditions. Main results show that the proposed system is able to accurately follow the different temperature setpoints, presenting clean and low-noise resistivity curves. Furthermore, it is possible to identify the formation of different vanadium oxide phases in air, taking into account the distinct temperature cycles used. The metallic-like electrical properties of the annealed coatings are maintained in vacuum whereas those heated in air produce a vanadium oxide phase mixture.

  8. Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e

  9. High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Yang, Yang; Lopatin, Vladimir; Guo, Wei; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong

    2014-05-01

    With the depletion of conventional energy sources,oil shale has got much attention as a new type of energy resource,which is rich and widespread in the world.The conventional utilization of oil shale is mainly focused on resorting to produce shale oil and fuel gas with low extraction efficiency about one in a million due to many shortcomings and limitations.And the in-situ conversion of oil shale,more environmentally friendly,is still in the experimental stage.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion of oil shale is a new type of in-situ pyrolysis technology.The main equipment includes a high voltage-power frequency generator and interior reactor. The high voltage-power frequency generator can provide a voltage between 220-8000 V which can be adjusted in real time according to the actual situation.Firstly,high voltage is used to breakdown the oil shale to form a dendritic crack between two electrodes providing a conductive channel inside the oil shale rock.And then the power frequency(220V) is used to generate the electric current for heating the internal surface of conductive channel,so that the energy can be transmitted to the surrounding oil shale.When the temperature reaches 350 degree,the oil shale begins to pyrolysis.In addition,the temperature in the conductive channel can be extremely high with high voltage,which makes the internal surface of conductive channel graphitization and improves its heat conduction performance.This technology can successfully make the oil shale pyrolysis, based on a lot of lab experiments,and also produce the combustible shale oil and fuel gas.Compared to other in-situ conversion technology,this method has the following advantages: high speed of heating oil shale,the equipment underground is simple,and easy to operate;it can proceed without the limitation of shale thickness, and can be used especially in the thin oil shale reservoir;the heating channel is parallel to the oil shale layers,which has more

  10. A method to investigate the electron scattering characteristics of ultrathin metallic films by in situ electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, I. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Fermento, R.; Leitao, D.

    2009-07-15

    In this article, a method to measure the electrical resistivity/conductivity of metallic thin films during layer growth on specific underlayers is described. The in situ monitoring of an underlayer electrical resistance, its change upon the incoming of new material atoms/molecules, and the growth of a new layer are presented. The method is easy to implement and allows obtaining in situ experimental curves of electrical resistivity dependence upon film thickness with a subatomic resolution, providing insight in film growth microstructure characteristics, specular/diffuse electron scattering surfaces, and optimum film thicknesses.

  11. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in situ tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, A.; Silevitch, D. M.; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Yishu; Jaramillo, R.; Banerjee, A.; Ren, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide range of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as those from insulator to metal.

  12. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in situ tunability.

    PubMed

    Palmer, A; Silevitch, D M; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Yishu; Jaramillo, R; Banerjee, A; Ren, Y; Rosenbaum, T F

    2015-09-01

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide range of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as those from insulator to metal.

  13. Growth and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Dayeh, Shadi; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Le, Son T

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and electrical properties of axial in-situ doped p-n junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) together with GeH{sub 4} in the growth process. By changing dopant sources during growth, a p-n junction can be realized along the axis of the NWs. Metal contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography patterning, followed by 100 nm Ni sputter deposition and lift-off. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio up to two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the p-n junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed backgate control of the NW junction current.

  14. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in situ tunability

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A; Silevitch, D M; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Y; Jaramillo, R.; Banerjee, A.; Ren, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure–field–temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide range of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as those from insulator to metal.

  15. FIELD STUDY: IN SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE WITH OZONE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field evaluation is underway to assess the effectiveness of in situ oxidation (using ozone with and without hydrogen peroxide) for remediation of 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated volatile organic compounds in groundwater at the Cooper Drum Company Superfund Site located ...

  16. Electric Field Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the science and technology base required to design and construct a high temperature electric field positioning module that could be used by materials scientists to conduct containerless science experiments in a low gravity environment. Containerless science modules that employ electric fields to position and manipulate samples offer several advantages over acoustic or electromagnetic systems. The electric field system will operate not only at atmospheric pressures but also in a vacuum, in contrast to the acoustic modules which can only operate in atmosphere where the acoustic forces are sufficient. The electric field technique puts minimum energy into the sample, whereas the electromagnetic system can deposit energy into the sample through eddy current heat as well as physical mixing in the sample. Two types of electric field modules have been constructed and tested to date. One employs a charged sample and uses electrostatic forces to position and control the sample. The second type of module induces electrical polarization of the sample and electric field gradients to position and control the sample.

  17. Performance of in situ chemical oxidation field demonstrations at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been investigating the use of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate organic contaminants (VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs) in soils and groundwater at the laboratory and field scales. Field scale design parameters (e.g., oxidant loading rates and oxidant delivery techniques) are often dictated by site conditions (e.g., soil properties and initial contaminant concentrations). Chemical destruction of organic compounds can be accomplished using a variety of oxidants. Recent research has involved field scale in situ chemical oxidation demonstrations using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4} in conjunction with soil mixing as the oxidant delivery mechanism. A description of some of these fields activities and future field-scale work is presented here.

  18. In-situ Observation and Differential Thermal Analysis of MnBi in High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Daiki; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Abematsu, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kohki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Uda, Satoshi; Koyama, Keiichi

    For investigating in-field process of melting and solidification visually and quantitatively, in-situ observation system with differential thermal analysis (DTA) utilized in high temperature and in high magnetic field was developed. Decomposition processes of the bulk sample of ferromagnetic MnBi were directly observed with collecting DTA data under high magnetic field of 10 T for the 290-770 K temperature range. When the temperature was over decomposition point (ferromagnetic MnBi → paramagnetic Mn1.08Bi + liquid), liquid phase appeared on the sample surface. Furthermore, when the temperature was over peritectic temperature (∼ 700 K: paramagnetic Mn1.08Bi → Mn + liquid), the sample surface was broken and a large quantity of the liquid phase appeared from the sample. The in-situ observation also suggested that the decomposition temperature increased from 620 K for a zero field to 638 K for a magnetic field of 10 T.

  19. Synthesis, Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of IN-SITU Synthesized Polyaniline/silver Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Fahad; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Khan, Wasi; Ehtisham Khan, M.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2012-09-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is recognized as one of the most important conducting polymers due to its high conductivity and good stability. In this paper, polyaniline/silver (PANI/Ag) nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of aniline using ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) as oxidizing agent with varying concentration of Ag nanoparticles colloids (0 ml, 25 ml and 50 ml). Silver nanoparticles were synthesized separately in colloidal form from silver nitrate (Ag2NO3) with the help of reducing agent sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The PANI/Ag nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM, UV-visible, temperature dependent resistivity and dielectric measurements. All samples show a single phase nature of the nanoparticles. The electrical resistivity as function of temperature was measured in the temperature range 298-383 K, which indicates a semiconducting to metallic transition at 373 K and 368 K for 25 ml and 50 ml silver colloid samples, respectively.

  20. An advanced electric propulsion diagnostic (AEPD) platform for in-situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundesmann, Carsten; Eichhorn, Christoph; Scholze, Frank; Spemann, Daniel; Neumann, Horst; Pagano, Damiano; Scaranzin, Simone; Scortecci, Fabrizio; Leiter, Hans J.; Gauter, Sven; Wiese, Ruben; Kersten, Holger; Holste, Kristof; Köhler, Peter; Klar, Peter J.; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Blott, Richard; Bulit, Alexandra; Dannenmayer, Käthe

    2016-10-01

    Experimental characterization is an essential task in development, qualification and optimization process of electric propulsion thrusters or ion beam sources for material processing, because it can verify that the thruster or ion beam source fulfills the requested mission or application requirements, and it can provide parameters for thruster and plasma modeling. Moreover, there is a need for standardizing electric propulsion thruster diagnostics in order to make characterization results of different thrusters and also from measurements performed in different vacuum facilities reliable and comparable. Therefore, we have developed an advanced electric propulsion diagnostic (AEPD) platform, which allows a comprehensive in-situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters (or ion beam sources) and could serve as a standard on-ground tool in the future. The AEPD platform uses a five-axis positioning system and provides the option to use diagnostic tools for beam characterization (Faraday probe, retarding potential analyzer, ExB probe, active thermal probe), for optical inspection (telemicroscope, triangular laser head), and for thermal characterization (pyrometer, thermocamera). Here we describe the capabilities of the diagnostic platform and provide first experimental results of the characterization of a gridded ion thruster RIT- μX.

  1. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites.

  2. Electrical discharge phenomena application for solid fossil fuels in-situ conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Lopatin, V. V.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Koryashov, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    The application of high voltage to oil shale initiates partial discharges (PDs) with the following treeing like in insulating dielectrics. Critical PDs and treeing with a high propagation rate occur under the low electrical intensity ~102 V/cm due to oil shale's high porosity, heterogeneity and anisotropy. The completed discharge occurs as a result of these phenomena. Carbonization is initiated around a plasma channel at the treeing stage and extended during electromagnetic action time. Carbonized rock electrical resistance decreases by 8÷10 degrees to 10 ohm·cm, and shale and coal could be heated by Joule heat in carbonized volume and discharge plasma. A high-current supply is necessary for this heating stage. Also, a high- voltage supply with steep-grade characteristics can be used for PDs and treeing initiating and heating the carbonized rock with low resistance. Thus, these phenomena allow in-situ processing in order to produce a flammable gas and synthetic oil from inferior solid fossil fuels by pyrolytic conversion. Computations show that the ratio between energy derived from gas flaming and energy for shale conversion is more than fifty. Therefore, oil shale conversion with the help of electrical discharge phenomena application can be very efficient, as it needs little energy.

  3. In Situ Detection of Subsurface Biofilm Using Low-Field NMR: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Catherine M; Herrling, Maria P; Hiebert, Randy; Bender, Andrew T; Grunewald, Elliot; Walsh, David O; Codd, Sarah L

    2015-09-15

    Subsurface biofilms are central to bioremediation of chemical contaminants in soil and groundwater whereby micro-organisms degrade or sequester environmental pollutants like nitrate, hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. Current methods to monitor subsurface biofilm growth in situ are indirect. Previous laboratory research conducted at MSU has indicated that low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is sensitive to biofilm growth in porous media, where biofilm contributes a polymer gel-like phase and enhances T2 relaxation. Here we show that a small diameter NMR well logging tool can detect biofilm accumulation in the subsurface using the change in T2 relaxation behavior over time. T2 relaxation distributions were measured over an 18 day experimental period by two NMR probes, operating at approximately 275 kHz and 400 kHz, installed in 10.2 cm wells in an engineered field testing site. The mean log T2 relaxation times were reduced by 62% and 43%, respectively, while biofilm was cultivated in the soil surrounding each well. Biofilm growth was confirmed by bleaching and flushing the wells and observing the NMR signal's return to baseline. This result provides a direct and noninvasive method to spatiotemporally monitor biofilm accumulation in the subsurface.

  4. The in-situ characterization of a transesterification reaction using electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungjin

    Impedance Spectroscopy has been used in the in-situ monitoring of a transesterfication reaction of soybean biodiesel. This paper describes the application of Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to observe and characterize the transesterfication reaction and its interfacial behavior phenomena electrically. In particular, the dielectric properties of soybean biodiesel were measured at broad range frequencies from 10-2 to 106 Hz at different temperatures, methanol molar ratio to biodiesel, concentration of catalyst and reaction time. Measurement of dielectric property have provided an important approach to understanding the structure of matter. Measurements of the dielectric properties are a reliable and efficient method for evaluating the biodiesel production to determine their quality and yield for reducing the production cost. The dielectric constant (epsilon') and loss (epsilon") are the most convenient indicators for quality control in commercial biodiesel manufacturing. Dielectric properties were correlated with chemically measured changes in soybean oil such as free fatty acids, amount of catalyst and alcohols at different temperatures as well as reaction times. It was observed that there is a good correlation between the dielectric constant (epsilon') and loss (epsilon") in soybean biodiesel. The result indicated that the dielectric properties increased with the (1) increasing temperature (2) increasing methanol; (3) increasing catalyst; (4) increasing reaction time. Dielectric properties was a useful index for the rapid quality evaluation of soybean biodiesel. Dielectric properties were compared to conventional methods of analysis (Infrared Spectroscopy) for evaluating the quality of soybean biodiesel. The results indicated that dielectric constant and dielectric loss are essential measurement for predicting the best biodiesel yield. Moreover, the electrical impedance parameters such as bulk resistance (Rb), bulk capacitance (Cb) and time constant(tau b

  5. Formation factor logging by electrical methods. Comparison of formation factor logs obtained in situ and in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a new in situ method for obtaining the formation factor, which is essential for the matrix diffusion, is described and tested in intrusive igneous rock. The method is based on electrical resistivity measurements in rock where the pore water and rock resistivities are essential parameters. The method is based on electromigration instead of diffusion as in traditional diffusion experiments. In previous works, quantitative formation factors of rock have been obtained by electrical methods in the laboratory. Here, a similar approach is used in situ. An in situ logging campaign was performed by SKB during 2000 in the 1700-m-deep borehole KLX02 in Laxemar, Sweden. The rock resistivity was measured with the slimhole Dual Laterolog from Antares. The groundwater resistivity was measured with the Difference Flow Meter from Posiva. A formation factor log was obtained with the maximum vertical resolution of 10 cm. In order to validate the log, 100 rock samples were taken from the bore core, and a formation factor log was obtained by using electrical methods in the laboratory. Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) were used. The measurements on the core confirmed that the in situ log was quantitative, but with a possible systematic error. The in situ formation factors were on average about 1/3 to 1/5 of the laboratory formation factors, depending on depth.

  6. A Short Review of Passive R. F. Electric Antennas as In Situ Detectors of Space Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moncuquet, M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Bougeret, J.-L; Hoang, S.; Issautier, K.; Lecacheux, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.; Zouganelis, I.

    2009-06-16

    We review the basic principles and recent or planned applications of passive, radio frequency electric antennas for in situ measurements of dusty plasmas in space. Electric antennas as passive wave detectors are reliable and versatile tools for such measurements, with the technique of Quasi Thermal Noise Spectroscopy and its generalization to dusty plasmas. The technique has been applied in the interplanetary medium, cometary plasma and dust tails, plasma environments of the Earth, Venus, Jupiter (including the Io plasma torus), Saturn (including the plasma torus and the E ring), with antennas of various shape aboard a number of spacecraft, including, most recently, Cassini. The technique is in the course of use on STEREO (NASA) in interplanetary magnetic clouds, is selected on MMO/Bepi-Colombo (JAXA-ESA) for in situ plasma measurements at Mercury, and planned on the Solar Orbiter (ESA) and other spacecraft projects. The diagnostic is based on the spectral analysis of the electric potential induced by the plasma particles as they pass by the antennas, and/or impact them or the spacecraft. The technique has a great advantage over usual electron detectors: its cross section for detection is much larger than the surface of the detector itself, ensuring a great sensitivity and a quasi-immunity to spacecraft perturbations. The spectral density induced by the passage of plasmas particles - with their dressing popularly known as Debye shielding, Langmuir waves, Bernstein waves and other members of the plasma menagerie - is easily calculated under stable conditions from the theory of the plasma quasi-thermal fluctuations. Around the plasma frequency, the spectrum is dominated by the QTN while at lower frequencies the spectrum is dominated by the shot noise produced by particles impacts on the antenna (in dipole mode) or on the spacecraft (in monopole mode). In this last case, the shot noise can be strongly enhanced by the impacts (and subsequent volatilization

  7. THOR Electric Field Instrument - EFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Bale, Stuart D.; Bonnell, John W.; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Phal, Yamuna; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Soucek, Jan; Vaivads, Andris; Åhlen, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) will measure the vector electric field from 0 to 200 kHz. EFI consists of two sets of sensors: Spin-plane Double Probes (EFI-SDP) providing high sensitivity DC electric field in the spacecraft spin plane (2D), and the High-Frequency Antenna (EFI-HFA) providing 3D electric field at frequencies above ~1 kHz. EFI-SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 50 m long wire booms, 90 degrees apart in the spin plane, giving a 100 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. EFI-HFA consists of 6 x 1.25 m long monopoles, forming 3 dipolar antennas crossed at 90 degrees to each other. In addition to the sensors, EFI contains HFA and SDP pre-amplifiers, as well as bias electronics boards (BEBs) hosted in the man electronics box of the Field and Wave processor (FWP). As THOR spacecraft has a sun-pointing spin axis, EFI-SDP measures the electric field in the plane approximately orthogonal to the sun using long wire booms. The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces errors due to wake effects and asymmetric photoelectron clouds, enabling the highly accurate in comparison to earlier missions ±0.1 mV/m near-DC electric field measurements. Interferometry using the electric field probes can be used to infer wavelengths and scale sizes at the smallest scales in the plasma. EFI also measures the floating potential of the satellite, which can be used to estimate the plasma density at very high time resolution (up to a few hundred Hz). The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces changes in the illuminated area, and hence the associated spin-dependent errors. In combination with densities derived from the observed plasma frequency emission line, EFI monitors the plasma density from DC to a few hundred Hz. EFI measurements characterize electric field and density variations associated with kinetic scale plasma

  8. Electric fields and quantum wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Dalit; Freivogel, Ben; Iqbal, Nabil

    2015-09-01

    Electric fields can thread a classical Einstein-Rosen bridge. Maldacena and Susskind have recently suggested that in a theory of dynamical gravity the entanglement of ordinary perturbative quanta should be viewed as creating a quantum version of an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the particles, or a "quantum wormhole." We demonstrate within low-energy effective field theory that there is a precise sense in which electric fields can also thread such quantum wormholes. We define a nonperturbative "wormhole susceptibility" that measures the ease of passing an electric field through any sort of wormhole. The susceptibility of a quantum wormhole is suppressed by powers of the U (1 ) gauge coupling relative to that for a classical wormhole but can be made numerically equal with a sufficiently large amount of entangled matter.

  9. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  10. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  11. Hydrodynamic trapping for rapid assembly and in situ electrical characterization of droplet interface bilayer arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Mary -Anne; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Collier, C. Patrick; ...

    2016-08-02

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a modular technique for assembling planar lipid membranes between water droplets in oil. The DIB method thus provides a unique capability for developing digital, droplet-based membrane platforms for rapid membrane characterization, drug screening and ion channel recordings. This paper demonstrates a new, low-volume microfluidic system that automates droplet generation, sorting, and sequential trapping in designated locations to enable the rapid assembly of arrays of DIBs. The channel layout of the device is guided by an equivalent circuit model, which predicts that a serial arrangement of hydrodynamic DIB traps enables sequential droplet placement and minimizesmore » the hydrodynamic pressure developed across filled traps to prevent squeeze-through of trapped droplets. Furthermore, the incorporation of thin-film electrodes fabricated via evaporation metal deposition onto the glass substrate beneath the channels allows for the first time in situ, simultaneous electrical interrogation of multiple DIBs within a sealed device. Combining electrical measurements with imaging enables measurements of membrane capacitance and resistance and bilayer area, and our data show that DIBs formed in different trap locations within the device exhibit similar sizes and transport properties. Simultaneous, single channel recordings of ion channel gating in multiple membranes are obtained when alamethicin peptides are incorporated into the captured droplets, qualifying the thin-film electrodes as a means for measuring stimuli-responsive functions of membrane-bound biomolecules. Furthermore, this novel microfluidic-electrophysiology platform provides a reproducible, high throughput method for performing electrical measurements to study transmembrane proteins and biomembranes in low-volume, droplet-based membranes.« less

  12. Aqueous dissolution of laboratory and field samples from the in-situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P. ); Bates, S.O. )

    1991-08-01

    In-situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated in several countries as a remediation technology for immobilizing both hazardous and radioactive buried wastes. A combination of laboratory data and modeling results are presented that establishes the scientific basis for predicting the long-term stability of an ISV glass in the environment. Laboratory experiments included tests with ISV samples obtained from pilot- and intermediate-scale field tests, a nuclear waste glass, and a natural obsidian. 8 refs.

  13. Field-scale evaluation of enhanced aquifer remediation using in-situ alcohol flushing

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.S.C.; Annable, M.D.; Hatfield, K.H.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.

    1995-09-01

    In-situ flushing of soils and aquifers contaminated with a variety of fuels and oils (e.g., gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, solvents, degreasers, coal tar, creosote, etc.) is based on enhanced mobilization and/or solubilization of the entrapped residual oils. The former technique involves immiscible displacement of oil macroemulsions, ganglia, blobs, and banks, whereas the latter technique is based on enhanced solubilization of the oil constituents and their miscible displacement. Results from lab-scale and field-scale evaluations of in-situ flushing with water-alcohol mixtures for enhanced solubilization of residual oils will be discussed. Emphasis of the presentation will be on the data collected during a recently completed field test of the in-situ cosolvent flushing technology, which was conducted at the Hill Air Force Base, utah, to remediate a shallow, unconfined aquifer contaminated with jet fuel and chlorinated solvents. As a part of this field test, studies were also conducted to evaluate the use of partitioning tracers (methyl alcohols) for quantifying the residual oils present at the site prior to and after cosolvent flushing. Criteria for performance assessment as well as the technological, regulatory, and economic factors governing full-scale applications for aquifer remediation will be discussed.

  14. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  15. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  16. In-situ contact electrical resistance technique for investigating corrosion inhibitor adsorption on copper electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, G.; Quartarone, G.; Zingales, A.; Molokanov, V.V.

    1998-02-01

    Traditional electrochemical tests and the contact electrical resistance technique (CER) were used to investigate the effect on corrosion of pure copper (99.999 wt%) of adding benzotriazole (BTA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazone (1-OH-BTA) to acidic solutions (sulfuric acid [H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}], pH = 1.7, and sodium sulfate [Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}] until total sulfate [SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}] concentration = 0.1 M). This technique permitted growth of oxide and/or salt films as well as adsorption of the organic inhibitors on the copper surface to be evaluated. Formation of copper oxide ([Cu{sub 2}O]{sub 2})., sulfate (CuSo{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O), thiocyanate (CuSCN), and halogenyde (CuI, CuBr, and CuCl) films on copper electrodes was followed in situ in sulfate solutions at various pH values under low overpotentials. Effects of pH, solution anion content, and/or the amount of BTA or 1-OH-BTA on electrical resistance (R) of the surface films formed on pure copper electrodes were treated. BTA acted as a more efficient corrosion inhibitor than 1-OH-BTA, reaching inhibition percentages (IP) of {approximately}90% compared to those of 1-OH-BTA, which reached a maximum of {approximately}76% in 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M solutions. It was possible to distinguish between maximum R of the surface film, found in solutions containing BTA, associated with the adsorption of neutral inhibitor molecules, and the sharp rise in R attributable to [Cu(BTA)]{sub n} complex formation.

  17. Synthesis and Characteristics of FePt Nanoparticle Films Under In Situ-Applied Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Gao, Mo-Yun; Li, Ai-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Chen; Wu, Di

    2016-12-01

    In situ external magnetic field was applied during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles via a chemical solution method. FePt nanoparticle films were prepared on Si by a drop-coating method with and without a magnetic field. Annealing at 700 °C in reductive atmosphere was explored to obtain ferromagnetic FePt L10 phase. The effect of in situ-applied magnetic field on the structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticle films was characterized. It is found that the applied magnetic field during the chemical synthesis of FePt nanoparticles plays a key role in the crystallinity and magnetic property of FePt nanoparticle films. As-synthesized FePt nanoparticles under the magnetic field are monodispersed and can be self-assembled over a larger area by a dropping method. The applied magnetic field during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles not only significantly improves the nanoparticles' c-axis preferred orientation but also benefits the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles from face-centered cubic to face-centered tetragonal structure during the annealing process. The FePt nanoparticle films derived under magnetic field also show some magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Synthesis and Characteristics of FePt Nanoparticle Films Under In Situ-Applied Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xu; Gao, Mo-Yun; Li, Ai-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Chen; Wu, Di

    2016-07-01

    In situ external magnetic field was applied during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles via a chemical solution method. FePt nanoparticle films were prepared on Si by a drop-coating method with and without a magnetic field. Annealing at 700 °C in reductive atmosphere was explored to obtain ferromagnetic FePt L10 phase. The effect of in situ-applied magnetic field on the structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticle films was characterized. It is found that the applied magnetic field during the chemical synthesis of FePt nanoparticles plays a key role in the crystallinity and magnetic property of FePt nanoparticle films. As-synthesized FePt nanoparticles under the magnetic field are monodispersed and can be self-assembled over a larger area by a dropping method. The applied magnetic field during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles not only significantly improves the nanoparticles' c-axis preferred orientation but also benefits the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles from face-centered cubic to face-centered tetragonal structure during the annealing process. The FePt nanoparticle films derived under magnetic field also show some magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  20. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  1. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  2. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  3. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  4. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  5. A magnetron sputtering system for the preparation of patterned thin films and in situ thin film electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Arnalds, U. B.; Agustsson, J. S.; Ingason, A. S.; Eriksson, A. K.; Gylfason, K. B.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Olafsson, S.

    2007-10-15

    We describe a versatile three gun magnetron sputtering system with a custom made sample holder for in situ electrical resistance measurements, both during film growth and ambient changes on film electrical properties. The sample holder allows for the preparation of patterned thin film structures, using up to five different shadow masks without breaking vacuum. We show how the system is used to monitor the electrical resistance of thin metallic films during growth and to study the thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake in metallic thin films. Furthermore, we demonstrate the growth of thin film capacitors, where patterned films are created using shadow masks.

  6. In situ measurements and radar observations of a severe storm - Electricity, kinematics, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Few, A. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Conrad, A. C.; Torczon, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements made inside a multicell severe storm in Oklahoma in 1983 with a balloon-borne instrument are presented. The properties of the electric charge regions, such as altitude, thickness, and charge concentrations, are studied. These measurements are analzyed with meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity, and balloon tracking and radar observations. The relation between the electric charge structure and the precipitation and kinematic features of the storm is examined. The data reveal that the cell exhibits a bipolar charge structure with negative charge below positive charge. The average charge concentrations of the two regions are estimated as -1.2 and 0.15 nC/cu m, respectively; the upper positive charge is about 6 km in vertical extent, and the lower negative charge is less than 1 km in vertical extent.

  7. Thermal−Electrical Character of in Situ Synthesized Polyimide-Grafted Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, Michael J.; Wang, David; Jacobs, J. David; Justice, Ryan; Trionfi, Aaron; Hsu, Julia W.P.; Schaffer, Dale; Tan, Loon-Seng; Vaia, Richard A.

    2008-12-09

    Notwithstanding the success of polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites, a solid understanding of the impact of external perturbations, including temperature and stress, on the electrical response, its reproducibility, and the subsequent relationship to the topology of the percolative morphology and molecular details of the CNT-CNT contact junction is not complete. Using an in situ synthesis approach, two series of polymide (CP2)-carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites are prepared with quantitatively (small-angle X-ray scattering) comparable CNF dispersions, but differing in the structure of the CNF-polymer interface. Amino-functionalized CNFs (FCNFs) enable direct formation of CP2 grafts onto the CNFs, whereas pristine CNFs (PCNFs) result in a relatively weak interface between the carbon nanofiber and CP2 matrix. In general, low-frequency ac impedance measurements are well described by the percolation bond model, yielding a percolation threshold below 1 vol % (0.24 and 0.68 vol % for PCNF-CP2 and FCNF-CP2, respectively). However, the design of the interface is determined to be crucial for controlling the electrical behavior in four substantial ways: magnitude of the limiting conductivity, linearity of the I-V response, magnitude and direction of temperature-dependent resistivity, and reproducibility of the absolute value of the resistivity with thermal cycling. These observations are consistent with a direct CNF-CNF contact limiting transport in the PCNF-CP2 system, where the CP2 grafts onto the FCNF from a dielectric layer, limiting transport within the FCNF-CP2 system. Furthermore, the grafted CP2 chains on the FCNF reduce local polymer dewetting at the CNF surfaces when the temperature exceeds the CP2 glass transition. This appears to stabilize the structure of the percolation network and associated conductivity. The general behavior of these interfacial extremes (pristine and fully functionalized CNFs) set important bounds on the design of interface

  8. Application of near-field microwave microscopy in in-situ detection of microfluids under dielectric cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiqiang; Yang, Yong; Feng, Tao; Xu, Shengyong

    2013-03-01

    Based on the capability of penetrating through low permittivity materials and the sensitivity to impedance of microwave, we have applied the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) to the in-situ detection of microfluids packed with dielectric covers. By means of a NSMM system, we obtained two dimensional maps showing the frequency shift and magnitude of the reflection coefficient S11, which correspond well to the spatial distribution and electrical conductance of various microfluidic structures underneath 15-200 μm thick dielectric covers. The spatial resolution and sensitivity are found closely related to the thickness of the cover layer. The underlying physics is discussed in detail. The time-resolvable detection of ionic concentration in microfluids is also demonstrated in different conditions for study of transport of particles in microfluids. This technique offers a real-time, in-situ and non-invasive approach for monitoring local chemical reactions, motion of fluids, distribution and concentration of ions in lab-on-a-chip systems, and has a potential to be developed for detection of cells and tissues. This work is financially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant 11074010) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant 2011DFA51450).

  9. In situ and remote characterization of the external field temporal variations at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    Since there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the temporal variability of the external field as it is done on Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this paper we examine two indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First, we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We sort the measurements on a fine spatial mesh, 0.8° × 0.8° at the equator. We then subtract for each bin and measurement the internal, crustal (static) field without any a priori modeling. We finally compute daily averages of the individual residuals to obtain a time series of an in situ proxy. Second, we use the Advanced Composition Explorer mission which measures the solar wind about 1 h upstream of the Earth at the L1 Lagrange point. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the average velocity of particles carrying the interplanetary magnetic field to obtain a remote proxy time series. We compare these time series and demonstrate that they are complementary. When Mars and the Earth are close to the same Parker spiral arm, in situ and remote series have correlation coefficients close to 0.5. We show how these series, or proxies, can help to select magnetic field measurements on Mars. This dual approach and these proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  10. Field Deployment of Illite Clay as an InSitu Method for Remediating 137Cs-Contaminated Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2003-01-29

    The research reported herein centered on a field deployment of the in situ remediation method with the goal of learning if the clay amendments reduce the biological availability of 137Cs in contaminated wetlands.

  11. Field and in-situ rock-mechanics testing manual. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Shuri, F S; Feves, M L; Peterson, G L; Foster, K M; Kienle, Jr, C F

    1981-10-01

    Standardized field and in situ rock mechanics testing procedures have been prepared for use in the National Terminal Waste Storage Program. The procedures emphasize equipment performance specifications, documentation and reporting, and Quality Assurance acceptance criteria. Sufficient theoretical background is included to allow the user to perform the necessary data reduction. These procedures incorporate existing standards when possible, otherwise they represent the current state of the art. Maximum flexibility in equipment design has been incorporated to allow use of this manual by existing groups and to encourage future improvements.

  12. In-situ bioventing: Two US EPA and Air Force sponsored field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, G.D.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; Vogel, C.M.; Miller, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of delivering oxygen by forced air movement through organically contaminated unsaturated soils in order to stimulate in situ biodegradation in an otherwise oxygen-limited environment. The paper is a report on progress of two ongoing bioventing field studies involving JP-4 jet fuel contamination. The first investigation, at Eielson AFB near Fairbanks, Alaska, is a study of bioventing in shallow soils and cold climates in conjunction with an evaluation of soil warming techniques. The second study, at Hill AFB near Salt Lake City, Utah, is examining bioventing of large volumes of soil and determining biodegradation and volatilization rates as a function of air injection rate.

  13. Validation of EGSIEM gravity field products with globally distributed in situ ocean bottom pressure observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poropat, Lea; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Flechtner, Frank; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Time variable global gravity field models that are processed by different research institutions all across Europe are currently compared and subsequently combined within the "European Gravity Field Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM)" project funded by the European Union. To objectively assess differences between the results from different groups, and also to evaluate the impact of changes in the data processing at an individual institution in preparation of a new data release, a validation of the final GRACE gravity fields against independent observations is required. 
For such a validation, we apply data from a set of globally distributed ocean bottom pressure sensors. The in situ observations have been thoroughly revised for outliers, instrumental drift and jumps, and were additionally reduced for tides. GRACE monthly mean solutions are then validated with the monthly resampled in situ observations. The validation typically concentrates on seasonal to interannual signals, but in case of GRACE-based series with daily sampling available from, e.g., Kalman Smoother Solutions, also sub-monthly signal variability can be assessed.

  14. GROUNDWATER AND SOIL REMEDIATION USING ELECTRICAL FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancements of contaminants removal and degradation in low permeability soils by electrical fields are achieved by the processes of electrical heating, electrokinetics, and electrochemical reactions. Electrical heating increases soil temperature resulting in the increase of cont...

