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Sample records for in2o3 thin films

  1. Effect of composition on properties of In2O3-Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The In2O3-Ga2O3 mixed oxide polycrystalline thin films with various ratios of components were obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of films composition on surface morphology, electrophysical and gas sensing properties and energies of adsorption and desorption of combustible gases was studied. The films with50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 composition showed maximum gas response (˜25 times) combined with minimum optimal working temperature (˜530 °C) as compared with the other films. The optical transmittance of the films in visible range was investigated. For 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 films, the transmittance is higher in comparison with the other films. The explanation of the dependency of films behaviors on their composition was presented.The In2O3-Ga2O3 films were assumed to have perspectives as gas sensing material for semiconducting gas sensors.

  2. Structural, optical and XPS study of thermal evaporated In2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakanta Reddy, I.; Venkata Reddy, Ch; Cho, Migyung; Shim, Jaesool; Kim, Dongseob

    2017-08-01

    The nanostructured In2O3 thin films were deposited on Si n-type (1 0 0) substrates by reactive thermal evaporation. The structural, morphological, and oxidation states of the films were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The deposited films showed c-In2O3 crystalline nanostructures with a preferred diffraction peak of (2 2 2). The truncated icosahedron shape’s morphology with a transmittance of 85% was observed in the In2O3 thin films. All the deposited indium oxide films have 3+  oxidation states.

  3. In Situ Hall Effect Monitoring of Vacuum Annealing of In2O3:H Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Wardenga, Hans F.; Frischbier, Mareike V.; Morales-Masis, Monica; Klein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen doped In2O3 thin films were prepared by room temperature sputter deposition with the addition of H2O to the sputter gas. By subsequent vacuum annealing, the films obtain high mobility up to 90 cm2/Vs. The films were analyzed in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmission and Hall effect measurements. Furthermore, we present results from in situ Hall effect measurements during vacuum annealing of In2O3:H films, revealing distinct dependence of carrier concentration and mobility with time at different annealing temperatures. We suggest hydrogen passivation of grain boundaries as the main reason for the high mobility obtained with In2O3:H films. PMID:28787957

  4. Studies on interface between In2O3 and CuInTe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthan, M. R.; Malar, P.; Osipowicz, Thomas; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2017-10-01

    Interface between dc sputtered In2O3 and stepwise flash evaporated CuInTe2 films were studied by probing Si/In2O3/CuInTe2 and Si/CuInTe2/In2O3 structures with the help of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that in Si/In2O3/CuInTe2 structure, a ∼20 nm thick interface consisting of In, Cu and O had formed between In2O3 and CuInTe2 and was attributed to the diffusion of Cu from CuInTe2 into In2O3 film. On the other hand, in Si/CuInTe2/In2O3 structure, homogeneity of the underlying CuInTe2 film was found lost completely. An estimate of the masses of the constituent elements showed that the damage was caused by loss of Te from CuInTe2 film during the growth of In2O3 film on Si/CuInTe2.

  5. Effects of Molybdenum Doping and Annealing on the Physical Properties of In2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beji, Nasreddine; Souli, Mehdi; Reghima, Meriem; Azzaza, Sonia; Safia, Alleg; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

    2017-07-01

    Molybdenum-doped In2O3 thin films with different atomic ratios of y = {[{Mo}^{6 + } ]}/{[{In^{3 + } ]}} = 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.%, and 7 at.% have been prepared by spray pyrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Mo-doped In2O3 thin films crystallized in cubic structure with (222) preferred orientation. The best crystallinity was obtained for molybdenum concentration of 3 at.%, with an increase in grain size up to 155 nm. MAUD software was applied to the x-ray diffraction patterns to determine the phases, average grain size (d), microstrain ( < {σ2 } >^{1/2} ) and lattice parameters. The optical transmission was close to 75%. Doped films displayed large bandgap energy on the order of 3.52 eV to 3.56 eV. Optical parameters such as refractive index (n), packing density (p), porosity, oscillator energy (E 0), and dispersive energy (E d) were studied using the envelope method. The electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased from 650.20 × 10-3 Ω cm to 2.03 × 10-3 Ω cm for undoped and In2O3:Mo(3 at.%) thin film, respectively. Heat treatment of In2O3:Mo(3 at.%) thin film under nitrogen atmosphere at 250°C for 2 h led to further decrease in the electrical resistivity to about 5.55 × 10-4 Ω cm. These results prove that annealed In2O3:Mo(3 at.%) thin film can be considered a key material for use in optoelectronic devices as a transparent electrode or an optical window for solar cells.

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment Under Nitrogen Atmosphere on Sprayed Fluorine Doped In2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beji, Nasreddine; Ajili, Mejda; Turki, Najoua Kamoun

    2016-07-01

    Fluorine-doped indium oxide thin films (In2O3:F) were prepared at 500°C for different fluorine concentrations (0 at.%, 2 at.%, 6 at.% and 10 at.%) using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Structure and surface morphology of these films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis revealed that fluorine doped In2O3 thin films exhibit a centered cubic structure with the (400) preferential orientation. The change of the preferential reflection plane from (222) to (400) was found after doping. The doping optimum concentration of thin film crystal structure is obtained witha fluorine ratio equal to 2 at.%. The crystallinity improvement of In2O3:F (2 at.%) film is detected after annealing at 200°C, 300°C, and 400°C in nitrogen gas for 45 min. Transmission and reflection spectra measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 250-2500 nm. The band gap energy increase from 3.10 eV to 3.45 eV was detected after treatment at 400°C. In parallel, the electrical resistivity, deduced from Hall effect measurements, decreases from 428.90 × 10-4 Ω cm to 6.58 × 10-4 Ω cm.

  7. Influence of growth time on crystalline structure, morphologic and optical properties of In2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Bouhdjar, A.; Saidi, H.; Benkhetta, Y.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films are successfully deposited on glass substrate at different deposition timings by ultrasonic spray technique using Indium chloride (InCl3) material source witch is prepared with dissolvent Ethanol (C2H5-OH), the physical properties of these films are characterized by XRD, MEB,UV-visible. XRD analysis revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature having centered cubic crystal structure and symmetry space group I213 with a preferred grain orientation along to (222) plane when the deposition time changes from 4 to 10 min but after t = 10 min, especially when t = 13 min we found that the majority of grains preferred the plane (400). The maximum value of grain size D = 61,51 nm is attained for In2O3 films grown at t =10 min. the average transmittance is about 72%, The optical gap energy is found to decrease from 3.8 to 3.66 eV with growth time Increased from 4 to 10 min but after t = 10 min the value of Eg will increase to 3.72 eV. A systematic study on the influence of growth time on the properties of In2O3 thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray at 400 °C has been reported.

  8. Transparent conductive Hf-doped In2O3 thin films by RF sputtering technique at low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. H.; Shi, C. Y.; Zhao, L.; Diao, H. W.; Wang, W. J.

    2017-03-01

    Hf-doped In2O3 transparent conductive polycrystalline films (IHFO) were grown at a low substrate temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering for the applications of silicon-based solar cell. The effect of argon flow rate on the electrical and optical properties of the films was investigated. Low temperature thermal treatment improved IHFO films properties, with the optimal Hall mobility of 79.6 cm2/Vs and resistivity of 3.76 × 10-4 Ω cm. The average transmittance of the 807 nm thick IHFO films in the range of 300-1500 nm was above 83%. The carrier density was utilized to evaluate the plasma wavelength of IHFO conducting film which was 1.8 μm. The optimized IHFO film was then applied to amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells as the contacting layer. Compared to the cell without such a layer, the efficiency was higher by 0.35%.

  9. Effects of annealing temperature on the properties of Ga-doped In2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Shinho

    2015-10-01

    Ga-doped In2O3 (GIO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a growth temperature of 300 °C by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were then subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at various temperatures. The annealed films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Hall-effect measurements. The optical bandgap, electrical resistivity, and figure of merit of the GIO thin films were found to depend significantly on the RTA temperature. The XRD patterns of the films indicated that all the films had a body-centered cubic structure, with the primary peak being the (222) diffraction peak. The average optical transmittance of the GIO thin films for wavelengths of 500 - 1100 nm increased from 44.5% before annealing to 87.2% after annealing at 450 °C; the figure of merit was also the highest after annealing at this temperature. These results indicate that the properties of GIO thin films can be varied by controlling the RTA temperature.

  10. Effect of iron doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of sprayed In2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beji, Nasreddine; Souli, Mehdi; Ajili, Mejda; Azzaza, Sonia; Alleg, Safia; Turki, Najoua Kamoun

    2015-05-01

    Iron doped indium oxide thin films were grown by chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different concentrations y = [Fe2+]/[In3+] (y = 0, 2, 4 and 6 at.%). Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrometer and Hall Effect. The XRD analyses show that indium oxide crystallizes into cubic structure with (2 2 2) as a preferred orientation. An enhancement of the crystallinity followed by a change in plan orientation from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0) was observed when iron doping concentrations is increasing. The optimum of In2O3 crystal structure is obtained for iron concentration equals to 6 at.%. Transmission and reflection spectra reveal the presence of interference fringes with oscillatory character indicating the good uniformity and optical homogeneity of deposited films. The obtained band gap energy Eg is in the range of [3.29-3.45] eV. The single oscillator energy E0 and dispersion energy Ed were determined by Wemple model using the envelope method applied for all obtained XRD spectra. We found that E0 = 2 × Eg for iron doped films and E0 = 1.5 × Eg for undoped ones. Measured electrical resistivity decreases from ρ = 6502 × 10-4 to 197.9 × 10-4 Ω cm for respectively undoped and In2O3:Fe(6 at.%) thin films. A heat treatment was carried out at different temperatures (200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere to try to reduce more electrical resistivity. We found that it decreases to about 26.94 × 10-4 Ω cm for 300 °C annealing temperature.

  11. Direct charge carrier injection into Ga2O3 thin films using an In2O3 cathode buffer layer: their optical, electrical and surface state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, W.; Zhao, X. L.; An, Y. H.; Guo, D. Y.; Qing, X. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Li, P. G.; Li, L. H.; Cui, C.; Tang, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    Conductive Ga2O3 thin films with an In2O3 buffer layer have been prepared on c-plane sapphire substrates using a laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The effects of the In2O3 buffer layer on the structure and optical, electrical and surface state properties of the Ga2O3 films have been studied. The change in conductivity of the thin films is attributed to different thicknesses of the In2O3 buffer layer, which determine the concentration of charge carriers injected into the upper Ga2O3 layer from the interface of the bilayer thin films. In addition, the increase in flat band voltage shift and capacitance values as the In2O3 buffer layer thickens are attributed to the increase in surface state density, which also contributes to the rapid shrinkage of the optical band gap of the Ga2O3. With transparency to visible light, high n-type conduction and the ability to tune the optical band gap and surface state density, we propose that Ga2O3/In2O3 bilayer thin film is an ideal n-type semiconductor for fabrication of transparent power devices, solar cell electrodes and gas sensors.

  12. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In2O3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; van der Cingel, Johan; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-06-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In2O3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  13. Flexography-Printed In2 O3 Semiconductor Layers for High-Mobility Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Plastic Substrate.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Huttunen, Olli-Heikki; Majumdar, Himadri; Alastalo, Ari

    2015-11-25

    Industrially scalable and roll-to-roll-compatible fabrication methods are utilized to fabricate high-mobility (≈8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ) nanocrystalline In2 O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) on an flexible plastic substrate. Flexographic printing of multiple thin In2 O3 semiconductor layers from precursor-solution is performed on a Al2 O3 gate dielectric obtained via atomic layer deposition. A low-temperature post-contact-annealing step allows control of the TFT device turn-on voltage to ≈0 V for enhancement-mode operation.

  14. Fully solution-processed low-voltage aqueous In2O3 thin-film transistors using an ultrathin ZrO(x) dielectric.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ao; Liu, Guo Xia; Zhu, Hui Hui; Xu, Feng; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fu Kai

    2014-10-22

    We reported here "aqueous-route" fabrication of In2O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) using an ultrathin solution-processed ZrOx dielectric thin film. The formation and properties of In2O3 thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively examined by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The solution-processed ZrOx thin film followed by sequential UV/ozone treatment and low-temperature thermal-annealing processes showed an amorphous structure, a low leakage-current density (∼1 × 10(-9) A/cm(2) at 2 MV/cm), and a high breakdown electric field (∼7.2 MV/cm). On the basis of its implementation as the gate insulator, the In2O3 TFTs based on ZrOx annealed at 250 °C exhibit an on/off current ratio larger than 10(7), a field-effect mobility of 23.6 cm(2)/V·s, a subthreshold swing of 90 mV/decade, a threshold voltage of 0.13 V, and high stability. These promising properties were obtained at a low operating voltage of 1.5 V. These results suggest that "aqueous-route" In2O3 TFTs based on a solution-processed ZrOx dielectric could potentially be used for low-cost, low-temperature-processing, high-performance, and flexible devices.

  15. Thermal atomic layer deposition of In2O3 thin films using dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylcarboxylicpropanamide)indium and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbenyeke, Raphael Edem; Jung, Eun Ae; Park, Bo Keun; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun; Han, Jeong Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition using dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylcarboxylicpropanamide)indium (Me2In(EDPA)) and H2O as the In-precursor and reactant, respectively. The In2O3 films exhibited a saturated growth rate of 0.083 nm/cycle at a deposition temperature of 300 °C. Porous and amorphous films were grown at 150 °C, whereas dense polycrystalline films were deposited at higher deposition temperatures of 200-300 °C. XPS analysis revealed negligible carbon and nitrogen impurities incorporation within the films. The estimated bandgap of the In2O3 films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-vis spectroscopy was about 3.7 eV and the increase in refractive index with deposition temperature from 150 to 300 °C indicated that dense films were grown at higher temperatures. The high transmittance (>94% in visible light) and good electrical properties (resistivity ∼1.2-7 mΩ cm, Hall mobility ∼28-66 cm2/V s) of the In2O3 films make them a viable option for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped In2O3 on high vacuum annealing of thin films and bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, P.; Sudakar, C.; Sahana, M. B.; Lawes, G.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Naik, R.; Naik, V. M.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped In2O3 bulk samples and spin-coated thin films. The samples showed a clear ferromagnetism above 300K with magnetic moments of 0.008 and 0.22μB/Cr at 300K for the bulk and thin film, respectively, only after high vacuum (HV) annealing at 600°C. The vacuum annealed Cr-doped In2O3 thin films showed a typical semiconducting behavior with a room temperature resistivity of 0.73Ωcm, while bulk samples were more conducting (23mΩcm). We present systematic investigations on the influence of HV annealing on the carrier concentrations, resistivity, and magnetic properties of the samples.

  17. Correlation between the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of In2O3 thin films obtained by an ultrasonic spray CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhdjer, A.; Attaf, A.; Saidi, H.; Bendjedidi, H.; Benkhetta, Y.; Bouhaf, I.

    2015-08-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films are successfully deposited on glass substrate at different deposition times by an ultrasonic spray technique using Indium chloride as the precursor solution; the physical properties of these films are characterized by XRD, SEM, and UV-visible. XRD analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline in nature having a cubic crystal structure and symmetry space group Ia3 with a preferred grain orientation along the (222) plane when the deposition time changes from 4 to 10 min, but when the deposition time equals 13 min we found that the majority of grains preferred the (400) plane. The surface morphology of the In2O3 thin films revealed that the shape of grains changes with the change of the preferential growth orientation. The transmittance improvement of In2O3 films was closely related to the good crystalline quality of the films. The optical gap energy is found to increase from 3.46 to 3.79 eV with the increasing of deposition time from 4 to 13 min. The film thickness was varied between 395 and 725 nm. The film grown at 13 min is found to exhibit low resistivity (10-2 Ω·cm), and relatively high transmittance (˜ 93%).

  18. Amorphous (In2O3)x(Ga2O3)y(ZnO)1-x-y thin films with high mobility fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xueqiong; Wang, Li; Sun, Rui; Bao, Chuancheng; Lu, Yi; Wang, R. P.

    2013-10-01

    We prepared a series of (In2O3)x(Ga2O3)y(ZnO)1-x-y (0.7 ≤ x ≤ 0.8, 0.05 ≤ y ≤ 0.15) (IGZO) thin films using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method at room temperature under same oxygen pressure. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the grown films were measured by various diagnosis tools. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the mixing phase of crystalline and amorphous appears in the film with low In2O3 contents, and a completely amorphous phase appears in (In2O3)x(Ga2O3)y(ZnO)1-x-y (0.75 ≤ x) thin films with high In2O3 content. The maximum carrier mobility was found to be 30 cm2 V-1 s-1 in thin film with the (In2O3)x = 0.8 content. The transmitted spectrum shows that thin films with the (In2O3)x = 0.8 content exhibit better light transmission and narrow band gap. These amorphous IGZO thin films with high mobility and transparency are highly desirable for device fabrication on flexible substrates.

  19. A spectroscopic comparison of IGZO thin films and the parent In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberle, J.; Brizzi, S.; Gaspar, D.; Barquinha, P.; Galazka, Z.; Schulz, D.; Schmeißer, D.

    2016-10-01

    We use resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Zn 2p, Ga 2p, In 3d, and O 1s absorption edges to report on the electronic properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin films. We also compare the data with the respective data of the corresponding single crystals In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO. We focus on the elemental composition and, in particular, find no evidence for oxygen deficiency. The In, Ga, and Zn absorption data at resonance can be used to analyze the conduction band states in detail. We deduce that a configuration interaction between d10s0 and d9s1states is of importance. We provided a novel mechanism in which configuration interaction induced gap states create both, extended unoccupied states around E F as well as localized occupied states within the gap.

  20. Characterization of prepared In2O3 thin films: The FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible investigation and optical analysis.

    PubMed

    Panneerdoss, I Joseph; Jeyakumar, S Johnson; Ramalingam, S; Jothibas, M

    2015-08-05

    In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural transformation of films from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (222) plane. SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1M at 500°C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of prepared In2O3 thin films: The FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible investigation and optical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panneerdoss, I. Joseph; Jeyakumar, S. Johnson; Ramalingam, S.; Jothibas, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural transformation of films from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (2 2 2) plane. SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1 M at 500 °C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase.

  2. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V.

  3. Far-UV Annealed Inkjet-Printed In2O3 Semiconductor Layers for Thin-Film Transistors on a Flexible Polyethylene Naphthalate Substrate.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Eiroma, Kim; Majumdar, Himadri; Alastalo, Ari

    2017-03-15

    The inkjet-printing process of precursor solutions containing In nitrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol is optimized using ethylene glycol as a cosolvent that allows the stabilization of the droplet formation, leading to a robust, repeatable printing process. The inkjet-printed precursor films are then converted to In2O3 semiconductors at flexible-substrate-compatible low temperatures (150-200 °C) using combined far-ultraviolet (FUV) exposure at ∼160 nm and thermal treatment. The compositional nature of the precursor-to-metal oxide conversion is studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy that indicate that amorphous, high density (up to 5.87 g/cm(3)), and low impurity In2O3 films can be obtained using the combined annealing technique. Prolonged annealing (180 min) at 150 °C yields enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of 4.3 cm(2)/(Vs) and ∼1 cm(2)/(Vs) on rigid Si/SiO2 and flexible plastic PEN substrates, respectively. This paves the way for manufacturing relatively high-performance, printed metal-oxide TFT arrays on cheap, flexible substrate for commercial applications.

  4. Effect of Deposition Rate and Annealing on Physical Properties of In2O3 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis: Ultraviolet (UV) Photoconductivity Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsoddini, Khadijeh; Eshghi, Hosein

    2017-07-01

    As-grown and annealed indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis at various rates (2 mL/min, 3.5 mL/min, and 5 mL/min) on glass substrate have been studied. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images and x-ray diffraction analysis of the samples revealed that the deposition spray rate and annealing process affected both the surface morphology and preferred orientation of the polycrystalline cubic phase of the layers. Electrical investigations confirmed presence of oxygen vacancy ( V O) defects related to band tail, having minimum width in the sample deposited at the highest spray rate (5 mL/min). Ultraviolet photoconductivity results indicated that, although this sample had the highest light sensitivity, its sensitivity decreased after annealing due to increased V O defects.

  5. Insight on the SU-8 resist as passivation layer for transparent Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olziersky, Antonis; Barquinha, Pedro; Vilà, Anna; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Morante, Juan R.

    2010-09-01

    A nonvacuum and low temperature process for passivating transparent metal oxides based thin-film transistors is presented. This process uses the epoxy-based SU-8 resist which prevents device degradation against environmental conditions, vacuum or sputtering surface damage. The incorporation of SU-8 as a passivation layer is based on the ability of this polymer to provide features with high mechanical and chemical stability. With this approach, lithography is performed to pattern the resist over the active area of the device in order to form the passivation layer. The resulting transistors demonstrate very good electrical characteristics, such as μFE=61 cm2/V s, VON=-3 V, ON/OFF=4.4×109, and S=0.28 V/dec. Electrical behavior due to the SU-8/metal oxide interface characteristics is also reported on the basis of Fourier transform infrared analysis. In contrast, we demonstrate how sputtering of SiO2 as a passivation layer results in severely degraded devices that cannot be switched-off. In order to obtain proper working devices, it is shown that SU-8 should be hard baked at 200 °C for 1 h in order to obtain a highly cross-linked polymer network. The stability of SU-8 passivated devices over the time of storage, under current bias stress and vacuum conditions is also demonstrated.

  6. Transparent Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using n-(In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1/InGaZnO4 Modulation-Doped Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Satoshi; Yokozeki, Mikihiro; Ikeda, Masao; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2011-04-01

    We investigated transparent oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) using n-(In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1/InGaZnO4 (n-ITO/IGZO) modulation-doped heterostructures, which are effective in achieving high carrier mobilities. From transmittance measurements and UV photoemission spectroscopy, n-ITO/IGZO modulation-doped heterostructures are expected to realize the type-II energy band lineup, in which both the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum of n-ITO are higher in energy than those of IGZO. Van der Pauw Hall measurements revealed Hall mobility enhancement and two-dimensional behavior of electrons at the n-ITO/IGZO interface. Using the n-ITO/IGZO modulation-doped heterostructures, we obtained TFTs with higher electron mobility than that of IGZO TFTs. We consider that modulation doping is a promising method for performance improvements of TFTs using transparent oxide semiconductors.

  7. Superconductivity in transparent zinc-doped In2O3 films having low carrier density

    PubMed Central

    Makise, Kazumasa; Kokubo, Nobuhito; Takada, Satoshi; Yamaguti, Takashi; Ogura, Syunsuke; Yamada, Kazumasa; Shinozaki, Bunjyu; Yano, Koki; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Thin polycrystalline zinc-doped indium oxide (In2O3–ZnO) films were prepared by post-annealing amorphous films with various weight concentrations x of ZnO in the range 0⩽x ⩽0.06. We have studied the dependences of the resistivity ρ and Hall coefficient on temperature T and magnetic field H in the range 0.5⩽T ⩽300 K, H⩽6 Tfor 350 nm films annealed in air. Films with 0⩽x⩽0.03 show the superconducting resistive transition. The transition temperature Tc is below 3.3 K and the carrier density n is about 1025–1026 m−3. The annealed In2O3–ZnO films were examined by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis revealing that the crystallinity of the films depends on the annealing time. We studied the upper critical magnetic field Hc2 (T) for the film with x = 0.01. From the slope of dHc2 /dT, we obtain the coherence length ξ (0) ≈ 10 nm at T = 0 K and a coefficient of electronic heat capacity that is small compared with those of other oxide materials. PMID:27878025

  8. Conducting mechanisms and magnetic behaviours of Fe-doped In2O3 nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqiah, H.; Ibrahim, N. B.; Halim, S. A.; Talib, Z. A.; Flaifel, M. H.; Abdi, M. H.

    The relation between conducting mechanism and magnetic behaviour of Fe-doped In2O3 thin films was investigated. The films were prepared by sol gel method followed by spin coating techniques and characterized by X-rays diffractions, field emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Hall Effect at room and low temperature, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. Films' lattice parameter decreased with increasing of Fe content. Average grain size of films ranged between 8.4 and 13 nm. Oxygen vacancies of films tended to reduce with increasing of Fe doping. Films with x = 0.025 and 0.05 showed typical semiconducting behaviour while transition from metallic- to semiconducting-like behaviour was observed at 190 K and 230 K for films with x = 0.075 and x = 0.15, respectively. No trend had been found between films saturation magnetization, Ms, and free charge carriers. The magnetic behaviour of films has a correlation with localized electrons of Nearest-Neighbour Hopping conduction.

  9. Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of epitaxial In2O3 thin films grown on Y-stabilised ZrO2(111).

    PubMed

    Zhang, K H L; Lazarov, V K; Veal, T D; Oropeza, F E; McConville, C F; Egdell, R G; Walsh, A

    2011-08-24

    Epitaxial films of In(2)O(3) have been grown on Y-stabilised ZrO(2)(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of thicknesses between 35 and 420 nm. The thinnest films are strained, but display a 'cross-hatch' morphology associated with a network of misfit dislocations which allow partial accommodation of the lattice mismatch. With increasing thickness a 'dewetting' process occurs and the films break up into micron sized mesas, which coalesce into continuous films at the highest coverages. The changes in morphology are accompanied by a progressive release of strain and an increase in carrier mobility to a maximum value of 73 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The optical band gap in strained ultrathin films is found to be smaller than for thicker films. Modelling of the system, using a combination of classical pair-wise potentials and ab initio density functional theory, provides a microscopic description of the elastic contributions to the strained epitaxial growth, as well as the electronic effects that give rise to the observed band gap changes. The band gap increase induced by the uniaxial compression is offset by the band gap reduction associated with the epitaxial tensile strain.