  15. In Situ Synthesis of Magnetic Field-Responsive Hemicellulose Hydrogels for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A one-pot synthetic methodology for fabricating stimuli-responsive hemicellulose-based hydrogels was developed that consists of the in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles during the covalent cross-linking of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (AcGGM). The Fe3O4 nanoparticle content controlled the thermal stability, macrostructure, swelling behavior, and magnetization of the hybrid hydrogels. In addition, the magnetic field-responsive hemicellulose hydrogels (MFRHHs) exhibited excellent adsorption and controlled release profiles with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model drug. Therefore, the MFRHHs have great potential to be utilized in the biomedical field for tissue engineering applications, controlled drug delivery, and magnetically assisted bioseparation. Magnetic field-responsive hemicellulose hydrogels, prepared using a straightforward one-step process, expand the applications of biomass-derived polysaccharides by combining the renewability of hemicellulose and the magnetism of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. PMID:26196600

  16. In situ destruction of contaminants via hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation. Visalia Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, Robin L.; Aines, Roger D.; Knauss, Kevin; Leif, Roald; Chiarappa, Marina; Hudson, Bryant; Carrigan, Charles; Tompson, Andy; Richards, Jim; Eaker, Craig; Weidner, Randall; Sciarotta, Terry

    1998-12-01

    A field test of hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) was conducted during the summer of 1997, during a commercial application of thermal remediation (Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS)) at the Visalia Pole Yard (a super-fund site) in southern California. At Visalia, Southern California Edison Co. is applying the DUS thermal remediation method to clean up a large (4.3 acre) site contaminated with pole-treating compounds. This is a full-scale cleanup, during which initial extraction of contaminants is augmented by combined steam/air injection in order to enhance the destruction of residual contaminants by HPO. Laboratory results indicate that the contaminants at Visaha react at similar rates to TCE, which has been the focus of extensive laboratory work (Knauss et al., 1998a-c). Field experimental results from this application yield valuable information (1) confirming the destruction of contaminants in soil and groundwater by HPO, (2) validating the predictive models used to design HP0 steam injection systems, (3) demonstrating that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells and (4) obtaining a reasonable prediction of the cost and effectiveness of HPO, working at a commercial scale and with commercial partners. The goal of our additional study and demonstration in conjunction with Edison has been to obtain early proof of hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation in the field, and validate our predictive models and monitoring strategies. This demonstration provides valuable economic and practicability data obtained on a commercial scale, with more detailed field validation than is commonly available on a commercially-conducted cleanup. The results of LLNL' s field experiments constrain the destruction rates throughout the site, and enable site management to make accurate estimates of total in situ destruction based on the recovered carbon. As of October, 1998, over 900,000 lb of contaminant have been removed from the

  17. In situ synchrotron X-ray imaging on morphological evolution of dendrites in Sn-Bi hypoeutectic alloy under electric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongmin; Zhu, Jing; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Yanan; Huang, Wanxia; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2014-06-01

    The growth behavior and morphological evolution of dendrites in solidifying Sn-Bi alloy under electric currents [e.g., direct current (DC) and electric current pulse (ECP)] are in situ studied using synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging technique. The suppression of dendrite growth, floating and rotation of dendrites, refinement and remelting of dendrites are investigated by analyzing a series of animated images captured during the experiments. The modification mechanisms of dendrite morphology by electric fields are discussed based on the in situ and real-time observations. When DC is imposed on the samples, the growth of dendrites is significantly suppressed due to the effect of Joule heat, and a small dendrite freely flows up and rotates due to the common effect of natural convection. When ECP is imposed in the whole solidification process, the outset of solidification is delayed by Joule heat. And due to the accumulation of undercooling, dendrites suddenly nucleate, grow and finally become fine primary dendrite arm spacing. When ECP is imposed during the crystal growth stage only, the dendrites are remelted at first and then reappear along the original growing trajectories, showing the hereditary feature.

  18. An integrated, subsurface characterization system for real-time, in-situ field analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, C.W.; Creager, J.; Mathes, J.; Pounds, T.; VanDeusen, A.; Warthen, B.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes current efforts at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) to develop and field an in-situ, data analysis platform to acquire, process, and display site survey data in near real-time. In past years, FM and T has performed a number of site survey tasks. Each of these surveys was unique in application as well as in the type of data processing and analysis that was required to extract and visualize useful site characterization information. However, common to each of these surveys were the following specific computational and operational requirements: (1) a capability to acquire, process, and visualize the site survey data in the field; (2) a capability to perform all processing in a timely fashion (ideally real-time); and (3) a technique for correlating (or fusing) data streams from multiple sensors. Two more general, but no less important, requirements include system architecture modularity and positioning capability. Potential applications include: survey, evaluation, and remediation of numerous Department of Defense and Department of Energy waste sites; real-time detection and characterization of unexploded ordnance and landmines; survey, evaluation, and remediation of industrial waste sites; location of underground utility lines; and providing law enforcement agencies with real-time surveys of crime scenes. The paper describes an integrated data acquisition, processing, and visualization platform that is capable of performing in-situ data processing, interpretation, and visualization in real-time.

  19. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  20. Inferring immobile and in-situ water saturation from laboratory and field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Belen, Rodolfo P., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    Analysis of experimental data and numerical simulation results of dynamic boiling experiments revealed that there is an apparent correlation between the immobile water saturation and the shape of the steam saturation profile. An elbow in the steam saturation profile indicates the sudden drop in steam saturation that marks the transition from steam to two-phase conditions inside the core during boiling. The immobile water saturation can be inferred from this elbow in the steam saturation profile. Based on experimental results obtained by Satik (1997), the inferred immobile water saturation of Berea sandstone was found to be about 0.25, which is consistent with results of relative permeability experiments reported by Mahiya (1999). However, this technique may not be useful in inferring the immobile water saturation of less permeable geothermal rocks because the elbow in the steam saturation profile is less prominent. Models of vapor and liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that were developed based on Darcy's law and material and energy conservation equations proved to be useful in inferring the in-situ and immobile water saturations from field measurements of cumulative mass production, discharge enthalpy, and downhole temperature. Knowing rock and fluid properties, and the difference between the stable initial, T{sub o}, and dry-out, T{sub d}, downhole temperatures, the in-situ and immobile water saturations of vapor-dominated reservoirs can be estimated. On the other hand, the in-situ and immobile water saturations, and the change in mobile water content of liquid-dominated reservoirs can be inferred from the cumulative mass production, {Delta}m, and enthalpy, h{prime}, data. Comparison with two-phase, radial flow, numerical simulation results confirmed the validity and usefulness of these models.

  1. EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

    2012-07-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  2. A Dark-field Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Platform for Broadband Imaging of Resected Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Laughney, Ashley M.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    A dark-field geometry spectral imaging system is presented to raster-scan thick tissue samples in situ in 1.5cm square sections, recovering full spectra from each 100 microns diameter pixel. This spot size provides adequate resolution for wide field scanning, while also facilitating scatter imaging without requiring sophisticated light-tissue transport modeling. The system is demonstrated showing accurate estimation of localized scatter parameters and the potential to recover absorption-based contrast from broadband reflectance data measured from 480nm up to 750nm in tissue phantoms. Results obtained from xenograft pancreas tumors show the ability to quantitatively image changes in localized scatter response in this fast imaging geometry. The polychromatic raster scan design allows the rapid scanning necessary for use in surgical/clinical applications where timely decisions are required about tissue pathology. PMID:21593932

  3. In situ triaxial magnetic field compensation for the spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Qin, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer is an ultra-high sensitivity magnetometer, but it must be operated in a magnetic field with strength less than about 10 nT. Magnetic field compensation is an effective way to shield the magnetic field, and this paper demonstrates an in situ triaxial magnetic field compensation system for operating the SERF atomic magnetometer. The proposed hardware is based on optical pumping, which uses some part of the SERF atomic magnetometer itself, and the compensation method is implemented by analyzing the dynamics of the atomic spin. The experimental setup for this compensation system is described, and with this configuration, a residual magnetic field of strength less than 2 nT (±0.38 nT in the x axis, ±0.43 nT in the y axis, and ±1.62 nT in the z axis) has been achieved after compensation. The SERF atomic magnetometer was then used to verify that the residual triaxial magnetic fields were coincident with what were achieved by the compensation system.

  4. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-lun; Onuki, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In this paper, the flat interface of a marginally polar binary fluid mixture is stressed by a perpendicular alternating electric field and the resulting instability is characterized by the critical electric field E(sub c) and the pattern observed. The character of the surface dynamics at the onset of instability is found to be strongly dependent on the frequency f of the field applied. The plot of E(sub c) vs. f for a fixed temperature shows a sigmoidal shape, whose low and high frequency limits are well described by a power-law relationship, E(sub c) = epsilon(exp zeta) with zeta = 0.35 and zeta = 0.08, respectively. The low-limit exponent compares well with the value zeta = 4 for a system of conducting and non-conducting fluids. On the other hand, the high-limit exponent coincides with what was first predicted by Onuki. The instability manifests itself as the conducting phase penetrates the non-conducting phase. As the frequency increases, the shape of the pattern changes from an array of bifurcating strings to an array of column-like (or rod-like) protrusions, each of which spans the space between the plane interface and one of the electrodes. For an extremely high frequency, the disturbance quickly grows into a parabolic cone pointing toward the upper plate. As a result, the interface itself changes its shape from that of a plane to that of a high sloping pyramid.

  5. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  6. A comparison of methods for in situ discrimination of imaged phase boundaries using electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. J.; Tsoligkas, A. N.; Simmons, M. J. H.; Robbins, P. T.; Stitt, E. H.

    2016-02-01

    The detection of hard boundaries using tomographic techniques is challenging due to the measurement resolution inherent in the hardware and smoothing effects created during image reconstruction. This paper is concerned with the development of data processing approaches which enable the use of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) in real-time applications to visualise interfaces in liquid/liquid and solid/liquid systems based upon phase permittivity differences in media with a high di-electric continuum. The methodologies developed were applied to a series of phantoms to investigate their validity as a tool for imaging phase boundaries in two and three phase systems. In an ECT based tomogram, the interface between phases is exhibited as a transition region; by applying a threshold technique based upon known areas of each respective phase within the system, the transient region can be resolved into a sharp interface. The image error of a tomogram, defined as the deviation of all pixels from their theoretical value, has been calculated using a pixel-by-pixel approach; however this requires exact a priori knowledge and is unsuitable for in-line application; the areal method used in this paper requires global phase distribution information thereby allowing for real-time application. A range of threshold values were applied to tomograms of phantoms of varying geometry and the corresponding image error for each threshold value calculated using both the areal and pixel-by-pixel approaches given above. The threshold value yielding lowest image error from this range is further used in the binary images giving improved tomograms with approximately 40% increase in image accuracy when compared with a default threshold value. Close to the sensor wall, the image becomes distorted due to reconstruction errors arising from decreased density in the electrical field lines, resulting in a circular phantom appearing elongated by approximately 10% when positioned near the wall.

  7. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph A. (Inventor); Eppich, Henry M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  8. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph (Inventor); Eppich, Henry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  9. Intermittency of magnetic field turbulence: Astrophysical applications of in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev M.; Bykov, Andrei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Artemyev, Anton V.

    2015-08-01

    We briefly review some aspects of magnetic turbulence intermittency observed in space plasmas. Deviation of statistical characteristics of a system (e.g. its high statistical momenta) from the Gaussian can manifest itself as domination of rare large intensity peaks often associated with the intermittency in the system's dynamics. Thirty years ago, Zeldovich stressed the importance of the non-Gaussian appearance of the sharp values of vector and scalar physical parameters in random media as a factor of magnetic field amplification in cosmic structures. Magnetic turbulence is governing the behavior of collisionless plasmas in space and especially the physics of shocks and magnetic reconnections. Clear evidence of intermittent magnetic turbulence was found in recent in-situ spacecraft measurements of magnetic fields in the near-Earth and interplanetary plasma environments. We discuss the potentially promising approaches of incorporating the knowledge gained from spacecraft in-situ measurements into modern models describing plasma dynamics and radiation in various astrophysical systems. As an example, we discuss supernova remnants (SNRs) which are known to be the sources of energy, momentum, chemical elements, and high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in galaxies. Supernova shocks accelerate charged particles to very high energies and may strongly amplify turbulent magnetic fields via instabilities driven by CRs. Relativistic electrons accelerated in SNRs radiate polarized synchrotron emission in a broad range of frequencies spanning from the radio to gamma-rays. We discuss the effects of intermittency of magnetic turbulence on the images of polarized synchrotron X-ray emission of young SNRs and emission spectra of pulsar wind nebula.

  10. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985.

  11. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundesmann, C.; Tartz, M.; Scholze, F.; Leiter, H. J.; Scortecci, F.; Gnizdor, R. Y.; Neumann, H.

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.

  12. Genome-Based Models to Optimize In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium and Harvesting Electrical Energy from Waste Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-28

    The goal of this research was to provide computational tools to predictively model the behavior of two microbial communities of direct relevance to Department of Energy interests: 1) the microbial community responsible for in situ bioremediation of uranium in contaminated subsurface environments; and 2) the microbial community capable of harvesting electricity from waste organic matter and renewable biomass. During this project the concept of microbial electrosynthesis, a novel form of artificial photosynthesis for the direct production of fuels and other organic commodities from carbon dioxide and water was also developed and research was expanded into this area as well.

  13. An ionic liquid lubricant enables superlubricity to be "switched on" in situ using an electrical potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Wood, Ross J; Rutland, Mark W; Atkin, Rob

    2014-04-28

    Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal that superlubricity can be "switched" on and off in situ when an ionic liquid is used to lubricate the silica-graphite interface. Applying a potential to the graphite surface changes the ion composition of the boundary layer and thus the lubricity. At positive potentials, when the interfacial ion layer is anion rich, friction falls to ultra-low levels.

  14. Evaluation of a portable FTIR for in-situ field measurements of surface reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Rob K.; Kaiser, Robert D.; Schutte, August O.

    2004-08-01

    Development of target detection algorithms and simulation models for present and future multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems requires accurate characterization of the reflectance and thermal emission of natural and man-made materials. Fourier transform spectrometry is one method for obtaining relatively high spectral resolution, in-situ measurements of surface reflectance. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of the SOC-400T FTIR and its application to field measurements. The SOC-400T is a relatively small and portable FTIR reflectometer that was designed to measure the directional reflectance and calculate the directional thermal emittance of surfaces in the spectral range from 2 to 25 ημm. The SOC-400T uses a silicone carbide glowbar to illuminate samples. This permits accurate results to be obtained in the MWIR. We recently deployed this instrument to the field to perform measurements on various materials of interest to the military. Prior to the deployment, the instrument was evaluated to assess its performance under true field operating conditions. This paper specifically examines noise characteristics, warmup time, transients induced by reorientation of the sensor, spurious detector artifacts, and sensitivity to vibration. We also address the practical issue associated with positioning, stabilizing, and calibrating the instrument for field measurements of irregular or arbitrarily oriented surfaces.

  15. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Onuki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, nonpolar, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In zero gravity, the interface is unstable at all long wavelengths in the presence of a field applied across it. It is conjectured that this will cause the binary fluid to break up into domains small enough to be outside the instability condition. The resulting pattern formation, and the effects on the critical properties as the domains approach the correlation length are of acute interest. With direct observation, laser light scattering, and interferometry, the phenomena can be probed to gain further understanding of interfacial instabilities and the pattern formation which results, and dimensional crossover in critical systems as the critical fluctuations in a particular direction are suppressed by external forces.

  16. Modeling in situ soil enzyme activity using continuous field soil moisture and temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinweg, J. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Moisture and temperature are key drivers of soil organic matter decomposition, but there is little consensus on how climate change will affect the degradation of specific soil compounds under field conditions. Soil enzyme activities are a useful metric of soil community microbial function because they are they are the direct agents of decomposition for specific substrates in soil. However, current standard enzyme assays are conducted under optimized conditions in the laboratory and do not accurately reflect in situ enzyme activity, where diffusion and substrate availability may limit reaction rates. The Arrhenius equation, k= A*e(-Ea/RT), can be used to predict enzyme activity (k), collision frequency (A) or activation energy (Ea), but is difficult to parameterize when activities are measured under artificial conditions without diffusion or substrate limitation. We developed a modifed equation to estimate collision frequency and activation energy based on soil moisture to model in-situ enzyme activites. Our model was parameterized using data we collected from the Boston Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Massachusetts; a multi-factor climate change experiment that provides an opportunity to assess how changes in moisture availability and temperature may impact enzyme activity. Soils were collected from three precipitation treatments and four temperature treatments arranged in a full-factorial design at the BACE site in June 2008, August 2008, January 2009 and June 2009. Enzyme assays were performed at four temperatures (4, 15, 25 and 35°C) to calculate temperature sensitivity and activation energy over the different treatments and seasons. Enzymes activities were measured for six common enzymes involved in carbon (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, xylosidase), phosphorus (phosphatase) and nitrogen cycling (N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine amino peptidase). Potential enzyme activity was not significantly affected by precipitation, warming or the interaction of

  17. Block Copolymer Nanocomposites in Electric Fields: Kinetics of Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Liedel, Clemens; Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Lewin, Christian; Pavan, Mariela J.; Urban, Volker S; Shenhar, Roy; Bosecke, Peter; Boker, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of block copolymer/nanoparticle composite alignment in an electric field using in situ transmission small-angle X-ray scattering. As a model system, we employ a lamellae forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) block copolymer with different contents of gold nanoparticles in thick films under solvent vapor annealing. While the alignment improves with increasing nanoparticle fraction, the kinetics slows down. This is explained by changes in the degree of phase separation and viscosity. Our findings provide extended insights into the basics of nanocomposite alignment.

  18. Quantitative assessment of historical coastal landfill contamination using in-situ field portable XRF (FPXRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Francis; Spencer, Kate; Brasington, James

    2014-05-01

    Historically, waste was deposited on low value, easily accessible coastal land (e.g. marsh land). Within England and Wales alone, there are over 5000 historical landfills situated within coastal areas at risk of flooding at a 1 in 100 year return period (Environment Agency, 2012). Historical sites were constructed prior to relevant legislation, and have no basal or side wall engineering, and the waste constituents are mostly unknown. In theory, contaminant concentrations should be reduced through natural attenuation as the leachate plume migrates through surrounding fine-grained inter-tidal sediments before reaching receptor waters. However, erosion resulting from rising sea level and increased storm intensity may re-distribute these sediments and release associated contaminants into the estuarine and coastal environment. The diffuse discharge from these sites has not been quantified and this presents a problem for those landfill managers who are required to complete EIAs. An earlier detailed field campaign at Newlands landfill site, on the Thames Estuary, UK identified a sub-surface (~2m depth) contaminant plume extending c. 20 m from the landfill boundary into surrounding fine-grained saltmarsh sediments. These saltmarsh sediments are risk of being eroded releasing their contaminant load to the Thames Estuary. The aims of this work were to; 1) assess whether this plume is representative of other historical landfills with similar characteristics and 2) to develop a rapid screening methodology using field portable XRF that could be used to identify potential risk of other coastal landfill sites. GIS was used to select landfill sites of similar age, hydrological regime and sedimentary setting in the UK, for comparison. Collection of sediment samples and analysis by ICP OES is expensive and time-consuming, therefore cores were extracted and analysed with a Niton Goldd XRF in-situ. Contaminant data were available immediately and the sampling strategy could be adapted

  19. Variational electric fields at low latitudes and their relation to spread-F and plasma irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtet, J. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In situ measurements of variational electric fields at low latitudes, taken by OGO 6 satellite instruments, are analyzed. The observations are compared with other data on F region and spread-F structures. Conformity of the electric field fluctuations with the overall picture of low-latitude irregularities is examined empirically and theoretically, and candidate processes for generation of the observed irregularities are considered. Three distinct types of irregularities are delineated and compared.

  20. The terrestrial magnetosphere: a half-wave rectifier of the interplanetary electric field.

    PubMed

    Burton, R K; McPherron, R L; Russell, C T

    1975-08-29

    A study of geomagnetic disturbances during 1967 and 1968, for which in situ solar wind observations are available, reveals that the magnetosphere acts as a half-wave rectifier of the interplanetary electric field. The rate of injection of energy into the magnetosphere, as inferred from the strength of the disturbance, is approximately linearly proportional to the component of the electric field from dawn to dusk but is effectively zero if the electricfield has a component from dusk to dawn.

  1. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  2. Paddy field mapping and yield estimation by satellite imagery and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Sobue, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumptions, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asia. In order to ensure food security and take mitigation strategies or policies to manage food shortages, timely and accurate statistics of rice production are essential. It is time and cost consuming work to create accurate statistics of rice production by ground-based measurements. Hence, satellite remote sensing is expected to contribute food security through the systematic collection of food security related information such as crop growth or yield estimation. In 2011, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is collaborating with GISTDA (Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency, Thailand) in research projects of rice yield estimation by integrating satellite imagery and in situ data. Thailand is one of the largest rice production countries and the largest rice exporting country, therefore rice related statistics are imperative for food security and economy in the country. However, satellite observation by optical sensor in tropics including Thailand is highly limited, because the area is frequently covered by cloud. In contrast, Japanese microwave sensor, namely Phased-Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on board Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) is suitable for monitoring cloudy area such as Southeast Asia, because PALSAR can penetrate clouds and collect land-surface information even if the area is covered by cloud. In this study, rice crop yield over Khon Kaen, northeast part of Thailand was estimated by combining satellite imagery and in-situ observation. This study consists of mainly two parts, paddy field mapping and yield estimation by numerical crop model. First, paddy field areas were detected by integrating PALSAR and AVNIR-2 data. PALSAR imagery has much speckle noise and the border of each landcover is ambiguous compared to that of optical sensor. To overcome this

  3. Electric Mars: The first survey of Martian parallel electric fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Glocer, A.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Andersson, L.; Espley, J. R.; Mazelle, C. X.; Savaud, J. A.; Fedorov, A.; Ma, Y.; Bougher, S. W.; Lillis, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of the first survey of parallel electric fields at Mars, using electron measurements from the MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA), and the Magnetometer (MAG). We discuss three fields: (1) The first upper limit on the strength of the "Polar Wind" ambipolar electric field; (2) The "trans-terminator" field, a newly discovered electric force accelerating ions on closed field lines from day to nightside, and (3) possible signatures of very high strength electrostatic mirroring during the passage of a Coronal Mass Ejection.

  4. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  5. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M; Vaz, C A F; Raabe, J; Nolting, F

    2015-08-01

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg(0.66)Nb(0.33))O3-PbTiO3 and La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  6. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzi, M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Raabe, J.; Nolting, F.

    2015-08-15

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg{sub 0.66}Nb{sub 0.33})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  7. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzi, M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Raabe, J.; Nolting, F.

    2015-08-01

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg0.66Nb0.33)O3-PbTiO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  8. In situ determination of trace elements in Fucus spp. by field-portable-XRF.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Poon, Hiu; Taylor, Alex; Brown, Murray T

    2017-03-23

    Fresh and freeze-dried sample sections of the coastal macroalgae, Fucus serratus and F. vesiculosus, and the brackish water macroalga, F. ceranoides, have been analysed for trace elements by field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry using a Niton XL3t in a low density mode with thickness correction. When analysed fresh in a laboratory accessory stand for a period of 200 seconds, As, Br, Fe and Zn were registered in the apex, mid-frond and lower stipe of all species, with detection limits of a few μg g(-1) (As) or a few tens of μg g(-1) (Br, Fe, Zn); when analysed dry under the same conditions, concentrations returned were systematically higher and Cu and Pb were detected in a number of F. ceranoides sections. Concentrations arising from both approaches on a dry weight basis were highly correlated, with deviations from unit slope attributed to the absorption of fluorescent X-rays by internal and surficial water when analysed fresh. With algorithms correcting for the effects of water on mass and X-ray absorption, sections of F. vesiculosus and F. ceranoides were analysed in situ with the XRF connected to a mobile stand and laptop. Dry weight concentrations returned for As and Zn were significantly correlated with respective concentrations subsequently determined by ICP-MS following acid digestion and with a slope close to unity; lower concentrations of Fe returned by ICP were attributed to the incomplete acid digestion of silt particles that evaded an initial cleaning step, while Br concentrations could not be verified independently because of loss of volatile forms during digestion. The in situ determination of trace elements in fucoids by FP-XRF provides a rapid and non-destructive means of monitoring environmental quality and identifying hot-spots of contamination, and enables a research strategy to be developed iteratively that is informed by immediate results.

  9. Toward Biocompatible Nuclear Hyperpolarization Using Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange: Quantitative in Situ Spectroscopy and High-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) of a substrate and parahydrogen at a catalytic center promises to overcome the inherent insensitivity of magnetic resonance. In order to apply the new approach to biomedical applications, there is a need to develop experimental equipment, in situ quantification methods, and a biocompatible solvent. We present results detailing a low-field SABRE polarizer which provides well-controlled experimental conditions, defined spins manipulations, and which allows in situ detection of thermally polarized and hyperpolarized samples. We introduce a method for absolute quantification of hyperpolarization yield in situ by means of a thermally polarized reference. A maximum signal-to-noise ratio of ∼103 for 148 μmol of substance, a signal enhancement of 106 with respect to polarization transfer field of SABRE, or an absolute 1H-polarization level of ≈10–2 is achieved. In an important step toward biomedical application, we demonstrate 1H in situ NMR as well as 1H and 13C high-field MRI using hyperpolarized pyridine (d3) and 13C nicotinamide in pure and 11% ethanol in aqueous solution. Further increase of hyperpolarization yield, implications of in situ detection, and in vivo application are discussed. PMID:24397559

  10. Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.

  11. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO{sub 3} surface.

  12. High-resolution non-contact measurement of the electrical activity of plants in situ using optical recording

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Chen, Yang; Wang, Zi-Yang; Xue, Lin; Mao, Tong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of conventional extracellular recording and intracellular recording make high-resolution multisite recording of plant bioelectrical activity in situ challenging. By combining a cooled charge-coupled device camera with a voltage-sensitive dye, we recorded the action potentials in the stem of Helianthus annuus and variation potentials at multiple sites simultaneously with high spatial resolution. The method of signal processing using coherence analysis was used to determine the synchronization of the selected signals. Our results provide direct visualization of the phloem, which is the distribution region of the electrical activities in the stem and leaf of H. annuus, and verify that the phloem is the main action potential transmission route in the stems of higher plants. Finally, the method of optical recording offers a unique opportunity to map the dynamic bioelectrical activity and provides an insight into the mechanisms of long-distance electrical signal transmission in higher plants. PMID:26333536

  13. Field applicability of Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) for characterization and quantification of in situ contaminant degradation in aquifers.

    PubMed

    Braeckevelt, M; Fischer, A; Kästner, M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial processes govern the fate of organic contaminants in aquifers to a major extent. Therefore, the evaluation of in situ biodegradation is essential for the implementation of Natural Attenuation (NA) concepts in groundwater management. Laboratory degradation experiments and biogeochemical approaches are often biased and provide only indirect evidence of in situ degradation potential. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) is at present among the most promising tools for assessment of the in situ contaminant degradation within aquifers. One- and two-dimensional (2D) CSIA provides qualitative and quantitative information on in situ contaminant transformation; it is applicable for proving in situ degradation and characterizing degradation conditions and reaction mechanisms. However, field application of CSIA is challenging due to a number of influencing factors, namely those affecting the observed isotope fractionation during biodegradation (e.g., non-isotope-fractionating rate-limiting steps, limited bioavailability), potential isotope effects caused by processes other than biodegradation (e.g., sorption, volatilization, diffusion), as well as non-isotope-fractionating physical processes such as dispersion and dilution. This mini-review aims at guiding practical users towards the sound interpretation of CSIA field data for the characterization of in situ contaminant degradation. It focuses on the relevance of various constraints and influencing factors in CSIA field applications and provides advice on when and how to account for these constraints. We first evaluate factors that can influence isotope fractionation during biodegradation, as well as potential isotope-fractionating and non-isotope-fractionating physical processes governing observed isotope fractionation in the field. Finally, the potentials of the CSIA approach for site characterization and the proper ways to account for various constraints are illustrated by means of a comprehensive CSIA field

  14. Compact Electric- And Magnetic-Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Compact sensor measures both electric and magnetic fields. Includes both short electric-field dipole and search-coil magnetometer. Three mounted orthogonally providing triaxial measurements of electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from near 0 to about 10 kHz.

  15. Domain wall motion and electromechanical strain in lead-free piezoelectrics: Insight from the model system (1 − x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during application of electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tutuncu, Goknur; Li, Binzhi; Bowman, Keith; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-04-14

    The piezoelectric compositions (1 − x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} (BZT-xBCT) span a model lead-free morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between room temperature rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at approximately x = 0.5. In the present work, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during electric field application are used to elucidate the origin of electromechanical strain in several compositions spanning the tetragonal compositional range 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. As BCT concentration decreases towards the MPB, the tetragonal distortion (given by c/a-1) decreases concomitantly with an increase in 90° domain wall motion. The increase in observed macroscopic strain is predominantly attributed to the increased contribution from 90° domain wall motion. The results demonstrate that domain wall motion is a significant factor in achieving high strain and piezoelectric coefficients in lead-free polycrystalline piezoelectrics.

  16. Domain wall motion and electromechanical strain in lead-free piezoelectrics: Insight from the model system (1 - x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during application of electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tutuncu, Goknur; Li, Binzhi; Bowman, Keith; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-07-17

    The piezoelectric compositions (1 - x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3–x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) span a model lead-free morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between room temperature rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at approximately x = 0.5. In the present work, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during electric field application are used to elucidate the origin of electromechanical strain in several compositions spanning the tetragonal compositional range 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. As BCT concentration decreases towards the MPB, the tetragonal distortion (given by c/a-1) decreases concomitantly with an increase in 90° domain wall motion. The increase in observed macroscopic strain is predominantly attributed to the increased contribution from 90° domain wall motion. The results demonstrate that domain wall motion is a significant factor in achieving high strain and piezoelectric coefficients in lead-free polycrystalline piezoelectrics.

  17. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R.; Crommie, Michael F.; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.

  18. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R.; Crommie, Michael F.; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena. PMID:27982125

  19. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization into lunar/Mars exploration through field analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the

  20. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For ex-ample, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for as-cent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review

  1. The electron signature of parallel electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, J. L.; Gurgiolo, C.; Menietti, J. D.

    1990-12-01

    Dynamics Explorer I High-Altitude Plasma Instrument electron data are presented. The electron distribution functions have characteristics expected of a region of parallel electric fields. The data are consistent with previous test-particle simulations for observations within parallel electric field regions which indicate that typical hole, bump, and loss-cone electron distributions, which contain evidence for parallel potential differences both above and below the point of observation, are not expected to occur in regions containing actual parallel electric fields.

  2. Anisotropic polyurethane magnetorheological elastomer prepared through in situ polycondensation under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinkui; Gong, Xinglong; Fan, Yanceng; Xia, Hesheng

    2010-10-01

    Highly filled polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG)-based polyurethane (PU) magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with anisotropic structure and good mechanical properties were prepared. The difficulty in dispersion and orientation of iron particles in the PU elastomer was overcome by ball milling mixing and further in situ one-step polycondensation under a magnetic field. The microstructure and properties of the composite were characterized in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that a chain-like structure of carbonyl iron was formed in the PU matrix after orientation under a magnetic field of 1.2 T. The aligned chain-like structure of carbonyl iron in PU greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity, the compression properties and the magnetorheological (MR) effect of anisotropic PU MREs compared to that of the isotropic one. When the test frequency is 1 Hz, the maximum absolute and relative MR effect of anisotropic PU MREs with 26 wt% hard segment and 70 wt% carbonyl iron were ~ 1.3 MPa and ~ 21%, respectively.

  3. In Situ Determination of Manganese(II) Speciation in Deinococcus radiodurans by High Magnetic Field EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tabares, Leandro C.; Un, Sun

    2013-01-01

    High magnetic field high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance techniques were used to measure in situ Mn(II) speciation in Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacteria capable of accumulating high concentrations of Mn(II). It was possible to identify and quantify the evolution of Mn(II) species in intact cells at various stages of growth. Aside from water, 95-GHz high field electron nuclear double resonance showed that the Mn(II) ions are bound to histidines and phosphate groups, mostly from fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but also inorganic phosphates and nucleotides. During stationary growth phase, 285-GHz continuous wave EPR measurements showed that histidine is the most common ligand to Mn(II) and that significant amounts of cellular Mn(II) in D. radiodurans are bound to peptides and proteins. As much as 40% of the total Mn(II) was in manganese superoxide dismutase, and it is this protein and not smaller manganese complexes, as has been suggested recently, that is probably the primary defense against superoxide. PMID:23303180

  4. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  5. In situ SEM observation of microscale strain fields around a crack tip in polycrystalline molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Li, W. C.; Jin, Y. J.; Wang, L. F.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.; Lang, F. C.; Yan, L.; Yang, S. T.

    2016-06-01

    In situ scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the crack initiation and propagation in polycrystalline molybdenum under uniaxial tensile load at room temperature. The microscale grid pattern was fabricated using the sputtering deposition technology on the specimen surface covered with a fine square mesh copper grid. The microscale strain fields around the crack tip were measured by geometric phase analysis technique and compared with the theoretical solutions based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. The results showed that as the displacement increases, the crack propagated mainly perpendicular to the tensile direction during the fracture process of molybdenum. The normal strain ɛ xx and shear strain ɛ xy are relatively small, and the normal strain ɛ yy holds a dominant position in the deformation fields and plays a key role in the whole fracture process of molybdenum. With the increase in displacement, the ɛ yy increases rapidly and the two lobes grow significantly but maintain the same shape and orientation. The experimental ɛ yy is in agreement with the theoretical solution. Along the x-axis in front of the crack tip, there is minor discrepancy between the experimental ɛ yy and theoretical ɛ yy within 25 μm from the crack tip, but the agreement between them is very good far from the crack tip (>25 μm).

  6. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA project to develop In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technologies, in partnership with commercial and international collaborators, has achieved full system demonstrations of oxygen production using native regolith simulants. These demonstrations included robotic extraction of material from the terrain, sealed encapsulation of material in a pressurized reactor; chemical extraction of oxygen from the material in the form of water, and the electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen for storage and reuse. These successes have provided growing confidence in the prospects of ISRU oxygen production as a credible source for critical mission consumables in preparation for and during crewed missions to the moon and other destinations. Other ISRU processes, especially relevant to early lunar exploration scenarios, have also been shown to be practical, including the extraction of subsurface volatiles, especially water, and the thermal processing of surface materials for civil engineering uses and for thermal energy storage. This paper describes these recent achievements and current NASA ISRU development and demonstration activity. The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables; and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example. the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent

  7. Electrically small, complementary electric-field-coupled resonator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, H.; Teixeira, F. L.; Guney, D. O.

    2013-02-01

    We study the radiation properties of electrically small resonant antennas (ka <1) composed of electric-field-coupled (ELC) and complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) resonators and a monopole antenna. We use such parasitic ELC and CELC "metaresonators" to design various electrically small antennas. In particular, monopole-excited and bent-monopole-excited CELC resonator antennas are proposed that provide very low profiles on the order of λ0/20. We compare the performance of the proposed ELC and CELC antennas against more conventional designs based upon split-ring resonators.

  8. Examining Volcanic Terrains Using In Situ Geochemical Technologies; Implications for Planetary Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Rogers, A. D.; Ito, G.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the target destination for the next manned planetary mission, the crew will require technology with which to select samples for return to Earth. The six Apollo lunar surface missions crews had only the tools to enable them to physically pick samples up off the surface or from a boulder and store those samples for return to the Lunar Module and eventually to Earth. Sample characterization was dependent upon visual inspection and relied upon their extensive geology training. In the four decades since Apollo however, great advances have been made in traditionally laboratory-based instrument technologies that enable miniaturization to a field-portable configuration. The implications of these advancements extend past traditional terrestrial field geology and into planetary surface exploration. With tools that will allow for real-time geochemical analysis, an astronaut can better develop a series of working hypotheses that are testable during surface science operations. One such technology is x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Traditionally used in a laboratory configuration, these instruments have now been developed and marketed commercially in a field-portable mode. We examine this technology in the context of geologic sample analysis and discuss current and future plans for instrument deployment. We also discuss the development of the Chromatic Mineral Identification and Surface Texture (CMIST) instrument at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Testing is taking place in conjunction with the RIS4E (Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration) SSERVI (Solar System Exploration and Research Virtual Institute) team activities, including field testing at Kilauea Volcano, HI..

  9. Electric fields in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    1975-01-01

    F-region drift velocities, measured by incoherent-scatter radar were analyzed in terms of diurnal, seasonal, magnetic activity, and solar cycle effects. A comprehensive electric field model was developed that includes the effects of the E and F-region dynamos, magnetospheric sources, and ionospheric conductivities, for both the local and conjugate regions. The E-region dynamo dominates during the day but at night the F-region and convection are more important. This model provides much better agreement with observations of the F-region drifts than previous models. Results indicate that larger magnitudes occur at night, and that daily variation is dominated by the diurnal mode. Seasonal variations in conductivities and thermospheric winds indicate a reversal in direction in the early morning during winter from south to northward. On magnetic perturbed days and the drifts deviate rather strongly from the quiet days average, especially around 13 L.T. for the northward and 18 L.T. for the westward component.

  10. Electric field soundings through thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve balloon soundings of the electric field in thunderstorms are reported. The maximum magnitude of E in the storms averaged 96 +/-28 kV/m, with the largest being 146 kV/m. The maximum was usually observed between vertically adjacent regions of opposite charge. Using a 1D approximation to Gauss' law, four to ten charge regions in the storms are inferred. The magnitude of the density in the charge regions varied between 0.2 and 13 nC/cu m. The vertical extent of the charge regions ranged from 130 to 2100 m. None of the present 12 storms had charge distributions that fit the long-accepted model of Simpson et al. (1937, 1941) of a lower positive charge, a main negative charge, and an upper positive charge. In addition to regions similar to the Simpson model, the present storms had screening layers at the upper and lower cloud boundaries and extra charge regions, usually in the lower part of the cloud.

  11. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.

  12. Modeling the electric field of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Babineau, David; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2006-09-01

    Weakly electric fish characterize the environment in which they live by sensing distortions in their self-generated electric field. These distortions result in electric images forming across their skin. In order to better understand electric field generation and image formation in one particular species of electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we have developed three different numerical models of a two-dimensional cross-section of the fish's body and its surroundings. One of these models mimics the real contour of the fish; two other geometrically simple models allow for an independent study of the effects of the fish's body geometry and conductivity on electric field and image formation. Using these models, we show that the fish's tapered body shape is mainly responsible for the smooth, uniform field in the rostral region, where most electroreceptors are located. The fish's narrowing body geometry is also responsible for the relatively large electric potential in the caudal region. Numerical tests also confirm the previous hypothesis that the electric fish body acts approximately like an ideal voltage divider; this is true especially for the tail region. Next, we calculate electric images produced by simple objects and find they vary according to the current density profile assigned to the fish's electric organ. This explains some of the qualitative differences previously reported for different modeling approaches. The variation of the electric image's shape as a function of different object locations is explained in terms of the fish's geometrical and electrical parameters. Lastly, we discuss novel cues for determining an object's rostro-caudal location and lateral distance using these electric images.

  13. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in-situ tunability

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Alexander; Silevitch, Daniel; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Yishu; Jaramillo, R.; Banerjee, Arnab; Ren, Yang; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    2015-09-04

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with that of the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we then characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide range of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as that from insulator to metal.

  14. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in-situ tunability

    DOE PAGES

    Palmer, Alexander; Silevitch, Daniel; Feng, Yejun; ...

    2015-09-04

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with that of the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we then characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide rangemore » of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as that from insulator to metal.« less

  15. In situ manipulation and electrical characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by using nanomanipulators under scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussolotti, F.; D'Ortenzi, L.; Grossi, V.; Lozzi, L.; Santucci, S.; Passacantando, M.

    2007-09-01

    The results of in situ manipulation and electrical transport characterization of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown on a nickel tip by using a piezoelectric nanomanipulation system operating in a scanning electron microscope chamber have been reported. The growth of MWCNT directly on nickel wire by chemical vapor deposition technique ensures good electrical contact with the catalyst substrate. Using the electron beam induced welding, a full characterization of electronic properties of several MWCNTs has been explored without the usual postprocessing methods which may alter, in principle, the intrinsic properties of the carbon nanotube (CNT). Thanks to the high mechanical and electrical stability ensured by the electron beam welding procedure, a detailed study of the modification of CNT electrical transport properties under CNT buckling has been performed. The crucial role played by the structural defects in determining an irreversibility of a long MWCNT I-V characteristic under mechanical stress has been clearly evidenced. Finally, by a proper sequence of CNT/tip welding and movement, the potential in creating an Ohmic junction between two nanotubes has been demonstrated, opening the route to a systematic investigation of one of the most fundamental aspect of CNT physics.

  16. Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Evaluate Permanganate Performance During an In Situ Treatment of a RDX-Contaminated Aquifer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    measures the resulting potential field. ERT ( Electrical Resistance Tomography ) is a method of obtaining resistivity measurements using subsurface...Binley, and D. LaBrecque, 2004. Electrical resistance tomography . Leading Edge 23(5):438-442. Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange...Process Using Electrical Resistance Tomography . Water Resources Research. 29:73-87. 98 Reynolds, J.M., 1997. An Introduction To Applied And

  17. In situ electrical characterization of palladium-based single electron transistors made by electromigration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Arzubiaga, L.; Llopis, R.; Golmar, F.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2014-11-15

    We report the fabrication of single electron transistors (SETs) by feedback-controlled electromigration of palladium and palladium-nickel alloy nanowires. We have optimized a gradual electromigration process for obtaining devices consisting of three terminals (source, drain and gate electrodes), which are capacitively coupled to a metallic cluster of nanometric dimensions. This metal nanocluster forms into the inter-electrode channel during the electromigration process and constitutes the active element of each device, acting as a quantum dot that rules the electron flow between source and drain electrodes. The charge transport of the as-fabricated devices shows Coulomb blockade characteristics and the source to drain conductance can be modulated by electrostatic gating. We have thus achieved the fabrication and in situ measurement of palladium-based SETs inside a liquid helium cryostat chamber.

  18. Mid-infrared fiber-optic evanescent field spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of tetrahydrofuran hydrate formation and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Katzir, A; Mizaikoff, B

    2017-02-27

    Tetrahydrofuran is a relevant auxiliary molecule when storing carbon dioxide or hydrocarbons as gas hydrates. The present study demonstrates the application of in situ mid-infrared fiber-optic evanescent field absorption spectroscopy for studying the formation and dissociation of THF hydrates. Thereby, the utility of this analytical technique for providing unique molecular-level insight even under harsh environmental conditions is evidenced.

  19. CHAMPION INTERNATIONAL SUPERFUND SITE, LIBBY MONTANA FIELD PERFORMANCE EVALUATION BIOREMEDIATION UNIT: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF THE UPPER AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field performance evaluation of the in-situ bioremediation system at Libby, Montana Superfund Site indicated that treatment appears to have occurred in the water phase under the influence of the treatment injection system. Reduced inorganic compounds may have exerted a deman...

  20. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  1. Field test for treatment verification of an in-situ enhanced bioremediation study

    SciTech Connect

    Taur, C.K.; Chang, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Due to a leakage from a 12-inch pressurized diesel steel pipe four years ago, an area of approximately 30,000 square meters was contaminated. A pilot study applying the technology of in-situ enhanced bioremediation was conducted. In the study, a field test kit and on-site monitoring equipment were applied for site characterization and treatment verification. Physically, the enhanced bioremediation study consisted of an air extraction and air supply system, and a nutrition supply network. Certain consistent sampling methodology was employed. Progress was verified by daily monitoring and monthly verification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade the petroleum hydrocarbons with provision of oxygen and nutrients. Nine extraction wells and eight air sparging wells were installed. The air sparging wells injected the air into geoformation and the extraction wells provided the underground air circulation. The soil samples were obtained monthly for treatment verification by a Minuteman drilling machine with 2.5-foot-long hollow-stem augers. The samples were analyzed on site for TPH-diesel concentration by a field test kit manufactured by HNU-Hanby, Houston, Texas. The analytical results from the field test kit were compared with the results from an environmental laboratory. The TVPH concentrations of the air extracted from the vadose zone by a vacuum blower and the extraction wells were routinely monitored by a Foxboro FID and Cosmos XP-311A combustible air detector. The daily monitoring of TVPH concentrations provided the reliable data for assessing the remedial progress.

  2. Estimating Electric Fields from Vector Magnetogram Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, George H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new technique for estimating the three-dimensional vector electric field in the solar atmosphere by using a time-sequence of vector magnetograms to find an electric field distribution that obeys all 3 components of Faraday's law. The technique uses a ``poloidal-toroidal'' decomposition (PTD) to describe the electric field in terms of two scalar functions. The ``inductive'' PTD solutions to Faraday's Law are not unique, however, since additional contributions to the electric field from a potential function have no effect on Faraday's law. We then describe how estimates for the total electric field including both the inductive and potential components can be made by using variational techniques. The variational approach we develop is similar to Longcope's ``Minimum Energy Fit'' technique, in that the electric field obeys the vertical component of the magnetic induction equation, while also minimizing a positive definite functional. The purely potential part of the electric field can then be recovered by subtracting the PTD electric field from the total field.

  3. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  4. In situ bioventing at a natural gas dehydrator site: Field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, A.W.; Miller, D.L.; Miller, J.A.; Weightman, R.L.; Raetz, R.M.; Hayes, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a bioventing/biosparging field demonstration that was conducted over a 10-month period at a former glycol dehydrator site located near Traverse City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to determine the feasibility of this technology for dehydrator site remediation and to develop engineering design concepts for applying bioventing/biosparging at similar sites. The chemicals of interest are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and alkanes. Soil sampling indicated that the capillary fringe and saturated zones were heavily contaminated, but that the unsaturated zone was relatively free of the contaminants. A pump-and-treat system has operated since 1991 to treat the groundwater BTEX plume. Bioventing/biosparging was installed in September 1993 to treat the contaminant source area. Three different air sparging operating modes were tested to determine an optimal process configuration for site remediation. These operational modes were compared through in situ respirometry studies. Respirometry measurements were used to estimate biodegradation rates. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored in the groundwater.

  5. Field Deployment for In-situ Metal and Radionuclide Stabilization by Microbial Metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C. E.; Knox, A. S.; Dixon, K. L.; Roseberry, R. J.; Kritzas, Y. G

    2005-09-26

    A novel biotechnology is reported here that was demonstrated at SRS that facilitates metal and actinide immobilization by incorporating the physiology and ecology of indigenous bacteria. This technology is based on our previous work with pyomelanin-producing bacteria isolated from SRS soils. Through tyrosine supplementation, overproduction of pyomelanin was achieved, which lead ultimately to metal and actinide immobilization, both in-vitro and in-situ. Pyomelanin is a recalcitrant microbial pigment and a humic type compound in the class of melanin pigments. Pyomelanin has electron shuttling and metal chelation capabilities and thus accelerates the bacterial reduction and/or immobilization of metals. Pyomelanin is produced outside the cell and either diffuses away or attaches to the cell surface. In either case, the reduced pyomelanin is capable of transferring electrons to metals as well as chelating metals. Because of its recalcitrance and redox cycling properties, pyomelanin molecules can be used over and over again for metal transformation. When produced in excess, pyomelanin produced by one bacterial species can be used by other species for metal reduction, thereby extending the utility of pyomelanin and further accelerating metal immobilization rates. Soils contaminated with Ni and U were the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, metal bioimmobilization technologies. We have demonstrated pyomelanin production in soil from the Tims Branch area of SRS as a result of tyrosine amendments. These results were documented in laboratory soil column studies and field deployment studies. The amended soils demonstrated increased redox behavior and sequestration capacity of U and transition metals following pyomelanin production. Treatments incorporating tyrosine and lactate demonstrated the highest levels of pyomelanin production. In order to determine the potential use of this technology at other areas of SRS, pyomelanin producing bacteria were also quantified

  6. In situ NMR and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance techniques reveal the structure of the electrical double layer in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Tsai, Wan-Yu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Grey, Clare P

    2015-08-01

    Supercapacitors store charge through the electrosorption of ions on microporous electrodes. Despite major efforts to understand this phenomenon, a molecular-level picture of the electrical double layer in working devices is still lacking as few techniques can selectively observe the ionic species at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Here, we use in situ NMR to directly quantify the populations of anionic and cationic species within a working microporous carbon supercapacitor electrode. Our results show that charge storage mechanisms are different for positively and negatively polarized electrodes for the electrolyte tetraethylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile; for positive polarization charging proceeds by exchange of the cations for anions, whereas for negative polarization, cation adsorption dominates. In situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the NMR results and indicate that adsorbed ions are only partially solvated. These results provide new molecular-level insight, with the methodology offering exciting possibilities for the study of pore/ion size, desolvation and other effects on charge storage in supercapacitors.

  7. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Shikama, T.

    1997-08-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of <10{sup -6} S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500{degrees}C up to a maximum dose of {approximately}3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to {approximately}2 x 10{sup -4} S/m after {approximately}0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to <1 x 10{sup -6} S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect.

  8. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  9. Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-05

    and lithium niobate is a promising technology for broadband electric field sensor arrays. The results of this research program advance the state-of...interfaces without the use of an intermediate layer. Direct bonding typically requires very flat surfaces, demanding process technology , and...REPORT Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We report the development of a broadband electric

  10. In Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report contains information about the use of in situ thermal treatment technologies to treat chlorinated solvents in source zones containing free-phase contamination or high concentrations of contaminants.

  11. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  12. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  13. Esimation of field-scale thermal conductivities of unsaturatedrocks from in-situ temperature data

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2006-06-26

    A general approach is presented here which allows estimationof field-scale thermal properties of unsaturated rock using temperaturedata collected from in situ heater tests. The approach developed here isused to determine the thermal conductivities of the unsaturated host rockof the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST wasdesigned to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC)data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticatednumerical models have been developed to analyze these THMC data. However,though the objective of those models was to analyze "field-scale" (of theorder of tens-of-meters) THMC data, thermal conductivities measured from"laboratory-scale" core samples have been used as input parameters.While, in the absence of a better alternative, using laboratory-scalethermal conductivity values in field-scale models can be justified, suchapplications introduce uncertainties in the outcome of the models. Thetemperature data collected from the DST provides a unique opportunity toresolve some of these uncertainties. These temperature data can be usedto estimate the thermal conductivity of the DST host rock and, given thelarge volume of rock affected by heating at the DST, such an estimatewill be a more reliable effective thermal conductivity value for fieldscale application. In this paper, thus, temperature data from the DST areused to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivityvalues of the unsaturated host rock of the DST. An analytical solution isdeveloped for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and usinga nonlinear fitting routine, a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermalconductivity for the DST host rock is obtained. Temperature data from theDST show evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling(wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). Estimates of thermal conductivityfor both the wet and dry zones are obtained in this paper. Sensitivity ofthese estimates

  14. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-09

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers.

  15. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers.

  16. In Situ Electrical Study on Primary Hydrogen Spillover from Nanocatalysts to Amorphous Carbon Support

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.; Yang, Z.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Primary hydrogen spillover has been studied using a unique electrical method. We observed that at ambient temperature, when a discontinuous nanogranular Pd film is on the top of an amorphous carbon film, the electrical conductance of the carbon film decreases in pressurized hydrogen. In comparison, in the absence of this Pd layer, the conductance of the carbon film remains unchanged in pressurized hydrogen. The observed decrease in the current in the Pd/carbon structure is ascribed to the hydrogenation of the dangling carbon bonds and sp{sup 2}-sp{sup 3} transition in the amorphous carbon by the primary spillover hydrogen atoms from Pd nanoclusters.

  17. Influence of electric field on the microstructures and magnetic softness of FeNi nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenjun; He, Jun; Ou, Xiulong; He, Shuli; Zhao, Dongliang; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-09-01

    The nanosized Fe50Ni50 particles were synthesized by a newly developed electric field-assisted deposition technology in a high energetic cluster deposition system. Their microstructures and lattice characteristics were observed by in situ TEM. The magnetic properties were characterized by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The purpose of the application of electric field during deposition is to accelerate the condensed nanoparticles to form the compact films with in-plane magnetic softness. The overlarge electric field can induce the appearance of lattice kinks and shoulder characteristics of loops. The in situ variable temperature TEM experiments with the measurement of magnetic properties indicated that excellent in-plane magnetic softness could be obtained by annealing. The thermomagnetization curves verified the ferromagnetic characteristics of the deposited films without any magnetic impurity phase.

  18. New four-band electrode fabrication to measure in situ electrical property of conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenbin; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Harima, Yutaka

    2009-03-15

    A simple and renewable four-band platinum electrode for in situ conductivity measurement of polymers is described. A model is developed to evaluate contact resistance between the electrode and polyaniline film and calibrate the film resistances obtained by two-probe and four-probe methods. The conductivity of the film is calculated from the calibrated resistance. By comparing the effects of band thickness, gap width, and film thickness, it is found that the ratio K of the middle gap width to the thickness of the internal two platinum bands is the most important parameter to characterize one four-band electrode. An ideal four-band electrode should have large K and wide middle gap as possible so long as the film can uniformly cover the electrode. Under this case, the influence of contact resistance on the four-probe measurement of film resistance is negligible. It is shown that contact resistance depends on the oxidation state of the film. It rises nonlinearly with increasing film resistance.

  19. In vivo and in situ measurement of electrical impedance for determination of distention in proximal stomach of rats.

    PubMed

    Garay, L; Ramos, E G; Cardiel, E; Muñoz, R; Hernández, P R

    2006-09-01

    We present a non-invasive, in vivo and in situ study of proximal stomach (PS) distention based on electrical impedance measurements that could be used together with distal stomach (DS) motility measurements as a response to different boluses. Stomach motility has been reported in the literature, as a response to different boluses, under in vivo conditions. However, previous studies on stomach motility have been mainly considered clinical parameters of the digestive process. The physiological complexity of the stomach requires the use of biological models when a detailed analysis of stomach function due to bolus ingestion is required. In this work, the determination of the PS distention in rats is presented. It is based on electrical resistive impedance measurements of the external stomach wall, related to different liquid bolus volumes. Trials were performed under in vivo and in situ conditions. A four-point technique with a vacuum-affixed linear electrode array was used for impedance measurements. A pouch was created in the stomach to retain the saline solution bolus in the PS for a longer time. Resulting impedance changes were directly related to the bolus volumes introduced into the PS and dependent on initial conditions and compensation mechanisms of the in vivo system. With the stomach pouch, a direct relationship between resistive impedance and bolus volume was obtained in all measurements. With no stomach pouch, 93% of the cases showed this relationship. Therefore, the obtained relationship will permit new non-invasive studies in the stomach about the effects of different types of bolus on the distention in the PS of rats.

  20. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  1. A New Method to Determine the Thermal Properties of Soil Formations from In Situ Field Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.

    2000-05-02

    local regulations; water is heated and pumped through the U-tube (using a field generator to power the equipment, or line voltage where available); and the inlet and outlet water temperatures are measured as a function of time. Data on inlet and outlet temperature, power input to the heater and pump, and water flow rate are collected at regular intervals--typically 1 to 15 min--for the duration of the experiment, which may be as long as 60 h. Two common methods for determining soil thermal properties from such measurements are the line source method and the cylinder source method. Both are based on long-term approximate solutions to the classical heat conduction problem of an infinitely long heat source in an infinite homogeneous medium. Although there are some differences in the way the two methods are implemented, the only difference between the two models is whether the heat source is considered to be a line or a cylinder. In both methods, power input to the water loop is assumed to be constant. The simplicity of these methods makes them attractive, but they also have some disadvantages. First of all, because the line source and cylinder source approximations are inaccurate for early time behavior, some of the initial data from the field test must be discarded. The amount of data discarded can affect the property measurement. Also, both methods assume that the heat transfer to the ground loop is constant. In practice, heat input to the loop may vary significantly over the course of a field test due to rough operation of the generator or short-term sags and swells in power line voltage. Presumably, this variation affects the accuracy of the thermal property measurement, but error analysis is rarely performed. This report presents a new method for determining thermal properties from short-term in situ tests using a parameter estimation technique. Because it is based on numerical solutions to the heat conduction equation, the new method is not affected by short

  2. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  3. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Uman, M. A.; Johnson, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to measure simultaneously the wideband horizontal and vertical electric fields from lightning return strokes is described. Typical wave shapes of the measured horizontal and vertical fields are presented, and the horizontal fields are characterized. The measured horizontal fields are compared with calculated horizontal fields obtained by applying the wavetilt formula to the vertical fields. The limitations and sources of error in the measurement technique are discussed.

  4. Electric Field Magnitude and Radar Reflectivity as a Function of Distance from Cloud Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jennifer G.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The results of analyses of data collected during a field investigation of thunderstorm anvil and debris clouds are reported. Statistics of the magnitude of the electric field are determined as a function of distance from cloud edge. Statistics of radar reflectivity near cloud edge are also determined. Both analyses use in-situ airborne field mill and cloud physics data coupled with ground-based radar measurements obtained in east-central Florida during the summer convective season. Electric fields outside of anvil and debris clouds averaged less than 3 kV/m. The average radar reflectivity at the cloud edge ranged between 0 and 5 dBZ.

  5. Electric-field-induced domain intersection in BaTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengxia; Zhang, Zhihua

    2017-03-01

    Large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction was used to determine the directions of polarization vectors in a BaTiO3 single crystal. Domain intersections driven by an electric field were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The dark triangles observed in the domain intersection region can be accounted for by dislocations and the strain field. Domains nucleate at the domain tip depending on the dislocations and strain field to relieve the accumulated stress. Schematic representations of the intersecting domains and the microscopic structure are given, clarifying the special electric-field-induced domain structure.

  6. ISEC-3: Results from the third in-situ electrical conductivity test on polycrystaline alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; White, D.P.; Eatherly, W.S.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    An experimental investigation of radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) has been performed at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this study (the third in a series of experiments at the HFBR) the effects of neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 polycrystalline alumina has been investigated at approximately 450{degrees}C. The capsule design used in this study is very similiar to a design used in the first two experiments in this series with some improvements made to a design used in the first two experiments in this series with some improvements made in the cable terminations. A guard ring configuration was used on the disk shaped sample. Triaxial mineral insulated cable was used as the data lead from the sputter deposited guard ring and central electrode of the sample, and coaxial mineral insulated cable was used as the sample power lead. No evidence for REID was observed in this series of experiments to a dose level of {approx}1.8 dpa. The effect of neutron irradiation on the electrical properties of two mineral insulated (MgO) cables was also investigated.

  7. Field Experiment to Stimulate Microbial Urease Activity in Groundwater for in situ Calcite Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taylor, J. L.; Tyler, T. L.; Banta, A. B.; Reysenbach, A. L.; Delwiche, M. E.; McLing, T. L.; Colwell, F. S.; Smith, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by radionuclides and metals from past weapons processing activities is a significant problem for the United States Department of Energy. Removal of these pollutants from the subsurface can be prohibitively expensive and result in worker exposure, and therefore in situ containment and stabilization is an attractive remediation alternative. One potential approach for the immobilization of certain radionuclides and metals (e.g., 90Sr, 60Co, Pb, Cd) is to induce geochemical conditions that promote co-precipitation in calcite. Many aquifers in the arid western US are calcite-saturated, and calcite precipitated under an engineered remediation scheme in such aquifers should remain stable even after return to ambient conditions. We have proposed that an effective way to promote calcite precipitation is to utilize native microorganisms that hydrolyze urea. Urea hydrolysis results in carbonate and ammonium production, and an increase in pH. The increased carbonate alkalinity favors calcite precipitation, and the ammonium serves the additional role of promoting desorption of sorbed metal ions from the aquifer matrix by ion exchange. The desorbed metals are then accessible to co-precipitation in calcite, which can be a longer-term immobilization mechanism than sorption. The ability to hydrolyze urea is common among environmental microorganisms, and we have shown in the laboratory that microbial urea hydrolysis can be linked to calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of the trace metal strontium. As a next step in the development of our remediation approach, we aimed to demonstrate that we can stimulate the native microbial community to express urease in the field. In 2002 we conducted a preliminary field trial of our approach, using a well in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA. A dilute molasses solution (0.00075%) was injected to promote overall biological growth, and then urea (50 mM) was added to the aquifer

  8. Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal

  9. Electrical Sintering of Silver Nanoparticle Ink Studied by In-Situ TEM Probing

    PubMed Central

    Hummelgård, Magnus; Zhang, Renyun; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Olin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticle inks are used for printed electronics, but to reach acceptable conductivity the structures need to be sintered, usually using a furnace. Recently, sintering by direct resistive heating has been demonstrated. For a microscopic understanding of this Joule heating sintering method, we studied the entire process in real time inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with a movable electrical probe. We found an onset of Joule heating induced sintering and coalescence of nanoparticles at power levels of 0.1–10 mW/m3. In addition, a carbonization of the organic shells that stabilize the nanoparticles were found, with a conductivity of 4 105 Sm−1. PMID:21390314

  10. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Davis

    1999-11-03

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface.

  11. In-situ neutron diffraction study of cathode/electrolyte interactions under electrical load and elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonus, F.; Skinner, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Fuel cells are proposed as a future energy conversion technology that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the point of operation due to their ability to produce electrical energy from non-hydrocarbon fuel sources. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is amongst the most efficient fuel cell types, however, due to the high cell operating temperature cation diffusion occurs between the different components of the cell, resulting in rapid degradation of the power output. In this paper we investigate cation migration between the promising intermediate temperature-SOFC cathode La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3-δ (LSCF) and a fluorite type electrolyte Ce1-xPrxO2-δ (CPO). The crystallographic structure evolution and degradation of the materials were studied by neutron diffraction in-situ under pseudo-operating conditions, i.e. at 600 °C under air and under electrical polarisation. The lattice parameter and cation occupancy evolution were analysed by Rietveld refinement as a function of time and applied potential. The materials were found to be stable, as no impurity formation, lattice parameter or site occupancy evolution was observed during the experiment. However La migration prior to the experiment from LSCF to CPO was observed as well as B-site vacancies in LSCF.

  12. Electrically Robust Metal Nanowire Network Formation by In-Situ Interconnection with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films. PMID:24763208

  13. Robust CNT field emitters: patterning, growth, transfer, and in situ anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Valerie J.; Manohara, Harish; Toda, Risaku; Del Castillo, Linda; Murthy, Rakesh; Mulder, Jerry; Murty, Eshwari; Clark Thompson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Robust carbon nanotube (CNT)-based cold cathodes were fabricated on titanium (Ti) substrates. Methods to grow vertically aligned CNTs directly on Ti substrates were developed. These cathodes can be treated post-growth at elevated temperatures under inert atmosphere which causes the surface-grown CNTs to become anchored to the substrate surface. These samples offer improvements in field emission properties over previously studied silicon (Si) substrate-based cathodes with no anchoring, displaying low threshold voltages, high field enhancement factors, and long operating lifetimes. Current densities of 25 mA cm-2 were held for over 24 h with anchored samples at low electric fields (observed thresholds as low as 0.5 V μm-1) and more current stability. Higher current densities of up to 150 mA cm-2 could be reached with anchored samples, limited only by the experimental setup. In efforts to generate even more stable and reproducible field emission, a transfer process of CNTs from polished Si to Ti with copper (Cu) was developed (flipCNTs). These cathodes display extreme improvements over previous results, with observed thresholds as low as 0.2 V μm-1 and γ-factors as high as 30 000. To demonstrate the utility of these robust cathodes, a flipCNT-based cathode was assembled into a fully functioning vacuum triode.

  14. Field-scale modeling of acidity production and remediation efficiency during in situ reductive dechlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Robinson, C. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination is a viable technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Although in recent years increased understanding of this technology has led to more rapid dechlorination rates, complete dechlorination can be hindered by unfavorable conditions. Hydrochloric acid produced from dechlorination and organic acids generated from electron donor fermentation can lead to significant groundwater acidification. Adverse pH conditions can inhibit the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms and thus slow or stall the remediation process. The extent of acidification likely to occur at a contaminated site depends on a number of factors including (1) the extent of dechlorination, (2) the pH-sensitivity of dechlorinating bacteria, and (3) the geochemical composition of the soil and water, in particular the soil’s natural buffering capacity. The substantial mass of solvents available for dechlorination when treating DNAPL source zones means that these applications are particularly susceptible to acidification. In this study a reactive transport biogeochemical model was developed to investigate the chemical and physical parameters that control the build-up of acidity and subsequent remediation efficiency. The model accounts for the site water chemistry, mineral precipitation and dissolution kinetics, electron donor fermentation, gas phase formation, competing electron-accepting processes (e.g., sulfate and iron reduction) and the sensitivity of microbial processes to pH. Confidence in the model was achieved by simulating a well-documented field study, for which the 2-D field scale model was able to reproduce long-term variations of pH, and the concurrent build up of reaction products. Sensitivity analyses indicated the groundwater flow velocity is able to reduce acidity build-up when the rate of advection is comparable or larger than the rate of dechlorination. The extent of pH change is highly dependent on the presence of

  15. In-Situ MVA of CO2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-09-01

    Capability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a long period of time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak, in a timely manner, in order to implement proper remediation activities. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2 . This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered as the basis for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. PDGs were installed, and therefore were considered in the numerical model, at the injection well and an observation well. Upon completion of the history matching process, high frequency pressure data from PDGs were generated using the history matched numerical model using different CO2 leakage scenarios. Since pressure signal behaviors were too complicated to de-convolute using any existing mathematical formulations, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced for this purpose. An Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS) was developed as the result of this effort using the machine learning and pattern recognition technologies. The ILDS

  16. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  17. Physics and Chemistry in High Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    in heterogeneous catalysis and in chemical vapor deposition, may be established. To discuss field effects qualitatively, we look, in Fig. 1, at a...fields thus opening up new reaction pathways in heterogeneous catalysis . Most work so far has been concentrating on static electric fields; how- ever

  18. Assessment of Copper Pollution in Overbank Sediments by In-situ Measurements Using a Field Portable EDXRF Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civici, Nikolla; Tashko, Artan

    2007-04-01

    The application of a field portable EDXRF instrument for the assessment of Mati River overbank sediments pollution is presented. The portable EDXRF spectrometer is based on a Peltier-cooled Si-PIN X-ray detector and a 740 MBq Cd-109 disc radioactive source. The comparison of the laboratory results with the average results of replicate in-situ measurements showed a rather good agreement. This allowed us to assess the pollution level and localize the contaminated `hot spots'.

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU TREATMENTS TO REDUCE SOIL-LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY: INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The In-place Inactivation and Natural Ecological Restoration Technologies (IINERT) Soil-Metals Action Team was established in 11/95 as one of several Action Teams under the USEPA Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF). Its primary goal was to examine in situ remediatio...

  20. Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Ground-Water Circulation Wells

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report is one in a series that show recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that treat soil and ground water in situ or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.

  1. FIELD EVALUATION OF TERRA THERM IN SITU THERMAL DESTRUCTION (ISTD) TREATMENT OF HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of the In Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) technology, developed by others, was refined by TerraTherm, Inc. The demonstration was designed to ...