  10. Giant magnetoresistance in Fe-In 2O 3 granular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Huang, Baoxin; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Liansheng; Zhang, Ruzhen; Mei, Liangmo

    2003-04-01

    The magnetic properties and giant magnetoresistance effect of ferromagnetic (FM) metal-semiconductor matrix Fe x(In 2O 3) 1- x granular films prepared by the radio frequency sputtering have been investigated systematically. The magnetoresistance (MR) ratio Δ ρ/ ρ0 value of the granular films sample with Fe volume fraction x=35% is 4.5% at room temperature. Temperature dependence of the MR ratio Δ ρ/ ρ0 value of Fe 0.35(In 2O 3) 0.65 granular films shows that Δ ρ/ ρ0 value below 10 K increases rapidly with the decrease of the temperature, and when T=2 K, Δ ρ/ ρ0 value is 85%. Through the study of the dependence of low field susceptibility on temperature and the hysteresis loops at different temperatures, it has been found that, when the temperature decreases to a critical point TP=10 K, the change of the structure in Fe 0.35(In 2O 3) 0.65 granular films results in the transformation of state from FM to magnetic disordered. The remarkable increase of the MR ratio Δ ρ/ ρ0 value of Fe 0.35(In 2O 3) 0.65 granular films below 10 K seems to arise from the peculiar conducting mechanism of the granular films sample in magnetic disordered state.

  11. Thickness-Dependent Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of In2O3 Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A. Majeed; Khan, Wasi

    2016-08-01

    In this work, nanostructured In2O3 thin films with thickness in the range of 40-160 nm were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The microstructural, surface morphology and optical properties were investigated as a function of film thickness through x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with a cubic structure having (222) as preferred orientation. The morphological analyses of the samples exhibited uniform and smooth surface of the films with systematical increments in the surface roughness with increasing film thickness. The grain size increased from 9 nm to 13 nm with increasing film thickness. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to study the crystalline quality and the structural disorder of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap ( E g) from 3.74 eV to 3.98 eV was observed with the increase of film thickness. Moreover, photoluminescence peaks of the In2O3 films appeared at 443 nm and 527 nm for all films. The thickness had a substantial influence on the microstructural and optical properties as well as on the luminescence intensity of the films. The strategy presented here indicates that the prepared films could be suitable candidates for optoelectronic device applications.

  12. Rapidly Thermal Annealed Si-Doped In2O3 Films for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-10-01

    We report the electrical, optical, and structural properties of Si-doped In2O3 (ISO) films prepared using co-sputtering system with multi cathode guns for use in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We investigated the effect of Si doping power on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of ISO film that was rapidly thermally annealed at a temperature of 400 °C. Due to the high Lewis acid strength (8.096) of the Si dopant, the ISO films showed high mobility and low resistivity despite the low Si doping concentration. Low resistivity of the annealed ISO films indicated that Si(4+) acts as an effective dopant of an In2O3 matrix by substitution with the In(3+) site. At a Si doping power of 50 W, ISO film showed a sheet resistance of 19.7 Ohm/square and optical transparency of 76.7%, which are acceptable values for fabrication of OPVs. Successful operation of OPV cells fabricated on transparent ISO film indicates that ISO is a promising high mobility transparent electrode material and alternative to conventional ITO films.

  13. High mobility transparent amorphous CdO-In2O3 alloy films synthesized at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao Ping; Ho, Chun Yuen; Kwok, Cheuk Kai; Guo, Peng Fei; Hossain, M. K.; Zapien, J. A.; Yu, Kin Man

    2017-08-01

    High mobility amorphous ionic oxide semiconductors (AIOSs) are ternary or quaternary heavy metal oxides which have been identified as technologically important materials for flexible transparent electronics because of their large area uniformity and low temperature processing compatibility. Here, we report on the room temperature synthesis of CdO-In2O3 alloy thin films in the full composition range using the magnetron sputtering technique on glass and plastic substrates. We found that alloys with a cation composition range of 10-55% Cd are amorphous with high mobility in the range of 30-45 cm2/Vs and an electron concentration of ˜3-4 × 1020 cm-3. The intrinsic and optical gap of these amorphous alloys varies from 2.7 to 3.2 eV and 3.2 to 3.4 eV, respectively. The room temperature processing, wide bandgap tunability, and low resistivity of ˜4-5 × 10-4 Ω cm make these amorphous films among the best AIOSs as transparent electrodes on flexible substrates.

  14. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of In2O3 mesoporous films sensitized by CdS nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Malashchonak, Mikalai V; Poznyak, Sergey K; Streltsov, Eugene A; Kulak, Anatoly I; Korolik, Olga V

    2013-01-01

    Summary The method of successive ion layer adsorption and reaction was applied for the deposition of CdS nanoparticles onto a mesoporous In2O3 substrate. The filling of the nanopores in In2O3 films with CdS particles mainly occurs during the first 30 cycles of the SILAR deposition. The surface modification of In2O3 with CdS nanoparticles leads to the spectral sensitization of photoelectrochemical processes that manifests itself in a red shift of the long-wavelength edge in the photocurrent spectrum by 100–150 nm. Quantum-confinement effects lead to an increase of the bandgap from 2.49 to 2.68 eV when decreasing the number of SILAR cycles from 30 to 10. The spectral shift and the widening of the Raman line belonging to CdS evidences the lattice stress on the CdS/In2O3 interfaces and confirms the formation of a close contact between the nanoparticles. PMID:23766947

  15. On the solid phase crystallization of In2O3:H transparent conductive oxide films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macco, Bart; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Black, Lachlan E.; Barcones, Beatriz; Melskens, J.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has emerged as a highly transparent and conductive oxide, finding its application in a multitude of optoelectronic devices. Recently, we have reported on an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to prepare high quality In2O3:H. This process consists of ALD of In2O3:H films at 100 °C, followed by a solid phase crystallization step at 150-200 °C. In this work, we report on a detailed electron microscopy study of this crystallization process which reveals new insights into the crucial aspects for achieving the large grain size and associated excellent properties of the material. The key finding is that the best optoelectronic properties are obtained by preparing the films at the lowest possible temperature prior to post-deposition annealing. Electron microscopy imaging shows that such films are mostly amorphous, but feature a very low density of embedded crystallites. Upon post-deposition annealing, crystallization proceeds merely from isotropic crystal grain growth of these embedded crystallites rather than by the formation of additional crystallites. The relatively high hydrogen content of 4.2 at. % in these films is thought to cause the absence of additional nucleation, thereby rendering the final grain size and optoelectronic properties solely dependent on the density of embedded crystallites. The temperature-dependent grain growth rate has been determined, from which an activation energy of (1.39 ± 0.04) eV has been extracted. Finally, on the basis of the observed crystallization mechanism, a simple model to fully describe the crystallization process has been developed. This model has been validated with a numerical implementation thereof, which accurately predicts the observed temperature-dependent crystallization behaviour.

  16. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.; Asshari, I.

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450°C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450°C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  17. Characteristics of Tc and ρ(T) of polycrystalline (In2O3)-(ZnO) films with low carrier density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Shinozaki; S, Takada; N, Kokubo; K, Makise; T, Asano; K, Yamada; K, Yano; H, Nakamura

    2012-12-01

    For the polycrystalline (In2O3)-(ZnO) prepared by annealing in air, we investigated the relation among superconductivity, ρ(T) characteristics and preparation conditions. To clarify the distribution of elements, we studied the microstructure by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was found that 1) The films annealed at restricted regions of annealing temperature Ta and time ta show the superconductivity. Transition temperature TC and carrier density n are Tc<3.3K and n asymp1025/m3~1026/m3, respectively. 2) The data on EELS spectra mapping of indium plasmon indicate that droplets of the pure indium phase distribute discretely on grain boundaries and near the interface between the film and the glass substrate. 3) Although data in the Tc - Ta relation are scattered, the TC shows relatively good correlation with n, taking a convex form.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Room-Temperature Anisotropic Ferromagnetism in Fe-Doped In2O3 Heteroepitaxial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Peng-Fei; Chen, Yan-Xue; Tang, Min-Jian; Yan, Shi-Shen; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo; Jiao, Jun

    2009-11-01

    Fe-doped In2O3 films are grown epitaxially on YSZ (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the atomic force microscopy, and the x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a well defined cubic structure epitaxially oriented in the (100) direction. Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed by an alternating gradient magnetometer. Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a remnant magnetization ratio of 0.83 and a coercivity of 2.5kOe is revealed. Both the structural and the magnetic measurements suggest that this ferromagnetism is an intrinsic property deriving from the spin-orbit coupling between the diluted Fe atoms.

  19. Embedment of nano-sized Ag layer into Ag-doped In2O3 films for use as highly transparent and conductive anode in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-08-01

    By inserting a nano-sized Ag layer between bottom Ag-doped In2O3 (AIO) and a top AIO layer, we were able to control the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of AIO films for application in organic solar cells (OSCs) as a transparent electrode. To optimize the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer, we investigated the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer as a function of Ag interlayer thickness with a constant bottom and top AIO thickness of 35 nm. The optimized AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer showed a much lower resistivity of 3.988 × 10-5 Ω cm and a higher optical transmittance of 84.79% than the values (4.625 × 10-4 Ω cm and 78.36%) of the single AIO film, due to the high conductivity of the metallic Ag layer and the antireflection effect of the symmetric AIO/Ag/AIO structure. In addition, we investigated the performances of OSCs with AIO/Ag/AIO electrodes as a function of Ag interlayer thickness to determine the optimal Ag thickness to produce a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs. Based on the PCE of the OSCs, we correlated the performance of the OSCs with the Ag interlayer thickness in the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the dependency of PCE on Ag thickness in AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer electrodes.

  20. Nondestructive Method for Mapping Metal Contact Diffusion in In2O3 Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The channel width-to-length ratio is an important transistor parameter for integrated circuit design. Contact diffusion into the channel during fabrication or operation alters the channel width and this important parameter. A novel methodology combining atomic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) with self-consistent modeling is developed for the nondestructive detection of contact diffusion on active devices. Scans of the surface potential are modeled using physically based Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations when the transistor terminals are grounded and under biased conditions. The simulations also incorporate the tip geometry to investigate its effect on the measurements due to electrostatic tip–sample interactions. The method is particularly useful for semiconductor– and metal–semiconductor interfaces where the potential contrast resulting from dopant diffusion is below that usually detectable with scanning probe microscopy. PMID:27581104

  1. Investigation of extended-gate field-effect transistor pH sensors based on different-temperature-annealed bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Shang-Chao; Cheng, Nai-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Lo, Yuan-Pin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, indium (In) films were deposited on glass substrates using DC sputtering method. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and dispersant were dissolved in alcohol, and the mixed solution was deposited on the In films using the spray method. The bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films were annealed at different temperatures (from room temperature to 500°C) in O2 atmosphere. The influences of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. A separative extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) device combined with a bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 film was constructed as a pH sensor. The influences of different annealing temperatures on the performances of the EGFET-based pH sensors were investigated. We would show that the pH sensitivity was dependent on the thermal oxygenation temperature of the bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films.

  2. Investigation of extended-gate field-effect transistor pH sensors based on different-temperature-annealed bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, indium (In) films were deposited on glass substrates using DC sputtering method. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and dispersant were dissolved in alcohol, and the mixed solution was deposited on the In films using the spray method. The bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films were annealed at different temperatures (from room temperature to 500°C) in O2 atmosphere. The influences of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. A separative extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) device combined with a bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 film was constructed as a pH sensor. The influences of different annealing temperatures on the performances of the EGFET-based pH sensors were investigated. We would show that the pH sensitivity was dependent on the thermal oxygenation temperature of the bi-layer MWCNTs-In2O3 films. PMID:25288911

  3. Modulation-Doped In2 O3 /ZnO Heterojunction Transistors Processed from Solution.

    PubMed

    Khim, Dongyoon; Lin, Yen-Hung; Nam, Sungho; Faber, Hendrik; Tetzner, Kornelius; Li, Ruipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xixiang; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-03-15

    This paper reports the controlled growth of atomically sharp In2 O3 /ZnO and In2 O3 /Li-doped ZnO (In2 O3 /Li-ZnO) heterojunctions via spin-coating at 200 °C and assesses their application in n-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is shown that addition of Li in ZnO leads to n-type doping and allows for the accurate tuning of its Fermi energy. In the case of In2 O3 /ZnO heterojunctions, presence of the n-doped ZnO layer results in an increased amount of electrons being transferred from its conduction band minimum to that of In2 O3 over the interface, in a process similar to modulation doping. Electrical characterization reveals the profound impact of the presence of the n-doped ZnO layer on the charge transport properties of the isotype In2 O3 /Li-ZnO heterojunctions as well as on the operating characteristics of the resulting TFTs. By judicious optimization of the In2 O3 /Li-ZnO interface microstructure, and Li concentration, significant enhancement in both the electron mobility and TFT bias stability is demonstrated.

  4. Thin Film?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. Afşin

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

  5. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

  6. Compensating vacancy defects in Sn- and Mg-doped In2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, E.; Tuomisto, F.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.; Galazka, Z.

    2014-12-01

    MBE-grown Sn- and Mg-doped epitaxial In2O3 thin-film samples with varying doping concentrations have been measured using positron Doppler spectroscopy and compared to a bulk crystal reference. Samples were subjected to oxygen or vacuum annealing and the effect on vacancy type defects was studied. Results indicate that after oxygen annealing the samples are dominated by cation vacancies, the concentration of which changes with the amount of doping. In highly Sn-doped In2O3 , however, these vacancies are not the main compensating acceptor. Vacuum annealing increases the size of vacancies in all samples, possibly by clustering them with oxygen vacancies.

  7. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun

    2017-03-01

    Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  8. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

  9. Transparent electrically conducting thin films for spacecraft temperature control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, G.; Heaney, J. B.; Toft, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Thin transparent films of In2O3 or In2O3 + SnO2 prepared by evaporation or sputtering have been tested for use as surface layers for spacecraft temperature control coatings. The films are intended to prevent nonuniform electric charge buildup on the spacecraft exterior. Film thicknesses of 300 to 500 A were found to be optimal in terms of durability and minimum impact on the solar absorptance and the thermal emissivity of the underlayers. As a verification of their suitability for long-duration space missions, the films were subjected to simulated solar UV plus proton irradiation in a vacuum.

  10. Depression of positive magneto-conductance due to anti-weak localization effect in annealed In2O3-ZnO thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Shinozaki; S, Ezaki; K, Hidaka; K, Makise; T, Asano; N, Kokubo; K, Yamada; K, Yano; H, Nakamura

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the magneto-conductivity Δ in three dimensional indium zinc oxide films with different resistivity ρ prepared by postannealing in air. The weak localization theory was fitted to data of Δ H) at temperatures below 50K by the use of suitable inelastic scattering time τi(T) and spin-orbit(S-O) scattering time τi. We found the ρ dependences of both times τ and τi in a range 1.5 × 10-3Ω < ρ 300K) <4 × 10-6Ω. As ρ increases, the ratio τi/τ increases from ≍ .005 to ≍ .5 and the Δ - at low temperatures changes from positive to negative values. We suggest a picture that the annealing in air brings the change of the S-O scattering from light to heavy atoms, namely, oxygen to indium and/or zinc atoms.

  11. In2O3 nanocrystal memory with the barrier engineered tunnel layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Seon Pil; Han, Dong Seok; Kim, Eun Kyu; Park, Goon-Ho; Cho, Won-Ju; Kim, Young-Ho

    2011-01-01

    In2O3 nanocrystal memories with barrier-engineered tunnel layers were fabricated on a p-type Si substrate. The structure and thickness of the barrier-engineered tunnel layers were SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 (ONO) and 2/2/3 nm, respectively. The equivalent oxide thickness of the ONO tunnel layers was 5.64 nm. The average size and density of the In2O3 nanocrystals after the reaction between BPDA-PDA polyimide and the In thin film were about 8 nm and 4 x 10(11) cm(-2), respectively. The electrons were charged from the channel of the memory device to the quantum well of the In2O3 nanocrystal through the ONO tunnel layer via Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The memory window was about 1.4 V when the program and erase conditions of the In2O3 nanocrystal memory device were 12 V for 1 s and -15 V for 200 ms.

  12. Thin film interference of colloidal thin films.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Cao, Weixiao

    2004-09-14

    A stairlike colloidal crystal thin film composed of poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(St-MMA-AA)) monodispersed colloids was fabricated on an inclined silicon substrate. Different bright colors were observed on the various parts of the film with different layers as white light irradiated perpendicularly on it. The relationship between the colors and layers of the film was investigated and discussed according to the principle of thin film interference. On the basis of the phenomenon of thin film interference, a one-layer colloidal film having uniform color was researched and it would display diverse colors before and after swollen by styrene (St). A circular stairlike colloidal film was achieved to mimic the colors of the peacock tail feather.

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. Controllable electrical properties of metal-doped In2O3 nanowires for high-performance enhancement-mode transistors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuming; Liu, Xingqiang; Wang, Chunlan; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Xiangheng; Ho, Johnny C; Li, Jinchai; Jiang, Changzhong; Xiong, Qihua; Liao, Lei

    2013-01-22

    In recent years, In(2)O(3) nanowires (NWs) have been widely explored in many technological areas due to their excellent electrical and optical properties; however, most of these devices are based on In(2)O(3) NW field-effect transistors (FETs) operating in the depletion mode, which induces relatively higher power consumption and fancier circuit integration design. Here, n-type enhancement-mode In(2)O(3) NW FETs are successfully fabricated by doping different metal elements (Mg, Al, and Ga) in the NW channels. Importantly, the resulting threshold voltage can be effectively modulated through varying the metal (Mg, Ga, and Al) content in the NWs. A series of scaling effects in the mobility, transconductance, threshold voltage, and source-drain current with respect to the device channel length are also observed. Specifically, a small gate delay time (0.01 ns) and high on-current density (0.9 mA/μm) are obtained at 300 nm channel length. Furthermore, Mg-doped In(2)O(3) NWs are then employed to fabricate NW parallel array FETs with a high saturation current (0.5 mA), on/off ratio (>10(9)), and field-effect mobility (110 cm(2)/V·s), while the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage do not show any significant changes. All of these results indicate the great potency for metal-doped In(2)O(3) NWs used in the low-power, high-performance thin-film transistors.

  15. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  16. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  17. Conduction in In2O3/YSZ heterostructures: Complex interplay between electrons and ions, mediated by interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, B. W.; Eastman, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Thin film In2O3/YSZ heterostructures exhibit significant increases in electrical conductance with time when small in-plane electric fields are applied. Contact resistances between the current electrodes and film and between the current electrodes and substrate are responsible for the behavior. With an in-plane electric field, different field profiles are established in the two materials, with the result that oxygen ions can be driven across the heterointerface, altering the doping of the n-type In2O3. A low frequency inductive feature observed in AC impedance spectroscopy measurements under DC bias conditions was found to be due to frequency-dependent changes in the contact resistance.

  18. Conduction in In2O3/YSZ heterostructures: Complex interplay between electrons and ions, mediated by interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Veal, B. W.; Eastman, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Thin film In2O3/YSZ heterostructures exhibit significant increases in electrical conductance with time when small in-plane electric fields are applied. Contact resistances between the current electrodes and film, and between current electrodes and substrate are responsible for the behavior. With an in-plane electric field, different field profiles are established in the two materials, with the result that oxygen ions can be driven across the heterointerface, altering the doping of the n-type In2O3. Furthermore, a low frequency inductive feature observed in AC impedance spectroscopy measurements under DC bias conditions was found to be due to frequency-dependent changes in the contact resistance.

  19. A uniform porous multilayer-junction thin film for enhanced gas-sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xu-Hui

    2016-01-21

    Highly-uniform In2O3/CuO bilayer and multilayer porous thin films were successfully fabricated using a self-assembled soft template and a simple sputtering deposition technique. The sensor based on the In2O3/CuO bilayer porous thin film shows obviously improved sensing performance to ethanol at a lower working temperature, compared to its single layer counterpart sensors. The response of the In2O3/CuO bilayer sensors exhibit nearly 3 and 5 times higher performance than those of the single layer In2O3 and CuO porous film sensors over the same ethanol concentration, respectively. The sensing mechanism based on the p-n hetero-junction, which contributed to the enhanced sensing performance, was also experimentally confirmed by a control experiment in which an SiO2 insulation layer was inserted between the In2O3 and CuO layers to break the p-n junction. In addition, the sensing performance can be further enhanced by increasing the number of In2O3/CuO junction layers. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors for practical sensing applications.

  20. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and ethanol-sensing properties of In2O3 and Eu3+:In2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Kanica; Thangaraj, R.; Kumar, Praveen; Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    In the present endeavor, Indium oxide (In2O3) and Europium doped In2O3 (In2O3:0.5%Eu3+ and In2O3:5%Eu3+) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis). XRD revealed that nanoparticles were of pure bixbyite-type cubic phase and the crystallite size decreased with the Eu3+ doping. SEM micrographs showed that particles were spherical in shape. Synthesized nanoparticles were used for photo degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under sunlight and the results clearly showed that In2O3:5%Eu3+ nanoparticles exhibited higher activity than pure In2O3 nanoparticles. For gas sensing characteristics, the nanoparticles were applied as thick film onto alumina substrate and tested at different operating temperatures. The results showed that the optimum operating temperature of the gas sensors prepared from synthesized nanoparticles is 300°C. The investigations revealed that the addition of Eu3+ as a dopant enhanced the sensing response of In2O3 nanoparticles appreciably.

  2. Mechanics of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-06

    32 (1991). INTRODUCTION Many technological areas currently use designs that rely on thin films for a variety of effects that include mechanical...film thickness, d is the width of the columnar grains, and Q is the atomic volume. The current film thickness h0 increases in proportion to the film...temperature and on the level of the far field uniform stress (121. h careful examination of these assumptions is currently under way. This work has

  3. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  5. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  6. A thermochromic low-emittance coating: Calculations for nanocomposites of In2O3:Sn and VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.-Y.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Calculations based on the Bruggeman effective medium theory were applied to thin films comprising a heavily doped wide band gap semiconductor (specifically In2O3:Sn (ITO)) and VO2. Films with ˜20 vol. % of VO2 can combine a 10% thermochromic modulation of the solar energy throughput with a luminous transmittance of 50%-60% and low thermal emittance. The maximum thermochromic modulation is ˜13% and occurs at ˜35 vol. % VO2. Coatings of ITO-VO2 are of interest for energy efficient fenestration.

  7. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  8. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  9. Tailoring plasmonic properties of metal nanoparticle-embedded dielectric thin films: the sandwich method of preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Ranjit; Malar, P.; Osipowicz, Thomas; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Tailoring of plasmonic properties of metal nanoparticle-embedded dielectric thin films are very crucial for many thin film-based applications. We, herein, investigate the various ways of tuning the plasmonic positions of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-embedded indium oxide thin films (Au:IO) through a sequence-specific sandwich method. The sandwich method is a four-step process involving deposition of In2O3 film by magnetron sputtering in first and fourth steps, thermal evaporation of Au on to In2O3 film in second and annealing of Au/In2O3 film in the third step. The Au:IO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The size and shape of the embedded nanoparticles were found from Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Based on dynamic Maxwell Garnett theory, the observed plasmon resonance position was ascribed to the oblate shape of AuNPs formed in sandwich method. Finally, through experimental data, it was shown that the plasmon resonance position of Au:IO thin films can be tuned by 125 nm. The method shown here can be used to tune the plasmon resonance position over the entire range of visible region for the thin films made from other combinations of metal-dielectric pair.

  10. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethyl Indium and Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, Anil U.; Allen, Amy J.; Kanjolia, Ravi K; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2016-05-12

    We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium oxide (In2O3) thin films using alternating exposures of trimethylindium (TMIn) and a variety of oxygen sources: ozone (O-3), O-2, deionized H2O, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We used in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements to evaluate the effectiveness of the different oxygen sources and found that only O-3 yielded viable and sustained 111203 growth with TMIn. These measurements also provided details about the In2O3 growth mechanism and enabled us to verify that both the TMIn and O-3 surface reactions were self-limiting. In2O3 thin films were prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical transport properties of these layers were studied by Hall probe measurements. We found that, at deposition temperatures within the range of 100-200 degrees C, the In2O3 growth per cycle was nearly constant at 0.46 angstrom/cycle and the films were dense and pure. The film thickness was highly uniform (<0.3% variation) along the 45 cm length of our tubular ALD reactor. At higher growth temperatures the In2O3 growth per cycle increased due to thermal decomposition of the TMIn. The ALD In2O3 films showed resistivities as low as 3.2 x 10(-3) Omega cm, and carrier concentrations as large as 7.0 x 10(19) cm(-3). This TMIn/O-3 process for In2O3 ALD should be suitable for eventual scale-up in photovoltaics.

  11. In2O3-based micro gas sensor for detecting NO x gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Song, In-Gyu; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2014-03-01

    In this study, NO x micro gas sensors for monitoring the indoor atmosphere of automobile were fabricated using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and a sol-gel process. The sensing electrode and micro heater were designed to have a co-planar typed structure in a Pt thin film layer. The thermal characteristics of a micro heater array were analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). The chip size of the gas sensor was approximately 2 mm × 2 mm. Indium oxide as a sensing material for NO x gas was synthesized by a sol-gel process with indium isopropoxide as a precursor. Field emission Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that particle size of the synthesized In2O3 was approximately 17-45 nm. The maximum gas sensitivity as the relative resistance ( R s = R gas / R air ) was observed at 275°C with a value of 8.0 at 1 ppm NO2 gas. The response (80% saturation) and recovery times were within 1 min. The sensing properties of NO2 gas exhibited linear behavior with increasing gas concentration. The sensing mechanism of the gas sensor was explained by the variations in the electron depletion layers and the adsorption of gas molecules on the In2O3 particle surface. These results suggest that in the future, MEMS-based gas sensors can be used as automotive-exhaust-gas sensors.