  2. Identification of morphological biosignatures in Martian analogue field specimens using in situ planetary instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Pullan, Derek; Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda A; Parnell, John; Cockell, Charles S; Edwards, Howell G M; Villar, Susana E Jorge; Schröder, Christian; Cressey, Gordon; Marinangeli, Lucia; Richter, Lutz; Klingelhöfer, Göstar

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated how morphological biosignatures (i.e., features related to life) might be identified with an array of viable instruments within the framework of robotic planetary surface operations at Mars. This is the first time such an integrated lab-based study has been conducted that incorporates space-qualified instrumentation designed for combined in situ imaging, analysis, and geotechnics (sampling). Specimens were selected on the basis of feature morphology, scale, and analogy to Mars rocks. Two types of morphological criteria were considered: potential signatures of extinct life (fossilized microbial filaments) and of extant life (crypto-chasmoendolithic microorganisms). The materials originated from a variety of topical martian analogue localities on Earth, including impact craters, high-latitude deserts, and hydrothermal deposits. Our in situ payload included a stereo camera, microscope, Mössbauer spectrometer, and sampling device (all space-qualified units from Beagle 2), and an array of commercial instruments, including a multi-spectral imager, an X-ray spectrometer (calibrated to the Beagle 2 instrument), a micro-Raman spectrometer, and a bespoke (custom-designed) X-ray diffractometer. All experiments were conducted within the engineering constraints of in situ operations to generate realistic data and address the practical challenges of measurement. Our results demonstrate the importance of an integrated approach for this type of work. Each technique made a proportionate contribution to the overall effectiveness of our "pseudopayload" for biogenic assessment of samples yet highlighted a number of limitations of current space instrument technology for in situ astrobiology.

  3. Evaluating the potential for quantitative monitoring of in situ chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase TCE using in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, R. D.; Revil, A.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Mao, D.

    2015-07-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements can potentially be used to remotely monitor fate and transport of ionic oxidants such as permanganate (MnO4-) during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants like trichloroethene (TCE). Time-lapse two-dimensional bulk conductivity and induced polarization surveys conducted during a sand tank ISCO simulation demonstrated that MnO4- plume movement could be monitored in a qualitative manner using bulk conductivity tomograms, although chargeability was below sensitivity limits. We also examined changes to in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity resulting from ion injection, MnO2 and Cl- production, and pH change during TCE and humate oxidation by MnO4- in homogeneous aqueous solutions and saturated porous media samples. Data from the homogeneous samples demonstrated that inversion of the sand tank resistivity data using a common Tikhonov regularization approach was insufficient to recover an accurate conductivity distribution within the tank. While changes to in-phase conductivity could be successfully modeled, quadrature conductivity values could not be directly related to TCE oxidation product or MnO4- concentrations at frequencies consistent with field induced polarization surveys, limiting the utility of quadrature conductivity for monitoring ISCO.

  4. Electric field control of the magnetocaloric effect.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dun-Hui; Cao, Qing-Qi; Liu, En-Ke; Liu, Jian; Du, You-Wei

    2015-02-04

    Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, it is demonstrated that the magnetocaloric effect of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy can be controlled by an electric field. Large hysteresis and the limited operating temperature region are effectively overcome by applying an electric field on a laminate comprising a piezoelectric and the alloy. Accordingly, a model for an active magnetic refrigerator with high efficiency is proposed in principle.

  5. Microwave ovens: mapping the electrical field distribution.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H

    1991-07-01

    Uniformity of electric field intensity of microwaves within the microwave oven cavity is necessary to ensure even load-heating, and is particularly important in pathology procedures where small volume irradiation is carried out. A simple and rapid method for mapping electric field distribution, using reversible thermographic paint, is described. Spatial heating patterns for various positions, and the effects of introducing dummy loads to modify heating distributions, have been obtained for a dedicated microwave processor, and comparison made with a domestic microwave oven.

  6. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    studies of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger). 15. SUBJECT TERMS nanosecond high-field electric pulse, electroperturbation...sterility monitoring kit, which utilizes spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger) deposited on paper in glassine envelopes, has...report a study of the application of ultra- short high-field electric pulses (5 MV/m, 100-ns pulse width, 4-ns rise time) to Bacillus atrophaeus spores

  7. Hydrodynamic trapping for rapid assembly and in situ electrical characterization of droplet interface bilayer arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Mary -Anne; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Collier, C. Patrick; Retterer, Scott T.; Sarles, Stephen A.

    2016-08-02

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a modular technique for assembling planar lipid membranes between water droplets in oil. The DIB method thus provides a unique capability for developing digital, droplet-based membrane platforms for rapid membrane characterization, drug screening and ion channel recordings. This paper demonstrates a new, low-volume microfluidic system that automates droplet generation, sorting, and sequential trapping in designated locations to enable the rapid assembly of arrays of DIBs. The channel layout of the device is guided by an equivalent circuit model, which predicts that a serial arrangement of hydrodynamic DIB traps enables sequential droplet placement and minimizes the hydrodynamic pressure developed across filled traps to prevent squeeze-through of trapped droplets. Furthermore, the incorporation of thin-film electrodes fabricated via evaporation metal deposition onto the glass substrate beneath the channels allows for the first time in situ, simultaneous electrical interrogation of multiple DIBs within a sealed device. Combining electrical measurements with imaging enables measurements of membrane capacitance and resistance and bilayer area, and our data show that DIBs formed in different trap locations within the device exhibit similar sizes and transport properties. Simultaneous, single channel recordings of ion channel gating in multiple membranes are obtained when alamethicin peptides are incorporated into the captured droplets, qualifying the thin-film electrodes as a means for measuring stimuli-responsive functions of membrane-bound biomolecules. Furthermore, this novel microfluidic-electrophysiology platform provides a reproducible, high throughput method for performing electrical measurements to study transmembrane proteins and biomembranes in low-volume, droplet-based membranes.

  8. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  9. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for Task {number_sign}7.2 entitled ``Field scale test`` (January 10, 1996--December 31, 1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.; Ho, S.V.; Hughes, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task {number_sign}7.2 summarizes the Field Scale Test conducted by Monsanto Company, DuPont, and General Electric.

  10. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  11. Electric field measurements with stratospheric balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, I. B.

    1989-01-01

    Electric fields and currents in the middle atmosphere are important elements of the modern picture of this region. Balloon instruments, reaching the level of the stratosphere, were used extensively for the experimental work. The research has shown good progress, both in the MAP period and in the years before and after. The knowledge was increased about, e.g., the upper atmosphere potential, the electric properties of the medium itself and about the coupling with magnetospheric (ionospheric) fields and currents. Also various measurements have brought about a discussion of the possible existence of hitherto unknown sources. Throughout the MAP period the work on a possible definition of an electric index has continued.

  12. Analysis of field-sampled, in-situ network, and PALS airborne soil moisture observations over SMAPVEX12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. R.; Berg, A. A.; McNairn, H.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment in 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was conducted over an agricultural domain in southern Manitoba, Canada. The purpose of the campaign was to develop ground and airborne datasets for pre-launch validation of SMAP satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithms. Three key soil moisture datasets were collected in support of the campaign objectives: 1) intensive field sampling over (up to) 55 agricultural fields on 17 sampling days; 2) a continuously operated temporary in-situ network (> 30 stations) distributed over the domain; and 3) L-band microwave data from NASA's Passive Active L-band Sensor (PALS) onboard a Twin-Otter aircraft. This presentation addresses whether dense temporary in-situ networks can supplant intensive field-sampling during pre-/post-launch validation campaigns. SMAPVEX12 datasets are examined at the field and aircraft pixel (~800 m) scale, and at the domain scale. Preliminary results demonstrate that, at the field-scale, there is generally limited agreement between a single station and sampled data over its field. Over the duration of the campaign, the majority of temporary soil moisture stations have > 0.04 m3m-3 RMSE with sampled field data, suggesting that a single station has limited representativeness of an agricultural field. Furthermore, the in-situ stations and field-sampled data are compared with PALS generated soil moisture to assess differences in daily RMSE. For wet-periods, both ground datasets provide a comparable RMSE for the PALS estimate. Although for dry-periods, the difference in RMSE between the ground datasets becomes more significant (> 0.04 m3m-3). This is because the field-sampled data exhibit a sharper dry-down than the in-situ station measurements. However, at the domain scale there is strong agreement between the soil moisture datasets. Additional results describe the sources of variability affecting these soil moisture datasets and the statistical number of stations needed to

  13. Rotating Capacitor Measures Steady Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Kirkham, H.; Eng, B.

    1986-01-01

    Portable sensor measures electric fields created by dc powerlines or other dc-high-voltage sources. Measures fields from 70 to 50,000 V/m with linearity of 2 percent. Sensor used at any height above ground. Measures both magnitude and direction of field and provides signals representing these measurements to remote readout device. Sensor functions with minimal disturbance of field it is measuring.

  14. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1997-10-01

    A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956-1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  15. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOEpatents

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  16. Evolution of tachyon kink with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O.-Kab; Lee, Chong Oh

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the decay of an inhomogeneous D1-brane wrapped on a S1 with an electric field. The model that we consider consists of an array of tachyon kink and anti-kink with a constant electric flux. Beginning with an initially static configuration, we numerically evolve the tachyon field with some perturbations under a fixed boundary condition at diametrically opposite points on the circle S1. When the electric flux is smaller than the critical value, the tachyon kink becomes unstable; the tachyon field rolls down the potential, and the lower dimensional D0- and bar D0-brane become thin, which resembles the caustic formation known for this type of the system in the literature. For the supercritical values of the electric flux, the tachyon kink remains stable.

  17. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  18. Interface Electrical Properties of Al2O3 Thin Films on Graphene Obtained by Atomic Layer Deposition with an in Situ Seedlike Layer.

    PubMed

    Fisichella, Gabriele; Schilirò, Emanuela; Di Franco, Salvatore; Fiorenza, Patrick; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Roccaforte, Fabrizio; Ravesi, Sebastiano; Giannazzo, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    High-quality thin insulating films on graphene (Gr) are essential for field-effect transistors (FETs) and other electronics applications of this material. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the method of choice to deposit high-κ dielectrics with excellent thickness uniformity and conformal coverage. However, to start the growth on the sp(2) Gr surface, a chemical prefunctionalization or the physical deposition of a seed layer are required, which can effect, to some extent, the electrical properties of Gr. In this paper, we report a detailed morphological, structural, and electrical investigation of Al2O3 thin films grown by a two-steps ALD process on a large area Gr membrane residing on an Al2O3-Si substrate. This process consists of the H2O-activated deposition of a Al2O3 seed layer a few nanometers in thickness, performed in situ at 100 °C, followed by ALD thermal growth of Al2O3 at 250 °C. The optimization of the low-temperature seed layer allowed us to obtain a uniform, conformal, and pinhole-free Al2O3 film on Gr by the second ALD step. Nanoscale-resolution mapping of the current through the dielectric by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) demonstrated an excellent laterally uniformity of the film. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicated that the ALD process does not introduce defects in Gr, whereas it produces a partial compensation of Gr unintentional p-type doping, as confirmed by the increase of Gr sheet resistance (from ∼300 Ω/sq in pristine Gr to ∼1100 Ω/sq after Al2O3 deposition). Analysis of the transfer characteristics of Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) allowed us to evaluate the relative dielectric permittivity (ε = 7.45) and the breakdown electric field (EBD = 7.4 MV/cm) of the Al2O3 film as well as the transconductance and the holes field-effect mobility (∼1200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). A special focus has been given to the electrical characterization of the Al2O3-Gr interface by the analysis of high frequency capacitance

  19. In Situ Field Measurement of Leaf Water Potential Using Thermocouple Psychrometers 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Wiebe, Herman H.; Cass, Alfred

    1983-01-01

    Thermocouple psychrometers are the only instruments which can measure the in situ water potential of intact leaves, and which can possibly be used to monitor leaf water potential. Unfortunately, their usefulness is limited by a number of difficulties, among them fluctuating temperatures and temperature gradients within the psychrometer, sealing of the psychrometer chamber to the leaf, shading of the leaf by the psychrometer, and resistance to water vapor diffusion by the cuticle when the stomates are closed. Using Citrus jambhiri, we have tested several psychrometer design and operational modifications and showed that in situ psychrometric measurements compared favorably with simultaneous Scholander pressure chamber measurements on neighboring leaves when the latter were corrected for the osmotic potential. PMID:16663267

  20. Dependence of in-situ Bose condensate size on final frequency of RF-field in evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. R.; Ram, S. P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Rawat, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of in-situ characterization of 87Rb atom cloud in a quadrupole Ioffe configuration (QUIC) magnetic trap after a radio-frequency (RF) evaporative cooling of the trapped atom cloud. The in-situ absorption images of the atom cloud have shown clear bimodal optical density (OD) profiles which indicate the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phase transition in the trapped gas. Also, we report here, for the first time, the measured variation in the sizes of the condensate and thermal clouds with the final frequency selected in the frequency scan of the RF-field for evaporative cooling. These results on frequency-dependent sizes of the clouds are consistent with the theoretical understanding of the BEC phenomenon in the trap.

  1. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  2. Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    microorganisms received a continuous supply of the nutrients required to support biodegradation ( Devlin and Barker 1994). Bioventing - the process of...Volume 58. Number 11. Pages 3622-3629. Devlin , J. F. and J. F. Barker. 1994. “A semi-passive nutrient injection scheme for enhanced in situ...and J-M. Bollag. 1996. Soil Biochemistry . Marcel Dekker. New York. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. A Citizen’s Guide to

  3. Identification of Morphological Biosignatures in Martian Analogue Field Specimens Using In Situ Planetary Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullan, Derek; Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda A.; Parnell, John; Cockell, Charles S.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Villar, Susana E. Jorge; Schröder, Christian; Cressey, Gordon; Marinangeli, Lucia; Richter, Lutz; Klingelhöfer, Göstar

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated how morphological biosignatures (i.e., features related to life) might be identified with an array of viable instruments within the framework of robotic planetary surface operations at Mars. This is the first time such an integrated lab-based study has been conducted that incorporates space-qualified instrumentation designed for combined in situ imaging, analysis, and geotechnics (sampling). Specimens were selected on the basis of feature morphology, scale, and analogy to Mars rocks. Two types of morphological criteria were considered: potential signatures of extinct life (fossilized microbial filaments) and of extant life (crypto-chasmoendolithic microorganisms). The materials originated from a variety of topical martian analogue localities on Earth, including impact craters, high-latitude deserts, and hydrothermal deposits. Our in situ payload included a stereo camera, microscope, Mssbauer spectrometer, and sampling device (all space-qualified units from Beagle 2), and an array of commercial instruments, including a multi-spectral imager, an X-ray spectrometer (calibrated to the Beagle 2 instrument), a micro-Raman spectrometer, and a bespoke (custom-designed) X-ray diffractometer. All experiments were conducted within the engineering constraints of in situ operations to generate realistic data and address the practical challenges of measurement.

  4. Magnetospheric electric field measurements during sudden commencements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Skillman, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    Direction measurements of electric fields were made in the outer magnetosphere during two sudden commencements in 1972. These measurements were observed with the double floating probe experiment carried aboard the IMP 6 satellite. The initial variations of the measured electric field consisted of an increase from a background of about 1 mv/meter to some 10 mv/meter at about 7 rE (earth radi) and to some 4 mv/meter at 3 rE. These initial electric field disturbances were longitudinal, oriented counter clockwise about an axis pointed north. A solution of Maxwell's third equation is derived for these measurements using a quasi-static version of Mead's model of the magnetosphere B (t). This solution seems to describe well the magnitude and direction of the initial perturbation of the electric field vectors observed during these two sudden commencements. After the initial increase, the measured electric field rings several times with periods of the order of minutes. This observed oscillatory behavior correlates with magnetic observatory records taken near the foot of the magetic field line passing through the satellite.

  5. Electric field measurements from Halley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a unique location for the study of atmospheric electricity. Not only is it one of the most pollutant free places on Earth, but its proximity to the south magnetic pole means that it is an ideal location to study the effects of solar variability on the atmospheric electric field. This is due to the reduced shielding effect of the geomagnetic field at the poles which leads to a greater flux of incoming Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) as well as an increased probability of energetic particle precipitation from SEPs and relativistic electrons. To investigate such effects, two electric field mills of different design were installed at the British Antarctic Survey Halley base in February 2015 (75. 58 degrees south, 26.66 degrees west). Halley is situated on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the south east of the Weddell Sea and has snow cover all year round. Preliminary analysis has focused on selection of fair weather criteria using wind speed and visibility measurements which are vital to assess the effects of falling snow, blowing snow and freezing fog on the electric field measurements. When the effects of such adverse weather conditions are removed clear evidence of the characteristic Carnegie Curve diurnal cycle exists in the Halley electric field measurements (with a mean value of 50V/m and showing a 40% peak to peak variation in comparison to the 34% variation in the Carnegie data). Since the Carnegie Curve represents the variation in thunderstorm activity across the Earth, its presence in the Halley data confirms the presence of the global atmospheric electric circuit signal at Halley. The work presented here will discuss the details of the Halley electric field dataset, including the variability in the fair weather measurements, with a particular focus on magnetic field fluctuations.

  6. Magnetoexciton in nanotube under external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Russi, L. F.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Santos, Y. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of the energy levels of an electron-hole pair confined in a narrow nanotube in the presence of the magnetic field applied along the symmetry axis. We show that the electric field applied at the same direction makes the oscillation more pronounced.

  7. Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Yun-Hi; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-09-07

    We study spin accumulation in n-doped GaAs that were electrically injected from Fe via MgO using three-terminal Hanle measurement. The Fe/MgO/GaAs structures were prepared in a cluster molecular beam epitaxy that did not require the breaking of the vacuum. We found the crystal orientation relationship of epitaxial structures Fe[100]//MgO[110]//GaAs[110] without evident defects at the interface. Control of depletion width and interface resistance by means of modulation doping improves spin injection, leading to enhanced spin voltage (ΔV) of 6.3 mV at 10 K and 0.8 mV even at 400 K. The extracted spin lifetime and spin diffusion length of GaAs are 220 ps and 0.77 μm, respectively, at 200 K. MgO tunnel barrier grown in situ with modulation doping at the interface appears to be promising for spin injection into GaAs.

  8. Capsule fabrication for in-situ measurement of radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) of ceramics in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W.; Hurst, M.T.; Qualls, A.L.

    1996-04-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho series of irradiation experiments is being implemented to determine, in situ, the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity of ceramic materials. The first experiment, TRIST-ER1, has been designed to irradiate 15 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test specimens at 450{degrees}C in an RB position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Each test specimen is located in a sealed vanadium subcapsule with instrumentation provided to each subcapsule to measure temperature and resistance, and to place a biasing voltage across the specimen. Twelve of the specimens will be biased with 200 V/mm across the sample at all times, while three will not be biased, but can be if so desired during the irradiation. The experiment design, component fabrication, and subcapsule assembly have been completed. A three cycle irradiation, to a fast neutron (E>0.1 MeV) fluence of about 3x10{sup 25}n/m{sup 2} ({approx}3 dpa in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), is expected to begin early in March 1996.

  9. Stratospheric electric field measurements with transmediterranean balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Morena, B. A.; Alberca, L. F.; Curto, J. J.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal component of the stratospheric electric field was measured using a balloon in the ODISEA Campaign of Transmediterranean Balloon Program. The balloon flew between Trapani (Sicily) and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) along the 39 deg N parallel at a height between 34 and 24 km. The high values found for the field on fair-weather and its quasi-turbulent variation, both in amplitude and direction, are difficult to explain with the classical electric field source. A new source, first described by Holzworth (1989), is considered as possibly causing them.

  10. Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale in SITU Thermal NAPL Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Butherus, Michael; Ingle, David S.; Juhlin, Randall; Daniel, Joseph; none,

    2004-10-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully completed a field-scale remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site on the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center, Largo, Florida. The Young-Rainey STAR Center is a former DOE facility that was previously known as the Pinellas Plant and the Pinellas STAR Center. The remediation project encompassed an area of 10,000 ft2 and depths extending to 35 ft below ground surface. Prior to the remediation, DOE evaluated technologies that had the potential to remove NAPLs from the subsurface at the site. Because of site conditions (clay lenses and an underlying clay layer that were thought to be contaminated), steam injection and electrical heating were considered to be the only technologies that had the potential to remove these NAPLs. In July 2001, DOE’s contractor awarded a subcontract for removal of NAPLs from a portion of the Northeast Site. The technologies used for remediation were a combination of steam-enhanced extraction and Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, an electrical resistive heating technology. Construction of the remediation system was completed in September 2002. Remedial operations began immediately after construction, and active heating ended in February 2003. After operations were completed, confirmatory sampling was conducted during a 6-month period to verify the level of cleanup achieved. Additional confirmatory sampling was conducted 18 months after operations ended. Analytical results of the confirmatory sampling showed that NAPL concentrations were reduced significantly below the required cleanup goals and, in most cases, below the regulatory maximum contaminant levels. Lessons learned relative to the design, construction, operation, confirmatory sampling approach, and subcontracting could benefit managers of similar remediation projects.

  11. Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Fu, Suiyan; Parks, George K.; Pu, Zuyin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Jiang; Yao, Zhonghua; Fu, Huishan; Shi, Quanqi

    2014-07-01

    Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts (DFs) have been investigated in the magnetotail plasma sheet using Cluster observations. We have studied each term in the generalized Ohm's law using data obtained from the multispacecraft Cluster. Our results show that in the plasma flow frame, electric fields are directed normal to the DF in the magnetic dip region ahead of the DF as well as in the DF layer but in opposite directions. Case and statistical studies show that the Hall electric field is important while the electron pressure gradient term is much smaller. The ions decouple from the magnetic field in the DF layer and dip region (E + Vi×B ≠ 0), whereas electrons remain frozen-in (E + Ve×B=∇pe/nee).

  12. A model for polar cap electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A model is proposed relating polar cap ionospheric electric fields to the parameters of the solar wind near the orbit of the earth. The model ignores the notion of field line merging. An essential feature is the role played by velocity shear instabilities in regions of the outer magnetosphere, in which mapping of the magnetosheath electric field would produce sunward convection. The anomalous resistivity which arises from velocity shear turbulence, suffices to essentially disconnect the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath, at any place where that resistivity is large enough. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere system, as a consequence, acts as a kind of diode or rectifier for the magnetosheath electric fields. Predictions of the model are compared with several observations related to polar cap convection.

  13. Studying electric fields in dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-11-01

    In Earth's magnetotail, sharp increases in the magnetic field known as dipolarization fronts are associated with high-speed plasma flows that connect Earth's ionosphere via electric currents. Some aspects of these dipolarization fronts have puzzled scientists; in particular, the dip in magnetic field that occurs just ahead of the dipolarization front layer is not well understood. Sun et al. analyze observations made using the Cluster satellites to elucidate the details of electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts. The study shows that a type of electric current known as a Hall current dominates in the dipolarization front region and in the region where the magnetic field dips, but this current flows in opposite directions in these two regions.

  14. Imaging electric fields in the vicinity of cryogenic surfaces using Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, T.; Deiglmayr, J.; Stammeier, M.; Agner, J.-A.; Schmutz, H.; Merkt, F.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to characterize static and time-dependent electric fields in situ is an important prerequisite for quantum-optics experiments with atoms close to surfaces. Especially in experiments which aim at coupling Rydberg atoms to the near field of superconducting circuits, the identification and subsequent elimination of sources of stray fields are crucial. We present a technique that allows the determination of stray-electric-field distributions [Fxstr(r ⃗) ,Fystr(r ⃗) ,Fzstr(r ⃗) ] at distances of less than 2 mm from (cryogenic) surfaces using coherent Rydberg-Stark spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic beam of metastable 1 s12 s11S0 helium atoms. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by characterizing the electric stray field emanating from a structured superconducting surface. Exploiting coherent population transfer with microwave radiation from a coplanar waveguide, the same technique allows the characterization of the microwave-field distribution above the surface.

  15. Modelling in situ enzyme potential of soils: a tool to predict soil respiration from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Poll, Christian; Demyan, Scott; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Kandeler, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting future climate and terrestrial ecosystem functions. Extra-cellular enzymes, produced by microorganisms, perform the very first step in SOC degradation and serve as key components in global carbon cycling. Very little information is available about the seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil enzymes. Here we aim to model in situ enzyme potentials involved in the degradation of either labile or recalcitrant organic compounds to understand the temporal variability of degradation processes. To identify the similarities in seasonal patterns of soil respiration and in situ enzyme potentials, we compared the modelled in situ enzyme activities with weekly measured soil CO2 emissions. Arable soil samples from two different treatments (4 years fallow and currently vegetated plots; treatments represent range of carbon input into soil) were collected every month from April, 2012 to April, 2013, from two different study regions (Kraichgau and Swabian Alb) in Southwest Germany. The vegetation plots were under crop rotation in both study areas. We measured activities of three enzymes including β-glucosidase, xylanase and phenoloxidase at five different temperatures. We also measured soil microbial biomass in form of microbial carbon (Cmic). Land-use and area had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the microbial biomass; fallow plots having less Cmic than vegetation plots. Potential activities of β-glucosidase (P < 0.001) and xylanase (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the vegetation plots of the Swabian Alb region than in the Kraichgau region. In both study areas, enzyme activities were higher during vegetation period and lower during winter which points to the importance of carbon input and/or temperature and soil moisture. We calculated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of enzyme activities based on laboratory measurements of enzyme activities at a range of incubation

  16. Field demonstration of a full-scale in situ thermal desorption system for the remediation of soil containing PCBS and other hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.B.; Iben, I.E.T.; Edelstein, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    A field demonstration of a full-sale, innovative and cost-effective remediation system using in situ thermal description (ISTD) was conducted at a state Superfund site in the northeastern United States in early 1996. The Demonstration was performed as part of the regulatory process to obtain a nationwide Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) permit for the remediation of soils containing PCBs at concentrations up to 5,000 ppm. An area of approximately 4800 square feet was remediated during six applications of an in situ Thermal Blanket covering an area of 800 square feet. Each application utilized five 160 square foot, electrically heated, 100-kilowatt modules. The Thermal Blanket heaters were operated at temperatures as high as 925 C. The modules contain 10 in. of vermiculite insulation to reduce upward heat losses to less than 10% of total power. The modules are covered with an impermeable silicone sheet and the in situ process is run at negative pressure to collect contaminants, prevent contaminant migration and eliminate odors. Off-gas emissions are controlled by a vapor extraction system comprised of a cyclonic separator for particulate removal, a flameless thermal oxidizer for destruction of residual contaminants, and a carbon polishing unit. Treatment times ranged from slightly more than 24 hours to treat the upper six inches to approximately four days to treat soil 12 to 18 inches deep. Temperature profiles and remedial efficiency are consistent with results from a computer thermal simulator. Post-treatment soil samples demonstrated the capability to achieve stringent soil cleanup levels of less than 2 ppm for PCBs while concurrently meeting ambient air quality standards with respect to air emissions and worker exposure limits. The Thermal Blanket is less intrusive than other permanent remedies and produces less noise, generates less dust and has a minimum of other impacts on the surrounding community.

  17. AC-electric field dependent electroformation of giant lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Politano, Timothy J; Froude, Victoria E; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2010-08-01

    Giant vesicles of larger than 5 microm, which have been of intense interest for their potential as drug delivery vehicles and as a model system for cell membranes, can be rapidly formed from a spin-coated lipid thin film under an electric field. In this work, we explore the AC-field dependent electroformation of giant lipid vesicles in aqueous media over a wide range of AC-frequency from 1 Hz to 1 MHz and peak-to-peak field strength from 0.212 V/mm to 40 V/mm between two parallel conducting electrode surfaces. By using fluorescence microscopy, we perform in-situ microscopic observations of the structural evolution of giant vesicles formed from spin-coated lipid films under varied uniform AC-electric fields. The real-time observation of bilayer bulging from the lipid film, vesicle growth and fusing further examine the critical role of AC-induced electroosmotic flow of surrounding fluids for giant vesicle formation. A rich AC-frequency and field strength phase diagram is obtained experimentally to predict the AC-electroformation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, where a weak dependence of vesicle size on AC-frequency is observed at low AC-field voltages, showing decreased vesicle size with a narrowed size distribution with increased AC-frequency. Formation of vesicles was shown to be constrained by an upper field strength of 10 V/mm and an upper AC-frequency of 10 kHz. Within these parameters, giant lipid vesicles were formed predominantly unilamellar and prevalent across the entire electrode surfaces.

  18. Langmuir wave electric fields induced by electron beams in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar electron beams responsible for type III radio emission generate Langmuir waves as they propagate out from the Sun. The Langmuir waves are observed via in situ electric field measurements. These Langmuir waves are not smoothly distributed but occur in discrete clumps, commonly attributed to the turbulent nature of the solar wind electron density. Exactly how the density turbulence modulates the Langmuir wave electric fields is understood only qualitatively. Using weak turbulence simulations, we investigate how solar wind density turbulence changes the probability distribution functions, mean value and variance of the beam-driven electric field distributions. Simulations show rather complicated forms of the distribution that are dependent upon how the electric fields are sampled. Generally the higher magnitude of density fluctuations reduce the mean and increase the variance of the distribution in a consistent manor to the predictions from resonance broadening by density fluctuations. We also demonstrate how the properties of the electric field distribution should vary radially from the Sun to the Earth and provide a numerical prediction for the in situ measurements of the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus spacecraft.

  19. Microwave electric field sensing with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Daniel T.; Kunz, Paul D.; Meyer, David H.; Solmeyer, Neal

    2016-05-01

    Atoms form the basis of precise measurement for many quantities (time, acceleration, rotation, magnetic field, etc.). Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. Highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole allowed transitions in the range of 1 - 500 GHz. It is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for very sensitive field amplitude, polarization, and sub-wavelength imaging measurements. These quantities can be extracted by measuring properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a warm rubidium vapor cell. Thus far, Rydberg microwave electrometry has relied upon the absorption of the probe laser. We report on our use of polarization rotation, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility, for measuring the properties of microwave frequency electric fields. Our simulations show that when a magnetic field is present and directed along the optical propagation direction a polarization rotation signal exists and can be used for microwave electrometry. One central advantage in using the polarization rotation signal rather than the absorption signal is that common mode laser noise is naturally eliminated leading to a potentially dramatic increase in signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  1. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  2. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  3. Electric field induced deformation of sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, Lindsey; Tsakonas, Costas; Duffy, Brian; Mottram, Nigel; Brown, Carl; Wilson, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The ability to control the shape of a drop with the application of an electric field has been exploited for many technological applications including measuring surface tension, producing an optical display device, and optimising the optical properties of microlenses. In this work we consider, both theoretically and experimentally, the deformation of pinned sessile drops with contact angles close to either 0° or 90° resting on the lower substrate inside a parallel plate capacitor due to an A.C. electric field. Using both asymptotic and numerical approaches we obtain predictive equations for the static and dynamic drop shape deformations as functions of the key experimental parameters (drop size, capacitor plate separation, electric field magnitude and contact angle). The asymptotic results agree well with the experimental results for a range of liquids. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of EPSRC via research Grants EP/J009865 and EP/J009873.

  4. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  5. Velocity modulation of microtubules in electric fields.

    PubMed

    Dujovne, Irene; van den Heuvel, Martin; Shen, Yi; de Graaff, Martijn; Dekker, Cees

    2008-12-01

    We show that the speed of microtubules gliding over a kinesin-coated surface can be controlled over a wide range of values by the application of an electric field. The speed can be increased by up to a factor of 5 compared to the speed at zero field when assisting forces are applied and slowed down to zero velocity for opposing fields. Sideways applied fields also induce significant motion. The kinesin surface density impacts the rate of velocity change, whereas the ATP concentration does not seem to play a major role, provided that it is nonzero. A simple grab-and-release model is presented that explains the velocity change with applied electric fields.

  6. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo A; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-19

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX(®), which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX(®) after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes.

  7. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes. PMID:26893024

  8. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-02-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes.

  9. Balloon Measurements of Electric Fields in Thunderstorms: A Modern Version of Benjamin Franklin's Kite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2006-12-01

    One of Benjamin Franklin's most famous experiments was the kite experiment, which showed that thunderstorms are electrically charged. It is not as commonly noted that the kite experiment was also one of the the first attempts to make an in situ measurement of any storm parameter. Franklin realized the importance of making measurements close to and within storms, and this realization has been shared by later atomspheric scientists. In this presentation we focus on a modern version of Franklin's kite--instrumented balloons--used for in situ measurements of electric field and other storm parameters. In particular, most of our knowledge of the charge structure inside thunderstorms is based on balloon soundings of electric field. Balloon measurements of storm electricity began with the work of Simpson and colleagues in the 1930's and 1940's. The next major instrumentation advances were made by Winn and colleagues in the 1970's and 1980's. Today's instruments are digital versions of the Winn design. We review the main instrument techniques that have allowed balloons to be the worthy successors to kites. We also discuss some of the key advances in our understanding of thunderstorm electrification made with in situ balloon-borne instruments.

  10. Drug Release from Electric Field Responsive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun; Neofytou, Evgenios; Cahill, Thomas J.; Beygui, Ramin E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new temperature and electric field dual-stimulus responsive nanoparticle system for programmed drug delivery. Nanoparticles of a conducting polymer (polypyrrole) are loaded with therapeutic pharmaceuticals and are subcutaneously localized in vivo with the assistance of a temperature-sensitive hydrogel (PLGA-PEG-PLGA). We have shown that drug release from the conductive nanoparticles is controlled by the application of a weak, external DC electric field. This approach represents a novel interactive drug delivery system that can show an externally tailored release profile with an excellent spatial, temporal, and dosage control. PMID:22111891

  11. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  12. Field test of in situ soil amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Compton, H; Basta, N T

    2007-01-01

    A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils, all amendments reduced bioaccessible (assessed with a physiologic-based extraction method) Pb, with reductions ranging from 35% (BS+Al, DAP 0.5%, DAP+Compost+Al) to 57% (Compost+Al). Plant Zn (Cynadon dactylon L.) and NH4 NO3-extractable Cd and Zn were also reduced by a number of amendments. For the tailings, all amendments excluding BS reduced bioaccessible Pb, with the largest reductions observed in the DAP 3% and DAP3%+BS treatments (75 and 84%). Plant growth was suppressed in all treatments that contained DAP for the first season, with the highest growth in the treatments that included compost and biosolids. In the second year, growth was vigorous for all treatments. Plant Zn and Cd and extractable metal concentration were also reduced. A number of treatments were identified that reduced bioaccessible Pb and sustained a healthy plant with reduced metal concentrations. For the yard soil, Compost+Al was the most effective treatment tested. For the tailings, BS+DAP 1% was the most effective treatment tested. These results indicate that in situ amendments offer a remedial alternative for the Tar Creek site.

  13. In-situ arsenic remediation by aquifer iron coating: Field trial in the Datong basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xianjun; Pi, Kunfu; Liu, Yaqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Junxia; Zhu, Yapeng; Su, Chunli; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    In situ As removal from groundwater used for water supply has been performed in Daying village of Shanyin County where mild alkaline groundwater contains high dissolved As concentration. The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ As treatment by aquifer Fe coating technology. The groundwater in the studied aquifer contains As dominated by aqueous As(III) and low dissolved Fe(II) concentration, which are unfavorable conditions for forming Fe-oxides/hydroxides for As removal. In addition, high As(III) concentration limits As adsorption onto Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Accordingly, dissolved Fe(II) (5mM) and NaClO (5mM) were injected into the studied aquifer to form Fe-oxides/hydroxides and oxidize As(III) to As(V), creating favorable conditions for As removal via adsorption and/or co-precipitation. During alternatively cycled injection of Fe(II) and NaClO, the As concentration in groundwater from the pumping well significantly decreased to below drinking water standard. The developed approach can be applied similarly in many parts of the world containing high As concentrations.

  14. In Situ Bioremediation by Natural Attenuation: from Lab to Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, S. A.; Thornton, S.; Rees, H.; Lerner, D.; Wilson, R.; Romero-Gonzalez, M.

    2007-03-01

    In Situ Bioremediation is a passive technology to degrade soil and groundwater contamination in order to reduce environmental and human health risk. Natural attenuation is the application of engineering biotechnology principles to soil and groundwater systems as natural bioreactors to transform or immobilize contamination to less toxic or less bioavailable forms. Current advances in computational methods and site investigation techniques now allow detailed numerical models to be adequately parameterized for interpretation of processes and their interactions in the complex sub-surface system. Clues about biodegradation processes point to the dominant but poorly understood behaviour of attached growth microbial populations that exist within the context of biofilm formation. New techniques that combine biological imaging with non-destructive chemical analysis are providing new insights into attached growth influence on Natural Attenuation. Laboratory studies have been carried out in porous media packed bed reactors that physically simulate plume formation in aquifers. Key results show that only a small percentage of the total biomass within the plume is metabolically active and that activity is greatest at the plume fringe. This increased activity coincides with the zone where dispersive mixing brings dissolved O2 from outside the plume in contact with the contamination and microbes. The exciting new experimental approaches in lab systems offer tremendous potential to move Natural Attenuation and other in situ bioremediation approaches away from purely empirical engineering approaches, to process descriptions that are far more strongly based on first principles and that have a far greater predictive capacity for remediation performance assessment.

  15. A Concept for the in-situ Measurement of Electrical Properties of Planetary Bodies, Comets and Moons in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennewitz, E.; Hördt, A.; Auster, U.

    2008-12-01

    The in-situ investigation of subsurface and atmospheric properties on planetary and cometary bodies or moons is a field of growing interest. We present a concept to measure the electrical properties using electric sensors at the feet of a planetary lander-system. Because of the expected high contact impedances, we suggest capacitive coupling for the injection of current into the regolith. This requires an alternating current, ideally in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 100 kHz, which at the same time provides a good resolution of both electrical resistivity and permittivity. We present a comprehensive theory covering all aspects such as the contact impedance of the electrodes, spurious currents in the lander, and the resolution of subsurface parameters depending on the geometry of the 4-point electrode configuration. Feeding sufficient current into the ground imposes special conditions on the design of the sensor- electrodes and the electronic components. Over resistive ground and at high frequencies the contact impedance will depend on the electrical properties of the subsurface and determines how much current can be injected into the ground. We calculate the contact impedance based on a spherical disc model and show that placing the electrode directly on the ground is always superior to the use of an insulating layer. Another design criteria is that the spurious current flow in the lander must be kept under a certain level. The interaction of the capacitive electrodes with the lander system and the ground is examined by an electric circuit which represents the properties of the subsoil and the lander system. The ratio between the spurious current in the lander and the current in the ground critically depends on the construction of the electrodes. We suggest a PEEK-vacuum solution which minimizes capacitive coupling to the lander while keeping the weight small. For an optimum resolution of the subsurface parameters, the geometry and especially the distance of

  16. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Timothy W; Ten Cate, James A; Allured, Bradley; Carpenter, Michael A

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  17. Electric field effects in RUS measurements.

    PubMed

    Darling, Timothy W; Allured, Bradley; Tencate, James A; Carpenter, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material--a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the "statistical residual" strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  18. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  19. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  20. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  1. Airborne biological particles and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, William S.; Benninghoff, Anne S.

    1982-01-01

    In November and December 1977 at McMurdo Station in Antarctica we investigated the kinds, numbers, and deposition of airborne particles larger than 2 μm while measuring electric field gradient at 2.5 m above the ground. Elementary collecting devices were used: Staplex Hi-Volume and Roto-rod samplers, Tauber (static sedimentation) traps, petrolatum-coated microscope slides, and snow (melted and filtered). The electric fields were measured by a rotating dipole (Stanford Radioscience Laboratory field mill number 2). During periods of blowing snow and dust the electric field gradient was + 500 to + 2500 V/m, and Tauber traps with grounded covers collected 2 or more times as much snow and dust as the ones with ungrounded covers. During falling snow the electric field gradient was -1000 to -1500 V/m, and the ungrounded traps collected almost twice as much snow and dust as those grounded. These observations suggest that under the prevailing weather conditions in polar regions the probable net effect is deposition of greater quantities of dust, including diaspores and minute organisms, on wet, grounded surfaces. This hypothesis needs examination for its use in explanation of biological distribution patterns.

  2. Lightning-driven electric fields measured in the lower ionosphere: Implications for transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeremy N.; Barnum, Benjamin H.; Lay, Erin; Holzworth, Robert H.; Cho, Mengu; Kelley, Michael C.

    2008-12-01

    Transient luminous events above thunderstorms such as sprites, halos, and elves require large electric fields in the lower ionosphere. Yet very few in situ measurements in this region have been successfully accomplished, since it is typically too low in altitude for rockets and satellites and too high for balloons. In this article, we present some rare examples of lightning-driven electric field changes obtained at 75-130 km altitude during a sounding rocket flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, in 1995. We summarize these electric field changes and present a few detailed case studies. Our measurements are compared directly to a 2D numerical model of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the middle and upper atmosphere. We find that the in situ electric field changes are smaller than predicted by the model, and the amplitudes of these fields are insufficient for elve production when extrapolated to a 100 kA peak current stroke. This disagreement could be due to lightning-induced ionospheric conductivity enhancement, or it might be evidence of flaws in the electromagnetic pulse mechanism for elves.

  3. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul William

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  4. Fine optical alignment correction of astronomical spectrographs via in-situ full-field moment-based wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    The image moment-based wavefront sensing (IWFS) utilizes moments of focus-modulated focal plane images to determine modal wavefront aberrations. This permits fast, easy, and accurate measurement of wavefront error (WFE) on any available finite-sized isolated targets across the entire focal plane (FP) of an imaging system, thereby allowing not only in-situ full-field image quality assessment, but also deterministic fine alignment correction of the imaging system. We present an experimental demonstration where fine alignment correction of a fast camera system in a fiber-fed astronomical spectrograph, called VIRUS, is accomplished by using IWFS.

  5. Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Cheng; Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-23

    By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

  6. Electric and magnetic fields in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wowk, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetic warming has a long history in cryobiology as a preferred method for recovering large tissue masses from cryopreservation, especially from cryopreservation by vitrification. It is less well-known that electromagnetic fields may be able to influence ice formation during cryopreservation by non-thermal mechanisms. Both theory and published data suggest that static and oscillating electric fields can respectively promote or inhibit ice formation under certain conditions. Evidence is less persuasive for magnetic fields. Recent claims that static magnetic fields smaller than 1 mT can improve cryopreservation by freezing are specifically questioned.

  7. Field-aligned currents and large scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1980-01-01

    D'Angelo's model of polar cap electric fields (1977) was used to visualize how high-latitude field-aligned currents are driven by the solar wind generator. The region 1 and region 2 currents of Iijima and Potemra (1976) and the cusp field-aligned currents of Wilhjelm et al. (1978) and McDiarmid et al. (1978) are apparently driven by different generators, although in both cases the solar wind is their ultimate source.

  8. Correction of in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates for geomagnetic field intensity variations during the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Jozef; Frank, Martin; Schäfer, Jörg M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2001-09-01

    We present integrated relative production rates for cosmogenic nuclides in rock surfaces, which take into account reported variations of the geomagnetic field intensity during the past 800,000 yr. The calculations are based on the model simulating cosmic ray particle interactions with the Earth's atmosphere given by Masarik and Beer ["Simulation of particle fluxes and cosmogenic nuclide production in the Earth's atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 104(D10), 12099-12111, 1999]. Corrections are nearly independent on altitude between sea level and at least 5000 m. The correction factors are essentially identical for all stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides with half-lives longer than a few hundred thousand years. At the equator, integrated production rates for exposure ages between ˜40,000 to 800,000 yr are 10 to 12% higher than the present-day values, whereas at latitudes >40°, geomagnetic field intensity variations have hardly influenced in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Correction factors for in situ 14C production rates differ from those of longer-lived nuclides. They are always smaller than ˜2% because the magnetic field intensity remained rather constant during the past ˜10 kyr, when the major fraction of the 14C extant today was produced.

  9. Critical electric field strengths of onion tissues treated by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Ersus, Seda; Ristenpart, William; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on cellular integrity and texture of Ranchero and Sabroso onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated. Electrical properties, ion leakage rate, texture, and amount of enzymatically formed pyruvate were measured before and after PEF treatment for a range of applied field strengths and number of pulses. Critical electric field strengths or thresholds (E(c)) necessary to initiate membrane rupture were different because dissimilar properties were measured. Measurement of electrical characteristics was the most sensitive method and was used to detect the early stage of plasma membrane breakdown, while pyruvate formation by the enzyme alliinase was used to identify tonoplast membrane breakdown. Our results for 100-μs pulses indicate that breakdown of the plasma membrane occurs above E(c)= 67 V/cm for 10 pulses, but breakdown of the tonoplast membrane is above either E(c)= 200 V/cm for 10 pulses or 133 V/cm for 100 pulses. This disparity in field strength suggests there may be 2 critical electrical field strengths: a lower field strength for plasma membrane breakdown and a higher field strength for tonoplast membrane breakdown. Both critical electric field strengths depended on the number of pulses applied. Application of a single pulse at an electric field up to 333 V/cm had no observable effect on any measured properties, while significant differences were observed for n≥10. The minimum electric field strength required to cause a measurable property change decreased with the number of pulses. The results also suggest that PEF treatment may be more efficient if a higher electric field strength is applied for a fewer pulses.

  10. Field application of activated carbon amendment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ghosh, Upal; Kennedy, Alan J; Grossman, Adam; Ray, Gary; Tomaszewski, Jeanne E; Smithenry, Dennis W; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2009-05-15

    We report results on the first field-scale application of activated carbon (AC) amendment to contaminated sediment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The test was performed on a tidal mud flat at South Basin, adjacent to the former Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA. The major goals of the field study were to (1) assess scale up of the AC mixing technology using two available, large-scale devices, (2) validate the effectiveness of the AC amendment at the field scale, and (3) identify possible adverse effects of the remediation technology. Also, the test allowed comparison among monitoring tools, evaluation of longer-term effectiveness of AC amendment, and identification of field-related factors that confound the performance of in-situ biological assessments. Following background pretreatment measurements, we successfully incorporated AC into sediment to a nominal 30 cm depth during a single mixing event, as confirmed by total organic carbon and black carbon contents in the designated test plots. The measured AC dose averaged 2.0-3.2 wt% and varied depending on sampling locations and mixing equipment. AC amendment did not impact sediment resuspension or PCB release into the water column over the treatment plots, nor adversely impactthe existing macro benthic community composition, richness, or diversity. The PCB bioaccumulation in marine clams was reduced when exposed to sediment treated with 2% AC in comparison to the control plot Field-deployed semi permeable membrane devices and polyethylene devices showed about 50% reduction in PCB uptake in AC-treated sediment and similar reduction in estimated pore-water PCB concentration. This reduction was evident even after 13-month post-treatment with then 7 months of continuous exposure, indicating AC treatment efficacy was retained for an extended period. Aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations and PCB desorption showed an AC-dose response. Field-exposed AC after 18 months

  11. In-situ Chemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids from Black Smokers in Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Foustoukos, D.; Pester, N. J.

    2005-12-01

    After an off-axis earthquake swarm in 1999, dramatic changes were observed in vent fluids of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Three month latter, we also recorded this sudden variation using a high temperature in-situ chemical sensor. The results at that time indicated some of the vent temperatures as high as 374°C. This change was also characterized by relatively high in-situ pH, high dissolved H2, and H2S concentrations in the fluids that were in excess of 5, 0.7 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg respectively. In order to further track time dependent changes over the past 6 years, we revisited Main Endeavour Field during the recent AT 11-31 cruise in Aug.~Sept. 2005. The high temperature chemical sensor was again used on selected dives with DSV Alvin to conduct in-situ measurements of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations along with temperatures. The data were obtained in a real time mode of 3 seconds per-reading from a series of measurements at high temperature conditions in the depth of 2200 m. Conventional gas-tight samples were also collected for verification and further study. In this study, Puffer, Sully and Bastille black smoker vent sites were specifically investigated owing to the high fluid temperatures that characterize these vents in comparison with other vents in the area. The measured temperatures for these vents were 362°C, 358°C, and 361°C respectively, which were generally about 20~30°C higher than the others currently in the area, but approximately 10°C lower than the highest temperatures measured in the aftermath of the 1999 seismic-magmatic event. Although the drops in vent temperatures were not substantial, the measured in-situ chemistry showed large departures from previous reported data. The in-situ pH values in these vents ranged from 4.43 to 4.89, in comparison with values above 5 in 1999. This difference may be linked directly to the decrease in temperature. The measured in-situ dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations were 0

  12. Photoionization of atomic hydrogen in electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, Timofey V; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2010-01-01

    Laser assisted ionization of high energy hydrogen beams in magnetic fields opens wide application possibilities in accelerator physics and other fields. The key theoretical problem of the method is the calculation of the ionization probability of a hydrogen atom affected by laser and static electric fields in the particle rest frame. A method of solving this problem with the temporal Schr dinger equation including a continuum spectrum is presented in this paper in accurate form for the first time. This method allows finding the temporal evolution of the wave function of the hydrogen atom as a function of laser and static electric fields. Solving the problem of photoionization reveals quantum effects that cannot be described by the cross sectional approach. The effects play a key role in the problems of photoionization of H0 beams with the large angular or energy spread.

  13. Electric current quadratic in an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyo, Eric

    The theory of the photogalvanic effect in a low frequency electric field is developed. We complete the semiclassical theory of the effect in bulk samples lacking inversion symmetry, taking into account contributions from the asymmetry of scattering, the shift current, and the effect of Berry's phase. We consider the effect in such samples both in the presence and absence of a constant magnetic field. It is found that by experimentally measuring this effect, that Berry's curvature and the average shift of the center of mass of an electron during a scattering event can be extracted. We also investigate the magnetic field dependence of the part of the electrical current which is quadratic in voltage in mesoscopic conductors. We find that the part of the current which is quadratic in bias voltage, and linear in an applied magnetic field can be related to the effective electron-electron interaction strength. We also find that in the case when the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the plane of a two dimensional sample, that the spin-orbit scattering rate can be measured.

  14. Full Electric Field Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Exchange bias is the shift of a magnetic hysteresis curve due to interfacial magnetic coupling between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM). This ubiquitous effect has long been used in the electronics industry to bias the magnetization of FM layers in magnetic devices. Its continued understanding is of critical importance to advance the development of future high-density magnetic storage media and other novel magnetic devices. However, due to the technological limitations of manipulating and observing an atomically thin interface, exchange bias is not well understood. In this talk we present a multiferroic field effect device with BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) as the gate dielectric and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) as the conducting channel, which exhibits the direct, bipolar electric control of exchange bias. Here the magnetic states at the AFM/FM interface can be directly manipulated with electric fields and the results can be observed as a change in exchange bias polarity and magnitude. Control of exchange bias at this level has significant implications because it represents a form of electric field control of magnetism and may potentially offer a route toward the eventual full electric field control of magnetization. In this device, exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond BFO poling is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Detailed temperature dependent measurements and a model will be presented which will attribute this effect to the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3 + / 4 + in LSMO.

  15. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves in DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    The results of experimental studies of the propagation of longitudinal waves in saturated rock samples in which there is a flow of electric charges are presented. It is shown that the electric field affects elastic parameters in heterophase media by changing their dynamic characteristics. The aim of the study of the effect of electric field on the propagation of elastic waves in saturated porous media was to determine the optimum conditions for this effect, and to construct a set of effective parameters which could be used to increase the effectiveness of seismoacoustic prospecting methods, particularly acoustic logging, and be helpful for developing new methods of increasing the effectiveness of oil extraction from productive wells.

  16. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  17. Kinetic dissolution of carbonates and Mn oxides in acidic water: Measurement of in situ field rates and reactive transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of carbonate and Mn oxide dissolution under acidic conditions were examined through the in situ exposure of pure phase samples to acidic ground water in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona. The average long-term calculated in situ dissolution rates for calcite and dolomite were 1.65??10-7 and 3.64??10-10 mmol/(cm2 s), respectively, which were about 3 orders of magnitude slower than rates derived in laboratory experiments by other investigators. Application of both in situ and lab-derived calcite and dolomite dissolution rates to equilibrium reactive transport simulations of a column experiment did not improve the fit to measured outflow chemistry: at the spatial and temporal scales of the column experiment, the use of an equilibrium model adequately simulated carbonate dissolution in the column. Pyrolusite (MnO2) exposed to acidic ground water for 595 days increased slightly in weight despite thermodynamic conditions that favored dissolution. This result might be related to a recent finding by another investigator that the reductive dissolution of pyrolusite is accompanied by the precipitation of a mixed Mn-Fe oxide species. In PHREEQC reactive transport simulations, the incorporation of Mn kinetics improved the fit between observed and simulated behavior at the column and field scales, although the column-fitted rate for Mn-oxide dissolution was about 4 orders of magnitude greater than the field-fitted rate. Remaining differences between observed and simulated contaminant transport trends at the Pinal Creek site were likely related to factors other than the Mn oxide dissolution rate, such as the concentration of Fe oxide surface sites available for adsorption, the effects of competition among dissolved species for available surface sites, or reactions not included in the model.

  18. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future.

  19. Non-intrusive electric field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, S. M.; Selfridge, R.; Chadderdon, S.; Perry, D.; Stan, N.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of non-intrusive electric field sensing. The non-intrusive nature is attained by creating a sensor that is entirely dielectric, has a small cross-sectional area, and has the interrogation electronics a long distance away from the system under test. One non-intrusive electric field sensing technology is the slab coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS). The SCOS consists of an electro-optic crystal attached to the surface of a D-shaped optical fiber. It is entirely dielectric and has a cross-sectional area down to 0.3mm by 0.3mm. The SCOS device functions as an electric field sensor through use of resonant mode coupling between the crystal waveguide and the core of a D-shaped optical fiber. The resonant mode coupling of a SCOS device occurs at specific wavelengths whose spectral locations are determined in part by the effective refractive index of the modes in the slab. An electric field changes the refractive index of the slab causing a shift in the spectral position of the resonant modes. This paper describes an overview of the SCOS technology including the theory, fabrication, and operation. The effect of crystal orientation and crystal type are explained with respect to directional sensitivity and frequency response.

  20. Nonthermal processing by radio frequency electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is relatively new and has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice, orange juice and apple cider at moderately low temperatures. Key equipment components of the process include a radio frequency power supply and a treatment chamber that is ca...

  1. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  2. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  3. A high-altitude balloon experiment to probe stratospheric electric fields from low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurubaran, Subramanian; Shanmugam, Manu; Jawahar, Kaliappan; Emperumal, Kaliappan; Mahavarkar, Prasanna; Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's electrical environment hosts a giant electrical circuit, often referred to as the global electric circuit (GEC), linking the various sources of electrical generators located in the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. The middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) has been traditionally believed to be passively transmitting electric fields generated elsewhere. Some observations have reported anomalously large electric fields at these altitudes, and the scientific community has had to revisit the earlier hypothesis time and again. At stratospheric altitudes and especially at low latitudes, horizontal electric fields are believed to be of ionospheric origin. Though measurements of these fields from a balloon platform are challenging because of their small magnitudes (around a few mV m-1), a suitably designed long-duration balloon experiment capable of detecting such small fields can provide useful information on the time evolution of ionospheric electric fields, which is otherwise possible only using radar or satellite in situ measurements. We present herein details of one such experiment, BEENS (Balloon Experiment on the Electrodynamics of Near Space), carried out from a low-latitude site in India. The instrument package for this experiment is comprised of four deployable booms for measurements of horizontal electric fields and one inclined boom for vertical electric field measurements, all equipped with conducting spheres at the tip. The experiment was conducted from Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.6° E) during the post-midnight hours on 14 December 2013. In spite of a few shortcomings we report herein, a noticeable feature of the observations has been the detection of horizontal electric fields of ˜ 5 mV m-1 at the stratospheric altitudes of ˜ 35 km.

  4. In situ study through electrical resistance of growth rate of trifluoroacetate-based solution-derived YBa2Cu3O7 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Valdés, C. F.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we have studied by means of in situ electrical measurements the nucleation, growth and sintering stages of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O6+δ (YBCO) superconducting thin films prepared using a chemical solution deposition approach based on metal-organic trifluoroacetate-based (TFA) precursors. Single crystal substrates (LaAlO3 and CeO2/YSZ) were used in this study. Analysis of isothermal time dependences, at different temperatures, of in situ electrical resistance of films allowed to evidence that the growth rate G is strongly temperature dependent, i.e. G is enhanced by a factor ˜15 when going from 700 to 810 °C. Additionally, we demonstrate that adding Ag-TFA in the solution may enhance the growth rate by as much as 50%, as compared to pure YBCO, thus confirming previous assessments of the strong influence of Ag doping on YBCO film growth and microstructure. In situ electrical resistance measurements show as well that an incubation time exists and we infer the origin of its temperature dependence. Finally, a thermodynamic analysis allows proposing a single equation for the growth rate of YBCO films integrating all the relevant processing parameters. Our analysis has validated the solid-gas reaction-diffusion model describing the growth of YBCO films from TFA precursors and thus enlarges the knowledge required to enhance the control of the microstructure and superconducting properties of solution-derived YBCO films.

  5. Initial Determinations of Ionospheric Electric Fields and Joule Heating from MAVEN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.; Aleryani, O.; Dunn, P.; Lillis, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.

    2015-12-01

    MAVEN provides in-situ measurements of the neutral and ion species as well as the magnetic field throughout the ionosphere of Mars. By combining these measurements, we are able to calculate both the ionospheric currents and the ionospheric conductivity. It is then straightforward to determine the electric field in the collisional ionosphere from a simplified Ohm's law. In addition, we can also estimate the amount of Joule heating in the ionosphere from j · E. Here, we show initial determinations of both ionospheric electric fields and Joule heating using MAVEN data. The electric fields are highly variable from orbit-to-orbit suggesting that the ionospheric electrodynamics can change on timescales of several hours. These changes may be driven by changes in the upstream solar wind and IMF or may result from dynamical variations of thermospheric neutral winds.

  6. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  7. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases.

  8. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  9. Electric fields in Scanning Electron Microscopy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arat, K. T.; Bolten, J.; Klimpel, T.; Unal, N.

    2016-03-01

    The electric field distribution and charging effects in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were studied by extending a Monte-Carlo based SEM simulator by a fast and accurate multigrid (MG) based 3D electric field solver. The main focus is on enabling short simulation times with maintaining sufficient accuracy, so that SEM simulation can be used in practical applications. The implementation demonstrates a gain in computation speed, when compared to a Gauss-Seidel based reference solver is roughly factor of 40, with negligible differences in the result (~10-6 𝑉). In addition, the simulations were compared with experimental SEM measurements using also complex 3D sample, showing that i) the modelling of e-fields improves the simulation accuracy, and ii) multigrid method provide a significant benefit in terms of simulation time.

  10. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  11. Field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasuhara, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the observed distribution of the ionospheric electric field can be deduced from an equation combining Ohm's law with the current continuity equation by using the 'observed' distribution of field-aligned currents as the boundary condition for two models of the ionosphere. The first model has one conductive annular ring representing the quiet-time auroral precipitation belt; the second has two conductive annular rings that simulate the discrete and diffuse auroral regions. An analysis is performed to determine how well the electric-field distribution can be reproduced. The results indicate that the first model reproduces the Sq(p)-type distribution, the second model reproduces reasonably well a substorm-type potential and ionospheric current patterns together with the Harang discontinuity, and that the distribution of field-aligned currents is the same for both models.

  12. Final review of analog field campaigns for In Situ Resource Utilization technology and capability maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of enabling an affordable and sustainable program of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is the ability to locate, extract, and harness the resources found in space to reduce what needs to be launched from Earth's deep gravity well and to minimize the risk of dependence on Earth for survival. Known as In Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, the ability to convert space resources into useful and mission critical products has been shown in numerous studies to be mission and architecture enhancing or enabling. However at the time of the release of the US Vision for Space Exploration in 2004, only concept feasibility hardware for ISRU technologies and capabilities had been built and tested in the laboratory; no ISRU hardware had ever flown in a mission to the Moon or Mars. As a result, an ISRU development project was established with phased development of multiple generations of hardware and systems. To bridge the gap between past ISRU feasibility hardware and future hardware needed for space missions, and to increase confidence in mission and architecture planners that ISRU capabilities would meet exploration needs, the ISRU development project incorporated extensive ground and analog site testing to mature hardware, operations, and interconnectivity with other exploration systems linked to ISRU products. This report documents the series of analog test activities performed from 2008 to 2012, the stepwise progress achieved, and the end-to-end system and mission demonstrations accomplished in this test program.

  13. In-situ neutron scattering studies of magnetic shape memory alloys under stress, temperature, and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W; Sisneros, Thomas A; Kabra, Saurabh; Schlagel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized the SMARTS engineering neutron diffractometer to study the crystallographic orientation and phase transformations in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni 2MnGa under conditions of temperature (200-600K), stress (500MPa), and magnetic field (2T). Neutrons are uniquely suited to probe the crystallographic response of materials to external stimuli because of their high penetration, which allows them to sample the bulk of the material (as opposed to the surface) as well as pass through environmental chambers. A single crystal of Ni{sub 5}MnGa was repeatedly thermally cycled through the Austenitic-Martensitic phase transformation under varying conditions of applied stress, magnetic field or both. In-situ neutron diffraction was used to quantitatively monitor the population of the crystallographic variants in the martensitic phase as a function of the external stimuli during cooling. Neutron diffraction was used to monitor variant selection in the Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Ni{sub 2}Mn Ga during austenitic to martensitic transformation under varying conditions of externally applied stress and magnetic field. Qualitatively, the results were to be expected in this simple example. The shorter and magnetically soft c-axis of the tetragonal martensitic phase aligned with the compressive stress or magnetic field. However, neutron diffraction proved useful in directly quantifying the selection of the preferred variant by external influence. For instance, by quantifying the variant selection, the neutron diffraction results made apparent that the sample 'remembered' a loading cycle following a 'reset' cycle with no external applied stress. Moreover, the power of in-situ neutron diffraction will become more apparent when applied to more complex, less understood, samples such as polycrystalline samples or composite samples.

  14. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Kurt J; King, Lyon B; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-16

    An extreme electric field on the order of 10(10) V m(-1) was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  15. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhune, Kurt J.; King, Lyon B.; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-01

    An extreme electric field on the order of 1010 V m-1 was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  16. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  17. Magnetic field and in situ stress dependence of elastic behavior in EuTiO3 from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemer, Jason; Spalek, Leszek J.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Katsufuji, Takuro; Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Köhler, Jürgen; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling phenomena in EuTiO3 are of considerable fundamental interest and are also understood to be key to reported multiferroic behavior in strained films, which exhibit distinctly different properties to the bulk. Here, the magnetoelastic coupling of EuTiO3 is investigated by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy with in situ applied magnetic field and stress as a function of temperature ranging from temperatures above the structural transition temperature T s to below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature T n. One single crystal and two polycrystalline samples are investigated and compared to each other. Both paramagnetic and diamagnetic transducer carriers are used, allowing an examination of the effect of both stress and magnetic field on the behavior of the sample. The properties are reported in constant field/variable temperature and in constant temperature/variable field mode where substantial differences between both data sets are observed. In addition, elastic and magnetic poling at high fields and stresses at low temperature has been performed in order to trace the history dependence of the elastic constants. Four different temperature regions are identified, characterized by unusual elastic responses. The low-temperature phase diagram has been explored and found to exhibit rich complexity. The data evidence a considerable relaxation of elastic constants at high temperatures, but with little effect from magnetic field alone above 20 K, in addition to the known low-temperature coupling.

  18. Fiber optic electric field sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzynski, J.; De Paula, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of piezoactive plastics are reviewed as well as the fiber-optic electric field sensors studied so far. A particular configuration consisting of a concentric piezoactive jacket on the glass fiber is discussed in detail and the frequency response of this sensor is projected over a wide range of frequencies. The present design has the practical advantages of leading to a compact lightweight sensor; longer fiber lengths may be used to increase sensitivity. It is predicted that, at low frequencies, a fiber-optic antenna using a 1-km length of fiber would be capable of detecting a minimum electric field of 43 microV/m assuming a minimum phase sensitivity of 10 to the -6th radians for the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  19. Microbiological and Geochemical Heterogeneity in an In Situ Uranium Bioremediation Field Site

    PubMed Central

    Vrionis, Helen A.; Anderson, Robert T.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; O'Neill, Kathleen R.; Resch, Charles T.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Dayvault, Richard; White, David C.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemistry and microbiology of a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment that had undergone two seasons of acetate addition to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction was examined. There were distinct horizontal and vertical geochemical gradients that could be attributed in large part to the manner in which acetate was distributed in the aquifer, with more reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate occurring at greater depths and closer to the point of acetate injection. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes derived from sediments and groundwater indicated an enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the order Desulfobacterales in sediment and groundwater samples. These samples were collected nearest the injection gallery where microbially reducible Fe(III) oxides were highly depleted, groundwater sulfate concentrations were low, and increases in acid volatile sulfide were observed in the sediment. Further down-gradient, metal-reducing conditions were present as indicated by intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratios, lower acid volatile sulfide values, and increased abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the dissimilatory Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducing family Geobacteraceae. Maximal Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction correlated with maximal recovery of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene sequences in both groundwater and sediment; however, the sites at which these maxima occurred were spatially separated within the aquifer. The substantial microbial and geochemical heterogeneity at this site demonstrates that attempts should be made to deliver acetate in a more uniform manner and that closely spaced sampling intervals, horizontally and vertically, in both sediment and groundwater are necessary in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding of microbial processes and the relative contribution of attached and planktonic populations to in situ uranium bioremediation. PMID:16204552

  20. Influence of Large Syncline on In Situ Stress Field: A Case Study of the Kaiping Coalfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Hongwei; Liang, Bin; Rong, Hai; Lan, Tianwei; Liu, Yuanzheng; Ren, Ting

    2016-11-01

    Kaiping coalfield is located in Tangshan, northern China, and the area has been mined for 130 years. The main structure is the Kaiping syncline with an axis that generally strikes north-east to east-west. Since 1998, we have measured the in situ stress using overcoring and obtained 30 sets of data in eight coal mines with depths from -260 to -1238 m. Based on the measured data, we established the trends in maximum horizontal stress, vertical stress, minimum horizontal stress, and their ratios, and the ratio of mean horizontal stress to vertical stress and depth. The relationship between magnitude and orientation of maximum horizontal stress and their relationships to the Kaiping syncline are discussed. The results show that (1) the stress field of the Kaiping coalfield is complex and non-uniform. The orientation and magnitude of principal stress from stress measurement diverge widely from the regional stress field and the stress regime, with 77 % strike-slip faulting and the remainder thrust faulting. (2) Both maximum ( σ H) and minimum ( σ h) horizontal stresses have significant differences at a similar depth; however, vertical stress σ v increases linearly with depth with a gradient of 0.025 MPa/m. The ratio ( k) of the mean horizontal stress to vertical stress is 160/ h + 1.04 < k < 300/ h + 1.14. This is higher at shallow depth and gradually decreases as depth increases. Up to 90 % of σ H/ σ h falls between 1.17 and 2.39 with an average of 1.96, and it is not closely related to depth. The σ H /σ v ranges from 1.06 to 2.43 with a bandwidth of 1 and decreases gradually with increasing depth. (3) The in situ stress field in the Kaiping coalfield is the result of the synthetic action of different levels of geological structures where both the orientation and magnitude of in situ stress are influenced by the Kaiping syncline. The σ H near the axis of the Kaiping syncline is remarkably high and decreases 8 km from the axis. The orientation of σ H near the

  1. Electric fields produced by Florida thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Krider, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five field mill sites provided data on the electric fields produced during both the intense and the final, less active periods of summer air mass thunderstorms in east central Florida. During the periods of intense lightning activity, time- and area-averaged fields were usually -0.8 to -2.1 kV/m, while for the less active periods, the field values were typically in the range of -2.3 to -4.3 kV/m. Furthermore, during the active storm periods, which represented about 27% of the total storm durations, about 71% of all lightning discharges occurred. Also, fewer lightning discharges in the final storm period than in the active period reached the ground.