  12. The synthesis and characterization of multifunctional oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Parashu Ram

    2008-10-01

    Multifunctional materials offer a number of very interesting properties for developing new generation novel devices. Motivated by this fact, we concentrated our research efforts on investigating two different class of multifunctional materials namely: Diluted Magnetic Semiconducting Oxides (DMSO) and Multiferroic Oxides. The primary goal of this study was to determine how to resolve the controversy concerning the origin of room temperature ferromagnetic order in DMSO and to demonstrate the theoretically predicted coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic order parameters in multiferroic oxides. We chose several materials of current interest such as TiO2, ZnOand In2O3 (DMSO) and Ni3V2O8 and BiFeO 3 (multiferroic oxides) as the experimental specimens. We synthesized thin film samples of these materials using metal organic decomposition by spin coating and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. We succeeded in growing single phase polycrystalline thin films using both of the techniques with the sputter deposited samples showing highly preferred orientations. We did not observe any secondary phases and accidental impurities leading to robust ferromagnetic order in our samples within the detection limit of XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TEM. We have demonstrated that the lattice defects such as oxygen vacancies and cation vacancies play crucial role in the development of ferromagnetic order in DMSO materials. Based on the investigation carried out on TiO 2, ZnO and In2O3, we conclude that ferromagnetism can be developed in oxygen deficient DMSO thin films without the subbstitution of any external magnetic impurities but the incorporation of magnetic impurities may help in stabilizing the observed ferromagnetic order. Most importantly, we demonstrated with the direct measurement of spin polarization in In 2O3 and Cr doped In2O3 thin films that the charge carriers responsible for the ferromagnetic order are spin polarized. We have successfully demonstrated that the low

  13. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  15. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  17. Thin film resonator technology.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Kenneth M

    2005-05-01

    Advances in wireless systems have placed increased demands on high performance frequency control devices for operation into the microwave range. With spectrum crowding, high bandwidth requirements, miniaturization, and low cost requirements as a background, the thin film resonator technology has evolved into the mainstream of applications. This technology has been under development for over 40 years in one form or another, but it required significant advances in integrated circuit processing to reach microwave frequencies and practical manufacturing for high-volume applications. This paper will survey the development of the thin film resonator technology and describe the core elements that give rise to resonators and filters for today's high performance wireless applications.

  18. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  19. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  20. Preparation of transparent and conductive multicomponent Zn-In-Sn oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minamino, Youhei; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2005-07-01

    This article describes the preparation of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films by a vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using multicomponent oxide materials composed of any combination of two of the following binary compounds: ZnO, In2O3, and SnO2. The resulting TCO thin films were prepared with high deposition rates with the desired chemical composition in the ZnO-In2O3, In2O3-SnO2, and SnO2-ZnO systems by altering the composition of the sintered oxide fragments used as the source materials. Minimum resistivities were obtained in amorphous In2O3-ZnO, SnO2-In2O3, and ZnO-SnO2 thin films that were prepared with a Zn content of about 8.5 at. %, an In content of about 46 at. %, and a Sn content of about 78 at. %, respectively. It was found that the electrical, optical and chemical properties in ZnO-SnO2 thin films prepared using the VAPE method could be controlled by altering the Sn content.

  1. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  2. Thin films for material engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  3. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  4. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  5. VACUUM DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book deals with methods of obtaining and processing thin films , methods of measuring the deposition rate and thickness of thin-film layers, and...the main fields of application of thin films . Vacuum requirements and the requirements for the composition of the residual medium in thermal...evaporation and cathode sputtering are given, and modern methods of producing and measuring vacuums and the equipment used in obtaining thin films are described. (Author)

  6. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  7. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  9. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  10. Thin film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  11. Physics of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Francombe, M.H. ); Vossen, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This book of Physics of Thin Films emphasizes two main technical themes. The first is essentially an extension of the topical thrust on Thin Films for Advance Electronic Devices, developed in Volume 15 of this series. The second deals primarily with the physical and mechanical behavior of films and the influence of these in relation to various applications. The first of the four articles in this volume, by Neelkanth G. Dhere, discusses high-transition-temperature (T{sub c}) superconducting films. Since their discovery in 1986, both world-wide research activity and published literature on high-T{sub c} oxide films have exploded at a phenomenal rate. In his treatment, the author presents an effective survey of the already vast literature on this subject, discusses the numerous techniques under development for the growth of these perovskite-related complex oxides, and describes their key properties and applications. In particular, factors affecting the epitaxial structure, critical current capability, and microwave conductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O based film compositions are evaluated in relation to their use at 77K. An overview of potential applications in a variety of microwave devices, wide-band optical detectors, SQUID-type high-sensitivity magnetometers, etc., is included.

  12. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    PubMed

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  13. InGaZnO semiconductor thin film fabricated using pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangbo; Wang, Li; Su, Xueqiong; Kong, Le; Liu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xinping

    2010-01-18

    The InGaZnO thin films are fabricated on the quartz glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), where the target is prepared by mixing the Ga(2)O(3), In(2)O(3), and ZnO powders at a mol ratio of 1:1:8 before the solid-state reactions in a tube furnace at the atmospheric pressure. The product thin films were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect investigation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thus, we demonstrate semiconductor thin-film materials with high smoothness, high transmittance in visible region, and excellent electrical properties.

  14. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  15. Annealing effects on electrical properties of pure and tin-doped indium oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Hideo; Yonekura, Masaaki

    2012-12-01

    The annealing effects on the properties of ITO and pure In2O3 thin films have been investigated. The thin films were deposited with various O2 flow ratios to total gas flow by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The post-deposition annealing of the thin films was carried out for 30 minutes at various temperatures ranging up to 500 degrees C in air. It was found through the comparison of the carrier density of ITO and In2O3 thin films that the carrier electrons of the ITO thin films came from both of the dopant Sn and oxygen vacancies under the annealing less than 400 degrees C. Therefore, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher carrier density due to many oxygen vacancies; in consequence, they exhibited lower resistivity at the annealing up to 400 degrees C. On the other hand, the carrier density of ITO thin films was almost identical regardless of O2 flow ratio when they were annealed at 500 degrees C. This fact indicates that most carrier electrons of the ITO thin films were brought by the dopant Sn at the annealing temperature of 500 degrees C. However, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher Hall mobility; as a result, they showed lower resistivity at the annealing of 500 degrees C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity measurements revealed that the ITO thin films deposited with lowe O2 flow ratio exhibited dense structure even after they were annealed at 500 degrees C. Hence, the carrier electrons of the dense ITO thin films deposited with low O2 flow ratio can conduct better, as a result, the ITO thin films exhibited high Hall mobility and low resistivity.

  16. Chiral atomically thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  17. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  18. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  19. Microstructure of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-07

    study of Ion Assisted deposition (IAD) with different materials: metals , Al, Ag, and dielectrics, nitrides, fluorides and oxides. Some additional...optical thin films. The materials studied by ion -assisted deposition has ranged over metals , especially silver and aluminum, and dielectrics, especially... Ion -assisted deposition of metals It was of interest to us to determine if the great benefits of io-assisted deposition in the fabrication of

  20. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Schucker, Robert C.

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  1. Dewetting of Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, P. S.; Sorensen, J. L.; Kent, M.; Jeon, H. S.

    2001-03-01

    DEWETTING OF THIN POLYMER FILMS P. S. Dixit,(1) J. L. Sorensen,(2) M. Kent,(2) H. S. Jeon*(1) (1) Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, jeon@nmt.edu (2) Department 1832, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Dewetting of thin polymer films is of technological importance for a variety of applications such as protective coatings, dielectric layers, and adhesives. Stable and smooth films are required for the above applications. Above the glass transition temperature (Tg) the instability of polymer thin films on a nonwettable substrate can be occurred. The dewetting mechanism and structure of polypropylene (Tg = -20 ^circC) and polystyrene (Tg = 100 ^circC) thin films is investigated as a function of film thickness (25 Åh < 250 Åand quenching temperature. Contact angle measurements are used in conjunction with optical microscope to check the surface homogeneity of the films. Uniform thin films are prepared by spin casting the polymer solutions onto silicon substrates with different contact angles. We found that the stable and unstable regions of the thin films as a function of the film thickness and quenching temperature, and then constructed a stability diagram for the dewetting of thin polymer films. We also found that the dewetting patterns of the thin films are affected substantially by the changes of film thickness and quenching temperature.

  2. Thin Film Optical Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev; Ehlers, Henrik

    Within the scientific conception of the modern world, thin film optical coatings can be interpreted as one-dimensional photonic crystals. In general, they are composed of a sequence of single layers which consist of different transparent dielectrics with a thickness in the nanometer scale according to the operation wavelength range. The major function of these photonic structures is to adapt the properties of an optical surface to the needs of specific applications. By application of optical thin film coatings with optimized designs, the spectral characteristics of a surface can be modified to practically any required transfer function for a certain wavelength range. For example, the Fresnel reflection of a lens or a laser window can be suppressed for a broad wavelength range by depositing an antireflective coating containing only a few single layers. On the basis of a layer stack with alternating high- and low-refracting materials, high reflectance values up to 99.999% can be achieved for a certain laser wavelength. In addition to these basic functions, optical coatings can realize a broad variety of spectral filter characteristics according to even extremely sophisticated demands in modern precision optics and laser technology. Moreover, recent developments in optical thin film technology provide the means to combine selected optical properties with other features concerning, for instance, the thermal, mechanical or chemical stability of a surface. The latest progress in ophthalmic coatings even includes the integration of self-cleaning, photoactive or anti-fogging functions in antireflective coatings on glass.

  3. Holographic thin film analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Norden, B. N. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for the analysis and measurement of thin films in which the light output of a laser is split into two beams is discribed. The first beam is focused to illuminate the entire area of a photographic plate and the second beam is colummated and directed through a relatively small portion of the photographic plate onto the sample with the film to be observed. The surface of the sample is positioned at a slight angle with respect to a plane normal to the second beam and the light reflected from the sample arrives back at the photographic plate in a region other than through which the second beam originally passes. By making two successive exposures during the deposition of material on the surface of the sample, holograms are recorded on the photographic plate. The plate is then developed and interference lines of the hologram provide a measurement of the film or material deposited between exposure.

  4. Thin θ -film optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Luis

    2016-12-01

    A Chern-Simons theory in 3D is accomplished by the so-called θ term in the action (θ /2 )∫F ∧F , which contributes only to observable effects on the boundaries of such a system. When electromagnetic radiation interacts with the system, the wave is reflected and its polarization is rotated at the interface, even when both the θ system and the environment are pure vacuum. These topics have been studied extensively. Here, we investigate the optical properties of a thin θ film, where multiple internal reflections could interfere coherently. The cases of pure vacuum and a material with magnetoelectric properties are analyzed. It is found that the film reflectance is enhanced compared to ordinary non-θ systems and the interplay between magnetoelectric properties and the θ parameter yield film opacity and polarization properties which could be interesting in the case of topological insulators, among other topological systems.

  5. Thin film mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ryan C.

    This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate

  6. Low-temperature, solution-processed ZrO2:B thin film: a bifunctional inorganic/organic interfacial glue for flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Ho; Oh, Jin Young; Han, Sun Woong; Lee, Tae Il; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-03-04

    A solution-processed boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide (ZrO2:B) thin film has been found to have multifunctional characteristics, providing both hydrophobic surface modification and a chemical glue layer. Specifically, a ZrO2:B thin film deposited on a hydrophobic layer becomes superhydrophilic following ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) treatment, whereas the same treatment has no effect on the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic layer alone. Investigation of the ZrO2:B/hydrophobic interface layer using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR XPS) confirmed it to be chemically bonded like glue. Using the multifunctional nature of the ZrO2:B thin film, flexible amorphous indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were subsequently fabricated on a polyimide substrate along with a ZrO2:B/poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric. An aqueous In2O3 solution was successfully coated onto the ZrO2:B/PVP dielectric, and the surface and chemical properties of the PVP and ZrO2:B thin films were analyzed by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface-engineered PVP dielectric was found to have a lower leakage current density (Jleak) of 4.38 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, with no breakdown behavior observed up to a bending radius of 5 mm. In contrast, the electrical characteristics of the flexible amorphous In2O3 TFT such as on/off current ratio (Ion/off) and electron mobility remained similar up to 10 mm of bending without degradation, with the device being nonactivated at a bending radius of 5 mm. These results suggest that ZrO2:B thin films could be used for low-temperature, solution-processed surface-modified flexible devices.

  7. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Low-Temperature Growth of Indium Oxide Thin Film by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition Using Liquid Dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanamido)indium for High-Mobility Thin Film Transistor Application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Yeon; Jung, Eun Ae; Mun, Geumbi; Agbenyeke, Raphael E; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Son, Seung Uk; Jeon, Dong Ju; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Chung, Taek-Mo; Han, Jeong Hwan

    2016-10-12

    Low-temperature growth of In2O3 films was demonstrated at 70-250 °C by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using a newly synthesized liquid indium precursor, dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylcarboxylicpropanamide)indium (Me2In(EDPA)), and O2 plasma for application to high-mobility thin film transistors. Self-limiting In2O3 PEALD growth was observed with a saturated growth rate of approximately 0.053 nm/cycle in an ALD temperature window of 90-180 °C. As-deposited In2O3 films showed negligible residual impurity, film densities as high as 6.64-7.16 g/cm(3), smooth surface morphology with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of approximately 0.2 nm, and semiconducting level carrier concentrations of 10(17)-10(18) cm(-3). Ultrathin In2O3 channel-based thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated in a coplanar bottom gate structure, and their electrical performances were evaluated. Because of the excellent quality of In2O3 films, superior electronic switching performances were achieved with high field effect mobilities of 28-30 and 16-19 cm(2)/V·s in the linear and saturation regimes, respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated TFTs showed excellent gate control characteristics in terms of subthreshold swing, hysteresis, and on/off current ratio. The low-temperature PEALD process for high-quality In2O3 films using the developed novel In precursor can be widely used in a variety of applications such as microelectronics, displays, energy devices, and sensors, especially at temperatures compatible with organic substrates.

  9. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  10. Acceptor-like behavior of reducing gases on the surface of n-type In 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotcenkov, G.; Brinzari, V.; Golovanov, V.; Cerneavschi, A.; Matolin, V.; Tadd, A.

    2004-04-01

    Studying gas sensing effects in n-In 2O 3 films, we have observed the anomalous behavior of reducing gases such as CO and H 2. At Toper<250-300 °C the decrease of In 2O 3 film conductivity took place during the interactions with CO and H 2. Such effect is specific for n-In 2O 3 interactions with oxidizing gases. Acceptor-like behavior of conductivity has been observed in humid atmosphere only. The In 2O 3 films were deposited by spray pyrolysis from InCl 3-water solutions. Their thickness was varied between 20 and 400 nm. The maximum of acceptor effect took place for In 2O 3 films with minimal thickness and minimal grain size. The mechanism of CO and H 2 interactions with chemisorbed molecular oxygen has been proposed to explain of the observed effect. According to this model, the low temperature CO and H 2 oxidation by molecular oxygen is followed by accumulation of atomic oxygen forms (O) on the surface of In 2O 3. Water plays a role of catalyst in these reactions. Mechanism of such influence is connected with formation of intermediate complexes on the surface of In 2O 3.

  11. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  12. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  13. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  14. Synthesis and characterization of In2O3nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayeshamariam, A.; Kashif, M.; Muthu Raja, S.; Sivaranjani, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-oxide nanostructures have elicited increasing interest in both fundamental and applied sciences. Among metal oxide nanostructures, In2O3 has the potential for use asa semiconductor material. This article provides details on studies carried out thus far for the synthesis and the characterization of In2O3 nanostructures. In this research, various techniques were investigated for the fabrication of diverse and fascinating spherical shaped In2O3 nanostructures. Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses of the In2O3 nanostructures through detailed refinements of the structure of the In2O3 nanoparticles by using the Rietveld method, followed by microstructural analyses using scanning electron microscopy/ transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and a chemical composition analysis are presented and discussed. Decreasing crystallinity with an improvement in specific surface area was observed from the structural characterization. The energy dispersive analysisresults showed that the as-prepared In2O3 powder sample was stoichiometric, containing almost equal proportions of indium and oxygen. The microstructural analysis (TEM and SEM) demonstrated precise control over the diameters of the nanoparticles, which is an important advantage of the solution combustion approach.

  15. First Thin Film Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The constant evolution of the satellite market is asking for better technical performances and reliability for a reduced cost. Solar array is in front line of this challenge. This can be achieved by present technologies progressive improvement in cost reduction or by technological breakthrough. To reach an effective End Of Live performance100 W/kg of solar array is not so easy, even if you suppose that the mass of everything is nothing! Thin film cells are potential candidate to contribute to this challenge with certain confidence level and consequent development plan validation and qualification on ground and flight. Based on a strong flight heritage in flexible Solar Array design, the work has allowed in these last years, to pave the way on road map of thin film technologies . This is encouraged by ESA on many technological contracts put in concurrent engineering. CISG was selected cell and their strategy of design, contributions and results will be presented. Trade-off results and Design to Cost solutions will discussed. Main technical drivers, system design constraints, market access, key technologies needed will be detailed in this paper and the resulting road-map and development plan will be presented.

  16. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  17. Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These cathodes are electrochemically...active. We have also determined that thin film anodes of Li4Ti5O12 can be prepared by spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These anodes are also

  18. Magnetochromatic thin-film microplates.

    PubMed

    He, Le; Janner, Michael; Lu, Qipeng; Wang, Mingsheng; Ma, Hua; Yin, Yadong

    2015-01-07

    A new type of magnetochromatic material is developed based on thin-film interference of microplates self-assembled from super-paramagnetic nanocrystals. Dynamic optical tuning can be achieved through orientational manipulation of free-standing super-paramagnetic thin-film microplates using external magnetic fields.

  19. Methods of Producing Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes various methods of producing thin films , especially for microelectronics. In addition to the classical methods of forming thin ... films by vacuum vapor deposition, it also describes processes of diode sputtering and modern methods of cathode sputtering by means of a third

  20. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  1. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In2O3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In2O3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications. PMID:28435867

  2. Solution-processed gadolinium doped indium-oxide thin-film transistors with oxide passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Taehun; Lee, Jihun; Avis, Christophe; Jang, Jin

    2017-03-01

    We studied the effect of Gd doping on the structural properties of solution processed, crystalline In2O3 for thin-film transistor (TFT) application. With increasing Gd in In2O3 up to 20%, the material structure changes into amorphous phase, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases from 15.4 to 8.4%, and M-OH bonds from 33.5 to 23.7%. The field-effect mobility for the Gd doped In2O3 TFTs decreases and threshold voltage shifts to the positive voltage with increasing Gd concentration. In addition, the stability of the solution processed TFTs can also be improved by increasing Gd concentration. As a result, the optimum Gd concentration is found to be ˜5% in In2O3 and the 5% Gd doped In2O3 TFTs with the Y2O3 passivation layer exhibit the linear mobility of 9.74 cm2/V s, the threshold voltage of -0.27 V, the subthreshold swing of 79 mV/dec., and excellent bias stability.

  3. Spinodal dewetting of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Puri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Stable thin liquid films are of various scientific and technological applications, e.g., in optical coating, painting technologies, coating thin wires and fibers, lubricants, adhesives, etc. However, the instabilities in a thin film may lead to rupture, hole formation, and other morphological changes which amplify the nonuniformity in the thin film [1]. This morphological evolution in an unstable thin film is generally known as `dewetting' [2]. There have recently been a number of theoretical and experimental studies on dewetting in thin films [3-6]. The process of `spinodal dewetting' comes into the category of a general class of phenomena, spinodal decomposition [7]. The pattern formation taking place during dewetting can also be of great importance in nanotechnology, e.g., for preparing quantum dots [8], nanorings [9], etc. We numerically solve the nonlinear two-dimensional thin film equation [2] for a thin liquid film subjected to the long range van der Waals attraction and short range Born repulsion. The simulation results for the temporal evolution of domains and height profile along diagonal direction of the lattice show the `hills and valleys' short of structures which is the typical morphology obtained during the spinodal dewetting [10]. We obtain the dynamical correlation function and structure factor showing the existence of a characteristic length scale in the system at late time. We give the scaling arguments for the length scale of the drops to be proportional to t1/3 which is in agreement with our numerical results for the domain growth.

  4. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  5. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  6. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  7. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  8. Composite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-02-01

    Composites are one of more versatile types of materials, and can be characterized as multicomponent, or multiphase, mixtures. They can have unique structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties not possible with a simple single component material. One of the best known composite materials is fiberglass, which is composed of glass fibers in a polymer matrix. This family of materials and thin films is highly disordered and inhomogeneous on a microstructural scale. Nanocrystalline and nanoclusters are now actively being investigated. The inhomogeneities can be fibers, clusters of atoms or molecules, grains with different crystalline phases (nanocrystalline clusters), inclusions with different electrical and magnetic properties. Note that the particles can have the same composition as the host material, but will have a different structural geometry. Carbon-carbon composites are a good example, where carbon fibers or threads are incorporated into carbonaceous resin

  9. Electrical and optical properties of indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by continuous composition spread.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Kim, J S; Yoon, S J; Cho, Y S; Choi, J W

    2013-05-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature using off-axis RF sputtering-continuous composition spread (CCS) system. The full range composition of IZO films were controlled by the deposition rate and thickness profiles of In2O3 and ZnO target. The structural, electrical and optical properties of IZO thin films were measured as functions of position. IZO thin film had the lowest resistivity and highest carrier concentration at the position of 15 mm (5.02 x 10(-4) omega cm, 3.9 x 10(20)/cm3). And IZO thin film had high transmittance in visible region at measured all positions. This study has investigated to explore the new composition of IZO films using CCS system.

  10. ZnSe/ITO thin films: candidate for CdTe solar cell window layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurram, A. A.; Imran, M.; Khan, Nawazish A.; Nasir Mehmood, M.

    2017-09-01

    The crystal structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnSe thin films deposited on an In2O3:Sn (ITO) substrate are evaluated for their suitability as the window layer of CdTe thin film solar cells. ZnSe thin films of 80, 90, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by a physical vapor deposition method on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The lattice parameters are increased to 5.834 Å when the film thickness was 100 nm, which is close to that of CdS. The crystallite size is decreased with the increase of film thickness. The optical transmission analysis shows that the energy gap for the sample with the highest thickness has also increased and is very close to 2.7 eV. The photo decay is also studied as a function of ZnSe film thickness.

  11. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-22

    Properties of Hafnium Dioxide Thin Films Appendix C Cross Sections for 170.50 Backscattering of 4He from Oxygen for ’He Energies Between 1.8 and 5.0 MeV...microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, and H. A. Macleod Summary We have applied a variety of analytical...tools to educe the compositional and morphological changes experienced by thin films of hafnium dioxide deposited under a variety of conditions. Surface

  12. Quasi Two-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized In2O3 Phototransistors for Ultrahigh Responsivity and Photosensitivity Photodetector Applications.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Alexander D; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    We report the development of dye-sensitized thin-film phototransistors consisting of an ultrathin layer (<10 nm) of indium oxide (In2O3) the surface of which is functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of the light absorbing organic dye D102. The resulting transistors exhibit a preferential color photoresponse centered in the wavelength region of ∼500 nm with a maximum photosensitivity of ∼10(6) and a responsivity value of up to 2 × 10(3) A/W. The high photoresponse is attributed to internal signal gain and more precisely to charge carriers generated upon photoexcitation of the D102 dye which lead to the generation of free electrons in the semiconducting layer and to the high photoresponse measured. Due to the small amount of absorption of visible photons, the hybrid In2O3/D102 bilayer channel appears transparent with an average optical transmission of >92% in the wavelength range 400-700 nm. Importantly, the phototransistors are processed from solution-phase at temperatures below 200 °C hence making the technology compatible with inexpensive and temperature sensitive flexible substrate materials such as plastic.

  13. Investigation of the High Mobility IGZO Thin Films by Using Co-Sputtering Method

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Ming; Tzou, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liou, Yu-Jhen

    2015-01-01

    High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the SEM observations, all of the deposited IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface. From the measurements of XRD patterns, only the amorphous structure was observed. We aimed to show that the deposition power of GZO ceramic target had large effect on the Eg values, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of IGZO thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in the thicknesses’ profile of IGZO thin films found that In and Ga elements were uniform distribution and Zn element were non-uniform distribution. The SIMS analysis results also showed the concentrations of Ga and Zn elements increased and the concentrations of In element was almost unchanged with increasing deposition power.

  14. Ultra thin gage plastic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. W., Jr.; Struble, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Process utilizing specially modified conventional equipment, with changes in process temperature, pressure, and cooling requirements produces ultra thin 1.56 micron /0.0614 mil/ thick polyethylene film.

  15. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  16. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  17. The thin film microwave iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, R. L.; Landes, H. S.; Manus, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of waveguide iris for microwave coupling applications using thin film techniques is discussed. Production process and installation of iris are described. Iris improves power transmission properties of waveguide window.

  18. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  19. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  20. Multilayer Thin-Film Microcapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Miniature capacitors containing multiple alternating thin-film dielectric and metal layers proposed, especially for use in integrated and hybrid electronic circuits. Because capacitance inversely proportional to thickness of dielectric layers, use of thin, high-quality dielectric layers affords capacitance and energy-storage densities much greater than now available. These devices much smaller and more reliable than state-of-art capacitors.

  1. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  2. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  3. Surface plasmons on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallesen, Todd; Jahncke, Cl; Hallen, Hd

    2004-03-01

    Surface plasmons on silver, gold and aluminum thin films are measured using a total internal reflection geometry. These measurements are made with a simple apparatus using a differential gear box which will be described. The surface plasmon resonances are compared with theoretical calculations for different film thicknesses and materials.

  4. Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huiling; Bi, Xiaobin; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang

    2015-12-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) detecting properties of Mg doped In2O3 (MgInO or MIO) bottom gate thin film transistors (TFTs) were investigated. The optical measurements show that the introduction of Mg dopants effectively widens the optical band gap of In2O3. The cutoff wavelength of MIO films is pushed to deep UV as Mg content increases. Fabricated MIO TFTs with high Mg content demonstrate appraisable UV detecting properties with a dark current of 10-14 A, a UV to visible rejection ratio of 103, a responsivity of 3.2 A/W (300 nm) and a cutoff wavelength of 320 nm, which can be put to good use in deep UV detection. The dynamic photo-response measurement shows that the persistent photo-conductivity (PPC) effect can be alleviated by imposing a transient positive gate pulse.