  2. High-Speed Electric Field Measurements and Lightning Mapping Observations at Langmuir Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Winn, W. P.; Aulich, G.; Hunyady, S. J.; Thomas, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    During the summer of 2007 we recorded broadband RF radiation waveforms, together with ground-based slow and fast electric field waveforms, from lightning in the vicinity of Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico. Three-dimensional observations of the lightning flashes from New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) give context for interpreting the RF and electric field waveforms. In addition, high-speed in-situ vector electric field waveforms were recorded by a newly developed balloon-borne instrument. The broadband RF radiation was received using a Rhode & Schwarz model HE010 active rod antenna with a 100~MHz bandwidth, which was sampled at up to 400~MHz. Log-detected RF waveforms for two side-by-side LMA stations, one operating at 63 MHz (TV channel 3) and the other at 183 MHz (TV channel 9), and ground-based fast and slow electric field waveforms, were digitized at 25~MHz. All ground-based waveforms had a depth of 1~second, and were time-tagged with a GPS receiver. These comprehensive datasets are being used to study various processes associated with lightning flashes --- in particular, to detect high-frequency electrical activity at the onset of a flash. The ground based measurements, in conjunction with the in-situ vector field measurements, will be used to study the transfer of charge during a flash. Measurements of the log-detected RF (which is used by the LMA to map lightning flashes), in conjunction with the broadband RF and electric field waveforms, will help us better understand what types of events are detected and located by the LMA. In this paper we will present the results for a few interesting lightning flashes. ~

  3. Field Testing of Downgradient Uranium Mobility at an In-Situ Recovery Uranium Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Clay, J. T.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Chamberlain, K.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ recovery (ISR) mining of uranium involves the injection of O2 and CO2 (or NaHCO3) into saturated roll-front deposits to oxidize and solubilize the uranium, which is then removed by ion exchange at the surface and processed into U3O8. While ISR is economical and environmentally-friendly relative to conventional mining, one of the challenges of extracting uranium by this process is that it leaves behind a geochemically-altered aquifer that is exceedingly difficult to restore to pre-mining geochemical conditions, a regulatory objective. In this research, we evaluated the ability of the aquifer downgradient of an ISR mining area to attenuate the transport of uranium and other problem constituents that are mobilized by the mining process. Such an evaluation can help inform both regulators and the mining industry as to how much restoration of the mined ore zone is necessary to achieve regulatory compliance at various distances downgradient of the mining zone even if complete restoration of the ore zone proves to be difficult or impossible. Three single-well push-pull tests and one cross-well test were conducted in which water from an unrestored, previously-mined ore zone was injected into an unmined ore zone that served as a geochemical proxy for the downgradient aquifer. In all tests, non-reactive tracers were injected with the previously-mined ore zone water to allow the transport of uranium and other constituents to be compared to that of the nonreactive species. In the single-well tests, it was shown that the recovery of uranium relative to the nonreactive tracers ranged from 12-25%, suggesting significant attenuation capacity of the aquifer. In the cross-well test, selenate, molybdate and metavanadate were injected with the unrestored water to provide information on the transport of these potentially-problematic anionic constituents. In addition to the species-specific transport information, this test provided valuable constraints on redox conditions within

  4. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Microphysics Within Winter Storms Using Field Data and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Molthan, Andrew; Yu, Ruyi; Nesbitt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Snow prediction within models is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment over southern Ontario, as well as a few years (12 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. The GCPex presentation will focus on verification using aircraft spirals through warm frontal snow band event on 18 February 2012. All the BMPs realistically simulated the structure of the band and the vertical distribution of snow/ice aloft, except the SBU-YLIN overpredicted slightly and Thompson (THOM) underpredicted somewhat. The Morrison (MORR) scheme produced the best slope size distribution for snow, while the Stony Brook (SBU) underpredicted and the THOM slightly overpredicted. Those schemes that have the slope intercept a function of temperature (SBU and WSM6) tended to perform better for that parameter than others, especially the fixed intercept in Goddard. Overall, the spread among BMPs was smaller than in other studies, likely because there was limited riming with the band. For the 15 cases at SBNY, which include moderate and heavy riming events, the non-spherical snow assumption (THOM and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic

  5. Using Analog Field Tests To Link and Prepare Science and In-Situ Resource Utilization for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of NASA s human exploration program is to learn how to use the resources of space, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), to lower the cost and risk of human space exploration. Successful implementation of ISRU requires detailed knowledge of surface and subsurface materials, minerals, and volatiles that may be present. This same information is required to better understand the physical and geologic composition, structure, origin, and evolution of the Moon, Mars, and other extraterrestrial bodies of interest. It is also important to recognize that while ISRU and science objectives may be similar, the desired method or hardware to achieve the information desired may be drastically different. One method to promote understanding, coordination, and joint development of instruments and operations between Science and ISRU is the use of analog field demonstrations.

  6. In situ remediation of ground water contaminated with chromate and chlorinated solvents using zero-valent iron: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.; Powell, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    A small-scale field test was recently initiated to evaluate the in situ remediation of ground water contaminated with chromate and chlorinated organics using a permeable reactive barrier. The barrier was composed of an iron metal-coarse sand-native aquifer solid mixture, and was installed using a staggered {open_quotes}fence{close_quotes} design through large hollow-stem augers. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the ability of the cylinders or {open_quotes}fence posts{close_quotes} to remove contaminants from solution immediately downgradient and adjacent to the iron cylinders, evaluate the resultant changes in aqueous geochemistry induced by the presence of the zero-valent iron, and identify chemical, physical and biological processes which may affect long-term performance of such remedial technologies.

  7. In-Situ Formation of a Grain Boundary in Field Ion Microscopy Using a Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Gas Engineering, and Polymer Science. GRADUATE PROGRAMS AND FIELDS OF RESEARCH Ceramic Science, Fuel Science, Geochemistry and Mineralogy, Geography...and Polymer Science. UNIVERSITY-WIDE INTERDISCIPLINARY GRADUATE PROGRAMS INVOLVING E&MS FACULTY AND STUDENTS Earth Sciences, Ecology, Environmental

  8. Self-assembled ZnS nanowire arrays: synthesis, in situ Cu doping and field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Jiang, Xin; Li, Chun; Fang, Xiaosheng; Zeng, Haibo; Terao, Takeshi; Tang, Chengchun; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri

    2010-09-01

    Well-aligned single-crystalline ZnS nanowire arrays have been grown on highly conductive Cu substrates through controlling the morphology evolution of self-patterned ZnS nanoparticles. The ZnS nanowires have sharp tips with an average size of ~ 30 nm and a length of ~ 3 µm. Field emission measurements demonstrated that the aligned ZnS nanowires grown on Cu substrates are excellent field emitters having a turn-on field as low as 2.92 V µm - 1 and a field-enhancement factor as high as 3400. The use of highly conductive metal substrate may promote the commercial applications of ZnS-based emitters in flat panel displays and other optoelectronic devices.

  9. Electrical Grounding - a Field for Geophysicists and Electrical Engineers Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P. F.; Pane, E.; Guaraldo, N.

    2012-12-01

    , layered stratified or showing lateral variations, ranging down to several tens of kilometers deep, reaching the crust-mantle interface (typically with the order of 30-40 km). This work aims to analyze the constraints of the current soil models being used for grounding electrodes design, and suggests the need of a soil modeling methodology compatible with large grounding systems. Concerning the aspects related to soil modeling, electrical engineers need to get aware of geophysics resources, such as: - geophysical techniques for soil electrical resistivity prospection (down to about 15 kilometers deep); and - techniques for converting field measured data, from many different geophysical techniques, into adequate soil models for grounding grid simulation. It is also important to equalize the basic knowledge for the professionals that are working together for the specific purpose of soil modeling for electrical grounding studies. The authors have experienced the situation of electrical engineers working with geophysicists, but it was not clear for the latter the effective need of the electrical engineers, and for the engineers it was unknown the available geophysical resources, and also, what to do convert the large amount of soil resistivity data into a reliable soil model.

  10. In situ visualization study of CO 2 gas bubble behavior in DMFC anode flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhao, T. S.; Ye, Q.

    This paper reports on a visual study of the CO 2 bubble behavior in the anode flow field of an in-house fabricated transparent Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), which consisted of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an active area of 4.0 × 4.0 cm 2, two bipolar plates with a single serpentine channel, and a transparent enclosure. The study reveals that at low current densities, small discrete bubbles appeared in the anode flow field. At moderate current densities, a number of gas slugs formed, in addition to small discrete bubbles. And at high current densities, the flow field was predominated by rather long gas slugs. The experiments also indicate that the cell orientation had a significant effect on the cell performance, especially at low methanol flow rates; for the present flow field design the best cell performance could be achieved when the cell was orientated vertically. It has been shown that higher methanol solution flow rates reduced the average length and the number of gas slugs in the flow field, but led to an increased methanol crossover. In particular, the effect of methanol solution flow rates on the cell performance became more pronounced at low temperatures. The effect of temperature on the bubble behavior and the cell performance was also examined. Furthermore, for the present flow field consisting of a single serpentine channel, the channel-blocking phenomenon caused by CO 2 gas slugs was never encountered under all the test conditions in this work.

  11. Transient electrical field across cellular membranes: pulsed electric field treatment of microbial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkin, I. V.; MacGregor, S. J.; Fouracre, R. A.; Crichton, B. H.; Anderson, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of liquid and pumpable products contaminated with microorganisms has attracted significant interest from the pulsed power and bioscience research communities particularly because the inactivation mechanism is non-thermal, thereby allowing retention of the original nutritional and flavour characteristics of the product. Although the biological effects of PEF have been studied for several decades, the physical mechanisms of the interaction of the fields with microorganisms is still not fully understood. The present work is a study of the dynamics of the electrical field both in a PEF treatment chamber with dielectric barriers and in the plasma (cell) membrane of a microbial cell. It is shown that the transient process can be divided into three physical phases, and models for these phases are proposed and briefly discussed. The complete dynamics of the time development of the electric field in a spherical dielectric shell representing the cellular membrane is then obtained using an analytical solution of the Ohmic conduction problem. It was found that the field in the membrane reaches a maximum value that could be two orders of magnitude higher than the original Laplacian electrical field in the chamber, and this value was attained in a time comparable to the field relaxation time in the chamber. Thus, the optimal duration of the field during PEF treatment should be equal to such a time.

  12. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    SciTech Connect

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  13. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  14. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    PubMed

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field.

  15. Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for In-Situ Planetary Mineralogy: Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Blaney, Diana; Wilson, Daniel W.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Richardson, Brandon S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a miniature telescope and spectrometer system intended for mapping terrain mineralogy over distances from 1.5 m to infinity with spatial sampling of 1.35 mrad over a 33 deg field, and spectral sampling of 10 nm in the 600-2500 nm range. The core of the system has been designed for operation in a Martian environment, but can also be used in a terrestrial environment when placed inside a vacuum vessel. We report the laboratory and field calibration data that include spatial and spectral calibration, and demonstrate the use of the system.

  16. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  17. Electric field-free gas breakdown in explosively driven generators

    SciTech Connect

    Shkuratov, Sergey I.; Baird, Jason; Talantsev, Evgueni F.; Altgilbers, Larry L.

    2010-07-15

    All known types of gas discharges require an electric field to initiate them. We are reporting on a unique type of gas breakdown in explosively driven generators that does not require an electric field.

  18. Validation of in situ networks via field sampling: case study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to so...

  19. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  20. Instrument development and field application of the in situ pH Calibrator at the Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    A novel, self-calibrating instrument for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point calibration of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to calibrate the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 Ω for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH Calibrator" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH Calibrator will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH Calibrator presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while

  1. Anomalous attenuation of the positive temperature coefficient of resistivity in a carbon-black-filled polymer composite with electrically conductive in situ microfibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang-Bin; Li, Zhong-Ming; Dai, Kun; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2006-07-01

    The positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) of in situ microfibrillar carbon black/poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polyethylene composite attenuates dramatically after a sufficient time of isothermal treatment without oxygen above the melting region of polyethylene. The inhomogeneous surface microstructure and the large size of the microfibrils are the key factors controlling PTCR attenuation, through which a model is proposed to explain this anomalous phenomenon. An effective approach is accordingly developed to prepare recyclable semicrystalline thermoplastic based electrically conductive polymer composite with steady conductivity in wide temperature range.

  2. Motional sideband excitation using rotating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A form of motional sideband excitation is described in which a rotating dipole electric field is applied asymmetrically onto a Penning-type trap in the presence of a mechanism for cooling the axial motion of the trapped particles. In contrast to the traditional motional sideband excitation, which uses an oscillating electric field, the rotating field results in only one active sideband in each sense of rotation and so avoids accidental excitation of the other sideband making it applicable to Penning-type traps with a large degree of anharmonicity. Expressions are derived for the magnetron radius expansion and compression rates attainable, and approximations are made for the case of strong and weak drives. A comparison is made with data, taken using a two-stage positron accumulator presented by Isaac [C. A. Isaac, C. J. Baker, T. Mortensen, D. P. van der Werf, and M. Charlton, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.033201 107, 033201 (2011)], showing good agreement between the model and experiment.

  3. Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Daniel Humphrey

    Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of

  4. Validation of in Situ Networks Via Field Sampling: Case Study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Bindlish, R.; Coopersmith, E. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Prueger, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to soil type or soil moisture. The representative character of this network can only be established by large scale field sampling to provide a calibration dataset. A team of samplers were deployed twice a week for the summer of 2014 to collect surface soil moisture data across a variety of land covers at 44 sites. These samples were compared and scaled to the domain to get a better understanding of the large scale soil moisture distributions and dynamics. In addition, comparisons are made to the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture product for the length of the network installation.

  5. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  6. Electric Field Dependence of Photo-Induced Field Emission Current.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, Charles Michael

    We have measured the photo-induced field emission current from a tungsten field emitter as a function of electric field. These experiments were performed with a retardation energy analyzer to measure total current and a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical differential energy analyzer to measure the energy resolved PFE current. The results of these experiments are compared with a simple theory of PFE, developed by Schwartz and Schaich, which is an extension of field emission theory including the surface photoeffect, but assuming constant photoexcitation matrix elements. Our experimental results disagree with this theory in two ways: First, for high fields and photon energy (electrons emitted above the field emission barrier maximum) theory predicts a larger increase in PFE current than is observed experimentally. Second, we have also confirmed the existence of a field dependent oscillatory component of the PFE current emitted from the W(110) surface with photon energies of 2.7 eV and 3.5 eV. The simple theory described here, as well as more sophisticated calculations, have been unable to explain this oscillatory feature. We have also reported, for the first time, the field dependence of the energy resolved PFE current measured with a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical energy analyzer. These preliminary results show evidence of the oscillatory component previously only observed in the total PFE current.

  7. Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young-Rainey Star Center

    SciTech Connect

    Juhlin, Randall; Butherus, Michael; Joseph Daniel; Ingle, David S.; Heron, Gorm; McGee, Bruce

    2004-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully completed a fieldscale remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at a site on the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center, Largo, Florida. The STAR Center is a former DOE facility. The remediation project covered an area of 930 m2 (10,000 ft2) and depths extending to 10.5 m (35 ft) below ground surface. In July 2001, DOE’s contractor awarded a subcontract to SteamTech Environmental Services for removal of NAPLs from a portion of the Northeast Site. The technologies used for remediation were steam-enhanced extraction and Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, an electrical resistive heating technology. McMillan-McGee Corporation implemented the process. Construction of the remediation system was completed in September 2002. Operations began immediately after construction, and active heating ended in February 2003. After operations were completed, confirmatory sampling was conducted over a 6-month period to verify the level of cleanup achieved. Results of the sampling showed that NAPL concentrations were reduced significantly below the required cleanup goals and, in most cases, below the regulatory maximum contaminant levels. Lessons learned relative to the design, construction, operation, confirmatory sampling approach, and subcontracting could benefit managers of similar remediation projects

  8. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    DAMD17-98-1-8519 TITLE: Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing 5b. GRANT NUMBER...To determine the effect of capacitively coupled electric field stimulation on tibial stress fracture healing in men and women. Methods: A

  9. Dynamic Recrystallization in Ice : In-Situ Observation of the Strain Field during Grain Nucleation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauve, T.; Montagnat, M.; Tommasi, A.; Vacher, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs in minerals, metals, ice and impact on large scale mechanisms as seismic anisotropy, mechanical properties inside the Earth mantle, material forming and anisotropic flow in polar ice sheet, for instance. In this frame, ice can be considered as a model material due to a strong viscoplastic anisotropy and deformation heterogeneities, which are precursors of the recrystallization. During creep deformation at high temperature, DRX occurs from 1% strain and involves grain nucleation and grain boundary migration. As DRX induces an evolution of microstructure and texture, it strongly affects the mechanical behavior, and it is expected to modify the strain field at the grain and/or the sample scale. Creep test (σ=0.5-0.8 MPa) were performed at high temperature (T/Tf 0,98) on granular polycrystalline ice (grains size 1mm) and columnar polycrystalline ice (microstructure 2D 1/2 in plane grain size 10mm) up to 18 % strain. Columnar ice provides interesting feature as it contains only one grain through the thickness and the columns are parallel. Post-deformation texture analysis with an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer (AITA) and with EBSD (Geoscience Montpellier) were used to investigate DRX impact on texture and microstructure, at different scales. With increasing strain texture evolves to a strong concentrated girdle with a preferential orientation of c-axis close to 35° from the compression axis. During the experiment, local strain field is measured on the surface of the sample by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) with a spatial resolution between 0.2 and 0.5 mm, and a strain resolution between 0.2% to 1%. Grain size being large, we obtain a relatively good intra-granular resolution of the strain field. Thanks to the 2D configuration of the columnar ice samples, we can superimpose the strain field measured by DIC. We will present an overview of the impact of DRX on the texture and microstructure, from the 3D configuration down to a

  10. Extracting Nucleon Magnetic Moments and Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-03-01

    Nucleon properties are investigated in background electric fields. As the magnetic moments of baryons affect their relativistic propagation in constant electric fields, electric polarizabilities cannot be determined without knowledge of magnetic moments. We devise combinations of baryon two-point functions in external electric fields to isolate both observables. Using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions, we demonstrate how magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities can be determined from lattice QCD simulations in background electric fields. We obtain results for both the neutron and proton. Our study is currently limited to electrically neutral sea quarks.

  11. Duskside enhancement of equatorial zonal electric field response to convection electric fields during the St. Patrick's Day storm on 17 March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Sripathi, S.; Veenadhari, B.; Heelis, R.; Ajith, K. K.; Gowtam, V. S.; Gurubaran, S.; Supnithi, P.; Le Huy, M.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial zonal electric field responses to prompt penetration of eastward convection electric fields (PPEF) were compared at closely spaced longitudinal intervals at dusk to premidnight sectors during the intense geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. At dusk sector (Indian longitudes), a rapid uplift of equatorial F layer to >550 km and development of intense equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were observed. These EPBs were found to extend up to 27.13°N and 25.98°S magnetic dip latitudes indicating their altitude development to ~1670 km at apex. In contrast, at few degrees east in the premidnight sector (Thailand-Indonesian longitudes), no significant height rise and/or EPB activity has been observed. The eastward electric field perturbations due to PPEF are greatly dominated at dusk sector despite the existence of background westward ionospheric disturbance dynamo (IDD) fields, whereas they were mostly counter balanced by the IDD fields in the premidnight sector. In situ observations from SWARM-A and SWARM-C and Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellites detected a large plasma density depletion near Indian equatorial region due to large electrodynamic uplift of F layer to higher than satellite altitudes. Further, this large uplift is found to confine to a narrow longitudinal sector centered on sunset terminator. This study brings out the significantly enhanced equatorial zonal electric field in response to PPEF that is uniquely confined to dusk sector. The responsible mechanisms are discussed in terms of unique electrodynamic conditions prevailing at dusk sector in the presence of convection electric fields associated with the onset of a substorm under southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz.

  12. Impact of electric fields on honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Biological effects in honey bee colonies under a 765-kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) were confirmed using controlled dosimetry and treatment reversal to replicate findings within the same season. Hives in the same environment but shielded from E field are normal, suggesting effects are caused by interaction of E field with the hive. Bees flying through the ambient E field are not demonstrably affected. Different thresholds and severity of effects were found in colonies exposed to 7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65 to 0.85 kV/m at incremental distances from the line. Most colonies exposed at 7 kV/m failed in 8 weeks and failed to overwinter at greater than or equal to4.1 kV/m. Data suggest the limit of a biological effects corridor lies between 15 and 27 m (4.1 and 1.8 kV/m) beyond the outer phase of the transmission line. Mechanisms to explain colony disturbance fall into two categories, direct perception of enhanced in-hive E fields, and perception of shock from induced currents. The same effects induced in colonies with total-hive E-field exposure can be reproduced with shock or E-field exposure of worker bees in extended hive entranceways (= porches). Full-scale experiments demonstrate bee exposure to E fields including 100 kV/m under moisture-free conditions within a non-conductive porch causes no detectable effect on colony behavior. Exposure of bees on a conductive (e.g. wet) substrate produces been disturbance, increased mortality, abnormal propolization, and possible impairment of colony growth. Thresholds for effects caused by step-potential-induced currents are: 275-350 nA - disturbance of single bees; 600 nA - onset of abnormal propolization; and 900 nA - sting.

  13. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  14. Effect of Precipitating Electrons on Stormtime Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C. L.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how scattering of electrons by waves in the plasma sheet and plasmasphere affects precipitating energy flux distributions and how the precipitating electrons modify the ionospheric conductivity and electric potentials during the large 17 March 2013 magnetic storm. Of particular interest is how electron precipitation in the evening sector affects the development of the Sub-auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) electric field that is observed at sub-auroral latitudes in that sector. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the stormtime precipitating electron distributions and the electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. We compare simulated trapped and precipitating electron flux distributions with measurements from Van Allen Probes/MagEIS, POES/TED and MEPED, respectively, to validate the electron loss model. Ground-based (SuperDARN) and in-situ (Van Allen Probes/EFW) observations of electric fields are compared with the simulation results. We discuss the effect of precipitating electrons on the SAPS and inner magnetospheric electric field through the data-model comparisons.

  15. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers (DLs) in plasmas are described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Somne dynamic features of the DLs are discussed; and it is demonstrated that DLs and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations, determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which the DLs form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a DL, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion whenever the ion flux into the DL is disrupted. Also considered is the generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials.

  16. Assembly of LIGA using Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    FEDDEMA, JOHN T.; WARNE, LARRY K.; JOHNSON, WILLIAM A.; OGDEN, ALLISON J.; ARMOUR, DAVID L.

    2002-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a device that uses electric fields to grasp and possibly levitate LIGA parts. This non-contact form of grasping would solve many of the problems associated with grasping parts that are only a few microns in dimensions. Scaling laws show that for parts this size, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominant over gravitational forces. This is why micro-parts often stick to mechanical tweezers. If these forces can be controlled under feedback control, the parts could be levitated, possibly even rotated in air. In this project, we designed, fabricated, and tested several grippers that use electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to grasp and release metal LIGA parts. The eventual use of this tool will be to assemble metal and non-metal LIGA parts into small electromechanical systems.

  17. Assembly of LIGA Using Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, J. T.; Warne, L. K.; Johnson, W. A.; Ogden, A. J.; Armour, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a device that uses electric fields to grasp and possibly levitate LlGA parts. This non-contact form of grasping would solve many of the problems associated with grasping parts that are only a few microns in dimensions. Scaling laws show that for parts this size, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominant over gravitational forces. This is why micro-parts often stick to mechanical tweezers. If these forces can be controlled under feedback control, the parts could be levitated, possibly even rotated in air. In this project, we designed, fabricated, and tested several grippers that use electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to grasp and release metal LlGA parts. The eventual use of this tool will be to assemble metal and non-metal LlGA parts into small electromechanical systems.

  18. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 12 and 13 entitled: Large scale field test of the Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, Sa V.; Hughes, B.M.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to instant degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electroosmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the field experiment conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, KY. The test site covered 15 feet wide by 10 feet across and 15 feet deep with steel panels as electrodes and wickdrains containing granular activated carbon as treatment zone& The electrodes and treatment zones were installed utilizing innovative adaptation of existing emplacement technologies. The unit was operated for four months, flushing TCE by electroosmosis from the soil into the treatment zones where it was trapped by the activated carbon. The scale up from laboratory units to this field scale was very successful with respect to electrical parameters as weft as electroosmotic flow. Soil samples taken throughout the site before and after the test showed over 98% TCE removal, with most samples showing greater than 99% removal.

  19. In situ rock strength and far field stress in the Nankai accretionary complex: Integration of downhole data from multiple wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, K. A.; Saffer, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Knowing the magnitude of tectonic stress and rock strength at seismically active margins is important towards understanding fault strength and failure mechanics, yet both are difficult to measure in situ. Recent work at subduction margins, including Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Subduction Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) drillsites, uses the width of compressional wellbore breakouts (BO), which depends on far field stress conditions, rock strength, and borehole annular pressure (APRS), to estimate the magnitude of horizontal principal stresses (SHmax and Shmin); estimates are problematic due to uncertainty in rock strength (unconfined compressive strength/UCS- for which direct measurements are scarce) and rheology that govern stress distribution at the wellbore. We conduct a novel case study at IODP Site C0002, where a hole was drilled twice with different boundary conditions, providing an opportunity to define in situ stress and strength from field data. Site C0002 is the main deep riser borehole for NanTroSEIZE, located near the seaward edge of the Kumano Basin above the seismogenic plate boundary, ~30 km from the trench. Several boreholes were drilled at the site. During IODP Expedition 314 in 2007, Hole C0002A was drilled with a suite of logging while drilling (LWD) tools to 1401 mbsf in a riserless mode. Hole C0002F, ~70 m away, was drilled to 862 mbsf in riserless mode during Exp. 326 in 2010 and deepened to 2005 mbsf in a riser mode during Expedition 338 in 2012-2013. Increased APRS achieved by riser drilling stabilizes the borehole and suppresses BO, consistent with resistivity imaging data from Exp. 314 that document well-developed, continuous BO throughout the borehole, and data from Expedition 338 indicating few BO. We use a semi-Newtonian approach to solve for stress and UCS consistent with the observed BO width and measured APRS in the two holes over the interval from 862-2005 mbsf. Effective SHmax ranges from ~10-30 MPa and

  20. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. . Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  1. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in ``electrical`` occupations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the ``electrical`` occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure? and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these ``electrical`` occupations? Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  2. A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose

    2004-02-01

    Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic

  3. Light Emitting Diodes and Astronomical Environments: Results from in situ Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    2015-05-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) light fixtures are rapidly becoming industry standards for outdoor lighting. They are promoted on the strength of long lifetimes (hence economic efficiencies), low power requirements, directability, active brightness controls, and energy efficiency. They also tend to produce spectral shifts that are undesirable in astronomical settings, but which can be moderated by filters. LED lighting for continuous roadway and parking lot lighting is particularly popular, and many communities are in the process of retrofitting Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) and other lights by tens of thousands of new LED fixtures at a time. What is the impact of this process on astronomical observatories and on dark skies upon which amateur astronomers rely? We bypass modeling and predictions to make actual measurements of these lights in the field. We report on original ground, airborne, and satellite observations of LED lights and discuss their light budgets, zenith angle functions, and impacts on observatory environs.

  4. The WATERMED field experiment: validation of the AATSR LST product with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E.; Soria, G.; Sobrino, J.; Remedios, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat Satellite, is the third in a series of a precision radiometers designed to measure Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with accuracies of better than ± 0.3 K (within 1-sigma limit). Since its launch in March 2001, a prototype AATSR Land Surface Temperature (LST) product has been produced for validation purposes only, with the product becoming operational from mid-2004. The (A)ATSR instrument design is unique in that it has both a nadir- and a forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths, thus enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving surface temperature. It also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system for its infrared channels, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives extremely high radiometric sensitivity and precision. In this presentation, results from a comparison of the prototype LST product with ground-based measurements obtained at the WATERMED (WATer use Efficiency in natural vegetation and agricultural areas by Remote sensing in the MEDiterranean basin) field site near Marrakech, Morocco, are presented. The comparison shows that the AATSR has a positive bias of + 1.5 K, with a standard deviation of 0.7 K, indicating that the product is operating within the target specification (± 2.5 K) over the WATERMED field site. However, several anomalous validation points were observed during the analysis and we will discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of these data, including their coincidence with the presence of an Envisat blanking pulse (indicating the presence of a radar pulse at the time of AATSR pixel integration). Further investigation into this matter is required as previous investigations have always indicated that the presence of a payload radar pulse does not have any effect on (A)ATSR data quality.

  5. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines.

  6. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-12-21

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  7. The effect of rotating magnetic field on the microstructure of in situ TiB2/Cu composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, C.; Kang, H.; Li, R.; Li, M.; Wang, W.; Chen, Z.; Wang, T.

    2016-03-01

    Nano ceramic particulate reinforced metal matrix composites are confronted with the problem of particle aggregation emerging in the process of solidification. It sharply deteriorates the mechanical properties of the composites. In order to improve the microstructure and particle distribution, in situ TiB2/Cu composites were prepared using Ti and Cu-B master alloys in a vacuum medium frequency induction furnace equipped with a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The effect of RMF magnetic field intensity employed on the microstructure and particles distribution of the TiB2/Cu composites were investigated. The results show that with the applied RMF, TiB2 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix, which significantly improves the mechanical properties of TiB2/Cu composites. The mechanism of RMF may be ascribed to the following two aspects. On the one hand, the electromagnetic body force generated by appropriate RMF drives forced convection in the equatorial plane of composite melt during solidification. On the other hand, a secondary flow in the meridional plane is engendered by a radial pressure gradient, thus making a strong agitation in the melt. These two effects result in a homogenous dispersion of TiB2 particles in the copper matrix, and hence excellent properties of TiB2/Cu composites were obtained.

  8. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  9. Saturation of the Electric Field Transmitted to the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Nonlinear response of electric fields at a neutral point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovsky, Mikhail; Dufty, James W.; Calisti, Annette; Stamm, Roland; Talin, Bernard

    1995-05-01

    The complex dynamics of electric fields at a neutral point in a plasma is studied via a model of noninteracting ``quasiparticles.'' The simplicity of the model allows the reduction of the many-body problem to an effective single-particle analysis-all properties of interest can be reduced to quadratures. Still, the final calculations to extract a quantitative or even qualitative understanding of the field dynamics can be difficult. Attention here is focused on the dynamics of the conditional electric field: the field value at time t for a given initial value of the field. In addition to the relevant linear response function (electric field time correlation function), this property provides the complete nonlinear response of the electric field to arbitrary initial field perturbations. The static properties (distribution of electric fields and field time derivatives) and the electric field time correlation function have been known for some time for this model. We compare these results and the present result for the conditional electric field with molecular dynamics simulations including interactions. The comparisons suggest that the model provides a quantitative representation of electric field dynamics in real plasmas, except at strong coupling. The exact theoretical results are compared also with those obtained by modeling the electric field as a stochastic variable obeying a kangaroo process. The latter can be constructed to yield both the exact stationary distribution and the exact electric field time correlation function. However, we find that the conditional field is never well approximated by this process. An alternative representation of the joint distribution for electric fields, consistent with the exact stationary distribution, field correlation function, and conditional electric field, is suggested.

  11. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  12. [Corn straw composting in the field and in situ fertilizer effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Zhang, Chang-hua; Liang, Yong-jiang; Chen, Qi-di; Shi, Jun-xiong; Du, Ru-wan; Luo, Jian-jun; Yuan, Ling

    2014-12-01

    According to the fact that corn straws remain or burned in the field in hilly and mountainous areas of Southwest China, which causes organic matter waste and serious atmospheric pollution, it is necessary to develop an efficient method to compost the corn straws. In the present experiment, corn straws were placed on the landside and land corner for composting with thermophilic cellulous bacteria inoculated, chemical nitrogen and nitrogen absorption agent added, and then covered with polyethylene film (bio-composting). Thereafter, flue-cured tobacco grown in the same land was fertilized with the compost to study the fertilizer effect. The results showed that the temperature in bio-compost increased quickly (over than 35 degrees C within 2 to 3 days) but decreased slowly compared to natural composting (control). In the bio-compost, temperature over than 50 degrees C lasted for about 15 days and the number of bacteria was 100 to 1000 times higher than in the control de- spite that microbial groups decreased in the high temperature period. After 90 days of bio-composting, corn straws contained water less than 25% with pH 6. 14 and showed brown or black color and fragmental or farinose physical state, indicating good decomposition and humification. Meanwhile, the active organic matter and nutrients, including N, P and K, were significantly increased. The yield, mean price, economical output of flue-cured tobacco leaves were increased and the leaf quality was improved by application of chemical fertilizers plus the compost at the ratio of 1:1. Therefore, bio-composting could utilize efficiently corn straws and eliminate air pollution, which is worth popularization in hilly and mountain areas.

  13. Aircraft measurement of electric field - Self-calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, W. P.

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft measurement of electric fields is difficult as the electrically conducting surface of the aircraft distorts the electric field. Calibration requires determining the relations between the undistorted electric field in the absence of the vehicle and the signals from electric field meters that sense the local distorted fields in their immediate vicinity. This paper describes a generalization of a calibration method which uses pitch and roll maneuvers. The technique determines both the calibration coefficients and the direction of the electric vector. The calibration of individual electric field meters and the elimination of the aircraft's self-charge are described. Linear combinations of field mill signals are examined and absolute calibration and error analysis are discussed. The calibration method was applied to data obtained during a flight near thunderstorms.

  14. A Quantitative Approach for Collocating NEON's Sensor-Based Ecological Measurements and in-situ Field Sampling and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, R. C.; Metzger, S.; Ayres, E.; Luo, H.; Meier, C. L.; Barnett, D.; Sanclements, M.; Elmendorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale research platform currently in development to assess the causes of ecological change and biological responses to change across a projected 30-year timeframe. A suite of standardized sensor-based measurements (i.e., Terrestrial Instrument System (TIS) measurements) and in-situ field sampling and observations (i.e., Terrestrial Observation System (TOS) activities) will be conducted across 20 ecoclimatic domains in the U.S. where NEON is establishing 60 terrestrial research sites. NEON's TIS measurements and TOS activities are designed to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of key drivers and ecological processes and responses to change within each of the 60 terrestrial research sites. The TIS measurements are non-destructive and designed to provide in-situ, continuous, and areally integrated observations of the surrounding ecosystem and environment, while TOS sampling and observation activities are designed to encompass a hierarchy of measurable biological states and processes including diversity, abundance, phenology, demography, infectious disease prevalence, ecohydrology, and biogeochemistry. To establish valid relationships between these drivers and site-specific responses, two contradicting requirements must be fulfilled: (i) both types of observations shall be representative of the same ecosystem, and (ii) they shall not significantly influence one another. Here we outline the theoretical background and algorithmic process for determining areas of mutual representativeness and exclusion around NEON's TIS measurements and develop a procedure which quantitatively optimizes this trade-off through: (i) quantifying the source area distributions of TIS measurements, (ii) determining the ratio of user-defined impact threshold to effective impact area for different TOS activities, and (iii) determining the range of feasible distances between TIS locations and TOS activities. This approach

  15. Dynamics of an electric dipole moment in a stochastic electric field.

    PubMed

    Band, Y B

    2013-08-01

    The mean-field dynamics of an electric dipole moment in a deterministic and a fluctuating electric field is solved to obtain the average over fluctuations of the dipole moment and the angular momentum as a function of time for a Gaussian white-noise stochastic electric field. The components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum along the deterministic electric-field direction do not decay to zero, despite fluctuations in all three components of the electric field. This is in contrast to the decay of the average over fluctuations of a magnetic moment in a stochastic magnetic field with Gaussian white noise in all three components. The components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum perpendicular to the deterministic electric-field direction oscillate with time but decay to zero, and their variance grows with time.

  16. Electrical integrity of oxides in a radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1996-04-01

    In the absence of an applied electric field, irradiation generally produces a decrease in the permanent (beam-off) electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators. However, in the past 6 years several research groups have reported a phenomenon known as radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED), which produces significant permanent increases in the electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators irradiated with an applied electric field. RIED has been reported to occur at temperatures between 420 and 800 K with applied electric fields as low as 20 V/mm.

  17. In situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  18. IN SITU CHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CR(VI) IN GROUNDWATER USING A COMBINATION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE: A FIELD INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a FeSO4 + Na2S2O4 reductant solution blend for in situ saturated zone treatment of dissolved-phase Cr(VI) at the former Macalloy Corporation site in Charleston, SC. The reductant blend was injected into the path o...

  19. The detection and characterization of natural fractures using P-wave reflection data, multicomponent VSP, borehole image logs and the in-situ stress field determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, P.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured tight gas reservoir, using surface seismic methods, borehole imaging logs, and in-situ stress field data. Further, the project aims to evaluate the various seismic methods as to their effectiveness in characterizing the fractures, and to formulate the optimum employment of the seismic methods as regards fracture characterization.

  20. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

  1. THE APPLICATION OF IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE (ZERO-VALENT IRON) BARRIER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CHROMATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER: A FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small-scale field test was initiated in September 1994 to evaluate the in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with chromate using a permeable reactive barrier composed of a mixture of zero-valent Fe, sand and aquifer sediment. The site used was an old chrome-plating f...

  2. Enhanced Sintering Kinetics in Aluminum Alloy Powder Consolidated Using DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Brandon; Yu, Jian; Kellogg, Frank; Kilczewski, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Direct current (DC) electric currents were applied during sintering of aluminum alloy (AA5083) green powder compacts and it was found that the kinetics of sintering were greatly enhanced compared to samples processed without a field. In situ sintering kinetics during pressure-less sintering employing electric field strengths and amperages ranging from 0 to 56 V/cm and 0 to 3 A were quantified using digital image correlation. It was found that the application of a DC field during sintering results in a discontinuous change in volume at a critical temperature along with a transition in electrical properties of the compact from insulating to conductive. This effect is similar to the phenomena observed in the flash sintering process currently being actively researched for ceramic powder processing. The temperature at which the flash event occurs was found to be field strength dependent and doubling the field strength was found to decrease the flash temperature by 25 pct. Joule heating of the specimen was measured using thermal imaging and it was found to not contribute enough additional thermal energy to account for the substantially increased sintering rates observed in specimens processed using electric fields.

  3. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A. Marco

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  4. Empirical models of high latitude electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Model cross sections of the high latitude dawn-dusk electric field based on OGO-6 data are presented for the signature profiles, most frequently encountered for both + and -Y orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Line integrals give a total potential of 76 keV in each case. To illustrate extremes, examples of model cross-sections with total potentials of 23 keV and 140 keV are also given. Model convection patterns are also presented utilizing OGO-6 data on boundary locations at other magnetic local times. When this information is combined with characteristic field geometries in the region of the Harang discontinuity, and is supplemented by data from Ba+ cloud motions in the polar cap, it becomes possible to construct realistic convection patterns on the nightside which deviate from the usual sun-aligned patterns. The observational models presented are of limited applicability as a consequence of the variability of observed distributions. These limitations are emphasized with particular attention given to several types of recurrent deviations which have not previously been discussed.

  5. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2013-04-21

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  6. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.

    2013-04-01

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  7. Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.

  8. Electron holographic visualization of collective motion of electrons through electric field variation.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Daisuke; Aizawa, Shinji; Akase, Zentaro; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Murakami, Yasukazu; Park, Hyun Soon

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates the accumulation of electron-induced secondary electrons by utilizing a simple geometrical configuration of two branches of a charged insulating biomaterial. The collective motion of these secondary electrons between the branches has been visualized by analyzing the reconstructed amplitude images obtained using in situ electron holography. In order to understand the collective motion of secondary electrons, the trajectories of these electrons around the branches have also been simulated by taking into account the electric field around the charged branches on the basis of Maxwell's equations.

  9. Nanoscale Lubrication of Ionic Surfaces Controlled via a Strong Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-01

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. The demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.

  10. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.

  11. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-03-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  12. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  13. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-08-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc.

  14. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of microbial consortia from a biogenic gas field in Alaska's Cook Inlet basin.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Katherine S; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Huizinga, Brad; Lidstrom, Ulrika; Ashby, Matt; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2012-05-01

    Filter-collected production water samples from a methane-rich gas field in the Cook Inlet basin of Alaska were investigated using whole-cell rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Both techniques were consistent in determining the microbial community composition, including the archaeal or bacterial dominance of samples. The archaeal community is dominated by the obligate methylotrophic methanogen genus Methanolobus as well as the nutritional generalist methanogen genus Methanosarcina, which is capable of utilizing acetate, CO(2), and methyl-bearing compounds. The most-abundant bacterial groups are Firmicutes, notably of the Acetobacterium genus, and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides species (CFBs) affiliated with the order Bacteroidales. We observed spatial variation among samples in both the percentage of members of Archaea compared to that of members of Bacteria and the dominant members of the bacterial community, differences which could not be explained with the available geochemical data. Based upon the microbial community composition and the isotopic signature of methane associated with the Cook Inlet basin site, we propose a simplified reaction network beginning with the breakdown of coal macromolecules, followed by fermentation and methylotrophic and acetoclastic methane production.

  15. In Situ Observation of Reversible Nanomagnetic Switching Induced by Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    run using saturation magnetization (Msat) ) 1.360 × 106 A/m, exchange stiffness (A) ) 1.4 × 10-11 J /m, and thickness ( t ) ) 30 nm, values independently...P. A.; Ahn, J . S.; Guha, S.; Cheong, S. W. Nature 2004, 429 (6990), 392–395. (4) Lottermoser, T .; Lonkai, T .; Amann, U.; Hohlwein, D.; Ihringer, J ...19), 92. (7) Chung, T . K.; Keller, S.; Carman, G. P. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009, (13), 94. (8) Molegraaf, H. J . A.; Hoffman, J .; Vaz, C. A. F.; Gariglio, S

  16. Modelling Electrostatic Sheath Effects on Swarm Electric Field Instrument Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) was designed to measure ionospheric ion flow velocities, temperatures and distribution functions at the ram face of the European Space Agency’s Swarm spacecraft. These flow velocities, combined with the known orbital velocity of the satellite and local magnetic field, will be used to infer local electric fields from the relation E=- v× B. EFI is among a class of many particle sensors and flow meters mounted on satellites to monitor in situ plasma conditions. The interpretation of the measurements made with EFI and similar sensors relies on a spacecraft sheath model. A common approach, valid in the relatively cold and dense ionospheric plasma, is to assume a potential drop in a thin sheath through which particle deflection and energisation can be calculated analytically. In such models, sheath effects only depend on the spacecraft floating potential, and on the angle of incidence of particles with respect to the normal to the surface. Corrections to measurements are therefore local as they do not depend on the geometry of nearby objects. In an actual plasma, satellites are surrounded by electrostatic sheaths with a finite thickness. As a result, local corrections to particle distribution functions can only be seen as an approximation. A correct interpretation of measured particle fluxes or particle distribution functions must, at least in principle, account for the extent and shape of the sheath in the vicinity of the measuring instrument. This in turn requires a careful analysis of the interaction of the satellite with the surrounding plasma, while accounting for detailed aspects of the geometry, as well as for several physical effects. In this paper, the validity of the thin sheath model is tested by comparing its predictions with detailed PIC (Particle In Cell) calculations of satellite-plasma interaction. Deviations attributed to sheath finite thickness effects are calculated for EFI measurements, with representative plasma

  17. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  18. Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Dominic; Whitney, Heather; Sutton, Gregory; Robert, Daniel

    2013-04-05

    Insects use several senses to forage, detecting floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, and volatiles. We report a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields. These fields act as floral cues, which are affected by the visit of naturally charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator's memory of floral rewards. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this sensory modality may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  19. Innovative simultaneous confocal full-field 3D surface profilometry for in situ automatic optical inspection (AOI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Chang, Yi-Wei

    2010-06-01

    Rapid acquisition of surface 3D contour information using optical detection has attracted tremendous interest in the field of automatic optical inspection (AOI) and how to avoid or minimize environmental vibration or disturbance has become a critical issue in in situ inspection. Owing to its high longitudinal measurability and excellent vertical resolution, optical confocal microscopy has become extremely important for surface profilometry. This study presents a novel simultaneous confocal full-field 3D surface profilometer using structured fringe projection. The developed confocal optical system is capable of acquiring multiple images at various object depths to perform surface 3D reconstruction by a single image shot without the need for time-consuming vertical scanning. In this method, four conjugate image-sensing modules are configured at four different designated focusing positions, which are controlled by a specially designed beam-splitting optical module. A focal-depth response (FDR) curve can be established by fitting the four focus measurements obtained from these designated positions to achieve simultaneous confocal vertical scanning. In addition, using the principle of optical grating projection, a structured fringe pattern is generated for lateral scanning to enhance the spatial measurement resolution. To examine the performance of the developed system, an accurate step-height target and some industrial micro semiconductor components were measured. The results show that the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.1 µm and the maximum measurement error is within 1.5% of the overall range, indicating both accuracy and repeatability of the proposed confocal measurement approach.

  20. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M.; Alam, Sardar B.; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour-liquid-solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth.

  1. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet.

    PubMed

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M; Alam, Sardar B; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M

    2016-07-29

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour-liquid-solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth.

  2. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M.; Alam, Sardar B.; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour–liquid–solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth. PMID:27470536

  3. Conductivity, electric field and electron drift velocity within the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Chandra, H.

    2006-08-01

    Rocket-borne in-situ measurements of electron density and current density made from Thumba, India, on four occasions between 1966 and 1973 and on one flight from Peru in 1965 are studied along with the corresponding ground magnetometer data. The Cowling conductivity is computed using the yearly mean magnetic field values of 1965 and the atmospheric density values from the MSIS 1986 model. The rocket-borne measurements from Thumba cover different geophysical conditions of strong, moderate and partial counter-electrojet events. The vertical profiles of the measured current density and electron density are presented along with the computed Cowling conductivity, electron drift velocity and electric field. The peak current density occurred at 106-107 km over Thumba and at 109 km over Peru compared to 104 km over Brazil. Cowling conductivity peaks occurred at 102 km over Huancayo and 101 km over Thumba, while electron drift velocity and electric field peaks occurred at approximately 105-107 km over Thumba, 108 and 110 km over Huancayo and 104 km over Brazil, respectively. While the electron density near the level of peak current density shows some variability, electron drift velocity and electric field show large variability. We conclude that the local electric field plays an important role in the spatial and temporal variability of the strength of the electrojet.

  4. Static electric field detection and behavioural avoidance in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Newland, Philip L; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman M; Hama, Noriyuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Jackson, Christopher W

    2008-12-01

    Electric fields are pervasively present in the environment and occur both as a result of man-made activities and through natural occurrence. We have analysed the behaviour of cockroaches to static electric fields and determined the physiological mechanisms that underlie their behavioural responses. The behaviour of animals in response to electric fields was tested using a Y-choice chamber with an electric field generated in one arm of the chamber. Locomotory behaviour and avoidance were affected by the magnitude of the electric fields with up to 85% of individuals avoiding the charged arm when the static electric field at the entrance to the arm was above 8-10 kV m(-1). Electric fields were found to cause a deflection of the antennae but when the antennae were surgically ablated, the ability of cockroaches to avoid electric fields was abolished. Fixation of various joints of the antennae indicated that hair plate sensory receptors at the base of the scape were primarily responsible for the detection of electric fields, and when antennal movements about the head-scape joint were prevented cockroaches failed to avoid electric fields. To overcome the technical problem of not being able to carry out electrophysiological analysis in the presence of electric fields, we developed a procedure using magnetic fields combined with the application of iron particles to the antennae to deflect the antennae and analyse the role of thoracic interneurones in signalling this deflection. The avoidance of electric fields in the context of high voltage power lines is discussed.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Beggs, D. M.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale has advanced fields such as quantum optics, photovoltaics and telecommunications. These advances are driven by an improved understanding of the nanoscale behaviour of light, enabled by direct observations of the local electric fields near photonic nanostructures. With the advent of metamaterials that respond to the magnetic component of light, schemes have been developed to measure the nanoscale magnetic field. However, these structures interact not only with the magnetic field, but also with the electric field of light. Here, we demonstrate the essential simultaneous detection of both electric and magnetic fields with subwavelength resolution. By explaining our measurements through reciprocal considerations, we create a route towards designing probes sensitive to specific desired combinations of electric and magnetic field components. Simultaneous access to nanoscale electric and magnetic fields will pave the way for new designs of optical nanostructures and metamaterials.

  6. Studying electric field enhancement factor of the nanostructured emission surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartdinov, A. N.; Nikiforov, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical model of nanostructured field emission surface is proposed. In order to determine geometrical parameters of the surface structure digital processing of scanning electron microscopy images was used. Effective value of local electrical field enhancement factor is defined and calculated within the Fowler-Nordheim theory. It was found effective enhancement factor decreases as the applied electrical field increases for a fixed geometry.

  7. Flow-driven cell migration under external electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent. PMID:26765031

  8. Lattice vacancies in silicon film exposed to external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuliang; Caliste, Damien; Pochet, Pascal

    2013-07-01

    Density functional calculations based on wavelet basis set are performed to investigate the structure, internal electric-charge distribution, and formation energy of lattice vacancies in silicon film under electric fields. It was found that the formation energies of vacancies both in JT⊥ (Jahn-Teller distortion orthogonal to electric field) and JT‖ (Jahn-Teller distortion parallel to electric field) distortions are decreased with the increasing of field strength, due to the charge polarization in the whole space of silicon film. For the split vacancy, it can lower its energy by moving further away from the split space to form a tetragonal JT⊥ vacancy under electric field. Our results also demonstrate the importance of the potential fluctuations induced by the electric fields on the charge redistribution within the vacancy defects.

  9. Flow-Driven Cell Migration under External Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-12-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and they can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this Letter, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent.

  10. Introduction to extremely-low-frequency electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1989-07-01

    The interaction with living systems of electromagnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) range below 300 Hz will be summarized briefly in this paper. In materials with the electrical and magnetic properties of living tissues, these fields have a long wavelength (5000 m) and skin depth (150 m). As a consequence, in their interactions with humans and other living organisms ELF fields behave as though they are composed of independent electric and magnetic components of an ELF field is commonly referred to as the quasi-static approximation,'' which permits the radiating properties of the field to be neglected in describing its interaction with living organisms. The electric and magnetic components of an ELF field have several distinctly different features in their interactions with humans and other living organisms. First, the electrical conductivity of tissue is approximately 14 to 15 orders of magnitude greater than that of air at ELF electric fields. Consequently, the body behaves like a good electrical conductor in ELF electric fields. As a result, an electrical charge is developed on the surface of a living object in an external ELF field, but the electric field penetrates into the body only to a very limited extent.

  11. Strong Peak Electric Field in Streamer Discharges Caused by Rapid Changes in the External Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Celestin, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory spark discharges in air and lightning stepped leaders produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L20809, 2005; Nguyen et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, 234012, 2008; Rahman et al., GRL, 35, L06805, 2008; March and Montanyà, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010; 38, L04803, 2011; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl., 45, 425202, 2012; 48, 025205, 2015]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not fully understood. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been suggested as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et al., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but the increase of the electric field involved in this process is accompanied by a strong increase of the conductivity, which in turn makes this electric field collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the production of significant X-ray emissions [Ihaddadene and Celestin, GRL, 45, 5644, 2015]. Moreover, it has been reported that X-ray emission in laboratory spark discharges is influenced by the time derivative of the applied voltage [March and Montanya, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010]. Additionally, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011, Section 3.3] have indicated that quickly increasing applied voltages had an impact on peak electric fields in streamer numerical models. In this work, we simulate numerically the effect of impulsive applied electric fields on the dynamics of streamer discharges in air at ground level and investigate conditions under which production of thermal runaway electrons and the associated X-rays is possible.

  12. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2011-01-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogeneous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  13. In-situ bitumen extraction associated with increased petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake heavy oil fields (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Cooke, Colin A; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-11-01

    Most future growth in the Alberta bituminous sands will be based on thermal in-situ recovery technologies. To date, however, most attention on the environmental effects of bitumen recovery has focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. Recent uncontrolled bitumen flow-to-surface incidents (FTS; appearance at the surface of bitumen emulsions from deep subsurface recovery zones) reported at the Cold Lake heavy oil fields highlight the need to better understand the potential role of in-situ extraction as a source of contaminants to landscapes and surface waters. We analyzed sediment cores from a lake located ∼2 km away from a recent bitumen FTS incident to provide a long-term perspective on the delivery of metals, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to surface freshwaters, and to assess whether the onset of local in-situ bitumen extraction can be linked to contaminant increases in nearby lakes. An increase in alkyl PACs coincided with the onset and expansion of commercial in-situ bitumen extraction, and multiple lines of evidence indicate a petrogenic source for recent alkyl PAC enrichment. However, no coincident increase in vanadium (enriched in bitumen) occurred that would suggest the source of petrogenic PAC enrichment is direct input of bituminous particles. Our results show that, similar to surface mining in the Athabasca region, activities associated with in-situ extraction can increase the burden of petrogenic PACs in nearby lakes, but many questions still remain regarding the exact sources and pathways of PACs into the environment. Given that more than 80% of Alberta's bitumen reserves can only be accessed using in-situ technologies, we recommend that this be made a research priority.

  14. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  15. Spectral studies of the sources of ionospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kelley, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral analyses (applying the Fourier analysis methods) were performed on three incoherent scatter radar data sets (obtained at Jicamarca, Peru; Chatanika, Alaska; and Arecibo, Puerto Rico) with the aim of investigating the origin of ionospheric electric fields in the frequency range of 0.01-2 cycles/h. In quiet times, atmospheric gravity waves appeared to be the most likely source of the ionospheric electric field. This hypothesis was tested by a direct simultaneous comparison of measurements of gravity waves in the mesosphere and of electric fields in the thermosphere during very quiet conditions. The results indicated that a gravity wave source is a plausible candidate for the electric field fluctuations.

  16. Neoclassical Radial Electric Field and Transport with Finite Orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Hinton, F. L.; Wong, S. K.

    2001-07-30

    Neoclassical transport in a toroidal plasma with finite ion orbits is studied, including for the first time the self-consistent radial electric field. Using a low-noise {delta}f particle simulation, we demonstrate that a deep electric-field well develops in a region with a steep density gradient, because of the self-collision--driven ion flux. We find that the electric field agrees with the standard neoclassical expression, when the toroidal rotation is zero, even for a steep density gradient. Ion thermal transport is modified by the electric-field well in a way which is consistent with the orbit squeezing effect, but smoothed by the finite orbits.

  17. In Situ Effective Diffusion Coefficient Profiles in Live Biofilms Using Pulsed-Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Majors, Paul D.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Ahmed, B.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2010-08-15

    Diffusive mass transfer in biofilms is characterized by the effective diffusion coefficient. It is well-documented that the effective diffusion coefficient can vary by location in a biofilm. The current literature is dominated by effective diffusion coefficient measurements for distinct cell clusters and stratified biofilms showing this spatial variation. Regardless of whether distinct cell clusters or surface-averaging methods are used, position-dependent measurements of the effective diffusion coefficient are currently: 1) invasive to the biofilm, 2) performed under unnatural conditions, 3) lethal to cells, and/or 4) spatially restricted to only certain regions of the biofilm. Invasive measurements can lead to inaccurate results and prohibit further (time dependent) measurements which are important for the mathematical modeling of biofilms. In this study our goals were to: 1) measure the effective diffusion coefficient for water in live biofilms, 2) monitor how the effective diffusion coefficient changes over time under growth conditions, and 3) correlate the effective diffusion coefficient with depth in the biofilm. We measured in situ two-dimensional effective diffusion coefficient maps within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1biofilms using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance methods, and used them to calculate surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) profiles. We found that 1) Drs decreased from the top of the biofilm to the bottom, 2) Drs profiles differed for biofilms of different ages, 3) Drs profiles changed over time and generally decreased with time, 4) all the biofilms showed very similar Drs profiles near the top of the biofilm, and 5) the Drs profile near the bottom of the biofilm was different for each biofilm. Practically, our results demonstrate that advanced biofilm models should use a variable effective diffusivity which changes with time and location in the biofilm.

  18. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-07-07

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  19. Raman shifts and in situ TEM electrical degradation of electron-irradiated monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, William M.; Balan, Adrian; Liang, Liangbo; Masih Das, Paul; Lamparski, Michael; Naylor, Carl; Rodriguez-Manzo, Julio A.; Johnson, Alan T.; Meunier, Vincent; Drndic, Marija

    We report how the presence of electron-beam-induced vacancies affects first-order Raman modes and correlate this effect with the evolution of in situ TEM two-terminal conductivity of monolayer MoS2 under electron irradiation. We observe a redshift in the E' Raman peak and a less pronounced blueshift in the A'1 peak with increasing electron dose. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we show that irradiation causes partial removal of sulfur and correlate the dependence of the Raman peak shifts with S vacancy density (a few percent), which is confirmed by first-principles density functional theory calculations. Insitu device current measurements show exponential decrease in channel current upon irradiation. Our analysis demonstrates that the observed frequency shifts are intrinsic properties of the defective systems and that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a quantitative diagnostic tool to accurately characterize MoS2-based transport channels. This work was supported by the NIH Grant R21HG004767 and NIH Grant R21HG007856. Theoretical work at RPI was supported the NYSTAR program C080117 and the Office of Naval Research. C.H.N. and A.T.C.J. acknowledge support from UES/Air Force Research Lab.

  20. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  1. Extracting nucleon magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities from lattice QCD in background electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, W.; Tiburzi, B. C.; Walker-Loud, A.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleon properties are investigated in background electric fields. As the magnetic moments of baryons affect their relativistic propagation in constant electric fields, electric polarizabilities cannot be determined without knowledge of magnetic moments. This is analogous to the experimental situation, for which determination of polarizabilities from the Compton amplitude requires subtraction of Born terms. With the background field method, we devise combinations of nucleon correlation functions in constant electric fields that isolate magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities. Using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions, we demonstrate how both observables can be determined from lattice QCD simulations in background electric fields. We obtain results for the neutron and proton, however, our study is currently limited to electrically neutral sea quarks. The value we extract for the nucleon isovector magnetic moment is comparable to those obtained from measuring lattice three-point functions at similar pion masses.

  2. Microneedle biosensor for real-time electrical detection of nitric oxide for in situ cancer diagnosis during endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keum, Do Hee; Jung, Ho Sang; Wang, Taejun; Shin, Myeong Hwan; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Ki Hean; Ahn, G-One; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2015-06-03

    A dual-diagnostic system of endom-icroscope and microneedle sensor is developed to demonstrate high-resolution imaging combined with electrical real-time detection of NO released from cancer tissues. The dual-diagnostic system can be a new platform for facile, precise, rapid, and accurate detection of cancers in various biomedical applications.

  3. Controlling the morphology of conductive PEDOT by in situ electropolymerization: from thin films to nanowires with variable electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Chiara; Hutchison, James A; Samorì, Paolo

    2013-09-07

    The controlled electrochemical synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a model conjugated polymer is described here. We show that the morphology of electrochemically synthesized PEDOT can be finely tuned directly in a device, by carefully guiding the nucleation and growth processes as well as electromigration phenomena, resulting in structures with variable electrical properties.

  4. Pulsed electric field assisted assembly of polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kazmer, David O; Barry, Carol M F; Mead, Joey L

    2012-08-24

    Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 s, assembly resolution of 100 nm). Moreover, the area coverage increases with the increase in number of pulses. A similar trend was observed with the deposition height and the increase in deposition height followed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When the experimental mass deposited was compared with Hamaker's theoretical model, the two were found to be very close. The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to thermoplastic polyurethane using the thermoforming process.

  5. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  6. Pulsed electric field assisted assembly of polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Kazmer, David O.; Barry, Carol M. F.; Mead, Joey L.

    2012-08-01

    Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 s, assembly resolution of 100 nm). Moreover, the area coverage increases with the increase in number of pulses. A similar trend was observed with the deposition height and the increase in deposition height followed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When the experimental mass deposited was compared with Hamaker’s theoretical model, the two were found to be very close. The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to thermoplastic polyurethane using the thermoforming process.

  7. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  8. Electric Field and Density Measurements with STEREO-SWaves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Bale, S. D.; Maksimovic, M.

    2007-12-01

    The STEREO experiment SWaves has a low frequency part which is designed to make measurements of low frequency electric fields and rapid measurements of density fluctuations, using the three 6 meter stacer monopole antennas. The short antennas of STEREO respond both to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Therefore, it is desired to obtain four quantities, density and 3 components of electric field, from three measurements, the potentials on the three orthogonal antennas relative to the spacecraft, which requires some additional information. One possibility is to add a fourth equation implied by the large plasma conductivity, so large that electric field parallel to the magnetic field is zero, a condition which has often been used in electric field measurements. Under selected conditions, this seems to work. There are also conditions, for example ion acoustic waves, where the responses to density fluctuations and to electric fields are available from dispersion relations, and this provides another possible solution. A situation where it is not likely that the parallel electric field is zero is the case of solitary, intense bursts of Langmuir waves. For this case, it is expected that there is an electron density depression due to the ponderomotive pressure, and a resulting low frequency electric field from the non-neutrality which would be expected to have components parallel to the magnetic field. Examples will be discussed.

  9. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  10. THEMIS Na exosphere observations of Mercury and their correlation with in-situ magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; Orsini, Stefano; Rispoli, Rosanna; Leblanc, Francois

    2015-09-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is being studied since its discovery in mid '80s from Earth-based telescopes, and it has revealed a high dynamics and variability. Although the processes and their relationships characterising the Hermean exosphere generation and dynamics are still not exhaustively understood, there are no doubts on a tight interconnection among the planet's surface, exosphere, intrinsic magnetic field, the solar wind and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). In this paper we analyze an extended dataset of images of the exospheric Na emission, collected from 2009 to 2013, by means of the THEMIS ground-based telescope, in order to perform a comprehensive statistical study of the recurrent Na emission patterns, and also their potential relationship with the IMF variability. For this purpose, we take advantage of a subset (years 2011-2013) of contemporary in-situ measurements of the IMF obtained by the MAG instrument on-board the MESSENGER spacecraft. We found that the high latitude double peak is the most common Na emission pattern, supporting the view that the solar wind ion precipitation through the polar cusps has an important role in the generation of the observed Na exospheric configuration. Moreover, the lack of a statistically significant North-South asymmetry seems to disfavor the existence of an asymmetric and/or shifted intrinsic magnetic dipole. By analyzing a subset of quasi-full disk images, we found that the double peak Na emission is typically aligned along the meridian, mostly occurring in the pre-noon sector (53%), about 1/3 close to the noon meridian (36%), whereas only 11% takes place in the post-noon sector. Finally, the comparison with the IMF data seems to indicate that the contribution of the IMF BX component to the magnetic reconnection is generally weak, even if we found a noticeable correlation between positive IMF BX and symmetric double peak pattern. Negative IMF BZ values are usually connected to double peak emission

  11. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  12. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions.

  13. In situ measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  14. Nanoscale Electric Field Sensor-Development and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jon; Woods, Nathan

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this project is to test a carbon nanotube based electric field sensing device. The device consists of a miniature gold needle suspended on a mat of carbon nanotubes over a trench on a Si/Si02 substrate. Field tests were made by recording the electric field inside dust devils in a Nevada desert, and those electric fields were simulated in a lab environment. Further tests to determine the device sensitivity were performed by manually manipulating the gold needle with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip. We report on fabrication techniques, field and lab test results and AFM testing results.

  15. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  16. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  17. Disrupting long-range polar order with an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing; Hong, Wei; Tan, Xiaoli

    2016-05-01

    Electric fields are known to favor long-range polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of the ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition, as well as its competition against domain switching during electric reversal. The demonstrated material could also serve as a model system to study the transient stages in first-order phase transitions; the slow kinetics does not require the use of sophisticated ultrafast tools.

  18. Rocket borne instrument to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhnke, L. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the electric field in the atmosphere which includes a pair of sensors carried on a rocket for sensing the voltages in the atmosphere being measured is described. One of the sensors is an elongated probe with a fine point which causes a corona current to be produced as it passes through the electric field. An electric circuit is coupled between the probe and the other sensor and includes a high ohm resistor which linearizes the relationship between the corona current and the electric field being measured. A relaxation oscillator and transmitter are provided for generating and transmitting an electric signal having a frequency corresponding to the magnitude of the electric field.

  19. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  20. Dipole Relaxation in an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Derives an expression for the orientational entropy of a rigid rod (electric dipole) from Boltzmann's equation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium. (Author/GS)

  1. Study of pressure induced polyamorphic transition in Ce-based ternary BMG using in situ x-ray scattering and electrical conductivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Ma, C.; Tang, R.; Li, L.; Liu, H.; Gao, C.; Yang, W.

    2015-12-01

    In situ high energy x-ray scattering and electrical conductivity measurements on Ce70Al10Cu20 bulk metallic glass have been conducted using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) in conjunction with synchrotron x-rays or a laboratory electrical measurement system. The relative volumetric change (V/V0) as a function of pressure is inferred using the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) and the universal fractional noncubic power law[1]. The result indicates a pressure-induced polyamorphic transition at about 4 GPa in the ternary system. While the observed pressure of such polyamorphic transition in the Ce-base binary BMG is not very sensitive to its composition based on some of the previous studies[2, 3], this study indicates that such transition pressure increases considerably when a new component is added to the system. In the electrical conductivity measurement, a significant resistance change was observed in the pressure range coupled to polyamorphic transition. More discussions will be given regarding the electrical conductivity behavior of this system under high pressure to illustrate the delocalization of 4f electrons as the origin of the observed polyamorphic transition. References: 1. Zeng Q, Kono Y, Lin Y, Zeng Z, Wang J, Sinogeikin SV, Park C, Meng Y, Yang W, Mao H-K (2014) Universal fractional noncubic power law for density of metallic glasses. Physical Review Letters 112: 185502-185502 2. Zeng Q-S, Ding Y, Mao WL, Yang W, Sinogeikin SV, Shu J, Mao H-K, Jiang JZ (2010) Origin of pressure-induced polyamorphism in Ce75Al25 metallic glass. Physical Review Letters 104: 105702-105702 3. Sheng HW, Liu HZ, Cheng YQ, Wen J, Lee PL, Luo WK, Shastri SD, Ma E (2007) Polyamorphism in a metallic glass. Nature Materials DOI: 10.1038/nmat1839.