  5. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  6. In2O3 based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qi; Liu, Fangzhou; Wong, Man Kwong; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Ren, Zhiwei; Shen, Qian; Ng, Annie; Surya, Charles; Chan, Wai Kin

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have attracted lots of attention in recent years. Growth and properties of perovskite layer and its relationship to photovoltaic performance have been extensively studied. Comparably less attention was devoted to the research of the influence of electron transporting layer (ETL). Conventionally, TiO2 is selected as ETL. However, photocatalytic property of this transparent conductive metal oxide reduces the stability of perovskite solar cells under illumination. To realize the commercialization, the stability of perovskite solar cell must be improved. In this study, we replace TiO2 by In2O3, which is not only transparent and conductive, but also has little photocatalytic effect and it has higher electron mobility than TiO2. Investigation on different solution process methods of In2O3 as ETL is demonstrated.

  7. Magnetoresistance in Sn-Doped In2O3Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present transport measurements of individual Sn-doped In2O3nanowires as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The results showed a localized character of the resistivity at low temperatures as evidenced by the presence of a negative temperature coefficient resistance in temperatures lower than 77 K. The weak localization was pointed as the mechanism responsible by the negative temperature coefficient of the resistance at low temperatures. PMID:20596280

  8. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  9. Li-Assisted Low-Temperature Phase Transitions in Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Films for High-Performance Thin Film Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Jang, Mi; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Bang, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Minjung; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Yang, Hoichang; Choi, Rino

    2016-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-assisted indium oxide (In2O3) thin films with ordered structures were prepared on solution-processed zirconium oxide (ZrO2) gate dielectrics by spin-casting and thermally annealing hydrated indium nitrate solutions with different Li nitrate loadings. It was found that the Li-assisted In precursor films on ZrO2 dielectrics could form crystalline structures even at processing temperatures (T) below 200 °C. Different In oxidation states were observed in the Li-doped films, and the development of such states was significantly affected by both temperature and the mol% of Li cations, [Li+]/([In3+] + [Li+]), in the precursor solutions. Upon annealing the Li-assisted precursor films below 200 °C, metastable indium hydroxide and/or indium oxyhydroxide phases were formed. These phases were subsequently transformed into crystalline In2O3 nanostructures after thermal dehydration and oxidation. Finally, an In2O3 film doped with 13.5 mol% Li+ and annealed at 250 °C for 1 h exhibited the highest electron mobility of 60 cm2 V−1 s−1 and an on/off current ratio above 108 when utilized in a thin film transistor. PMID:27121951

  10. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  11. Drying of thin colloidal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  12. Thin film of biocompatible polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ludovic; Lavalle, Philippe; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Picart, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    The layer-by-layer deposition method proposed by Decher et al. (1991) is a very simple and versatile method used to build thin films. These films are of interest for bioengineering because of their unique properties and of the possible insertion of bioactive molecules. We present here the peculiar properties of a new kind of film formed with natural biopolymers, namely hyaluronan (HA)and chitosan (CHI). The films may be used as biomimetic substrates to control bacterial and cell adhesion. These polysaccharides are of particular interest because they are biodegradable, non toxic, and can be found in various tissues. Hyaluronan is also a natural ligand for a numerous type of cells through the CD44 receptor. Chitosan has already largely been used for its biological and anti-microbial properties. (CHI/HA) films were built in acidic pH at different ionic strength. The buildup was followed in situ by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), quartz crystal microbalance, streaming potential measurements and atomic force microscopy. The kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the polyelectrolytes depended on the ionic strength. Small islands were initially present on the surface which grew by mutual coalescence until becoming a flat film. The films were around 200 nm in thickness. These results suggest that different types of thin films constituted of polysaccharides can be built on any type of surface. These films are currently investigated toward their cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion properties.

  13. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-05

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  14. (Thin films under chemical stress)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    As stated above the purpose of this research is to enable workers in a variety of fields to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin films (primarily organic films) are placed under chemical stress. This stress may occur because the film is being swelled by penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). These questions are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers, which might have unique functional properties. In the past year we have concentrated on the following objectives: (1) understanding how the two possible diffusion mechanisms contribute to the swelling of thin films of organic polymers place in solution, (2) identifying systems which are appropriate polymer media for the construction of composite membranes for use in aqueous environments, and (3) understanding the self-assembly process for long chain fatty acids at model surfaces. Progress in meeting each of these objectives will be described in this report. 4 figs.

  15. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  16. Preparation of metal oxide thin films using coating photolysis process with ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Akio; Imai, Yoji; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Manabe, Takaaki; Kumagai, Toshiya; Mizuta, Susumu

    2000-11-01

    The preparation of metal oxide thin films have been developed using the metalorganic (MO) compounds coating photolysis process with ArF excimer laser irradiation at room temperature. The effect of the starting materials and irradiation method on the product films was investigated by FT-IR, UV, XRD and SEM. It was found that metal acetylacetonates or metal 2-ethylhexanoate was effective as the starting materials. When using metal acetylacetonates as the starting materials, crystallized TiO2, In2O3 and ZrO2 were obtained with ArF laser irradiation at 50 mJ/cm2 at a repetition rate of 5 Hz for 5 min. When using An-acac, Fe, Sn, or In 2-ethylhexanoate as the starting material, a two-step process consisting of both preliminary weak (10mJ/cm2) and sufficiently strong irradiation (50mJ/cm2) was found to be effective for obtaining crystallized ZnO, Fe2O3, SnO2 and In2O3 films. In addition, crystallized complex oxide thin films such as ITO, PbTo3 and PbZrO3 were successfully obtained from the metal acetylacetonates or metal 2-ethylhexanoate using MO coating photolysis process. Patterned metal oxide thin films were also obtained by the ArF laser irradiation through the photomask, followed by leaching with solvents. The crystallization mechanism was discussed from the point of view of the photochemical reaction and photothermal reaction.

  17. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  18. LOW POWER THIN MAGNETIC FILM MEMORY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COATINGS, *MEMORY DEVICES, *DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS, *MAGNETIC MATERIALS, *THIN FILM STORAGE DEVICES, DIODES, ELECTRIC CONNECTORS, MAGNETIC CORES, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, METAL FILMS, SILICON COMPOUNDS, TEXTILE INDUSTRY , TRANSFORMERS.

  19. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  20. Thin films under chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Techniques in Thin Film Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    introduced a novel time -of- flight (TOF) particle detector which utilized an ultra-thin plastic scintillator film as a transmission detector. In this...10ug/cm2 ) while maintaining a quite adequate signal-to-noise ratio. It offered a relatively simple and compact system for measuring flight times of...system [2]. Though the amplitude of the pulses generated by the scintil- lating film was of no real consequence in determining flight times (as long as

  2. Dielectric Composite Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    more compressive under deposition conditions, such as high temperature, low pressure or energetic ion bombardment, that produce a more densely packed...film porosity and silica content. Thus, films formed at high temperatures and low pressures , as well as under ion bombardment during deposition, have...and their mixtures were deposited on 100-300 *C substrates and under reactive gas III. RESULTS pressures of 1-10x 10- Torr 02. 02 was UHP grade with A

  3. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  4. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  5. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  6. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  7. Lithographic Micropatterning of Polythiophene Thin-Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    OXYGEN, POLYMERS, PROCESSING, PROPANOLS, REACTIVITIES, REFRACTIVE INDEX, REPRODUCTION(COPYING), SEMICONDUCTORS, SILICATES, SOLVENTS, STRUCTURES, SURFACE PROPERTIES, THICKNESS, THIN FILMS , THIOPHENES.

  8. Thermopower of thin iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Randy; Schröder, Klaus

    1992-02-01

    Thin iron films were prepared by evaporation in a high vacuum system (pressure in the 10 -5 MPa range). The thermopower was measured in situ near room temperature as a function of film thickness. Iron films with rather high resistivity values showed a strong thickness effect of the Seeback coefficient, S, with the difference between S (bulk) and S (film) reaching values of up to (19±3) μV/K for a sample 5 nm thick. The difference between S (bulk) and S (film) decreased with increasing d values. However, a sample with a resistance value of 50 μΩ cm at d = 5 n had an S value which differed by less than 3 μV/K from S (bulk).

  9. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  10. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  12. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  13. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-31

    Determination of the Thickness and Optical Constants of Thin Metallic Films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71. 189 (1981). 24. F. Abeles and T. Lopez -Rios...Burton, N. Cabrera , & F. C. Frank, "The Growth of Crystals and the Equilibrium Structure of Their Surfaces", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A23, 299-358 (1951

  14. Thin Film Phosphor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    followed in Fig. 1. Two different garnet phases are observed in the fired films. The "low temperature " phase observed in the film treated at 9(X)°C has a... garnets ,1 121 thle experimentall~v-ob,•crved lattice constar.als correspond to the followving lmh composition for the low and high temperature phases...deposited, which is probably an yttrium rich garnet (see Figure 1). At I100)°C we start to see the appearance of both phases. As the firing temperature

  15. Optoelectronic Nanocomposite Materials for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    CdTe and ZnO single-phase thin films , nanocomposite films ...for the CdTe -ZnO thin film system under these conditions. c. Optical Absorption The films produced in the present study consistently exhibited...optical absorbance spectra collected from CdTe -ZnO multilayer nanocomposite thin films . The effect of CdTe layer thickness used per deposition cycle

  16. A thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A device has been developed for the purpose of measuring longitudinal strain in thin polyethylene films. This paper describes the design, development, calibration, and application of this unique transducer in a variety of low temperature environments. This thin, ring-shaped device has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in a thin film. It has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with most available bridge balance, amplification, and telemetry instrumentation. This transducer has been successfully used for viscoelastic material characterization experiments in the laboratory, as well as in flight measurements of strain on the surface of scientific balloons during inflation, launch, ascent, and float.

  17. Conversion of evaporated In2S3 layers into In2O3 by air annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, G. R.; Revathi, N.; Uthanna, S.; Reddy, K. T. Ramakrishna

    2012-06-01

    In2S3 films have been prepared by close spaced evaporation onto Corning glass at a substrate temperature of 350oC and annealed in air at different temperatures that vary in the range, 250 - 400°C. The composition and structural properties of the layers were investigated using appropriate techniques. The studies indicated a phase conversion from tetragonal In2S3 to cubic In2O3 with the increase of annealing temperature. The results are presented and discussed.

  18. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Lin, Yen-Hung; Thomas, Stuart R; Zhao, Kui; Pliatsikas, Nikos; McLachlan, Martyn A; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1) and current on/off ratio in excess of 10(6). Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  19. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  20. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  1. Solution-processed high-k magnesium oxide dielectrics for low-voltage oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guixia; Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia; Zhu, Chundan; Meng, You; Shin, Byoungchul; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fukai

    2016-10-01

    Solution-processed metal-oxide thin films with high dielectric constants (k) have been extensively studied for low-cost and high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this report, MgO dielectric films were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The MgO dielectric films annealed at various temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600 °C) were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. The electrical measurements indicate that the insulating properties of MgO thin films are improved with an increase in annealing temperature. In order to clarify the potential application of MgO thin films as gate dielectrics in TFTs, solution-derived In2O3 channel layers were separately fabricated on various MgO dielectric layers. The optimized In2O3/MgO TFT exhibited an electron mobility of 5.48 cm2/V s, an on/off current ratio of 107, and a subthreshold swing of 0.33 V/dec at a low operation voltage of 6 V. This work represents a great step toward the development of portable and low-power consumption electronics.

  2. Direct integration of vertical In2O3 nanowire arrays, nanosheet chains, and photoinduced reversible switching of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Miao; Zheng, Maojun; Zeng, Ansheng; Ma, L.

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale In2O3 nanowire (NW) arrays and nanosheet chains are directly integrated on InP substrates via a simple chemical vapor deposition process, benefiting from the substrate-induced, self-assembly and self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Such particular structures could be expected to have potential applications such as gas sensors and field emission devices. Equally important, remarkable photoinduced wettability conversion between superhydrophobicity and high hydrophilicity has been observed on In2O3 NW arrays. This reversible behavior is ascribed to the photogenerated surface oxygen vacancies and the special nanostructures. Such reversibly switching surface will widen the applications of In2O3 films.

  3. Laminated thin film solar module

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.; Eisner, K.P.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a solar module comprising: a first untempered glass sheet having a first side forming a light receiving face of a solar module and a second side, a thin film photovoltaic device fabricated on the second side of the first glass sheet, a second tempered glass sheet spaced from the second side of the first sheet and forming the primary structural member of the solar module; and a pottant layer filling substantially all space between the first and second glass sheets and bonding the sheets together. This patent describes a solar module according to claim 1 further including a second thin film photovoltaic device fabricated on a surface of the second tempered glass sheet.

  4. Thin film trichloroethylene electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hua; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2004-07-30

    Pt-Ti and Pb-Pt-Ti thin films were deposited on alumina substrates by sputtering in Ar gas. In this study, an electrodeposited Pb-modified Pt-Ti thin film working electrode was prepared. Optimal sensing conditions were found to be -2.10 V (versus Ag/Ag+ with 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) in acetonitrile (AN) solution) sensing potential, 250 rpm agitation rate. At room temperature, the response time was 15 s (90% response time). The correlation of sensing response current, id, and trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration, CL, is id = 2.86CL in the range from 100 to 700 ppm TCE. Additionally, the rate constant of (TCE) cathodic reduction was found to be 2.434 x 10(-3) cm(-1) s(-1).

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz.

  6. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  7. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide.

    PubMed

    Noviyana, Imas; Lestari, Annisa Dwi; Putri, Maryane; Won, Mi-Sook; Bae, Jong-Seong; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Hee Young

    2017-06-26

    Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C.

  8. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Noviyana, Imas; Lestari, Annisa Dwi; Putri, Maryane; Won, Mi-Sook; Bae, Jong-Seong; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C. PMID:28773058

  9. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriälä, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene ( PHT), fullerene ( C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine ( CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 × 10 3 Ω m and 3 × 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 × 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 × 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  10. Thin-Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

  11. Structure and Electronic Properties of Crystalline and Amorphous Zinc Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffit, Diana Elizabeth

    The local structures and surface electronic properties of crystalline (c-) and amorphous (a-) Zn and Sn codoped In2O3 (ZITO) films were studied. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements confirm that Zn and Sn dopants occupy In sites in the bixbyite structure of c-ZITO. Also, Zn dopants are generally under-coordinated and some compensated Sn dopants are over-coordinated, as demonstrated by the trend in coordination numbers (CN) of CNSn>CNIn>CNZn. Aliovalent Sn dopants form Frank-Kostlin clusters, (2Sn•InO'' i)x , which can act as donors when reduced. XAS and anomalous X-ray scattering studies on a-ZITO show that the local structure in a-ZITO is somewhat different than that in c-ZITO, particularly around Zn. The Zn-O bond length is significantly smaller than in c-ZITO and Zn is 4-fold coordinated. The smaller coordination numbers in a-ZITO follow the same trend as in c-ZITO. Unlike in c-ZITO, variations in the Sn/Zn ratio do not alter the electrical properties of a-ZITO, although variations in deposition oxygen pressure do. The 3-D geometrical arrangement linking local structure units seems to play a key role in charge balancing ZITO. As measured by in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, ZITO crystallizes at a higher temperature than In2 O3 and Sn-doped In2O3. The difference is attributed to a higher activation energy, which may result from the unique structure around Zn in a-ZITO. Increasing the codoping level consistently increases crystallization temperature. For a given codoping level, the crystallization temperature during deposition is lower than that during post-deposition annealing. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that a-ZITO and c-ZITO thin films have similar surface electronic properties. In situ a-ZITO and c-ZITO films have low ionization potentials that are similar to In2O3. However, dry-air-annealed in situ films, ex situ films, and bulk ceramics have higher ionization potentials that are

  12. Growth and surface characterization of tin-doped indium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Erie

    The geometrical and electronic surface properties of In2O 3 and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) have been investigated. Sn-doped In2O3 is widely used as a transparent conducting oxide in flat panel displays, organic-light-emitting-diodes, solar cells, and electrochromic windows. Despite the fact that surface and interfaces are important in all these applications, a fundamental understanding of the surface properties of this material is lacking. Meaningful surface investigations are best conducted on single-crystalline samples, thus epitaxial thin films of In2O3 and ITO were grown and used as samples for the surface investigations. This work focuses on two low-index surfaces of ITO, the non-polar (111) orientation and the (100) orientation, which, in its bulk-terminated form, is polar. The epitaxial films were grown with oxygen-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on yttria-stabilized zirconia, which exhibits a cube-on-cube epitaxy as well as a small lattice mismatch with respect to In2O 3. The YSZ(111) substrate was characterized with Re ection-high-electron-energy-diffraction (RHEED) and Low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED) and its surface was found to be (1x1) terminated. RHEED and LEED measurements on the substrate were possible if the substrate was kept at 300°C in order to avoid charging effects of this insulating material. RHEED exhibited 2-dimensional growth mode for the Sn-doped In2O3 thin films. Using LEED it was found that the surface of In2O3 and Sn-doped In 2O3 poses a (1x1) terminated surface. A de-convolution of X-ray core level photoemission (XPS) of In 3d peaks; into one component that is due to regular photoemission and one that is due to interaction of core holes with electronic plasmons, provided the plasmon energy, E p; From Ep the electron density n of the doped films was obtained. For an ITO film with 6.2 at% of Sn, it was found that 1/3 of the Sn atoms contribute one electron to the conduction band. Scanning-tunneling-microscopy (STM) was

  13. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.

  14. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; ...

    2016-06-10

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behavior, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures, or enhanced catalytic activity. Here in this paper, we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) dopingmore » of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behavior is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.« less

  15. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Veal, Boyd W; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M; Eastman, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-10

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.

  16. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment. PMID:27283250

  17. MCP performance improvement using alumina thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile; Li, Yumei; Qi, Ming

    2017-10-01

    The performance improvement using alumina thin film on a dual microchannel plate (MCP) detector for single electron counting was investigated. The alumina thin film was coated on all surfaces of the MCPs by atomic layer deposition method. It was found that the gain, the single electron resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio of the dual MCP detector were significantly enhanced by coating the alumina thin film. The optimum operating conditions of the new dual MCP detector have been studied.

  18. Epitaxial growth of visible to infra-red transparent conducting In2O3 nanodot dispersions and reversible charge storage as a Li-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Osiak, M; Khunsin, W; Armstrong, E; Kennedy, T; Torres, C M Sotomayor; Ryan, K M; O'Dwyer, C

    2013-02-15

    Unique bimodal distributions of single crystal epitaxially grown In2O3 nanodots on silicon are shown to have excellent IR transparency greater than 87% at IR wavelengths up to 4 μm without sacrificing transparency in the visible region. These broadband antireflective nanodot dispersions are grown using a two-step metal deposition and oxidation by molecular beam epitaxy, and backscattered diffraction confirms a dominant (111) surface orientation. We detail the growth of a bimodal size distribution that facilitates good surface coverage (80%) while allowing a significant reduction in In2O3 refractive index. This unique dispersion offers excellent surface coverage and three-dimensional volumetric expansion compared to a thin film, and a step reduction in refractive index compared to bulk active materials or randomly porous composites, to more closely match the refractive index of an electrolyte, improving transparency. The (111) surface orientation of the nanodots, when fully ripened, allows minimum lattice mismatch strain between the In2O3 and the Si surface. This helps to circumvent potential interfacial weakening caused by volume contraction due to electrochemical reduction to lithium, or expansion during lithiation. Cycling under potentiodynamic conditions shows that the transparent anode of nanodots reversibly alloys lithium with good Coulombic efficiency, buffered by co-insertion into the silicon substrate. These properties could potentially lead to further development of similarly controlled dispersions of a range of other active materials to give transparent battery electrodes or materials capable of non-destructive in situ spectroscopic characterization during charging and discharging.

  19. Ion Implantation of Zinc Sulphide Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report considers the use of ion implantation as a means of preparing rare earth doped thin films of zinc sulphide, and presents preliminary results on the luminescence of such films doped with Tb and Er166 ions. (Author)

  20. A thin film nitinol heart valve.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Lenka L; Levi, Daniel S; Carman, Gregory P

    2005-11-01

    In order to create a less thrombogenic heart valve with improved longevity, a prosthetic heart valve was developed using thin film nitinol (NiTi). A "butterfly" valve was constructed using a single, elliptical piece of thin film NiTi and a scaffold made from Teflon tubing and NiTi wire. Flow tests and pressure readings across the valve were performed in vitro in a pulsatile flow loop. Bio-corrosion experiments were conducted on untreated and passivated thin film nitinol. To determine the material's in vivo biocompatibility, thin film nitinol was implanted in pigs using stents covered with thin film NiTi. Flow rates and pressure tracings across the valve were comparable to those through a commercially available 19 mm Perimount Edwards tissue valve. No signs of corrosion were present on thin film nitinol samples after immersion in Hank's solution for one month. Finally, organ and tissue samples explanted from four pigs at 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after thin film NiTi implantation appeared without disease, and the thin film nitinol itself was without thrombus formation. Although long term testing is still necessary, thin film NiTi may be very well suited for use in artificial heart valves.

  1. THIN FILMS FORMED BY ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROCHEMISTRY, * THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), ALUMINUM, ANODES (ELECTROLYTIC CELL), CAPACITORS, CIRCUITS, MICROMETERS, NIOBIUM, OXIDATION, RESISTORS, TANTALUM, TITANIUM, TUNGSTEN, VACUUM APPARATUS, ZIRCONIUM

  2. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  3. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  4. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  5. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, James Shaw

    Raman spectroscopy was used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate structural and compositional information on a variety of samples. Raman was used on the unique La 2NiMnO6 mixed double perovskite which is a member of the LaMnO3 family of perovskites and has multiferroic properties. Raman was also used on nanodiamond films as well as some boron-doped carbon compounds. Finally, Raman was used to identify metal-dendrimer bonds that have previously been overlooked. Vibrational modes for La2NiMnO6 were ascribed by comparing spectra with that for LaMnO3 bulk and thin film spectra. The two most prominent modes were labeled as an asymmetric stretch (A g) centered around 535 cm-1 and a symmetric stretch (B g) centered around 678 cm. The heteroepitaxial quality of La2NiMnO 6 films on SrTiO3 (100) and LaAlO3 (100) substrates were examined using the Raman microscope by way of depth profile experiments and by varying the thickness of the films. It was found that thin films (10 nm) had much greater strain on the LaAlO3 substrate than on the SrTiO3 substrate by examining the shifts of the Ag and the Bg modes from their bulk positions. Changes in the unit cell owing to the presence of oxygen defects were also monitored using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the Ag and Bg modes shifted between samples formed with different oxygen partial pressures. These shifts could be correlated to changes in the symmetry of the manganese centers due to oxygen defects. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structural and compositional characteristics of carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond coated cutting tools were examined using the Raman Microscope. Impact, abrasion, and depth profile experiments indicated that delamination was the primary cause of film failure in these systems. Boron doped material of interest as catalyst supports were also examined. Monitoring of the G-mode and intensities of the D- and G-modes indicated that

  7. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  8. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  9. Applications of Thin Films in Electronics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The authors review the application of thin films produced by vacuum vaporization, cathode sputtering, diffusion, and epitaxial growing in the fields...of passive and active electric components and microminiaturization. Some of the most important characteristics of thin films are summarized. (Author)

  10. Application of Thin Films in Electronics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The article reviews the application of thin films (produced by vacuum evaporation, cathode sputtering, diffusion and epitaxial growing) in the field...of passive and active electric components and in microminiaturization. Some of the characteristics of thin films are summarized. (Author)

  11. Physics of thin films. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Vossen, J.L.; Francombe, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    This volume of Physics of Thin Films contains five articles, four of which deal primarily with the influence of ions or of optical energy on the deposition, properties, or etching of thin films. The fifth article deals with the important technological problem of contacts to GaAs devices.

  12. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  13. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  14. Characteristics Of Vacuum Deposited Sucrose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, F.; Predoi, D.; Ghita, R. V.; Vatasescu-Balcan, R. A.; Costache, M.

    Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11) were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique (p ~ 10-5 torr). The surface morphology was putted into evidence by FT-IR and SEM analysis. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent sucrose layer. The biological tests (e.g., cell morphology and cell viability evaluated by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenise activity with MTT assay) confirm the properties of sucrose thin films as bioactive material. The human fetal osteoblast system grown on thin sucrose film was used for the determination of cell proliferation, cell viability and cell morphology studies.

  15. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D. E.; Shelford, L. R.; Wadley, P.; Holý, V.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; van der Laan, G.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Cavill, S. A.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications. PMID:23860685

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  18. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics.

    PubMed

    Parkes, D E; Shelford, L R; Wadley, P; Holý, V; Wang, M; Hindmarch, A T; van der Laan, G; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Cavill, S A; Rushforth, A W

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Sreemany, M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; Sen, Suchitra; Halder, S. K.

    2008-07-29

    In analogy with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (PWAS), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films also seem to be promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) due to a number of reasons. Firstly, PZT thin films with well oriented domains show enhanced piezoelectric response. Secondly, PWAS requires comparatively large voltage leading to a demand for thin PZT films (<< {mu}m in thickness) for low voltage operation at {<=}10 V. This work focuses on two different aspects: (a) growing oriented PZT thin films in ferroelectric perovskite phase in the range of (80-150) nm thickness on epitaxial Si/Pt without a seed layer and (b) synthesizing perovskite phase in PZT thin films on Corning glass 1737 using a seed layer of TiO{sub x} (TiO{sub x} thickness ranging between 30 nm to 500 nm)

  20. Synthesis of In2O3@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced deeper energy level emissions of In2O3.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yiping; Loc, Welley S; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye

    2011-12-06

    In(2)O(3)@SiO(2) core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using an organic solution synthesis approach and reverse-microemulsion technique. In order to explore the availability of various silica encapsulations, a partial phase diagram for this ternary system consisting of hexane/cyclohexane (1:29 wt), surfactant (polyoxyethylene(5)nonylphenyl ether, i.e., Igepal CO-520), and aqueous solution containing ammonium hydroxide was also established. It is realized that the shell-thickness can be tuned by several parameters such as the concentration of In(2)O(3) nanocrystal suspension and the dose of the Si-precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate. It was observed that the deeper energy level emissions of In(2)O(3) were apparently enhanced when In(2)O(3) was confined by the silica-shell in such core-shell nanoparticles. However, this enhancement could be degraded by increasing the shell-thickness.

  1. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  2. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  3. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  4. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  5. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  6. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  7. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  8. Au-modified three-dimensional In2O3 inverse opals: synthesis and improved performance for acetone sensing toward diagnosis of diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Xia, Lei; Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Jiahuan; Xie, Yi; Song, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath effectively is crucial to medical treatment, which can provide a fast and noninvasive way to diagnose disease. Well-designed materials with controlled structures have great influence on the sensing performance. In this work, the ordered three dimensional inverse opal (3DIO) macroporous In2O3 films with additional via-hole architectures were fabricated and different amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were loaded on the In2O3 films aiming at enhancing their electrical responses. The gas sensing to acetone toward diabetes diagnosis in exhaled breath was performed with different Au/In2O3 electrodes. Representatively, the best 3DIO Au/In2O3 sensor can detect acetone effectively at 340 °C with response of 42.4 to 5 ppm, the actual detection limit is as low as 20 ppb, and it holds a dynamic response of 11 s and a good selectivity. Moreover, clinical tests proved that the as-prepared 3DIO Au/In2O3 IO sensor could distinguish acetone biomarkers in human breath clearly. The excellent gas sensing properties of the Au/In2O3 electrodes were attributed to the ``spillover effects'' between Au and In2O3 and the special 3DIO structure. This work indicates that 3DIO Au/In2O3 composite is a promising electrode material for actual application in the monitoring and detection of diabetes through exhaled breath.Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath effectively is crucial to medical treatment, which can provide a fast and noninvasive way to diagnose disease. Well-designed materials with controlled structures have great influence on the sensing performance. In this work, the ordered three dimensional inverse opal (3DIO) macroporous In2O3 films with additional via-hole architectures were fabricated and different amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were loaded on the In2O3 films aiming at enhancing their electrical responses. The gas sensing to acetone toward diabetes diagnosis in exhaled

  9. Stability of thin liquid films

    SciTech Connect

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    Two topics are discussed in the present progress report. The first is a study of the stability of the interface between two thin immiscible fluid layers in a two-dimensional channel. The flowrates may be specified, or alternatively the total pressure drop and the flowrate of one fluid. The channel may be horizontal or inclined. A long-wave 3D nonlinear evolution equation is derived for the local layer thickness, whose coefficients are high-order polynomials of the viscosity ratio and the initial volume fraction. With a further restriction to small wave amplitude, as well as many slopes, a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky-type (KS) is derived. In countercurrent flow the {open_quotes}group velocity{close_quotes} of the interface can become very small, possibly signaling the onset of flooding. In this case a cubic nonlinearity becomes significant. The properties of this modified KS equation are explored in considerable detail. The classical Yih-Benjamin linear stability theory for long waves on an unforced thin liquid film down a vertical wall has never been experimentally verified, owing to the sensitivity to small random disturbances. However, by careful balancing and by operating under very quiet conditions, the theoretical predictions were verified for the first time. For pointwise measurements, 25-{mu}m resistivity probes were employed, and for global measurements fluorescent imaging.

  10. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  11. Structural and Vibrational Properties of Corundum-type In2O3 Nanocrystals under Compression.

    PubMed

    Sans Tresserras, Juan Angel; Vilaplana, Rosario; Errandonea, Daniel; Cuenca Gotor, Vanesa Paula; Garcia-Domene, Braulio; Popescu, Catalin; Manjon Herrera, Francisco; Singhal, Anshu; Achary, S N; Martinez-Garcia, Domingo; Pellicer-Porres, Julio; Rodriguez Hernandez, Placida; Munoz, Alfonso

    2017-03-30

    This work reports the structural and vibrational properties of nanocrystals of corundum-type In2O3 (rh-In2O3) at high pressures by using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements up to 30 GPa. The equation of state and the pressure dependence of the Raman-active modes of the corundum phase in nanocrystals are in good agreement with previous studies on bulk material and compare nicely with theoretical simulations on bulk rh-In2O3. Nanocrystalline rh-In2O3 showed stability under compression at least up to 20 GPa, unlike bulk rh-In2O3 which gradually transforms to the orthorhombic Pbca (Rh2O3-III-type) structure above 12-14 GPa. The different stability range found in nanocrystalline and bulk In2O3 is discussed.

  12. Low-Temperature UV-Assisted Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuanglin

    Solution processed metal oxide semiconductors have attracted intensive attention in the last several decades and have emerged as a promising candidate for the application of thin film transistor (TFT) due to their nature of transparency, flexibility, high mobility, simple processing technique and potential low manufacturing cost. However, metal oxide thin film fabricated by solution process usually requires a high temperature (over 300 °C), which is above the glass transition temperature of some conventional polymer substrates. In order to fabricate the flexible electronic device on polymer substrates, it is necessary to find a facile approach to lower the fabrication temperature and minimize defects in metal oxide thin film. In this thesis, the electrical properties dependency on temperature is discussed and an UV-assisted annealing method incorporating Deep ultraviolet (DUV)-decomposable additives is demonstrated, which can effectively improve electrical properties solution processed metal oxide semiconductors processed at temperature as low as 220 °C. By studying a widely used indium oxide (In2O3) TFT as a model system, it is worth noted that compared with the sample without UV treatment, the linear mobility and saturation mobility of UV-annealing sample are improved by 56% and 40% respectively. Meanwhile, the subthreshold swing is decreased by 32%, indicating UV-treated device could turn on and off more efficiently. In addition to pure In2O3 film, the similar phenomena have also been observed in indium oxide based Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (IGZO) system. These finding presented in this thesis suggest that the UV assisted annealing process open a new route to fabricate high performance metal oxide semiconductors under low temperatures.

  13. Micromotors using magnetostrictive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan; Barillot, Francois; Betz, Jochen; MacKay, Ken; Givord, Dominique; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    This study deals with a micromotor based on the use of magnetostrictive thin films. This motor belongs to the category of the Standing Wave Ultrasonic Motors. The active part of the motor is the rotor, which is a 100 micrometers thick ring vibrating in a flexural mode. Teeth (300 micrometers high) are placed on special positions of the rotor and produce an oblique motion which can induce the relative motion of any object in contact with them. The magnetic excitation field is radial and uses the transverse coupling of the 4 micrometers thick magnetostrictive film. The film, deposited by sputtering on the ring, consists of layers of different rare-earth/iron alloys and was developed during a European Brite-Euram project. The finite element technique was used in order to design a prototype of the motor and to optimize the active rotor and the energizer coil. The prototype we built delivered a speed of 30 turns per minute with a torque of 2 (mu) N.m (without prestress applied on the rotor). Our experimental results show that the performance of this motor could easily be increased by a factor of 5. The main advantage of this motor is the fact that it is remotely powered and controlled. The excitation coil, which provides both power and control, can be placed away from the active rotor. Moreover, the rotor is completely wireless and is not connected to its support or to any other part. It is interesting to note that it would not be possible to build this type of motor using piezoelectric technology. Medical applications of magnetostrictive micromotors could be found for internal microdistributors of medication (the coil staying outside the body). Other applications include remote control micropositioning, micropositioning of optical components, and for the actuation of systems such as valves, electrical switches, and relays.

  14. In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Weian; Liu, Ying; Mei, Zongwei; Wen, Xiaogang; Wang, Suhua

    2013-02-01

    In this work, In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH)3 nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH)3 from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH)3 nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 μm in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In2O3 with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH)3 precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In2O3 were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

  15. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  16. The fabrication of In2O3 toruloid nanotubes and their room temperature gas sensing properties for H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Haojie; Yan, Lei; He, Yue; Li, Haiying; Liu, Li; Cheng, Yali; Du, Liting

    2017-09-01

    In2O3 nanofibers (NFs) and toruloid nanotubes (TNTs) were fabricated by conventional electrospinning process and their sensing properties toward H2S gas were researched. Thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffractometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were carefully used to investigate the structures, chemical compositions and morphologies of these samples. The novel structure (TNTs) first used nonpolar mineral oil as the control agent of morphology, and the principle of forming toruloid nanotubes was studied. Phase separation plays a critical role in the process of forming toruloid nanotubes structure automatically. The new application of phase separation provided a simple and effective approach for controlling structure. The research indicated that thin-walled toruloid nanotubes showed higher responses toward H2S compared to nanofibers or thick-walled toruloid nanotubes. Additionally, their excellent selectivity can be attributed to the special gas-sensing mechanism of In2O3 for H2S.

  17. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1994-11-01

    Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

  18. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  19. Thin film evaporator recovers used oil

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, G. III

    1983-01-01

    This article is an evaluation of a thin film evaporator which is used to distill the lube oil fraction from depleted additives and other residues in the crankcase oil re-refining process at Booth Oil. Operating as a vacuum distillation unit, the thin film evaporator produces a lube oil base stock equivalent in quality, after post-treatment, to virgin base stock. The thin film evaporator recovers about 70 to 90% of used oil as lube oil distillate, depending on the quantity of non-volatile residue in the feed.

  20. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; Hosson, J. Th. M. de

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growing interface is explained by ballistic effects resulting from impingements of ions to the growing thin film. These ballistic effects are sensitive to the flux and energy of impinging ions. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data, and it is concluded that the thin film roughness can be further controlled by adjusting waveform, frequency, and width of dc pulses.

  1. Density inhomogeneity in ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiang-Li; Solbach, Axel; Klemradt, Uwe; Weirich, Thomas; Mayer, Joachim; Böttger, Ulrich; Schorn, Peter J.; Waser, Rainer

    2006-07-01

    Structural investigations of Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films derived by chemical solution deposition on Pt /TiOx electrode stacks were performed using grazing incidence x-ray specular reflectivity of synchrotron radiation and transmission electron microscopy. A density inhomogeneity, i.e., a sublayer structure, in the PZT thin films was observed; the upper PZT sublayer had a lower density and the lower sublayer had a higher density. The influence of the density inhomogeneity, as a possible extrinsic contribution to size effects in ferroelectric thin films, was discussed.

  2. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  3. Performance Characterization of Monolithic Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Rong

    Thin film resistors have a large resistance range and stable performance under high temperature operating condition. Thin film resistors trimmed by laser beam are able to achieve very high precision on resistance value. As a result, thin film resistors have been widely used to improve the performance of integrated circuits such as operational amplifier, analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital -to-analog (D/A) converters, etc. In this dissertation, a new class of thin film resistors, silicon chrome (SiCr) thin film resistors, has been investigated at length. From thin film characterization to aging behavior modelling, we have carried out a series of engineering activities. The characteristics of the SiCr thin film incorporated into three bipolar processes were first determined. After laser trimming, we have measured a couple of physical parameters of the SiCr film in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This is the first time the sheet resistance and the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of thin film in the HAZ have been characterized. Both thermal and d.c. load accelerated aging tests were performed. The test structures were subjected to the aging for 1000 hours. Based on the test data, we not only evaluated the classical thermal aging model for untrimmed thin film resistors, but also established several empirical thermal aging models for trimmed resistors and d.c. load aging models for both trimmed and untrimmed thin film resistors. All the experiments were carried out for both conventional bar resistors and our new Swiss Cheese (SC) resistors. For the first time, the performance of laser trimmed SC resistors, which was experimentally evaluated, shown a clear superiority over that of trimmed bar resistors. Besides these experiments, we have examined different die attach techniques and their effects on thin film resistors. Also, we have developed a number of hardware systems and software tools, such as a temperature controller, d.c. current source, temperature

  4. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  5. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  6. Thin Films in the Technology of Superhigh Frequencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A comprehensive discussion of the physics, manufacturing processes and applications of thin films in modern communications technology. The following...subjects are discussed in detail: (1) Structure and properties of thin films : vacuum vaporization, cathode sputtering, thin film structure and...physical properties. (2) Thin films as SHF load resistors: peculiarities of SHF resistors, material selection, behavior in an SHF field, cylindrical disc

  7. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  8. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications. PMID:26937042

  9. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  10. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  11. Electrical Properties of Thin Films of Alumina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of a literature survey on the electrical properties of alumina and aluminum oxide thin films . A bibliographic listing of reports is included along with abstracts from most of them.

  12. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  13. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  14. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joshua Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  15. Electrical and optical properties of thin films consisting of tin-doped indium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Johnsson, P.; Niklasson, G. A.; Hoel, A.; Hultåker, A.; Heszler, P.; Granqvist, C. G.; van Doorn, A. R.; Jongerius, M. J.; Burgard, D.

    2003-10-01

    Electrical transport and optical properties were investigated in porous thin films consisting of In2O3:Sn (indium tin oxide, ITO) nanoparticles with an initial crystallite size of ˜16 nm and a narrow size distribution. Temperature dependent resistivity was measured in the 77130 K and negative at t<130 K. Effects of annealing on the ITO nanoparticles were investigated by analyzing the spectral optical reflectance and transmittance using effective medium theory and accounting for ionized impurity scattering. Annealing was found to increase both charge carrier concentration and mobility. The ITO nanoparticles were found to have a resistivity as low as 2×10-4 Ω cm, which is comparable to the resistivity of dense high quality In2O3:Sn films. Particulate samples with a luminous transmittance exceeding 90% and a resistivity of ˜10-2 Ω cm were obtained.

  16. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  17. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    and in-situ ellipsometry in one chamber. Results from the automatic spinner were compared with those of the bulk ceramics. In general, thin films on Ag ...coated thin films on Ag foil substrates and hot pressed bulk ceramics were fabricated and compared with respect to electrical and electrooptic...methanol at a 2:1 ratio by weight. The solution was spun onto Ag foil for comparison with bulk ceramics using a photoresist spinner at 2000 rpm for 15

  18. Thin-film microelectronic wearable body sensors.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This review of various applications of well-established thin-film processing techniques to wearable body sensors gives examples of work done in the author's laboratory over many years. Sensors for the vital signs of body temperature, electrocardiogram, heart rate, breathing pattern and breathing rate are presented along with other applications. Thin-film based sensors have the advantage of small size, high surface area to mass ratio, flexibility, capability for batch production, and compatibility with other microelectronic technologies.

  19. Surface, interface and thin-film magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Falicov, L.M. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    In the last quarter of the 20th century, with the information revolution and the ever growing need to acquire, store, and retrieve information, the science and technologies attached to magnetic recording have experienced an explosive growth. Central to those pursuits has been the materials science of magnetism as it applies to surfaces, interfaces, and thin films. This report discusses topics on thin-film magnetism such as: theory, physical effects, prospects, opportunities and future developments. (JL)

  20. Multilayer Thin Film Sensors for Damage Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, A. G.; Gordienko, Y. G.; Zasimchuk, E. E.

    2006-03-01

    The new innovative approach to damage diagnostics within the production and maintenance/servicing procedures in industry is proposed. It is based on the real-time multiscale monitoring of the smart-designed multilayer thin film sensors of fatigue damage with the standard electrical input/output interfaces which can be connected to the embedded and on-board computers. The multilayer thin film sensors supply information about the actual unpredictable deformation damage, actual fatigue life, strain localization places, damage spreading, etc.

  1. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  2. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2013-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film solar cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to crystalline silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity conversion efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication methods of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation and sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a solution method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be competitive to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, and quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of composition chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste was prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film on substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se followed by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to complete a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-electricity conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell are under study.

  3. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  5. Fabrication of Bi-doped In2O3-ITO nanocomposites and their photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Na, Han; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun; Kwon, Yong Jung; Mirzaei, Ali; Kim, Tae-Bum; Shin, Young-Chul; Choi, Ho-Joon; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Jin, Changhyun

    2016-09-01

    For the first time, Bi-doped In2O3-indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocomposites were prepared on Si substrates with the assistance of a Au catalyst through the simple gas-phase transport of a mixture of Bi, In, and Sn powders. The square-shaped Bi-doped In2O3-ITO nanostructures were straight, a few hundreds of nanometres in width, and below a few tens of micrometres in length. Electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses indicated that the Bi-doped In2O3-ITO nanorods were single crystals with a basis of cubic In2O3 structures. The photoluminescence spectra revealed that the Bi-doped In2O3-ITO nanorods had a strong orange emission band centred at approximately 626 nm without any shoulder bands. The enhancement of orange emission might be due to the oxygen deficiencies of structural defects in the nanorods.

  6. Photophysical properties of Alq3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka, A.; Płóciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Łukasiak, Z.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    This work contains investigation results of the photophysical properties of aluminum (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) thin films. The Alq3 thin films were successfully fabricated by Physical Vapor Deposition technique. The films were grown on transparent: (quartz and glass) and semiconductor (n-type silica) substrates kept at room temperature during the deposition process. Selected films were annealed after fabrication in ambient atmosphere for 12 h at the temperature equal to 100 °C and 150 °C. Morphology of the films was investigated by AFM technique. Photophysical properties were characterized via photoluminescence, transmission, second and third harmonic generation measurements. The thin films exhibit high structural quality regardless of the annealing process, but the stability of the film can be improved by using an appropriate temperature during the annealing process. Photoluminescence of Alq3 films obtained in air were efficient and stable. The measurements of transmission, SHG and THG spectra allowed us to determine optical constant of the films. We find that the photophysical properties were strictly connected with the morphology and the annealing process significantly changes the structural properties of the films.

  7. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  8. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  9. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  10. Thin films, asphaltenes, and reservoir wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, R.; Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1993-04-01

    Reservoir wettability impacts the success of oil recovery by waterflooding and other methods. To understand wettability and its alteration, thin-film forces in solid-aqueous-oil systems must be elucidated. Upon rupture of thick aqueous films separating the oil and rock phases, asphaltene components in the crude oil adsorb irreversibly on the solid surface, changing it from water-wet to oil-wet. Conditions of wettability alteration can be found by performing adhesion tests, in which an oil droplet is brought into contact with a solid surface. Exceeding a critical capillary pressure destabilizes the film, causing spontaneous film rupture to a molecularly adsorbed layer and oil adhesion accompanied by pinning at the three-phase contact line. The authors conduct adhesion experiments similar to those of Buckley and Morrow and simultaneously examine the state of the underlying thin film using optical microscopy and microinterferometry. Aqueous thin films between an asphaltic Orcutt crude oil and glass surfaces are studied as a function of aqueous pH and salinity. For the first time, they prove experimentally that strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet wettability alteration and contact-angle pinning occur when thick aqueous films thin to molecularly adsorbed films and when the oil phase contains asphaltene molecules.

  11. Thin-Film Resistor Array Characterization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    design and bonding wire current carrying capacity. The resistive film should also be suitable for deposition in a thin-film form (by sputtering or vacuum...evaporation). In the present array design, the elements are fabricated use NiCr metallization, the in- dividual elements being patterned by wet

  12. Thin transparent films formed from powdered glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Glass film less than five mils thick is formed from powdered glass dispersed in an organic liquid, deposited on a substrate, and fused into place. The thin films can be cut and shaped for contact lenses, optical filters and insulating layers.

  13. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  14. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  15. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  16. Glassy dynamics in thin films of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Koji; Koizumi, Hiroki

    2008-02-01

    Glassy dynamics was investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene by complex electric capacitance measurements using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. During the isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increased with time, whereas the imaginary part decreased with time. It follows that the aging time dependences of real and imaginary parts of the electric capacitance were primarily associated with change in volume (film thickness) and dielectric permittivity, respectively. Further, dielectric permittivity showed memory and rejuvenation effects in a similar manner to those observed for poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. On the other hand, volume did not show a strong rejuvenation effect.

  17. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  18. Elastohydrodynamic studies using thin film transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, M. M. A.; MacPherson, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Thin film microtransducers for application to the study of the variation of pressure, temperature, and oil film thickness in an elastohydrodynamically lubricated, nominal line contact were developed. Fabrication techniques were improved to enhance the useful life. Techniques to achieve higher resolution by reducing sensor size and improving the signal monitoring circuitry were developed. Material properties in thin film form used in fabricating the sensors were examined. Possible sources of errors in interpreting the results obtained from these devices were studied. Results under various operating conditions were compared with theoretical and experimental results, and reasonably good agreement is found.

  19. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  20. Effect of nitrogen addition on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of In-Sn-Zn oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Suko, Ayaka; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-02-01

    Indium-tin-zinc oxide (ITZO) films were deposited at various nitrogen flow ratios using magnetron sputtering. At a nitrogen flow ratio of 40%, the structure of ITZO film changed from amorphous, with a short-range-ordered In2O3 phase, to a c-axis oriented InN polycrystalline phase, where InN starts to nucleate from an amorphous In2O3 matrix. Whereas, nitrogen addition had no obvious effect on the structure of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) films even at a nitrogen flow ratio of 100%. Nitrogen addition also suppressed the formation of oxygen-related vacancies in ITZO films when the nitrogen flow ratio was less than 20%, and higher nitrogen addition led to an increase in carrier density. Moreover, a red-shift in the optical band edge was observed as the nitrogen flow ratio increased, which could be attributed to the generation of InN crystallites. We anticipate that the present findings demonstrating nitrogen-addition induced structural changes can help to understand the environment-dependent instability in amorphous IGZO or ITZO based thin-film transistors (TFTs).

  1. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  2. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood.

  3. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  4. Aging in Thin Metallic Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    indicator of film composition . Compositions were adjusted for low values of ~ in the films of interest here. Strain sensitivity can occur as a result...of inadequate compositional control during deposition or compositional modification fol l owing deposition . 0 0 The films used for the experiments...months . All films Including the ternary gold composition (Figure 2) show large changes in due to magnetic annealing , when the bias field is positioned

  5. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P. M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M. A.

    1991-12-01

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates (pc) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-pc's arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius Rc, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  6. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  7. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  8. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  9. Influence of precursor concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of indium oxide thin film prepared by a sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, L. N.; Ibrahim, N. B.; Baqiah, H.

    2015-08-01

    This research was carried out to study the effect of different precursor concentrations on the physical properties of indium oxide (In2O3) thin film. In2O3 is a promising n-type semiconductor material that has been used in optoelectronic applications because of its highly transparent properties. It is a transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap (∼3.7 eV). The experiment was started by preparing different precursor concentrations of indium nitrate hydrate (In (NO3)·H2O) solution and followed by the spin coating technique prior to an annealing process at 500 °C. Indium oxide thin films were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer, an ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, a field emission scanning electron microscope and a Hall Effect Measurement System in order to determine the influence caused by the different molarities of indium oxide. The result showed that the film thickness increased with the indium oxide molarity. Film thicknesses were in the range of 0.3-135.1 nm and optical transparency of films was over 94%. Lowest resistivity of 2.52 Ω cm with a mobility of 26.60 cm2 V-1 S-1 and carrier concentration of 4.27 × 1017 cm-3 was observed for the indium oxide thin film prepared at 0.30 M.

  10. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C.J.; Prakash, S.S.

    1999-09-07

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process is disclosed. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  11. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  12. Reactive-environment, hollow cathode sputtering: Basic characteristics and application to Al2O3, doped ZnO, and In2O3:Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahoy, A. E.; Guo, S. Y.; Paduraru, C.; Belkind, A.

    2004-07-01

    A method for thin-film deposition has been studied. The method is based on metal sputtering in a hollow cathode configuration with supply of a reactive gas in the vicinity of the substrate. The working gas and entrained sputtered atoms exit the cathode through an elongated slot. The reactive gas is thereby largely prevented from reaching the target. The basic operation of the cathode was studied using a Cu target and pulsed power excitation. These studies included the dependence of deposition rate on power, pressure, and flow rate, film thickness profiles, and film resistivity as a function of substrate conditions. Modeling was conducted to calculate the gas velocity distribution and pressure inside the cavity. Al2O3 films were prepared in a reactive environment of oxygen by sputtering an Al target. It was demonstrated that only a very small amount of oxygen passing through the cathode will oxidize (poison) the target, whereas large quantities of oxygen supplied externally to the cathode need not affect the target at all. A very stable discharge and ease of Al2O3 formation were realized in this latter mode. The method was applied to the preparation of transparent, conductive films of ZnO doped with either Al or B. High deposition rates were achieved, and, at appropriate oxygen flow rates, low film resistivities. High-mobility In2O3:Mo transparent conductors were also prepared, with resistivities as low as 1.9×10-4 Ω cm. Scaling relations for hollow cathodes, and deposition efficiency, and process comparisons between magnetron sputtering and linear, reactive-environment, hollow cathode sputtering are presented. .

  13. Interferometry of thick and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Interferometry is now an established technique for the measurement of surface topography. It has the capability of combining sub-nanometre resolution. A very useful extension to its capability is the ability to measure thick and thin films on a local scale. For films with thicknesses in excess of 1-2μm (depending on refractive index), the SWLI interaction with the film leads simply the formation of two localised fringes, each corresponding to a surface interface. It is relatively trivial to locate the positions of these two envelope maxima and therefore determine the film thickness, assuming the refractive index is known. For thin films (with thicknesses ~20nm to ~2μm, again depending on the index), the SWLI interaction leads to the formation of a single interference maxima. In this context, it is appropriate to describe the thin film structure in terms of optical admittances; it is this regime that is addressed through the introduction of a new function, the 'helical conjugate field' (HCF) function. This function may be considered as providing a 'signature' of the multilayer measured so that through optimization, the thin film multilayer may be determined on a local scale.