  2. Middle atmospheric electric fields over thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    This grant has supported a variety of investigations all having to do with the external electrodynamics of thunderstorms. The grant was a continuation of work begun while the PI was at the Aerospace Corporation (under NASA Grant NAS6-3109) and the general line of investigation continues today under NASA Grants NAG5-685 and NAG6-111. This report will briefly identify the subject areas of the research and associated results. The period actually covered by the grant NAG5-604 included the following analysis and flights: (1) analysis of five successful balloon flights in 1980 and 1981 (under the predecessor NASA grant) in the stratosphere over thunderstorms; (2) development and flight of the Hy-wire tethered balloon system for direct measurement of the atmospheric potential to 250 kV (this involved multiple tethered balloon flight periods from 1981 through 1986 from several locations including Wallops Island, VA, Poker Flat and Ft. Greely, AK and Holloman AFB, NM.); (3) balloon flights in the stratosphere over thunderstorms to measure vector electric fields and associated parameters in 1986 (2 flights), 1987 (4 flights), and 1988 (2 flights); and (4) rocket-borne optical lightning flash detectors on two rocket flights (1987 and 1988) (the same detector design that was used for the balloon flights listed under #3). In summary this grant supported 8 stratospheric zero-pressure balloon flights, tethered aerostat flights every year between 1982-1985, instruments on 2 rockets, and analysis of data from 6 stratospheric flights in 1980/81.

  3. MICROCOSM AND IN-SITU FIELD STUDIES OF ENHANCED BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY PHENOL-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms a...

  4. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-01

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m-1. However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m-1, and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an estimate of

  5. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-07

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m(-1). However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m(-1), and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an

  6. Electric and Magnetic Fields | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-31

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are a combination of electric and magnetic fields of energy that surround any electrical device when it is plugged in and turned on. Scientific experiments have not clearly shown whether or not exposure to EMF increases cancer risk. Scientists continue to study the issue.

  7. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  8. Parallel electric field in flux restoration during ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.; Zaniquelli, M.E.D. ); Galembeck, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane permeability may be restored by applying an electric field parallel to the plane of the membrane in the feed compartment of ultrafiltration cells. Two different electrode arrangements are described. Under some conditions, flux restoration is complete. An electric field parallel to the membrane can thus be used to eliminate membrane polarization and fouling.

  9. Electric-field-vector measurement in a glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, B.N.; Garscadden, A.

    1985-10-01

    The magnetic quantum number selection rule implies that radiation that is linearly polarized perpendicular to the electric field will not excite ..delta..m = 0 transitions. This phenomenon in Stark spectra has been used to determine the electric field vector in a positive column dc discharge in helium. The technique is applicable to both linear and nonlinear Stark effects.

  10. Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmijn, Ad. J.

    1982-11-01

    Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior.

  11. Exploiting Electric and Magnetic Fields for Underwater Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    numerical models in order to quantify the practical limits on standoff excitation for induction coil (magnetic dipole) and electrode (electric dipole...commercially available electric (Ag/AgCl electrodes) and magnetic (wideband induction coil B-field sensors) receivers formed an initial testbed for...improved performance using an electric field source rather than marinized versions of terrestrial induction coil sources (e.g., EM-61S).  Interaction with

  12. Comparison of surface NMR with non-invasive and in-situ measurements of soil water content at a floodplain field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werban, Ulrike; Schrön, Martin; Dietrich, Peter; Walsh, David; Grunewald, Elliot; Pohle, Marco; Kathage, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil water content is a very relevant issue in soil and environmental studies. There is a broad spectrum of methods applied for measuring soil water content in the field either deployed in situ or non-invasively from the surface. For many reasons the latter is preferred in field studies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the rare methods that measure the water content directly. Whereas others, e.g. geophysical methods, make use of proximal relationships for determination of soil water content. We applied a new single-sided NMR sensor to non-invasively measure in-situ soil moisture profiles at several points along two transects in a floodplain. The field site exhibits variations in soil water content due to morphology, e.g. flood channels and alluvial fan structures. Furthermore we applied at the same transects (1) in situ methods: soil sampling for gravimetrical analysis and TDR and (2) non-invasive methods: electromagnetical induction, mobile cosmic-ray neutron sensing with a rover and gamma-ray spectrometry. We will present results that confirm agreement of NMR and gravimetrical analysis from soil sampling and discuss issues that arise when using non-unique proxy methods and relationships for determination of soil water content.

  13. Comparison of surface NMR with non-invasive and in-situ measurements of soil water content at a floodplain field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.; Schrön, M.; Walsh, D. O.; Grunewald, E. D.; Pohle, M.; Kathage, S.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of soil water content is a very relevant issue in soil and environmental studies. There is a broad spectrum of methods applied for measuring soil water content in the field either deployed in situ or non-invasively from the surface. For many reasons the latter is preferred in field studies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the rare methods that measure the water content directly. Whereas others, e.g. geophysical methods, make use of proximal relationships for determination of soil water content. We applied a new single-sided NMR sensor to non-invasively measure in-situ soil moisture profiles at several points along two transects in a floodplain. The field site exhibits variations in soil water content due to morphology, e.g. flood channels and alluvial fan structures. Furthermore we applied at the same transects (1) in situ methods: soil sampling for gravimetrical analysis and TDR and (2) non-invasive methods: electromagnetical induction, mobile cosmic-ray neutron sensing with a rover and gamma-ray spectrometry. We will present results that confirm agreement of NMR and gravimetrical analysis from soil sampling and discuss issues that arise when using non-unique proxy methods and relationships for determination of soil water content.

  14. Lamb-shift and electric field measurements in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveil, F.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L.; Ström, P.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field is a quantity of particular relevance in plasma physics. Indeed, its fluctuations are responsible for different macroscopic phenomena such as anomalous transport in fusion plasmas. Answering a long-standing challenge, we offer a new method to locally and non-intrusively measure weak electric fields and their fluctuations in plasmas, by means of a beam of hydrogen ions or atoms. We present measurements of the electric field in vacuum and in a plasma where Debye shielding is measured. For the first time, we have used the Lamb-shift resonance to measure oscillating electric fields around 1 GHz and observed the strong enhancement of the Lyman-α signal. The measurement is both direct and non-intrusive. This method provides sensitivity (mV cm-1) and temporal resolution (ns) that are three orders higher compared to current diagnostics. It thus allows measuring fluctuations of the electric field at scales not previously reached experimentally.

  15. Direct observation by laser scanning confocal microscopy of microstructure and phase migration of PVC gels in an applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Ueki, Takamitsu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2011-02-01

    The fluorescent probe lucigenin was incorporated in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) gels, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to clarify the internal structures of the gels. From the two-dimensional and three-dimensional information by LSCM, we first observed the internal structure of the PVC gel at a wet status, where the PVC gels comprised a polymer-rich phase and a polymer-poor phase uniformly with a three-dimensional network structure. After an electric field was applied, an effect of the electric field resulted in the change of internal structure in the gels. The polymer-poor phase moved from the cathode to the anode and the polymer-rich phase formed linelike arrangement between electrodes due to the attraction force. On the other hand, the freeze-dried PVC gels with/without in-situ dc voltage casting were particularly fabricated to confirm above results by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). It was found that many craters remained on the surface of the gel near the anode due to sublimation in freeze-drying. This phenomenon did not appear on the surface near the cathode. The results of in-situ dc voltage casting also suggested that a substantial amount of polymer-poor phase was moved and fixed at the anode. Thus, results of both LSCM and in-situ dc voltage casting corresponded to the effect of electric field on PVC gels and provided a convincing evidence for the interpretation of the deformation mechanism of PVC gel actuators by an applied electric field.

  16. Novel electric field effects on Landau levels in graphene.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Vinu; Shankar, R; Baskaran, G

    2007-03-16

    A new effect in graphene in the presence of crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields is predicted. Landau levels are shown to be modified in an unexpected fashion by the electric field, leading to a collapse of the spectrum, when the value of electric to magnetic field ratio exceeds a certain critical value. Our theoretical results, strikingly different from the standard 2D electron gas, are explained using a "Lorentz boost," and as an "instability of a relativistic quantum field vacuum." It is a remarkable case of emergent relativistic type phenomena in nonrelativistic graphene. We also discuss few possible experimental consequence.

  17. Radial electric fields in the vicinity of locked magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Itoh, K.; Ida, K.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2010-12-15

    The radial electric field in the vicinity of magnetic islands locked by resonant magnetic perturbations (static error fields) is numerically studied using a set of reduced two-fluid equations. The asymmetric radial electric fields across locked magnetic islands are observed, which are due to the symmetry breaking effects such as the cylindrical geometry and inhomogeneous electron diamagnetic drift. It is found that the magnitude of the difference (between maximum and minimum radial electric fields around O-point) is proportional to the averaged electron diamagnetic drift frequency inside magnetic islands and the square of the island width, but inversely proportional to the square root of the ion viscosity.

  18. Charge and current reservoirs for electric and magnetic field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxing; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2010-05-10

    Two optical antenna designs incorporating structures termed charge and current reservoirs are proposed to realize localized high electric and magnetic field enhancement, respectively. Simulation results show that the fan-rod electric antenna design combines the advantages of the rod antenna and the bowtie antenna, and has higher field enhancement than either. The performance of a loop shaped magnetic antenna consisting of a pair of metallic strips with offsets is also verified numerically, with high magnetic field enhancement being observed in the simulation. In both of the designs, the concepts of charge and current reservoirs contribute to high electric and magnetic field enhancement.

  19. Effect of a uniform electric field on soot in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Yao, Q.; Nathan, G.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Ho, K.

    2010-07-15

    The effect of a nominally uniform electric field on the initially uniform distribution of soot has been assessed for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames from a McKenna burner. An electrophoretic influence on charged soot particles was measured through changes to the deposition rate of soot on the McKenna plug, using laser extinction (LE). Soot volume fraction was measured in situ using laser-induced incandescence (LII). Particle size and morphologies were assessed through ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostics (TSPD). The results show that the majority of these soot particles are positively charged. The presence of a negatively charged plug was found to decrease the particle residence times in the flame and to influence the formation and oxidation progress. A positively charged plug has the opposite effect. The effect on soot volume fraction, particles size and morphology with electric field strength is also reported. Flame stability was also found to be affected by the presence of the electric field, with the balance of the electrophoretic force and drag force controlling the transition to unstable flame flicker. The presence of charged species generated by the flame was found to reduce the dielectric field strength to one seventh that of air. (author)

  20. Electrical resistivity tomography to quantify in situ liquid content in a full-scale dry anaerobic digestion reactor.

    PubMed

    André, L; Lamy, E; Lutz, P; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2016-02-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method is a non-intrusive method widely used in landfills to detect and locate liquid content. An experimental set-up was performed on a dry batch anaerobic digestion reactor to investigate liquid repartition in process and to map spatial distribution of inoculum. Two array electrodes were used: pole-dipole and gradient arrays. A technical adaptation of ERT method was necessary. Measured resistivity data were inverted and modeled by RES2DINV software to get resistivity sections. Continuous calibration along resistivity section was necessary to understand data involving sampling and physicochemical analysis. Samples were analyzed performing both biochemical methane potential and fiber quantification. Correlations were established between the protocol of reactor preparation, resistivity values, liquid content, methane potential and fiber content representing liquid repartition, high methane potential zones and degradations zones. ERT method showed a strong relevance to monitor and to optimize the dry batch anaerobic digestion process.

  1. Electric-field-induced rotation of Brownian metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Arcenegui, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We describe the physical mechanism responsible for the rotation of Brownian metal nanowires suspended in an electrolyte exposed to a rotating electric field. The electric field interacts with the induced charge in the electrical double layer at the metal-electrolyte interface, causing rotation due to the torque on the induced dipole and to the induced-charge electro-osmotic flow around the particle. Experiments demonstrate that the primary driving mechanism is the former of these two. Our analysis contrasts with previous work describing the electrical manipulation of metallic particles with electric fields, which neglected the electrical double layer. Theoretical values for the rotation speed are calculated and good agreement with experiments is found.

  2. Recent measurements of middle atmospheric electric fields and related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, A. M.; Tyutin, A. A.; Bragin, O. A.; Kikhtenko, V. N.

    1994-03-01

    In 1989, two series of rocket measurements were carried out to investigate middle atmosphere electric fields. The measurements were taken both in the Northern Hemisphere on Heiss Island (80 deg 37 N and 58 deg 03 min E) and in the Southern Hemisphere in the Indian Ocean (40-60 deg S and approx. 45 deg E) on board the research vessel 'Akademik Shirshov'. Along with the vertical electric fields, aerosol content and positive ion density were also measured. Some of the rocket launches were made during the extremely strong solar proton events (SPE) of October 1989. The experiments showed the strong variability of the electric fields in the middle atmosphere at polar and high middle latitudes. In all the measurements the maximum of the vertical electric field height profile in the lower mesosphere was observed to be more than approx. 1 V/m. The electric field strength and the field direction at maximum varied considerably among the launches. A maximum value of +12 V/m was detected at a height of about 58 km at 58 deg 30 mins on 21 October 1989 during the SPE. The simultaneous measurements of the electric field strength, positive ion density and aerosols point out both an ion-aerosol interaction and a connection between the mesospheric electric fields and aerosol content.

  3. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  4. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  5. Combined near- and far-field high-energy diffraction microscopy dataset for Ti-7Al tensile specimen elastically loaded in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Todd J.; Shade, Paul A.; Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai; Schuren, Jay C.; Lind, Jonathan; Lienert, Ulrich; Kenesei, Peter; Suter, Robert M.; Blank, Basil; Almer, Jonathan

    2016-03-18

    High-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM) constitutes a suite of combined X-ray characterization methods, which hold the unique advantage of illuminating the microstructure and micromechanical state of a material during concurrent in situ mechanical deformation. The data generated from HEDM experiments provides a heretofore unrealized opportunity to validate meso-scale modeling techniques, such as crystal plasticity finite element modeling (CPFEM), by explicitly testing the accuracy of these models at the length scales where the models predict their response. Combining HEDM methods with in situ loading under known and controlled boundary conditions represents a significant challenge, inspiring the recent development of a new high-precision rotation and axial motion system for simultaneously rotating and axially loading a sample. In this paper, we describe the initial HEDM dataset collected using this hardware on an alpha-titanium alloy (Ti-7Al) under in situ tensile deformation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. We present both near-field HEDM data that maps out the grain morphology and intragranular crystallographic orientations and far-field HEDM data that provides the grain centroid, grain average crystallographic orientation, and grain average elastic strain tensor for each grain. Finally, we provide a finite element mesh that can be utilized to simulate deformation in the volume of this Ti-7Al specimen. The dataset supporting this article is available in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) repository (http://hdl.handle.net/11256/599).

  6. Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Gregory P.; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L.; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee. PMID:27247399

  7. Electric Field-Mediated Processing of Polymers. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnek, G. E.; Bowlin, G. L.; Haas, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    Significant opportunities exist for the processing of polymers (homopolymers and blends) using electric fields. We suggest that a broad range of properties can be achieved using a relatively small number of polymers, with electric fields providing the ability to tailor properties via the control of shape, morphology, and orientation. Specific attention is given to electrospinning, but we note that electroaerosol formation and field-modulated film casting represent additional processing options.

  8. Beyond Orientation: The Impact of Electric Fields on Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Liedel, Clemens; Boker, A.; Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Since the first report on electric field-induced alignment of block copolymers (BCPs) in 1991, electric fields have been shown not only to direct the orientation of BCP nanostructures in bulk, solution, and thin films, but also to reversibly induce order-order transitions, affect the order-disorder transition temperature, and control morphologies' dimensions with nanometer precision. Theoretical and experimental results of the past years in this very interesting field of research are summarized and future perspectives are outlined.

  9. Fermionic Particle Production by Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogut, Kenan; Yanar, Hilmi; Havare, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Creation of fermionic particles by a time-dependent electric field and a space-dependent magnetic field is studied with the Bogoulibov transformation method. Exact analytic solutions of the Dirac equation are obtained in terms of the Whittaker functions and the particle creation number density depending on the electric and magnetic fields is determined. Supported by the Research Fund of Mersin University in TURKEY with project number: 2016-1-AP4-1425

  10. In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas. Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided.

  11. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  12. In situ ozone data for evaluation of the laser absorption spectrometer ozone remote sensor: 1979 southeastern Virginia urban plume study summer field program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ozone data from the 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Study (SEV-UPS) field program are presented. The SEV-UPS was conducted for evaluation of an ozone remote sensor, the Laser Absorption Spectrometer. During the measurement program, remote-sensor evaluation was in two areas; (1) determination of the remote sensor's accuracy, repeatability, and operational characteristics, and (2) demonstration of the application of remotely sensed ozone data in air-quality studies. Data from six experiments designed to provide in situ ozone data for evaluation of the sensor in area 1, above, are presented. Experiments consisted of overflights of a test area with the remote sensor aircraft while in situ measurements with a second aircraft and selected surface stations provided correlative ozone data within the viewing area of the remote sensor.

  13. Analysis of DE-1 PWI electric field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of low frequency electric field oscillations may be accomplished with the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on DE 1. Oscillations at a frequency around 1 Hz are below the range of the conventional plasma wave receivers, but they can be detected by using a special processing of the quasi-static electric field data. With this processing it is also possible to determine if the electric field oscillations are predominately parallel or perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The quasi-static electric field in the DE 1 spin/orbit plane is measured with a long-wire 'double probe'. This antenna is perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which in turn is approximately perpendicular to the geomagnetic field in the polar magnetosphere. The electric field data are digitally sampled at a frequency of 16 Hz. The measured electric field signal, which has had phase reversals introduced by the rotating antenna, is multiplied by the sine of the rotation angle between the antenna and the magnetic field. This is called the 'perpendicular' signal. The measured time series is also multiplied with the cosine of the angle to produce a separate 'parallel' signal. These two separate time series are then processed to determine the frequency power spectrum.

  14. Low-noise cold-field emission current obtained between two opposed carbon cone nanotips during in situ transmission electron microscope biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Knoop, L. de; Gatel, C.; Houdellier, F.; Monthioux, M.; Masseboeuf, A.; Snoeck, E.; Hÿtch, M. J.

    2015-06-29

    A dedicated transmission electron microscope sample holder has been used to study in situ the cold-field emission process of carbon cone nanotips (CCnTs). We show that when using a CCnT instead of a Au plate-anode, the standard deviation of the emission current noise can be decreased from the 10 nA range to the 1 nA range under vacuum conditions of 10{sup −5 }Pa. This shows the strong influence of the anode on the cold-field emission current noise.

  15. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  16. Variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air caused by dust motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Renno, N.; Elliott, H.

    2013-08-01

    report results of a field campaign conducted in the Nevada desert with a suite of electric field instruments consisting of a field mill (FM) and a short dipole antenna (SDA). Furthermore, we show that a combination of the measurements of these two instruments allows the estimation of the electric resistivity of air, an important quantity that is extremely difficult to measure near the Earth's surface. The electric resistivity of air is found to vary between 1.5 · 1013 and 6 · 1013 Ω m and to correlate with changes in electric field. Vertical DC electric fields with amplitudes up to 6 kV m-1 were observed to correspond to clouds of dust blowing through the measurement site. Enhanced DC and AC electric fields are measured during periods when horizontal wind speed exceeds 7 m s-1, or around twice the background value. We suggest that low-frequency emissions, below ~200 Hz, are generated by the motion of electrically charged particles in the vicinity of the SDA electrode and propose a simple model to reproduce the observed spectra. According to this model, the spectral response is controlled by three parameters, (i) the speed of the charged particles, (ii) the charge concentration, and (iii) the minimum distance between the particle and the electrode. In order to explain the electric fields measured with the FM sensors at different heights, we developed a multilayer model that relates the electric field to the charge distribution. For example, a nonlinear variation of the electric field observed by the FM sensors below 50 cm is simulated by a near-surface layer of tens of centimeters that is filled with electrically charged particles that carry a predominantly negative charge in the vicinity of the soil. The charge concentration inside this layer is estimated to vary between 1012 and 5 · 1013 electrons m-3.

  17. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density.

  18. Oscillating Electric Field Measures the Rotation Rate in a Native Rotary Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Ferencz, Csilla-Maria; Petrovszki, Pál; Dér, András; Sebők-Nagy, Krisztina; Kóta, Zoltán; Páli, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Rotary enzymes are complex, highly challenging biomolecular machines whose biochemical working mechanism involves intersubunit rotation. The true intrinsic rate of rotation of any rotary enzyme is not known in a native, unmodified state. Here we use the effect of an oscillating electric (AC) field on the biochemical activity of a rotary enzyme, the vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase), to directly measure its mean rate of rotation in its native membrane environment, without any genetic, chemical or mechanical modification of the enzyme, for the first time. The results suggest that a transmembrane AC field is able to synchronise the steps of ion-pumping in individual enzymes via a hold-and-release mechanism, which opens up the possibility of biotechnological exploitation. Our approach is likely to work for other transmembrane ion-transporting assemblies, not only rotary enzymes, to determine intrinsic in situ rates of ion pumping. PMID:28345665

  19. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented.

  20. Molecular-scale measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Carl C.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces would be a critical step toward further understanding and modeling the detailed structure of electric double layers. The goal of this project was to perform proof-of-principle experiments to demonstrate the use of field-sensitive dyes for optical measurements of fields in electrochemical systems. A confocal microscope was developed that provides sensitive detection of the lifetime and high resolution spectra of excited fluorescence for dyes tethered to electrically conductive surfaces. Excited state lifetimes for the dyes were measured and found to be relatively unquenched when linked to indium tin oxide, but strongly quenched on gold surfaces. However, our fluorescence detection is sufficiently sensitive to measure spectra of submonolayer dye coatings even when the fluorescence was strongly quenched. Further work to create dye labeled interfaces on flat, uniform and durable substrates is necessary to make electric field measurements at interfaces using field sensitive dyes.

  1. Generation of strong electric fields in an ice film capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kim, Youngsoon; Moon, Eui-seong; Lee, Du Hyeong; Kang, Hani; Kang, Heon

    2013-08-21

    We present a capacitor-type device that can generate strong electrostatic field in condensed phase. The device comprises an ice film grown on a cold metal substrate in vacuum, and the film is charged by trapping Cs(+) ions on the ice surface with thermodynamic surface energy. Electric field within the charged film was monitored through measuring the film voltage using a Kelvin work function probe and the vibrational Stark effect of acetonitrile using IR spectroscopy. These measurements show that the electric field can be increased to ∼4 × 10(8) V m(-1), higher than that achievable by conventional metal plate capacitors. In addition, the present device may provide several advantages in studying the effects of electric field on molecules in condensed phase, such as the ability to control the sample composition and structure at molecular scale and the spectroscopic monitoring of the sample under electric field.

  2. Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, Markus A; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert; Schoberth, Heiko; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy; Boker, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

  3. Electric field induced selective disordering in lamellar block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Markus; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert J A; Schoberth, Heiko G; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy W; Böker, Alexander

    2013-05-28

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the order-disorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the order-disorder transition and well below it.

  4. Species-Independent Femtosecond Localized Electric Field Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogariu, Arthur; Goldberg, Benjamin M.; O'Byrne, Sean; Miles, Richard B.

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical measurement method using a femtosecond laser for nonintrusive measurements of electric field strength and orientation in virtually any gas or gas mixture via second-harmonic generation. This simple method takes advantage of the asymmetry in polarizability induced by an applied electric field, which enables the otherwise forbidden second-harmonic generation in any centrosymmetric or homogeneous media. The use of a femtosecond laser source permits high intensities without avalanche breakdown and leads to the measurement of electric field strength down to approximately 100 V / cm in air with submillimeter spatial resolution governed by the confocal parameter and femtosecond temporal resolution governed by the laser-pulse duration.

  5. Electric field induced lateral instability in a simple autocatalytic front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Dezsö; Tóth, Ágota; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The effect of ionic drift caused by small constant electric field on autocatalytic reaction fronts of ionic species is studied both theoretically and numerically. Besides varying the velocity of propagation, the electric field parallel to the direction of propagation may induce lateral instability in planar fronts resulting in the emergence of cellular structures. The difference in the diffusivities at the onset of instability are lowered when the electric field tends to separate the species spatially. The predictions of the linear stability analysis based on a thin-front approximation are confirmed by the numerical integration of the full two-dimensional system.

  6. Field-Induced Phenomena in Electrical Insulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-29

    excitation (penetrating charged particle or electron beam, electrical circuit), conditions of excitation (intensity, wave form),[lO] polarity...known as thermal breakdown.[66 ] Additionally, any rise in temperature due to dielectric losses within the polymer will tend to accelarate the

  7. The source of the electric field in the nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    In the open magnetosphere model magnetic field lines from the polar caps connect to the interplanetary magnetic field and conduct an electric field from interplanetary space to the polar ionosphere. By examining the magnetic flux involved it is concluded that only slightly more than half of the magnetic flux in the polar caps belongs to open field lines and that such field lines enter or leave the magnetosphere through narrow elongated windows stretching the tail. These window regions are identified with the tail's boundary region and shift their position with changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, in particular when a change of interplanetary magnetic sector occurs. The circuit providing electric current in the magnetopause and the plasma sheet is extended across those windows; thus energy is drained from the interplanetary electric field and an electric potential drop is produced across the plasma sheet. The polar cap receives its electric field from interplanetary space on the day side from open magnetic field lines and on the night side from closed field lines leading to the plasma sheet. The theory described provides improved understanding of magnetic flux bookkeeping, of the origin of Birkeland currents, and of the boundary layer of the geomagnetic tail.

  8. Formation of Organized Protein Thin Films with External Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cecília Fabiana da G; Camargo, Paulo C; Benelli, Elaine M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the formation of protein GlnB-Hs films and on its buffer solution on siliconized glass slides has been analyzed by current versus electric field curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Herbaspirillum seropedicae GlnB protein (GlnB-Hs) is a globular, soluble homotrimer (36 kDa) with its 3-D structure previously determined. Concentrations of 10 nM native denatured GlnB-Hs protein were deposited on siliconized glass slides under ambient conditions. Immediately after solution deposition a maximum electric field of 30 kV/m was applied with rates of 3 V/s. The measured currents were surface currents and were analyzed as transport current. Electric current started to flow only after a minimum electric field (critical value) for the systems analyzed. The AFM images showed films with a high degree of directional organization only when the proteins were present in the solution. These results showed that the applied electric field favored directional organization of the protein GlnB-Hs films and may contribute to understand the formation of protein films under applied electric fields.

  9. Electric fields are novel determinants of human macrophage functions.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Joseph I; Rajnicek, Ann M; McCaig, Colin D; Barker, Robert N; Wilson, Heather M

    2016-06-01

    Macrophages are key cells in inflammation and repair, and their activity requires close regulation. The characterization of cues coordinating macrophage function has focused on biologic and soluble mediators, with little known about their responses to physical stimuli, such as the electrical fields that are generated naturally in injured tissue and which accelerate wound healing. To address this gap in understanding, we tested how properties of human monocyte-derived macrophages are regulated by applied electrical fields, similar in strengths to those established naturally. With the use of live-cell video microscopy, we show that macrophage migration is directed anodally by electrical fields as low as 5 mV/mm and is electrical field strength dependent, with effects peaking ∼300 mV/mm. Monocytes, as macrophage precursors, migrate in the opposite, cathodal direction. Strikingly, we show for the first time that electrical fields significantly enhance macrophage phagocytic uptake of a variety of targets, including carboxylate beads, apoptotic neutrophils, and the nominal opportunist pathogen Candida albicans, which engage different classes of surface receptors. These electrical field-induced functional changes are accompanied by clustering of phagocytic receptors, enhanced PI3K and ERK activation, mobilization of intracellular calcium, and actin polarization. Electrical fields also modulate cytokine production selectively and can augment some effects of conventional polarizing stimuli on cytokine secretion. Taken together, electrical signals have been identified as major contributors to the coordination and regulation of important human macrophage functions, including those essential for microbial clearance and healing. Our results open up a new area of research into effects of naturally occurring and clinically applied electrical fields in conditions where macrophage activity is critical.

  10. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  11. In-situ investigation of the influence of the long-term shear strength of faults on the regional stress field in a granite rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Cornet, Francois; Lamas, Luís; Muralha, José

    2016-04-01

    A case study is presented to show how stress field measurements may be used to assess the long-term rheological behaviour of an equivalent geo-material. The example concerns a granitic rock mass at the km3 scale, where an underground hydropower scheme including a new 10 km long power conduit and a powerhouse complex will be constructed. For design of the underground cavern and hydraulic pressure tunnel, several in situ stress measurements were carried out, using hydraulic borehole testing, overcoring and flat jack techniques. A first continuum mechanics model, with a homogenous material, was developed to integrate the several in situ test results and to assess the regional stress field. This model is based on elasticity and relaxation of the elastic properties measured through laboratory tests conducted on cores. Results of integration show that the long-term behavior of this granite rock mass differs markedly from the short-term behaviour as defined by laboratory tests. This suggests that the in-situ stress field depends mostly on the softer material that fills up the faults and hence results from the shear stress relaxation over a large number of pre-existing fractures and faults. A second continuum mechanics model, with consideration of two fault planes located nearby the hydraulic tests, was studied. This model is based on elasticity for the overall rock mass, with the elastic properties extracted from laboratory measurements, and visco-elasticity with small long-term shear strength for the two fault planes. Results show that the overall granite rock mass may be viewed as a combination of stiff elastic blocks separated by soft low strength material, leading to a fairly large scale homogeneous axisymmetrical stress field with vertical axis. Advantages and limitations of the two modelling approaches are discussed.

  12. The relation between reconnected flux, the parallel electric field, and the reconnection rate in a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, D. E.; Olson, D. K.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Adrian, M. L.; Aunai, N.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the distribution of parallel electric fields and their relationship to the location and rate of magnetic reconnection in a large particle-in-cell simulation of 3D turbulent magnetic reconnection with open boundary conditions. The simulation's guide field geometry inhibits the formation of simple topological features such as null points. Therefore, we derive the location of potential changes in magnetic connectivity by finding the field lines that experience a large relative change between their endpoints, i.e., the quasi-separatrix layer. We find a good correspondence between the locus of changes in magnetic connectivity or the quasi-separatrix layer and the map of large gradients in the integrated parallel electric field (or quasi-potential). Furthermore, we investigate the distribution of the parallel electric field along the reconnecting field lines. We find the reconnection rate is controlled by only the low-amplitude, zeroth and first–order trends in the parallel electric field while the contribution from fluctuations of the parallel electric field, such as electron holes, is negligible. The results impact the determination of reconnection sites and reconnection rates in models and in situ spacecraft observations of 3D turbulent reconnection. It is difficult through direct observation to isolate the loci of the reconnection parallel electric field amidst the large amplitude fluctuations. However, we demonstrate that a positive slope of the running sum of the parallel electric field along the field line as a function of field line length indicates where reconnection is occurring along the field line.

  13. Using Molecular Dynamics to quantify the electrical double layer and examine the potential for its direct observation in the in-situ TEM

    DOE PAGES

    Welch, David A.; Mehdi, Beata L.; Hatchell, Hanna J.; ...

    2015-03-25

    Understanding the fundamental processes taking place at the electrode-electrolyte interface in batteries will play a key role in the development of next generation energy storage technologies. One of the most fundamental aspects of the electrode-electrolyte interface is the electrical double layer (EDL). Given the recent development of high spatial resolution in-situ electrochemical cells for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), there now exists the possibility that we can directly observe the formation and dynamics of the EDL. In this paper we predict electrolyte structure within the EDL using classical models and atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD simulations show thatmore » the classical models fail to accurately reproduce concentration profiles that exist within the electrolyte. It is thus suggested that MD must be used in order to accurately predict STEM images of the electrode-electrolyte interface. Using MD and image simulations together for a high contrast electrolyte (the high atomic number CsCl electrolyte), it is determined that, for a smooth interface, concentration profiles within the EDL should be visible experimentally. When normal experimental parameters such as rough interfaces and low-Z electrolytes (like those used in Li-ion batteries) are considered, observation of the EDL appears to be more difficult.« less

  14. Using Molecular Dynamics to quantify the electrical double layer and examine the potential for its direct observation in the in-situ TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David A.; Mehdi, Beata L.; Hatchell, Hanna J.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-25

    Understanding the fundamental processes taking place at the electrode-electrolyte interface in batteries will play a key role in the development of next generation energy storage technologies. One of the most fundamental aspects of the electrode-electrolyte interface is the electrical double layer (EDL). Given the recent development of high spatial resolution in-situ electrochemical cells for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), there now exists the possibility that we can directly observe the formation and dynamics of the EDL. In this paper we predict electrolyte structure within the EDL using classical models and atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD simulations show that the classical models fail to accurately reproduce concentration profiles that exist within the electrolyte. It is thus suggested that MD must be used in order to accurately predict STEM images of the electrode-electrolyte interface. Using MD and image simulations together for a high contrast electrolyte (the high atomic number CsCl electrolyte), it is determined that, for a smooth interface, concentration profiles within the EDL should be visible experimentally. When normal experimental parameters such as rough interfaces and low-Z electrolytes (like those used in Li-ion batteries) are considered,