  14. MOF thin films: existing and future applications.

    PubMed

    Shekhah, O; Liu, J; Fischer, R A; Wöll, Ch

    2011-02-01

    The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

  15. Microscale damping using thin film active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrigan, Catherine A.; Ho, Ken K.; Mohanchandra, K. P.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper focuses on understanding and developing a new approach to dampen MEMS structures using both experiments and analytical techniques. Thin film Nitinol and thin film Terfenol-D are evaluated as a damping solution to the micro scale damping problem. Stress induced twin boundary motion in Nitinol is used to passively dampen potentially damaging vibrations. Magnetic domain wall motion is used to passively dampen vibration in Terfenol-D. The thin films of Nitinol, Nitinol/Silicon laminates and Nitinol/Terfenol-D/Nickel laminates have been produced using a sputter deposition process and damping properties have been evaluated. Dynamic testing shows substantial damping (tan δ) measurable in each case. Nitinol film samples were tested in the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to determine phase transformation temperatures. The twin boundary mechanism by which energy absorption occurs is present at all points below the Austenite start temperature (approximately 69°C in our film) and therefore allows damping at cold temperatures where traditional materials fail. Thin film in the NiTi/Si laminate was found to produce substantially higher damping (tan δ = 0.28) due to the change in loading condition. The NiTi/Si laminate sample was tested in bending allowing the twin boundaries to be reset by cyclic tensile and compressive loads. The thin film Terfenol-D in the Nitinol/Terfenol-D/Nickel laminate was shown to produce large damping (tan δ = 0.2). In addition to fabricating and testing, an analytical model of a heterogeneous layered thin film damping material was developed and compared to experimental work.

  16. In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 heterostructured nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yonglei; Que, Wenxiu; Yin, Xingtian; He, Zuoli; Liu, Xiaobin; Yang, Yawei; Shao, Jinyou; Kong, Ling Bing

    2016-11-01

    In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 composite photocatalysts with various contents of cubic In2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated by using impregnation method. A thriving modification of Bi2Sn2O7 by an introduction of In2O3 was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples composed of hybrids of In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light, as compared with pure In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 nanoparticles. Optimized composition of the composite photocatalysts was 0.1In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7, which shows a rate constant higher than those of pure In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 by 4.06 and 3.21 times, respectively. Based on Mott-Schottky analysis and active species detection, the photoexcited electrons in the conduction band of In2O3 and the holes in the valence band of Bi2Sn2O7 participated in reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. Hence, rad OH, rad O2- and h+ were the main active species involved in the photocatalytic reaction of the In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 composite photocatalysts. The effective separation process of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs was testified by photocurrent test.

  17. Niobium Thin Film Characterization for Thin Film Technology Used in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yishu; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Superconducting RadioFrequency (SRF) penetrates about 40-100 nm of the top surface, making thin film technology possible in producing superconducting cavities. Thin film is based on the deposition of a thin Nb layer on top of a good thermal conducting material such as Al or Cu. Thin film allows for better control of the surface and has negligible response to the Earth's magnetic field, eliminating the need for magnetic shielding of the cavities. Thin film superconductivity depends heavily on coating process conditions, involving controllable parameters such as crystal plane orientation, coating temperature, and ion energy. MgO and Al2O3 substrates are used because they offer very smooth surfaces, ideal for studying film growth. Atomic Force Microscopy is used to characterize surface's morphology. It is evident that a lower nucleation energy and a long coating time increases the film quality in the r-plane sapphire crystal orientation. The quality of the film increases with thickness. Nb films coated on r-plane, grow along the (001) plane and yield a much higher RRR compared to the films grown on a- and c-planes. This information allows for further improvement on the research process for thin film technology used in superconducting cavities for the particle accelerators. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  18. Transparent p-type AlN:SnO2 and p-AlN:SnO2/n-SnO2:In2O3 p-n junction fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. S.; Hsieh, C. I.; Wu, Y. J.; Wei, Y. S.; Lee, P. M.; Liu, C. Y.

    2012-09-01

    This study produced transparent p-type AlN-doped SnO2 thin films by annealing sputtered sandwich SnO2/AlN/SnO2 thin films. Both Al3+-Sn4+ and N3-O2- substitution reactions—which are the main sources for the hole carriers—were identified by XPS analysis. The hole concentration of the p-type AlN:SnO2 thin films was as high as 1.074 × 1019 cm-3. Using the produced p-AlN:SnO2 thin film, transparent p-AlN:SnO2/n-SnO2:In2O3 p-n junctions were fabricated and characterized as follows: (1) A low leakage current (2.97 × 10-5 A at -5 V); (2) a 2.17 eV turn-on voltage; and (3) a low ideality factor (12.2).

  19. Symmetry and diffusivity of the interstitial hydrogen shallow-donor center in In2O3

    DOE PAGES

    Weiser, Philip; Qin, Ying; Yin, Weikai; ...

    2016-11-16

    Uniaxial stress experiments performed for the 3306 cm-1 vibrational line assigned to the interstitial-hydrogen, shallow-donor center in In2O3 reveal its symmetry and transition- moment direction. The defect alignment that can be produced by a [001] stress applied at 165 K is due to a process that is also a hydrogen- diffusion jump, providing a microscopic determination of the diffusion constant for H in In2O3 and its mechanism. Lastly, our experimental results strongly complement theoretical predictions for the structure and diffusion of the interstitial hydrogen donor center in In2O3.

  20. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  1. Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ritesh N.; Wang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL) method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV), in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values. PMID:20480052

  2. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  3. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; Dasgupta, Sunando

    2017-03-01

    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields.

  4. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films

    PubMed Central

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; DasGupta, Sunando

    2017-01-01

    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields. PMID:28303971

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Somnath; McKnight, Steven H.; Sengupta, Louise C.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that in bulk ceramic form, the barium to strontium ratio in barium strontium titanium oxide (Ba1- xSrxTiO3, BSTO) affects the voltage tunability and electronic dissipation factor in an inverse fashion; increasing the strontium content reduces the dissipation factor at the expense of lower voltage tunability. However, the oxide composites of BSTO developed at the Army Research Laboratory still maintain low electronic loss factors for all compositions examined. The intent of this study is to determine whether such effects can be observed in the thin film form of the oxide composites. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method has been used to deposit the thin films. The different compositions of the compound (with 1 wt% of the oxide additive) chosen were: Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3, Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3. The electronic properties investigated in this study were the dielectric constant and the voltage tunability. The morphology of the thin films were examined using the atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was also utilized for optical characterization of the thin films. The electronic and optical properties of the thin films and the bulk ceramics were compared. The results of these investigations are discussed.

  6. Photoluminescence Study of Copper Selenide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.

    2011-10-01

    Thin films of Copper Selenide of composition of composition Cu7Se4 with thickness 350 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 498 K±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting material. The deposited film is characterized structurally using X-ray Diffraction. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density; number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are evaluated. Photoluminescence of the film is analyzed at room temperature using Fluoro Max-3 Spectrofluorometer.

  7. Electroluminescence properties of In-doped Zn2SiO4 thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hirotaka; Kan, Akinori; Ikeda, Norihiro; Fujita, Akihiro

    2012-11-01

    The effect of In doping on the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Zn2SiO4:In thin films was investigated. In-doped Zn2SiO4 thin films were deposited on BaTiO3 substrates and their EL properties were characterized in this study. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of In-doped Zn2SiO4 powders revealed a single phase of Zn2SiO4 for In concentrations up to approximately 1.5 mol%, whereas a secondary phase of In2O3 was observed for In concentrations in the range of 2-10 mol%. The maximum luminance of thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices varied significantly with the amount of In doping. The highest luminance with blue emission was obtained when 2 mol% In was doped. The blue emission of In-doped Zn2SiO4 thin film may be related to the In substitution for Zn. The 2 mol% In-doped Zn2SiO4 thin film exhibited blue emission with CIE color coordinates of x=0.208 and y=0.086.

  8. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  9. UV-Mediated Photochemical Treatment for Low-Temperature Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Emanuel; Branquinho, Rita; Kiazadeh, Asal; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-11-16

    Solution processing of amorphous metal oxides has lately been used as an option to implement in flexible electronics, allowing a reduction of the associated costs and high performance. However, the research has focused more on the semiconductor layer rather than on the insulator layer, which is related to the stability and performance of the devices. This work aims to evaluate amorphous aluminum oxide thin films produced by combustion synthesis and the influence of far-ultraviolet (FUV) irradiation on the properties of the insulator on thin-film transistors (TFTs) using different semiconductors, in order to have compatibility with flexible substrates. An optimized dielectric layer was obtained for an annealing of 30 min assisted by FUV exposure. These thin films were applied in gallium-indium-zinc oxide TFTs as dielectrics showing the best results for TFTs annealed at 180 °C with FUV irradiation: good reproducibility with a subthreshold slope of 0.11 ± 0.01 V dec (-1) and a turn-on voltage of -0.12 ± 0.05 V, low operating voltage, and good stability over time. Finally, the dielectric layer was applied in solution-processed indium oxide (In2O3) TFTs at low temperature, 180 °C, with a short processing time being compatible with flexible electronic applications.

  10. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    PubMed

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 °C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 °C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 °C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 °C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 °C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 °C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 °C.

  11. Surface chemistry and stability of metastable corundum-type In2O3.

    PubMed

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Zhuo, Chen; Schlicker, Lukas; Bekheet, Maged F; Doran, Andrew; Gurlo, Aleksander; Penner, Simon

    2017-07-26

    To account for the explanation of an eventual sensing and catalytic behavior of rhombohedral In2O3 (rh-In2O3) and the dependence of the metastability of the latter on gas atmospheres, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR), in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ thermogravimetric analyses in inert (helium) and reactive gases (hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) have been conducted to link the gas-dependent electrical conductivity features and the surface chemical properties to its metastability towards cubic In2O3. In particular, for highly reducible oxides such as In2O3, for which not only the formation of oxygen vacancies, but deep reduction to the metallic state (i.e. metallic indium) also has to be taken into account, this approach is imperative. Temperature-dependent impedance features are strongly dependent on the respective gas composition and are assigned to distinct changes in either surface adsorbates or free charge carrier absorbance, allowing for differentiating and distinguishing between bulk reduction-related features from those directly arising from surface chemical alterations. For the measurements in an inert gas atmosphere, this analysis specifically also included monitoring the fate of differently bonded, and hence, differently reactive, hydroxyl groups. Reduction of rh-In2O3 proceeds to a large extent indirectly via rh-In2O3 → c-In2O3 → In metal. As deduced from the CO and CO2 adsorption experiments, rhombohedral In2O3 exhibits predominantly Lewis acidic surface sites. The basic character is less pronounced, directly explaining the previously observed high (inverse) water-gas shift activity and the low CO2 selectivity in methanol steam reforming.

  12. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  13. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  14. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  15. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  16. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  17. Metal-catalyzed growth of In2O3 nanotowers using thermal evaporation and oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Liu; Shihua, Huang; Lü, He

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale In2O3 nanotowers with different cross sections were synthesized by a thermal evaporation and oxidation technique using metal as the catalyst. The morphologies and structural characterizations of In2O3 nanotowers are dependent on growth processes, such as different metal (Au, Ag or Sn) catalysts, the relative position of the substrate and evaporation source, growth temperature, gas flow rate, and growth time. In2O3 nanotowers cannot be observed using Sn as the catalyst, which indicates that metal liquid droplets play an important role in the initial stages of the growth of In2O3 nanotowers. The formation of an In2O3 nanotower is attributed to the competitive growth model between a lateral growth controlled by vapor-solid mechanism and an axial vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism mediated by metal liquid nanodroplets. The synthesized In2O3 nanostructures with novel tower-shaped morphology may have potential applications in optoelectronic devices and gas sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076055), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  18. Fabrication of ultrathin In2O3 hollow fibers for UV light sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Long, Yun-Ze; Zhang, Hong-Di; Liu, Shu-Liang; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Xia; Shan, Fu-Kai

    2014-11-01

    Ultrathin indium oxide (In2O3) hollow fibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers, magnetron sputtering of In2O3 on PVDF fibers followed by calcination of In2O3/PVDF composite fibers. The hollow In2O3 fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The outer diameter of the hollow fibers was in the range of 700-900 nm, and the inner diameter was about 400-600 nm. The optoelectronic properties of the In2O3 fibers were investigated by the irradiation of UV light with different wavelengths (254, 308 and 365 nm). It was found that the In2O3 hollow nanofibers had a fast and strong response to UV irradiation. The response time was less than 10 s, and the sensitivity (˜102) decreased with the UV light wavelength increasing or the light intensity decreasing.

  19. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Chemical Roughness Of Buried ZrO2/In2O3 Interfaces Via Energy-Filtered Electron Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, X. Y.; Kabius, B.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Eastman, J. A.; Fong, D. D.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    2012-04-26

    The protocol to calculate the chemical roughness from three-dimensional (3-D) data cube acquired by energy-filtered electron tomography has been developed and applied to analyze the 3-D Zr distribution at the arbitrarily shaped interfaces in the ZrO2/In2O3 multilayer films. The calculated root-mean-square roughness quantitatively revealed the chemical roughness at the buried ZrO2/In2O3 interfaces, which is the deviation of Zr distribution from the ideal flat interface. Knowledge of the chemistry and structure of oxide interfaces in 3-D provides information useful for understanding changes in the behavior of a model ZrO2/In2O3 heterostructure that has potential to exhibit mixed conduction behavior. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Carbon 1s photoemission line analysis of C-based adsorbate on (111)In2O3 surface: The influence of reducing and oxidizing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinzari, V.; Cho, B. K.; Korotcenkov, G.

    2016-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of C 1s line of (111) In2O3 surface was carried out under HV (high vacuum) doses of oxygen, carbon monoxide and water. Gas interaction with the surface was activated by heating of In2O3 monocrystalline film at temperatures of 160 or 250 °C. The study of complex structure of C 1 s line and evolution of its fine components allowed to establish their nature and to propose possible surface adsorbed species and reactions, including a direct chemisorption and dissociation of CO molecules. Reduction or oxidation of the surface determines whether the first (chemisorption) or the second (dissociation) process takes place. The latter is responsible for additional formation of ionosorbed oxygen. Both processes have not been previously reported for In2O3 and for conductive metal oxides.

  1. Capillary instabilities in thin films. I. Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Safran, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    A stability theory is presented which describes the conditions under which thin films rupture. It is found that holes in the film will either grow or shrink, depending on whether their initial radius is larger or smaller than a critical value. If the holes grow large enough, they impinge to form islands; the size of which are determined by the surface energies. The formation of grooves where the grain boundary meets the free surface is a potential source of holes which can lead to film rupture. Equilibrium grain boundary groove depths are calculated for finite grain sizes. Comparison of groove depth and film thickness yields microstructural conditions for film rupture. In addition, pits which form at grain boundary vertices, where three grains meet, are another source of film instability.

  2. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  3. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  4. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  5. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  6. Borocarbide thin films and tunneling measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Iavarone, M.; Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Dicapual, R.; giannil, L.; Vagliol, R.; DeWilde, Y.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-06-15

    The results obtained by their group in thin film fabrication and STM tunneling on superconducting borocarbides YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C have been be briefly reviewed. Results concerning the microwave surface impedance and the S/N planar junctions on LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C thin films have been also presented and analyzed. These new data unambiguously confirm the full BCS nature of the superconducting gap in borocarbides and the absence of significant pair-breaking effects in LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C.

  7. Thin-Film Organic Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Howard E.; Huang, Jia

    2009-08-01

    We review recently published advancements in thin-film organic devices, ranging from the composition and properties of organic materials to be used in devices, to the applications of devices, with special emphasis on thin-film transistors, diodes, and chemical sensors. We present exemplary materials used in each kind of device, outline the physical mechanisms behind the functioning of the devices, and discuss the most advanced capabilities of the devices and device assemblies. Advantages to the selection of organic and polymeric materials, future prospects, and challenges for organic-based electronics are also considered.

  8. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  9. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Mcginley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14 deg half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  10. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  11. Dynamics of liquid films and thin jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of liquid films and thin jets as one- and two-dimensional continuums is examined. The equations of motion have led to solutions for the characteristic speeds of wave propagation for the parameters characterizing the shape. The formal analogy with a compressible fluid indicates the possibility of shock wave generation in films and jets and the formal analogy to the theory of threads and membranes leads to the discovery of some new dynamic effects. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  12. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  13. Reactively sputtered thin film photovoltaic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a reactively sputtered thin film CdS - Cu2S solar cell is proven. Identification of the reactively sputtered Cu2S film is made by X-ray diffractometer and spectro-transmission measurements. Because of its simplicity, economical use of material, and high yield, the reactive sputtering process promises to be a low cost method for producing CdS - Cu2S solar cells.

  14. Structural and optical characterization of In2O3/PANI nanocomposite prepared by in-situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeoo, Shashi; Sharma, Mamta; Singh, Gurinder; Goswamy, J.

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline-indium oxide (In2O3/PANI) nanocomposite have been prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline and as-synthesized In2O3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the structural and optical properties of In2O3/PANI nanocomposite. TEM analysis shows In2O3 nanoparticles are embedded in PANI nanofibers. FTIR spectra show the good interactions between PANI nanofibers and In2O3 nanoparticles. The band gap and electronic transitions in In2O3/PANI nanocomposite is determined by using UV/Vis spectra.

  15. Thin Film Research. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    143 ’a.’ 29 One of these methods, UV irradiation during deposition, is of particu- lar interest...because of studies of post-deposition UV irradiation and its effect upon film properties. Bradford et al. (1965) have irradi -0! ated SiO2 films with...effects of post-deposi- tion UV irradiation and noted the elimination of absorption in the 200- to 400-nm region. He has attributed this to the

  16. Oriented thin films of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide on frictiontransferred polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Heck, Claire; Mizokuro, Toshiko

    Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) is a promising material for application in organic electronics. In this study we report on the preparation of oriented thin films of PTCDI on the surface of oriented polymer substrates, which were prepared by friction transfer method. Two polymers, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) were used as the orienting substrate for PTCDI for comparison studies. Characterization by polarized UV-vis absorption shows that the orienting ability of PPP is larger than that of PTFE substrate. Furthermore, polarization-sensitive photoelectric conversion devices were fabricated by using the oriented PTCDI thin film on the PPP substrate.

  17. Workshop on thin film thermal conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Albert; Balzaretti, Naira M.; Guenther, Arthur H.

    1998-04-01

    On a subject of considerable import to the laser-induced damage community, a two day workshop on the topic, Thin Film Thermal Conductivity Measurement was held as part of the 13th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties at the University of Colorado in Boulder CO, June 25 and 26, 1997. The Workshop consisted of 4 sessions of 17 oral presentations and two discussion sessions. Two related subjects of interest were covered; 1) methods and problems associated with measuring thermal conductivity ((kappa) ) of thin films, and 2) measuring and (kappa) of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. On the subject of thin film (kappa) measurement, several recently developed imaginative techniques were reviewed. However, several authors disagreed on how much (kappa) in a film differs from (kappa) in a bulk material of the same nominal composition. A subject of controversy was the definition of an interface. In the first discussion session, several questions were addressed, a principal one being, how do we know that the values of (kappa) we obtain are correct and is there a role for standards in thin film (kappa) measurement. The second discussion session was devoted to a round-robin interlaboratory comparison of (kappa) measurements on a set of CVD diamond specimens and several other specimens of lower thermal conductivity. Large interlaboratory differences obtained in an earlier round robin had been attributed to specimen inhomogeneity. Unfortunately, large differences were also observed in the second round robin even though the specimens were more homogenous. There was good consistency among the DC measurements, however, the AC measurements showed much greater variability. There was positive feedback from most of the attenders regarding the Workshop with nearly all respondents recommending another Workshop in three or fewer years. There was general recognition that thin film thermal conductivity measurements are important for predicting the resistance of optical coating

  18. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul; Phase, D. M.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  19. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil Gupta, Mukul Phase, D. M. Reddy, V. R. Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  20. Epitaxy of layered semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim Otsmane, L.; Emery, J. Y.; Jouanne, M.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    Epilayers of InSe on InSe(00.1) and GaSe(00.1) have been grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Raman spectroscopy was used for a characterization of the structure and crystallinity in InSe/InSe(00.1) (homoepitaxy) and InSe/GaSe(00.1) (heteroepitaxy). The Raman spectra of the InSe thin films are identical to those of polytype γ-InSe. An activation of the E(LO) mode at 211 cm -1 is observed in these films here. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is also used to investigate surfaces of these films.

  1. Corrugational Instabilities of Thin Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R. M.

    1995-07-01

    We study the equilibrium configurations of thin films of diblock copolymers, in the strong segregation limit, resting on a flat surface. The top surface is free. Such films are geometrically frustrated and possess an inherent strain. Here we show how this strain induces an undulational instability in the film. The existence of this instability is very sensitive to the chain end distribution within the bilayers, and a macroscopic observation of this instability on a length scale of 1000 Å gives an indication of the chain end distribution on the scale of 5 Å.

  2. Growth modes of nanoparticle superlattice thin films.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Greving, D; Badini Confalonieri, G A; Perlich, J; Toperverg, B P; Zabel, H; Petracic, O

    2014-05-23

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticle thin film superlattices. The formation into different film morphologies is controlled by tuning the particle plus solvent-to-substrate interaction. It turns out that the wetting vs dewetting properties of the solvent before the self-assembly process during solvent evaporation plays a major role in determining the resulting film morphology. In addition to layerwise growth three-dimensional mesocrystalline growth is also evidenced. The understanding of the mechanisms ruling nanoparticle self-assembly represents an important step towards the fabrication of novel materials with tailored optical, magnetic or electrical transport properties.

  3. Ferrite thin films for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaquine, I.; Benazizi, H.; Mage, J. C.

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes the preparation and the properties of thin (a few micron-thick) ferrite films for microwave applications. The films were deposited by RF sputtering from a single ferrite target on two different 4-in-thick substrates, silicon and alumina, both bare and metallized. The as-deposited films were amorphous, requiring careful annealing in oxygen atmosphere. The optimum annealing temperature was determined by obtaining the highest possible magnetization for each ferrite. The conditions of microwave measurements are described together with the results.

  4. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  5. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  6. Microstructural characterization in nanocrystalline ceramic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hakkwan

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the effects of process variables on microstructure in several fluoride and oxide thin films prepared by vapor deposition, in order to predict the properties and behaviors of nanocrystalline thin film materials. There are three distinct stages of this research. The first stage focuses on measuring of the porosity in polycrystalline thin films of a variety of fluorides as a function of the substrate temperature during deposition, and discussing the mechanism by which the porosity varies as a function of the process variables. We have measured the porosity in thin films of lithium fluoride (LiF), magnesium fluoride (MgF2), barium fluoride (BaF 2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a quartz crystal thickness monitor. The porosity is very sensitive to the substrate temperature and decreases as the substrate temperature increases. Consistent behavior is observed among all of the materials in this study. The second stage is to understand the film microstructure including grain growth and texture development, because these factors are known to influence the behavior and stability of polycrystalline thin films. This study focuses on grain growth and texture development in polycrystalline lithium fluoride thin films using dark field (DF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is demonstrated that we can isolate the size distribution of <111> surface normal grains from the overall size distribution, based on simple and plausible assumptions about the texture. The {111} texture formation and surface morphology were also observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and AFM, respectively. The grain size distributions become clearly bimodal as the annealing time increases, and we deduce that the short-time size distributions are also a sum of two overlapping peaks. The smaller grain-size peak in the distribution corresponds to the {111}-oriented grains which do not grow significantly, while

  7. Ferrite thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zaquine, I.; Benazizi, H.; Mage, J.C.

    1988-11-15

    Production of ferrite thin films is the key to integration of microwave ferrite devices (circulators for phased array antennas, for instance). The interesting materials are the usual microwave ferrites: garnets, lithium ferrites, barium hexaferrites. The required thicknesses are a few tens of micrometers, and it will be important to achieve high deposition rates. Different substrates can be used: silicon and alumina both with and without metallization. The films were deposited by rf sputtering from a single target. The as-deposited films are amorphous and therefore require careful annealing in oxygen atmosphere. The sputtered films are a few micrometers thick on 4 in. substrates. The optimum annealing temperature was found by trying to obtain the highest possible magnetization for each ferrite. The precision on the value of magnetization is limited by the precision on the thickness of the film. We obtain magnetization values slightly lower than the target's. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth was measured on toroids from 5 to 18 GHz.

  8. Semiconductor cooling by thin-film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tick, P. A.; Vilcans, J.

    1970-01-01

    Thin-film, metal alloy thermocouple junctions do not rectify, change circuit impedance only slightly, and require very little increase in space. Although they are less efficient cooling devices than semiconductor junctions, they may be applied to assist conventional cooling techniques for electronic devices.

  9. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  10. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  11. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  12. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  13. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  14. Thin coatings and films hardness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyunin, V. M.; Marchenkov, A. Yu; Demidov, A. N.; Karimbekov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The existing thin coatings and films hardness evaluation methods based on indentation with pyramidal indenter on various scale levels are expounded. The impact of scale factor on hardness values is performed. The experimental verification of several existing hardness evaluation methods regarding the substrate hardness value and the “coating - substrate” composite hardness value is made.

  15. Negative resistance in an organic thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S. ); Takagi, T. ); Yoshida, T.; Inaba, H.; Naito, H.; Okuda, M. )

    1992-08-20

    This paper reports that the negative resistance of the tunneling currents was observed in a semiconducting organic thin film on a graphite substrate by an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). This negative resistance may be understood by the theory of a molecular resonance tunneling effect.

  16. Preliminary Measurements of Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-06-21

    George Mazaris, works with an assistant to obtain the preliminary measurements of cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells being tested in the Space Environmental Chamber at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis’ Photovoltaic Fundamentals Section was investigating thin-film alternatives to the standard rigid and fragile solar cells. The cadmium sulfide semiconductors were placed in a light, metallized substrate that could be rolled or furled during launch. The main advantage of the thin-film solar cells was their reduced weight. Lewis researchers, however, were still working on improving the performance of the semiconductor. The new thin-film solar cells were tested in a space simulation chamber in the CW-6 test cell in the Engine Research Building. The chamber created a simulated altitude of 200 miles. Sunlight was simulated by a 5000-watt xenon light. Some two dozen cells were exposed to 15 minutes of light followed by 15 minutes of darkness to test their durability in the constantly changing illumination of Earth orbit. This photograph was taken for use in a NASA recruiting publication.

  17. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  18. Center for Thin Film Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-15

    dielectrics. In the interests of rectifying this neglect. Chang-Kwon Hwangbo began an investigation of the LAD of Ag . In general. Ag films are deposited...a facility. Plans for the coming Year Ion-Assisted Deposition ol Oides, Nitrides, Oxpoerides, Fluorides. and Metali lAD will continue to be the area...Thermally Evaporated Ag Films" at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America. Rochester, 5’NY, October 19-23. R. B. Sargent and H. A

  19. Growth induced magnetic anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.

    1998-07-20

    The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and Ni-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials. A brief summary of work done in each area is given.

  20. Gravitationally driven drainage of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naire, Shailesh

    In this thesis we develop theory for an experiment done by Snow and coworkers at Dow Corning that involves a vertically-oriented, thinned polyurethane film with silicone surfactant, draining under gravity. We present the mathematical formulation for a 1+1- and 2+1-dimensional model to study the evolution of a vertically-oriented thin liquid film draining under gravity when there is an insoluble surfactant with finite surface viscosity on its free surface. This formulation has all the ingredients that include: surface tension, gravity, surface viscosity, the Marangoni effect, convective and diffusive surfactant transport; essential to describe the behavior of a vertical draining film with surfactant. We study a hierarchy of mathematical models with increasing complexity starting with the flat film model where gravity balances viscous shear and surface tension is neglected, this is generalized to include surface tension. We further generalize to incorporate variable surface viscosity and more complicated constitutive laws for surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. Lubrication theory is employed to derive three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the free surface shape, a component of surface velocity and the surfactant transport at leading order. A large surface viscosity limit recovers the tangentially-immobile model; for small surface viscosity, the film is mobile. Transition from a mobile to an immobile film is observed for intermediate values of surface viscosity and Marangoni number. The above models reproduce a number of features observed in experiments, these include film shapes and thinning rates which can be correlated to experiment. The 2+1-dimensional model for simplified surface properties has also been studied. Numerical experiments were performed to understand the stability of the system to perturbations across the film. An instability was seen in the mobile case; this was caused by a competition

  1. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  2. Thin-film nanocapacitor and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-03-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor. TiO2 with a 400 nm thickness and a high dielectric constant (ɛr ~ 100) was coated between the gold metal layers by using sol gel and dip-coating techniques. A RC circuit was built to measure the capacitance of the nanocapacitors. Some fundamental thin-film characterization equipment such as a four-point probe, a step profiler and an atomic force microscope were used in this laboratory to characterize the devices' morphology and electrical properties.

  3. A simple large-scale synthesis of mesoporous In2O3 for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Song, Peng; Yan, Huihui; Yang, Zhongxi; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, large-scale mesoporous In2O3 nanostructures were synthesized by a facile Lewis acid catalytic the furfural alcohol resin (FAR) template route for the high-yield. Their morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis (DSC-TG) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) approach. The as-obtained mesoporous In2O3 nanostructures possess excellent mesoporous and network structure, which increases the contact area with the gases, it is conducive for adsorption-desorption of gas on the surface of In2O3. The In2O3 particles and pores were both about 15 nm and very uniform. In gas-sensing measurements with target gases, the gas sensor based on mesoporous In2O3 nanostructures showed a good response, short response-recovery time, good selectivity and stability to ethanol. These properties are due to the large specific surface area of mesoporous structure. This synthetic method could use as a new design concept for functional mesoporous nanomaterials and for mass production.

  4. Characterization of Co-existing In2O3-ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Farid, S.; Nicholls, A.; Stroscio, M. A.; Dutta, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we report the simultaneous growth of both In2O3 and ZnO nanostructures on the same substrate when attempting to achieve heavily Zn-doped In2O3 nanowires with Zn. These oxide structures were synthesized by vapor-liquid-solid growth. Scanning electron microscope imaging and transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of nanostructures with different morphologies while energy-dispersive x-ray and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirms the elemental structure. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) study reveals the presence of oxygen vacancies and surface defects in the structures. Emission related to free and bound excitons as well as the donor-acceptor transitions were observed using temperature-dependent PL. Raman spectroscopy measurement using 442-nm non-resonant excitation sources shows the presence of four phonon modes associated with a cubic In2O3 lattice structure along with the observation of the dominant E 2 high and quasi-longitudinal optical phonon modes associated with wurtzite ZnO. We find that the introduction of high zinc content results in the formation of ZnO nanowires in addition to the In2O3 nanowires, and not the formation of a highly doped In2O3 nanowires.

  5. An investigation into the conversion of In2O3 into InN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Polina; Zervos, Matthew; Othonos, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Straight In2O3 nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 nm and lengths ≥2 μm have been grown on Si(001) via the wet oxidation of In at 850°C using Au as a catalyst. These exhibited clear peaks in the X-ray diffraction corresponding to the body centred cubic crystal structure of In2O3 while the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at 300 K consisted of two broad peaks, centred around 400 and 550 nm. The post-growth nitridation of In2O3 NWs was systematically investigated by varying the nitridation temperature between 500 and 900°C, flow of NH3 and nitridation times between 1 and 6 h. The NWs are eliminated above 600°C while long nitridation times at 500 and 600°C did not result into the efficient conversion of In2O3 to InN. We find that the nitridation of In2O3 is effective by using NH3 and H2 or a two-step temperature nitridation process using just NH3 and slower ramp rates. We discuss the nitridation mechanism and its effect on the PL.

  6. In2O3 nanowire based field effect transistor for biological sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhongming; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Weilie

    2008-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are attracting considerable attention due to their nanoscale dimensions and enormous surface-to-volume ratios. Many applications have been demonstrated in toxic gas, protein, small molecule and viruses sensing because of their superior sensing performances. Indium oxide (In2O3) NWs have been successfully applied for toxic gas and small organic molecule sensing. In our experiment, In2O3 NWs based field effect transistors (FET) are fabricated for virus (Ricin) detections. Single-crystalline In2O3 NWs with diameters around 100 nm were synthesized by the thermal evaporation. The nanodevice based on In2O3 NWs bridges the source/drain electrodes with a channel length of ˜5 μm. Basic transport properties of devices were measured before biological detection. The I-V curves with the gate voltage Vg=0 shows good ohmic contact and the resistance is about 10 Mφ. The back-gate effect on the conductivity showed that In2O3 NW is working as n-type channel with obvious back-gate effect, which is much stronger than the reported results. The nanodevices used as virus detection will be also discussed.

  7. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-30

    73 1. Antimony trioxide .. .. . .. ... ... . ............ 73 2. Potassium hexafluorozirconate ................... 73 3...silicon monoxide (SiO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ), and potassium hexafluorozirconate [2KF(ZrF,4J. Brief results follow: (1) SiO...somewhat higher packing density for the bombarded films. 2. Potassium hexafluorozirconate The structure tended toward a more- amorphous form under electron

  8. Nanoindentation of GaSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Ku, Shin-An; Luo, Chih-Wei; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2012-07-01

    The structural and nanomechanical properties of GaSe thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques. The GaSe thin films were deposited on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. XRD patterns reveal only the pure (000 l)-oriented reflections originating from the hexagonal GaSe phase and no trace of any impurity or additional phases. Nanoindentation results exhibit discontinuities (so-called multiple `pop-in' events) in the loading segments of the load-displacement curves, and the continuous stiffness measurements indicate that the hardness and Young's modulus of the hexagonal GaSe films are 1.8 ± 0.2 and 65.8 ± 5.6 GPa, respectively.

  9. Thin film morphology of organic electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S. D.; Kline, R. J.; Delongchamp, D. M.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Gundlach, D. J.; Richter, L. J.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal orientation and morphology of a polythiophene (pBTTT) and an anthradithiophene (diF-TEADT, a pentacene analog) in thin films have been explored by TEM, SEM, AFM, GISAXD, NEXAFS, polarized FTIR and ellipsometry. The orientation has a striking influence on the performance of thin film transistors. We show that solution casting and annealing conditions have a significant effect on the morphology of pBTTT. Correlations between film surface step morphology and crystal orientation are determined. Interfacial interactions with the substrate (gold, silica, or fluorinated sam) govern the crystal orientation and crystal aggregate morphology of diF-TESADT. Depending on this orientation, the carrier mobility spans from approximately 0.001 cm^2/Vs to 0.4 cm^2/Vs. Epitaxial relationships within crystal aggregates are observed.

  10. Nanoindentation of GaSe thin films

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The structural and nanomechanical properties of GaSe thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques. The GaSe thin films were deposited on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. XRD patterns reveal only the pure (000 l)-oriented reflections originating from the hexagonal GaSe phase and no trace of any impurity or additional phases. Nanoindentation results exhibit discontinuities (so-called multiple ‘pop-in’ events) in the loading segments of the load–displacement curves, and the continuous stiffness measurements indicate that the hardness and Young’s modulus of the hexagonal GaSe films are 1.8 ± 0.2 and 65.8 ± 5.6 GPa, respectively. PMID:22804961

  11. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  12. Analysis of the laser oxidation kinetics process of In-In(2)O(3) MTMO photomasks by laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-11-02

    One kind of novel grayscale photomask based on Metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMOs) system fabricated by laser direct writing was demonstrated recently. Here, a multilayer oxidation model of In-In(2)O(3) film with a glass substrate was proposed to study the pulsed laser-induced oxidation mechanism. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the film is calculated by the transfer matrix method. Temperature fields of the model are simulated based on the heat transfer equations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The oxidation kinetics process is studied based on the laser-induced Cabrera-Mott theory. The simulated oxidation processes are consistent with the experimental results, which mean that our laser-induced oxidation model can successfully interpret the fabrication mechanism of MTMO grayscale photomasks.

  13. Electrolyte and Electrode Passivation for Thin Film Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W.; Whitacre, J.; Ratnakumar, B.; Brandon, E.; Blosiu, J.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Passivation films for thin film batteries have been prepared and the conductivity and voltage stability window have been measured. Thin films of Li2CO3 have a large voltage stability window of 4.8V, which facilitates the use of this film as a passivation at both the lithium anode-electrolyte interface at high cathodic potentials.

  14. A magnetron sputtering system for the preparation of patterned thin films and in situ thin film electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Arnalds, U. B.; Agustsson, J. S.; Ingason, A. S.; Eriksson, A. K.; Gylfason, K. B.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Olafsson, S.

    2007-10-15

    We describe a versatile three gun magnetron sputtering system with a custom made sample holder for in situ electrical resistance measurements, both during film growth and ambient changes on film electrical properties. The sample holder allows for the preparation of patterned thin film structures, using up to five different shadow masks without breaking vacuum. We show how the system is used to monitor the electrical resistance of thin metallic films during growth and to study the thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake in metallic thin films. Furthermore, we demonstrate the growth of thin film capacitors, where patterned films are created using shadow masks.

  15. Ferroelectric/Dielectric Double Gate Insulator Spin-Coated Using Barium Titanate Nanocrystals for an Indium Oxide Nanocrystal-Based Thin-Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hien Thu; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Don-Sung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2016-03-23

    Barium titanate nanocrystals (BT NCs) were prepared under solvothermal conditions at 200 °C for 24 h. The shape of the BT NCs was tuned from nanodot to nanocube upon changing the polarity of the alcohol solvent, varying the nanosize in the range of 14-22 nm. Oleic acid-passivated NCs showed good solubility in a nonpolar solvent. The effect of size and shape of the BT NCs on the ferroelectric properties was also studied. The maximum polarization value of 7.2 μC/cm(2) was obtained for the BT-5 NC thin film. Dielectric measurements of the films showed comparable dielectric constant values of BT NCs over 1-100 kHz without significant loss. Furthermore, the bottom gate In2O3 NC thin film transistors exhibited outstanding device performance with a field-effect mobility of 11.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at a low applied gate voltage with BT-5 NC/SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The low-density trapped state was observed at the interface between the In2O3 NC semiconductor and the BT-5 NCs/SiO2 dielectric film. Furthermore, compensation of the applied gate field by an electric dipole-induced dipole field within the BT-5 NC film was also observed.

  16. Thin blend films of cellulose and polyacrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. To further expand the potential applications of cellulose materials, their alloying with synthetic polymers has been investigated. In this study, thin films of cotton linter cellulose (CLC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blends with various compositions spanning the entire range from neat CLC to neat PAN were spun cast on silicon wafers from common solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. The morphologies of thin films were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Morphologies of as-cast films are highly sensitive to the film preparation conditions; they vary from featureless smooth films to self-organized ordered nano-patterns to hierarchical structures spanning over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. By selectively removing the PAN-rich phase, the structures of blend films were studied to gain insights in their very high stability in hot water, acid and salt solutions.

  17. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.

  18. Multifunctional Sn- and Fe-Codoped In2O3 Colloidal Nanocrystals: Plasmonics and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Bharat; Shanker, G Shiva; Nag, Angshuman

    2014-07-03

    We prepared Fe- and Sn-codoped colloidal In2O3 nanocrystals (∼6 nm). Sn doping provides free electrons in the conduction band, originating localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and electrical conductivity. The LSPR band can be tuned between 2000 and >3000 nm, depending on the extent and kind of dopant ions. Fe doping, on the other hand, provides unpaired electrons, resulting in weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. Fe doping shifts the LSPR band of 10% Sn-doped In2O3 nanocrystals to a longer wavelength along with a reduction in intensity, suggesting trapping of charge carriers around the dopant centers, whereas Sn doping increases the magnetization of 10% Fe-doped In2O3 nanocrystals, probably because of the free electron mediated interactions between distant magnetic ions. The combination of plasmonics and magnetism, in addition to electronic conductivity and visible-light transparency, is a unique feature of our colloidal codoped nanocrystals.

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of electronic state and surface structure of In2O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Bierwagen, Oliver; Galazka, Zbigniew; Imura, Masataka; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2017-01-01

    The electronic states and band bending behavior of melt-grown In2O3 single crystals were investigated by combining surface-sensitive soft- and bulk-sensitive hard-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The as-grown In2O3 crystal had a higher density of in-gap states related to oxygen vacancies than the In2O3 crystal annealed in air at 1000 °C. Nevertheless, the polished surfaces of both samples had surface electron accumulation layers (SEALs) with similar Fermi level pinning energies at the surface. The estimated peak carrier density at the surface of both samples was 1.2 × 1020 cm-3. The SEALs may originate from defects due to surface polishing or adsorbates.

  20. Charge Storage Effect on In2O3 Nanowires with Ruthenium Complex Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Insung; Lee, Junghyun; Jo, Gunho; Seo, Kyoungja; Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2009-01-01

    Charge storage effect on In2O3 nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) is controlled by a chemical gate, ruthenium(II) terpyridine (RuII-tpy) complex molecules. In2O3 nanowire FETs functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of the molecules exhibit large hysteretic characteristics with regard to source-drain current vs gate voltage characteristics. The devices are operated with reversible switching behavior at gate voltage cycles of writing, reading, erasing, and reading, and their retention time is in excess of 1000 s. These results reveal that the reversible chemical reaction (i.e., oxidation and reduction of the molecules) of RuII-tpy complexes produces a charging/discharging process of In2O3 nanowire FETs.

  1. Temperature dependent selectivity towards ethanol and acetone of Dy3+-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Kanica; Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Ravi Chand; Thangaraj, Rengasamy

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the influence of Dy3+ doping on the sensor response (SR) and selectivity of In2O3 sensors for selective detection of ethanol and acetone has been studied. (0, 1, 5, 10%) Dy3+-doped In2O3 nanoparticles has been prepared employing a co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, RAMAN, TEM, EDS and Photoluminescence studies. It has been observed that Dy3+ doping inhibits the nanoparticles growth and increases the lattice constant, structural disorder, activation energy, defect concentration and surface basicity. The highest SR for 10% Dy3+-doped In2O3 sensor has been ascribed to small size, high defects, high surface basicity and large lattice distortion.

  2. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsaprom, Kwanruthai; Sonsupap, Somchai; Maensiri, Santi; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles of Fe-doped In2O3 [(In1- x Fe x )2O3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10] are prepared by a simple polymerized complex method using indium (III) nitrate hydrate, iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as the starting materials. The XRD, Raman and electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the calcined samples have the cubic structure of In2O3. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used in order to address both qualitative and quantitative of doped Fe valence states. The undoped sample exhibits a diamagnetic behavior, whereas all the Fe-doped samples are ferromagnetic having the magnetizations of ~0.0019-0.2959 emu/g at 10 kOe. Our results indicate that room-temperature ferromagnetism of Fe-doped In2O3 system is intrinsic and is not a result of any ferromagnetic impurity phases.

  3. Chemical gating of In2O3 nanowires by organic and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Daihua; Liu, Xiaolei; Han, Song; Tang, Tao; Rouhanizadeh, Mahsa; Hsiai, Tzung; Zhou, Chongwu

    2003-11-01

    In2O3 nanowire transistors were used to investigate the chemical gating effect of organic molecules and biomolecules with amino or nitro groups. The nanowire conductance changed dramatically after adsorption of these molecules. Specifically, amino groups in organic molecules such as butylamine, donated electrons to In2O3 nanowires and thus led to enhanced carrier concentrations and conductance, whereas molecules with nitro groups such as butyl nitrite made In2O3 nanowires less conductive by withdrawing electrons. In addition, intrananowire junctions created by partial exposure of the nanowire device to butyl nitrite were investigated, and pronounced rectifying current-voltage characteristics were obtained. Furthermore, chemical gating by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the offending agent in coronary heart diseases, was also observed and attributed to the amino groups carried by the bio species.

  4. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  5. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-30

    isotherm expected for nonwetting adsorbate-adsorbent systems. 8 Type I depicts monolayer adsorption. Type II is very common in the case of physical...5.11 show the isothermal growth rate as a function of relative humidity. The shape can be classified as a type IV adsorption isotherm that corresponds...by following the fringes generated by interference effects in the growing film. The Balzers 760 evaporation system was supplied with both types of

  6. Doping in zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng

    Doping in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films is discussed in this dissertation. The optimizations of undoped ZnO thin film growth using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are discussed. The effect of the oxygen ECR plasma power on the growth rate, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied. It was found that larger ECR power leads to higher growth rate, better crystallinity, lower electron carrier concentration, larger resistivity, and smaller density of non-radiative luminescence centers in the ZnO thin films. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out in undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. As the carrier concentration increases from 1.8 x 1018 to 1.8 x 1020 cm-3, the dominant PL line at 9 K changes from I1 (3.368--3.371 eV), to IDA (3.317--3.321 eV), and finally to I8 (3.359 eV). The dominance of I1, due to ionized-donor bound excitons, is unexpected in n-type samples, but is shown to be consistent with the temperature-dependent Hall fitting results. We also show that IDA has characteristics of a donor-acceptor-pair transition, and use a detailed, quantitative analysis to argue that it arises from GaZn donors paired with Zn-vacancy (VZn) acceptors. In this analysis, the GaZn0/+ energy is well-known from two-electron satellite transitions, and the VZn0/- energy is taken from a recent theoretical calculation. Typical behaviors of Sb-doped p-type ZnO are presented. The Sb doping mechanisms and preference in ZnO are discussed. Diluted magnetic semiconducting ZnO:Co thin films with above room-temperature TC were prepared. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies indicate the ZnO:Co thin films are free of secondary phases. The magnetization of the ZnO:Co thin films shows a free electron carrier concentration dependence, which increases dramatically when the free electron carrier concentration exceeds ˜1019 cm -3, indicating a carrier-mediated mechanism for

  7. Toward High Performance Integrated Semiconductor Micro and Nano Lasers Enabled by Transparent Conducting Materials: from Thick Structure to Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Fang

    Integrated semiconductor lasers working at the wavelength around 1.3 microm and 1.55 microm are of great interest for the research of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) since they are the crucial components for optical communications and many other applications. To satisfy the requirement of the next generation optical communication and computing systems, integrated semiconductor lasers are expected to have high device performance like very low lasing threshold, high output powers, high speed and possibility of being integrated with electronics. This dissertation focuses on the design and realization of InP based high performance electrically pumped integrated semiconductor lasers. In the dissertation, we first design the tall structure based electrically pumped integrated micro-lasers. Those lasers are capable of giving >10 mW output power with a moderate low threshold current density (0.5--5 kA/cm 2). Besides, a new enhanced radiation loss based coupler design is demonstrated to realize single directional output for curvilinear cavities. Second, the thin film structure based integrated semiconductor laser designs are proposed. Both structures use the side conduction geometry to enable the electrical injection into the thin film laser cavity. The performance enhancement of the thin film structure based lasers is analyzed compared to the tall structure. Third, we investigate the TCO materials. CdO deposited by PLD and In 2O3 deposited by IAD are studied from aspects of their physical, optical and electrical properties. Those materials can give a wide range of tunability in their conductivity (1--5000 S/cm) and optical transparency (loss 200--5000 cm-1), which is of great interest in realizing novel nanophotonic devices. In addition, the electrical contact properties of those materials to InP are also studied. Experiment result shows that both CdO and In2O3 can achieve good ohmic contact to n-InP with contact resistance as low as 10-6O·cm 2. At last, we investigate

  8. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  9. Thin-film transistors with a channel composed of semiconducting metal oxide nanoparticles deposited from the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, C.; Schierning, G.; Theissmann, R.; Nedic, A.; Kruis, F. E.; Schmechel, R.

    2012-06-01

    The fabrication of semiconducting functional layers using low-temperature processes is of high interest for flexible printable electronics applications. Here, the one-step deposition of semiconducting nanoparticles from the gas phase for an active layer within a thin-film transistor is described. Layers of semiconducting nanoparticles with a particle size between 10 and 25 nm were prepared by the use of a simple aerosol deposition system, excluding potentially unwanted technological procedures like substrate heating or the use of solvents. The nanoparticles were deposited directly onto standard thin-film transistor test devices, using thermally grown silicon oxide as gate dielectric. Proof-of-principle experiments were done deploying two different wide-band gap semiconducting oxides, tin oxide, SnO x , and indium oxide, In2O3. The tin oxide spots prepared from the gas phase were too conducting to be used as channel material in thin-film transistors, most probably due to a high concentration of oxygen defects. Using indium oxide nanoparticles, thin-film transistor devices with significant field effect were obtained. Even though the electron mobility of the investigated devices was only in the range of 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1, the operability of this method for the fabrication of transistors was demonstrated. With respect to the possibilities to control the particle size and layer morphology in situ during deposition, improvements are expected.

  10. Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.

    This study yokes together the feasibility of a family of PbO-based perovskite-structured ferroelectric thin films as functional elements in nonvolatile random access memories (NVRAMs), in high capacity dynamic RAMs, and in a new class of flexure wave piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films were dependent on thickness; at saturation, the films were characterized by a relative permittivity of 1300, remanent polarization of 36 muC/cm^2 and breakdown strength of over 1 MV/cm. The temperature dependence of permittivity revealed an anomalous behavior with the film annealing temperature. Based on the ferroelectric properties in the bulk, thin films in the lead zirconate -lead zinc niobate (PZ-PZN) solid solution system at 8-12% PZN, examined as alternate compositions for ferroelectric memories, feature switched charges of 4-14 mu C/cm^2, with coercive and saturation voltages less than the semiconductor operating voltage of 5 V. Rapid thermally annealed lead magnesium niobate titanate films were privy to weak signal dielectric permittivity of 2900, remanent polarization of 11 muC/cm^2, and a storage density of 210 fC/mum^2 at 5 V; the films merit consideration for potential applications in ultra large scale integrated circuits as also ferroelectric nonvolatile RAMs. The high breakdown strength and relative permittivity of the PZT films entail maximum stored energy density 10^3 times larger than a silicon electrostatic motor. The longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficient d_{33 } was measured to be 220 pC/N at a dc bias of 75 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric strain coefficient d_{31} bore a nonlinear relationship with the electric field; at 200 kV/cm, d _{31} was -88 pC/N. The development of the piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors from the PZT thin films, and the architecture of the stator structures are described. Nonoptimized prototype micromotors show rotational velocities of 100

  11. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  12. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  13. Adhesion assessment of copper thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kriese, M.D.; Gerberich, W.W.; Moody, N.R.

    1997-06-01

    Nano-indentation testing has been used to quantitatively assess the adhesion of thin copper films, sputtered to thicknesses of 150 nm to 1500 nm. Copper films of low residual stress were deposited via RF diode cathode sputtering onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Overlayers of DC magnetron sputtered tungsten, 850 nm thick with high residual stress, were additionally used to provide a driving force for delamination. All films tested exhibited buckle-driven delamination, from which the interfacial toughness was estimated to be 0.2 - 2 J/m{sup 2}, which is comparable to the thermodynamic work of adhesion. The use of an overlayer requires extensions of existing models, but otherwise does not change the interfacial adhesion, allowing measurements of films that would not otherwise delaminate.

  14. Cathodoluminescence degradation of PLD thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Dejene, F. B.; Dolo, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities of Y2SiO5:Ce3+, Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor thin films that were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated for possible application in low voltage field emission displays (FEDs) and other infrastructure applications. Several process parameters (background gas, laser fluence, base pressure, substrate temperature, etc.) were changed during the deposition of the thin films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and particle size of the different films. The layers consist of agglomerated nanoparticle structures. Samples with good light emission were selected for the electron degradation studies. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and CL spectroscopy were used to monitor changes in the surface chemical composition and luminous efficiency of the thin films. AES and CL spectroscopy were done with 2 keV energy electrons. Measurements were done at 1×10-6 Torr oxygen pressure. The formation of different oxide layers during electron bombardment was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New non-luminescent layers that formed during electron bombardment were responsible for the degradation in light intensity. The adventitious C was removed from the surface in all three cases as volatile gas species, which is consistent with the electron stimulated surface chemical reaction (ESSCR) model. For Y2SiO5:Ce3+ a luminescent SiO2 layer formed during the electron bombardment. Gd2O3 and SrO thin films formed on the surfaces of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+, respectively, due to ESSCRs.

  15. Investigation of electrodeposited cuprous oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Emma L.

    This dissertation focuses on improvements to electrodeposited cuprous oxide as a candidate for the absorber layer for a thin film solar cell that could be integrated into a mechanical solar cell stack. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an earth abundant material that has a bandgap of 2 eV with absorption coefficients around 102-106 cm-1. This bandgap is not optimized for use as a single-junction solar cell, but could be ideal for use in a tandem solar cell device. The theoretical efficiency of a material with a bandgap of 2.0 eV is 20%. The greatest actual efficiency that has been achieved for a Cu2O solar cell is only 8.1%. For the present work the primary focus has been on improving the microstructure of the absorber layer film. The Cu2O films were fabricated using electrodeposition. A seeding layer was developed using gold (Au); which was manipulated into nano-islands and used as the substrate for the Cu2O electrodeposition. The films were characterized and compared to determine the growth mechanism of each film using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to establish and compare the chemical phases that were present in each of the films. The crystal structure of the Cu2O film grown on gold was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this helped confirm the effect that the gold had on the growth of Cu2O. The Tauc method was then used to determine the bandgap of the films of Cu2O grown on both substrates and this showed that the Au based Cu2O film was a superior film. Electrical tests were also completed using a solar simulator and this established that the film grown on gold exhibited photoconductivity that was not seen on the film without gold. In addition, for this thesis, a method for depositing an n-type Cu2O film, based on a Cu-metal solution-boiling process, was investigated. Three forms of copper were tested: a sheet of copper, electrodeposited copper, and sputtered copper. The chemical phases were observed using

  16. The effect of substrate temperature on the microstructural, electrical and optical properties of Sn-doped indium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoufi, Davood; Taherniya, Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    In this work, Sn doping In2O3 (ITO) thin films with a thickness of 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method at different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure of these films was studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The sheet resistance was measured by a four-point probe. Van der Pauw method was used to measure carrier density and mobility of ITO films. The optical transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength region of 300-800 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used for the surface morphology analysis. The prepared ITO films exhibited body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with preferred orientation of growth along the (2 2 2) crystalline plane. The grain size of the films increases by rising the substrate temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased with increasing the substrate temperature. It is found that the electrical properties of ITO films are significantly affected by substrate temperature. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the carrier density and mobility are enhanced with an increase in substrate temperature. The evaluated values of energy band gap Eg for ITO films were increase from 3.84 eV to 3.91 eV with increasing the substrate temperatures from 200 °C to 500 °C. The SEM micrographs of the films revealed a homogeneous growth without perceptible cracks with particles which are well covered on the substrate.

  17. Design of Gradient Index Optical Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druessel, Jeffrey J.

    Gradient index thin films provide greater flexibility for the design of optical coatings than the more conventional "layer" films. In addition, gradient index films have higher damage thresholds and better adhesion properties. In this dissertation I present an enhancement to the existing inverse Fourier transform gradient index design method, and develop a new optimal design method for gradient index films using a generalized Fourier series approach. The inverse Fourier transform method is modified to include use of the phase of the index profile as a variable in rugate filter design. Use of an optimal phase function in Fourier-based filter designs reduces the product of index contrast and thickness for desired reflectance spectra. The shape of the reflectance spectrum is recovered with greater fidelity by suppression of Gibbs oscillations and shifting of side-lobes into desired wavelength regions. A new method of gradient index thin film design using generalized Fourier series extends the domain of problems for which gradient index solutions can be found. The method is analogous to existing techniques for layer based coating design, but adds the flexibility of gradient index films. A subset of the coefficients of a generalized Fourier series representation of the gradient index of refraction profile are used as variables in a nonlinear constrained optimization formulation. The optimal values of the design coefficients are determined using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This method is particularly well suited for the design of coatings for laser applications, where only a few widely separated wavelength requirements exist. The generalized Fourier series method is extended to determine the minimum film thickness needed, as well as the index of refraction profile for the optimal film.

  18. Thin Film...Large Payoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SRS Technologies is currently the only company licensed by Langley Research Center to produce colorless polyimides. They currently produce two polyimides, the LaRC-CP1 and LaRC-CP2 developed by Langley Research Center. These polyimides offer many advantages over other commercially available materials including excellent thermal stability, radiation resistance, solubility, and transparency. The SRS polyimides can be used in laminates, films, molded parts, and stock shapes. The polyimide technology has also helped the company further their development of solar arrays.

  19. A study of reactive plasma deposited thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, J.; Williams, E.

    1986-01-01

    A state-of-the-art research laboratory was established to grow and characterize amorphous thin films that are useful in semi-conductor devices. Two film systems, nitride films and silicon dioxide films were studied. Over seventy deposition runs for nitride films were made. The films were deposited on silicon substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the uniformity of the films were affected by the location of the film on the platen.

  20. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  1. Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Jessica

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of

  2. A Multilayered Thin Film Insulator for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Blaha, Charles A.; Busfield, A. Rachel; Thomas, Valarie D.

    2002-01-01

    The status of work to develop a reliable high temperature dielectric thin film for use with thin film sensors is presented. The use of thin films to electrically insulate thin film sensors on engine components minimizes the intrusiveness of the sensor and allows a more accurate measurement of the environment. A variety of insulating films were investigated for preventing electrical shorting caused by insulator failure between the sensor and the component. By alternating layers of sputtered high temperature ceramics, a sequence of insulating layers was devised that prevents pinholes from forming completely through the insulator and maintains high electrical resistivity at high temperatures. The major technical challenge remaining is to optimize the fabrication of the insulator with respect to composition to achieve a reliable high temperature insulating film. Data from the testing of various potentially insulating thin film systems is presented and their application to thin film sensors is also discussed.

  3. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE PAGES

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore » field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  4. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  5. Thin electroless barrier for copper films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, Sergey D.; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi Y.; Dubin, Valery M.; Kim, Yoon S.; Vasudev, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    Electroless barrier deposition for copper metallization potentially provides many advantages, among which are the selectivity to dielectrics, possibility of an amorphous alloy deposition, binary alloy properties enhancement by an addition of a third component, high conformity and low cost. Electroless cobalt-rich CoWP ternary alloys with high phosphorus content (approximately 11 weight percent) and a low weight percent of the third component, tungsten (approximately 2 percent), were deposited in basic solution onto copper and cobalt in integrated circuit structures. A capability of the electroless CoWP deposition to form thin selective and conformal barrier/protection films was demonstrated. Extendibility of these thin films to extremely small, nano- scale dimensions was observed. Conformal 10 nm thick CoWP layer was formed on the sidewalls of 30 - 40 nm wide seam of aspect ratio about 5:1 on the top of 0.4 micrometer wide in- laid Cu line. Thermal stability of electroless CoWP/Cu films investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was extended to 500 degrees Celsius for 15 nm thick barrier. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the electroless CoWP film surface and sectional analysis showed small grain sizes of CoWP on either electroless or Physical Vapor Deposited (PVD) Cu films. Several passivation schemes to protect the exposed Cu surface and adhesion promotion/barrier layers to stabilize the Cu/dielectric interface in a damascene process were demonstrated.

  6. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}){sup n} and Al(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AIN){sup n}. Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented.

  7. Magnetic Thin Films of Inorganic Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-02-01

    Molecule-based magnets have been fascinating materials because of the potential applications in information storage, electronic and spintronic devices. However, such applications would require arraying the active materials on a substrate or interfacing with other components. Here, we focus on fabricating multi-functional magnetic films using inorganic nanosheets as a building block. The thin films could be prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett, LB, technique or the layer-by-layer, LbL, method, which are representative wet-processings for film preparation. As the magnetic LB film, we chose semiconductive titania nanosheets and magnetic Prussian Blue. Upon band gap excitation of titania nanosheets, electron injection into Prussian Blue was achieved with scavenging interlayer water molecules, leading to photoreduction to Prussian White. As the magnetic LbL film, we chose magnetic layered double hydroxide, LDH, nanosheets and non-magnetic smectite nanosheets. In powdered LDH, a coercivity increased with expanding the interlayer spacing. On the other hand, despite the larger interlayer spacing for the LbL film, a coercivity was less than that of the comparative powdered LDH. It is indicated LDH nanosheets are integrated in an anisotropic manner in the LbL films.

  8. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  9. High temperature thin film strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, P.; Godefroy, J. C.; Leca, L.

    The development of thin-film resistance strain gauges suitable for dynamic stress measurements up to 900 C and intended for blade vibration measurements is reported. The strain gauge is deposited by RF sputtering on nickel-base superalloys and consists of an NiCoCrAlY coating, an Al2O3 insulating layer, a sensing layer (NiCr, PdCr), an intermediate splicing layer (Pt), and a protective film (Al2O3 or SiO2). The electrical and mechanical properties of the sensing layers and preliminary results on the thermal stability of the gauges are discussed.

  10. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  11. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  12. Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mester, John; Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2006-01-01

    Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques are particularly useful for making superconducting or alternatively normally conductive junctions (e.g., Josephson junctions) between patterned superconducting thin films in order to exploit electron quantum-tunneling effects. The techniques are applicable to both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors (where Tc represents the superconducting- transition temperature of a given material), offering different advantages for each. Most low-Tc superconductors are metallic, and heretofore, connections among them have been made by spot welding. Most high-Tc superconductors are nonmetallic and cannot be spot welded. These techniques offer alternatives to spot welding of most low-Tc superconductors and additional solutions to problems of connecting most high-Tc superconductors.

  13. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  15. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  16. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Using Lithium Niobate Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Juan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-06-01

    We present a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) using a lithium niobate thin film, as one of the triboelectric pairs which was grown on a silicon substrate by laser molecule beam epitaxy (LMBE). The designed TENG has the advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, small size (1.1*1.0*0.15 cm3). An open-circuit voltage of 136 V and a short-circuit current of 8.40 μA have been achieved. The maximum output power is 307.5μW under the load resistance of 10MΩ. This is the first time to use lithium niobate thin film as one of the friction pair, which may make it possible to expand the application of triboelectric nanogenerator to optical field.

  17. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting next-generation'' options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called government/industry partnerships'') that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  18. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  19. Thin Films of Polypyrrole on Particulate Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    C H R I S T O P H E R V E T T E R , X I A O N I N G Q I , S U B R A M A N Y A M V . K A S I S O M A Y A J U L A , A N D Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...layer 3 Why Polypyrrole /Flake? Polypyrrole  Poor mechanical properties  Poor adhesion  Solubility issues  Continuous layer needed 4 Polypyrrole Coated

  20. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  1. Plasmonics in Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, Stephan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2009-10-01

    Thin film solar cells made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon provide renewable energy at the benefits of low material consumption. As a drawback, these materials don't offer the high carrier mobilities of their crystalline counterpart. Due to low carrier mobilities, increased process times and material consumption, thick absorbing layers have to be avoided. For maintaining the absorption of the impinging light as high as possible, such thin film devices ask for photon management. Here we show how metallic nanoparticles that sustain the excitation of localized plasmon polaritons placed atop of the solar cell or in between two absorbing layers can increase the efficiency of solar cells. Numerical results for 1D as well as 2D periodic arrangements of nanoparticles will be shown.

  2. DNA strand patterns on aluminium thin films.

    PubMed

    Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Majid, Wan Haliza Abd; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general.

  3. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  4. Self-assembly and hierarchical organization of Ga2O3/In2O3 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Su, Yong; Li, Sen; Chen, Yiqing; Zhou, Qingtao; Yin, Song; Feng, Yi

    2007-02-01

    We report on the realization of novel 3-D hierarchical heterostructures with 6-and 4-fold symmetries by a transport and condensation technique. It was found that the major core nanowires or nanobelts are single-crystalline In2O3, and the secondary nanorods are single-crystalline monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 and grow either perpendicular on or slanted to all the facets of the core In2O3 nanobelts. Depending on the diameter of the core In2O3 nanostructures, the secondary Ga2O3 nanorods grow either as a single row or multiple rows. The one-step growth of the unique Ga2O3/In2O3 heteronanostructures is a spontaneous and self-organized process. The simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and shape together with the possibility of growing heterostructures on certain nanocrystal facets opens up novel routes to the synthesis of more sophisticated heterostructures as building blocks for opto- and nanoelectronics.

  5. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased.

  6. Laser annealing of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashkov, A. V.; Ivlev, G. D.; Filippov, V. V.; Kashko, I. A.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2010-09-01

    Microstructure of defects in organic solar cells containing PEDOT:PSS:Sorbitol layer has been studied and conditions for successful pulsed laser annealing of them have been determined. Investigation with oblique illumination showed that radial symmetry of fine structure is an intrinsic property of either separated discotic defects or block structure. Our study shows that pulsed laser annealing of organic thin films in inert atmosphere has promising future.

  7. Laser annealing of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashkov, A. V.; Ivlev, G. D.; Filippov, V. V.; Kashko, I. A.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2011-02-01

    Microstructure of defects in organic solar cells containing PEDOT:PSS:Sorbitol layer has been studied and conditions for successful pulsed laser annealing of them have been determined. Investigation with oblique illumination showed that radial symmetry of fine structure is an intrinsic property of either separated discotic defects or block structure. Our study shows that pulsed laser annealing of organic thin films in inert atmosphere has promising future.

  8. Novel thin-film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Hemanshu; Zeller, Mary; Will, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    A new and simpler design for thin-film heat flux sensors for utilization in high heat flux environments is presented. The design of these sensors consists of a planar differential thermopile made up of a number of thermocouple pairs arranged in a circular array, two different thermal resistance layers deposited on the inside and outside junctions of the thermopile and a high emissivity coating. This design has shown good potential for measuring heat fluxes in severe environments of aerospace propulsion systems.

  9. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P [Lafayette, CA; Visco, Steven J [Berkeley, CA; De Jonghe, Lutgard C [Lafayette, CA

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  10. Large-area thin-film modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyan, Y. S.; Perez-Albuerne, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The low cost potential of thin film solar cells can only be fully realized if large area modules can be made economically with good production yields. This paper deals with two of the critical challenges. A scheme is presented which allows the simple, economical realization of the long recognized, preferred module structure of monolithic integration. Another scheme reduces the impact of shorting defects and, as a result, increases the production yields. Analytical results demonstrating the utilization and advantages of such schemes are discussed.

  11. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  12. Temperature Behavior of Thin Film Varactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, electronic tuning has been achieved through ferrite or semiconductor diodes. Commercially available ferrite products are expensive and...heated substrate (770 °C) (1, 3, 4). The temperature behavior of thin-film varactor was done in Delta 9028 temperature-controlled chamber. It has...temperature coefficient of PLD varactor is 2600 ppm at a 50-V bias and 604 ppm at a 100-V bias. 9 5. References 1. Kim, W . J.; Chang, W .; Qadri, S. B

  13. Stable localized patterns in thin liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Oron, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    We study a 2-D nonlinear evolution equation which describes the 3-D spatiotemporal behavior of the air-liquid interface of a thin liquid film lying on the underside of a cooled horizontal plate. We show that the Marangoni effect can stabilize the destabilizing effect of gravity (the Rayleigh-Taylor instability) allowing for the existence of stable localized axisymmetric solutions for a wide range of parameter values. Various properties of these structures are discussed.

  14. Large-area thin-film modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyan, Y. S.; Perez-Albuerne, E. A.

    1985-10-01

    The low cost potential of thin film solar cells can only be fully realized if large area modules can be made economically with good production yields. This paper deals with two of the critical challenges. A scheme is presented which allows the simple, economical realization of the long recognized, preferred module structure of monolithic integration. Another scheme reduces the impact of shorting defects and, as a result, increases the production yields. Analytical results demonstrating the utilization and advantages of such schemes are discussed.

  15. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  16. Thin Film Sensors for Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensors that can provide accurate surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements have been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These sensors provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced propulsion materials and components in hostile, high-temperature environments as well as validation of propulsion system design codes. The sensors are designed for applications on different material systems and engine components for testing in engine simulation facilities. Thin film thermocouples and strain gauges for the measurement of surface temperature and strain have been demonstrated on metals, ceramics and advanced ceramic-based composites of various component configurations. Test environments have included both air-breathing and space propulsion-based engine and burner rig environments at surface temperatures up to 1100 C and under high gas flow and pressure conditions. The technologies developed for these sensors as well as for a thin film heat flux gauge have been integrated into a single multifunctional gauge for the simultaneous real-time measurement of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux. This is the first step toward the development of smart sensors with integrated signal conditioning and high temperature electronics that would have the capability to provide feedback to the operating system in real-time. A description of the fabrication process for the thin film sensors and multifunctional gauge will be provided. In addition, the material systems on which the sensors have been demonstrated, the test facilities and the results of the tests to-date will be described. Finally, the results will be provided of the current effort to demonstrate the capabilities of the multifunctional gauge.

  17. Thermoelectric properties and microstructure of Cu-In-O thin films.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Otto J; Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Crisman, Everett E

    2013-11-11

    Combinatorial chemistry techniques were used to study the thermoelectric properties of sputtered thin films in the system copper oxide (CuO) and indium oxide (In2O3). Seven hundred seventy thin film thermocouples or combinatorial library elements were simultaneously deposited, each with a unique spatially dependent chemistry, based on the relative position of the thermocouples to each sputtering target. The resulting thermoelectric properties of each element were determined along with electrical resistivity as a function of composition. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to identify the composition of each thermo-element, and electron and X-ray diffraction were used to determine the degree of crystallinity and phases present. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of selected thermo-elements. A change in sign of the thermoelectric voltage was observed in the thermo-element containing 40.0 atomic percent indium, which suggests a change in the dominant carrier type occurred, from p-type to n-type. Based on this finding, the fabrication of thermoelectric p-n junctions using the same base Cu-In-O semiconductor appears feasible.

  18. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  19. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Albert

    2005-03-01

    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (<3um) films of liquid media with a mineral oil overlayer, and III. microfluidic chambers fabricated in PDMS (˜7um tall). We find greatly reduced, if not eliminated, cell on cell layering in the microfluidic system when compared to the wetting layer preparations. The ultrathin films reveal robust behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  20. Design and characterization of thin film microcoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBounty, Chris; Shakouri, Ali; Bowers, John E.

    2001-04-01

    Thin film coolers can provide large cooling power densities compared to bulk thermoelectrics due to the close spacing of hot and cold junctions. Important parameters in the design of such coolers are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulator (ANSYS) is used to model self-consistently thermal and electrical properties of a complete device structure. The dominant three-dimensional thermal and electrical spreading resistances acquired from the 3D simulation are also used in a one-dimensional model (MATLAB) to obtain faster, less rigorous results. Heat conduction, Joule heating, thermoelectric and thermionic cooling are included in these models as well as nonideal effects such as contact resistance, finite thermal resistance of the substrate and the heat sink, and heat generation in the wire bonds. Simulations exhibit good agreement with experimental results from InGaAsP-based thin film thermionic emission coolers which have demonstrated maximum cooling of 1.15 °C at room temperature. With the nonideal effects minimized, simulations predict that single stage thin film coolers can provide up to 20-30 °C degrees centigrade cooling with cooling power densities of several 1000 W/cm2.

  1. Asymmetric grain distribution in phthalocyanine thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, K. Paul; Gredig, Thomas; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2009-11-01

    Many electronic and optical properties of organic thin films depend on the precise morphology of grains. Iron phthalocyanine thin films are grown on sapphire substrates at different temperatures to study the effect of grain growth kinematics and to experimentally quantify the grain size distribution in organic thin films. The grain size is measured with an atomic force microscope and the data is processed and analyzed with well-known image segmentation algorithms. For relevant statistics, over 3000 grains are evaluated for each sample. The data show pronounced asymmetric grain growth with increasing deposition temperature from almost spherical grains at room temperature to elongated needlelike shapes at 260 deg. C. The average size along the major axis increases from 35 to 200 nm and along the minor axis from 25 to 90 nm. The distribution is almost symmetric at low-deposition temperatures, but becomes lognormal at higher temperatures. Strikingly, the major axis and minor axis of the elliptically shaped grains have different distributions at all temperatures due to the planar asymmetry of the molecule.

  2. Multiferroic RMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontcuberta, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials have received an astonishing attention in the last decades due to expectations that potential coupling between distinct ferroic orders could inspire new applications and new device concepts. As a result, a new knowledge on coupling mechanisms and materials science has dramatically emerged. Multiferroic RMnO3 perovskites are central to this progress, providing a suitable platform to tailor spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions. With views towards applications, the development of thin films of multiferroic materials have also progressed enormously and nowadays thin-film manganites are available, with properties mimicking those of bulk compounds. Here we review achievements on the growth of hexagonal and orthorhombic RMnO3 epitaxial thin films and the characterization of their magnetic and ferroelectric properties, we discuss some challenging issues, and we suggest some guidelines for future research and developments. En ce qui concerne les applications, le développement de films minces de matériaux multiferroïques a aussi énormément progressé, et de nos jours des films minces de manganites avec des propriétés similaires à celles des matériaux massifs existent. Nous passons en revue ici les résultats obtenus dans le domaine de la croissance de couches minces épitaxiés de RMnO3 hexagonal et orthorhombique et de la caractérisation de leurs propriétés magnétiques et ferroélectriques. Nous discutons certains enjeux et proposons quelques idées pour des recherches et développements futurs.

  3. Local Mixed State in HTSC Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordion, Irina; Tokman, Iosif

    1997-03-01

    We propose a new way to investigate the local properties of YBaCuO thin films. Micromagnet ( SmCo5 with size 1 × 1 × 0.5 mm ) has been used to induce the mixed state in the local zone isolated from the film edge. We have the experimental evidence ( Y.Nozdrin, P.Visheslavtsev, I.Tokman, I.Gordion, "A Laser-Magnetic Tomography for HTSC Film", IEEE Trans. on Appl. Superconductivity. v.5 n.2, pp. 1424-1427, (1995)) that flux flow in this case does not penetrate through the edge of the film, and this fact has also been proved by theoretical calculation of meissner current density induced by micromagnet in the HTSC disk which was based on London model for superconductors. >From calculation based on Bean-like model for critical state it has been found that the radius of induced local mixed state did not exceed ac (maximum distance between the micromagnet and the film at which vortices appeared). Experimental measurement by scanning Hall probe has proved this fact. So we can reduce the size of induced mixed state zone by minimizing the size of the micromagnet. This method can be useful for local investigation of HTSC films.

  4. Electrocaloric devices based on thin-film heat switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Richard I.; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2009-09-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration, heat pumping, and electrical generation that allows one to exploit the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators and heat pumps or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of electrocaloric thin-film devices can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches that may use carbon nanotubes would enable thin-film refrigerators and generators to outperform conventional vapor-compression devices.

  5. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  6. Thin Films Characterization by Ultra Trace Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Danel, A.; Nolot, E.; Decorps, T.; Lardin, T.; Veillerot, M.; Lhostis, S.; Campidelli, Y.; Calvo-Munoz, M.-L.; Kohno, H.; Yamagami, M.

    2007-09-26

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of thin films used in nanoelectronics, thinner than a few nm, represents a challenge for many conventional methods, especially when considering in-line control. With capabilities in the E10 at/cm{sup 2} (<1/10 000 of a mono layer), methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially TXRF thanks to its non invasive and ease of use aspects, and to its measurement speed and mapping capability. This study shows that the range of linear results from TXRF can be extended to thicknesses of a few nm when using an incident angle higher than the critical angle of the analyzed film. Thus, despite degraded performances in terms of low detection limit, TXRF can provide a direct and very sensitive reading of some critical deposition processes. A dynamic repeatability better than 1% (standard deviation) has been obtained for the control of a 0.6 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel oxide deposited on a magnetic stack. On the other hand, composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Under the best conditions, determination of the composition of Co -based self aligned barriers (CoWP and CoWMoPB films with Co concentration >80%) is done with a precision of 6% on P, 8% on Mo and 13% on W (standard deviation)

  7. Nanocrystalline silicon based thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Swati

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells and panels on glass and flexible substrate are commercially available. Since last few years nanocrystalline silicon thin film has attracted remarkable attention due to its stability under light and ability to absorb longer wavelength portion of solar spectrum. For amorphous silicon/ nanocrystalline silicon double junction solar cell 14.7% efficiency has been achieved in small area and 13.5% for large area modules internationally. The device quality nanocrystalline silicon films have been fabricated by RF and VHF PECVD methods at IACS. Detailed characterizations of the materials have been done. Nanocrystalline films with low defect density and high stability have been developed and used as absorber layer of solar cells.

  8. Thin Film Deposition Using Energetic Ions

    PubMed Central

    Manova, Darina; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Mändl, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    One important recent trend in deposition technology is the continuous expansion of available processes towards higher ion assistance with the subsequent beneficial effects to film properties. Nowadays, a multitude of processes, including laser ablation and deposition, vacuum arc deposition, ion assisted deposition, high power impulse magnetron sputtering and plasma immersion ion implantation, are available. However, there are obstacles to overcome in all technologies, including line-of-sight processes, particle contaminations and low growth rates, which lead to ongoing process refinements and development of new methods. Concerning the deposited thin films, control of energetic ion bombardment leads to improved adhesion, reduced substrate temperatures, control of intrinsic stress within the films as well as adjustment of surface texture, phase formation and nanotopography. This review illustrates recent trends for both areas; plasma process and solid state surface processes. PMID:28883323

  9. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaroli, Leandro N.; Newby, Pascal; Santato, Clara; Peter, Yves-Alain

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m-1 K-1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s-1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative) of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  10. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Technologies: Progress and Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2004-08-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film materials based on copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, CIS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) are promising thin-film solar cells for various power and specialty applications. Impressive results have been obtained in the past few years for both thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells and thin-film CdTe solar cells. NCPV/NREL scientists have achieved world-record, total-area efficiencies of 19.3% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell and 16.5% for thin-film CdTe solar cell. A number of technical R&D issues related to CIS and CdTe have been identified. Thin-film power module efficiencies up to 13.4% has been achieved thus far. Tremendous progress has been made in the technology development for module fabrication, and multi-megawatt manufacturing facilities are coming on line with expansion plans in the next few years. Several 40-480 kW polycrystalline thin-film, grid-connected PV arrays have been deployed worldwide. Hot and humid testing is also under way to validate the long-term reliability of these emerging thin-film power products. The U.S. thin-film production (amorphous silicon[a-Si], CIS, CdTe) is expected to exceed 50 MW by the end of 2005.

  11. Spontaneous rupture of thinning liquid films with Plateau borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Anthony; Brush, Lucien; Davis, Stephen

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous film rupture from van der Waals instability is investigated in 2D. A thin liquid film between adjacent bubbles in a foam has finite length, curved boundaries (Plateau borders), and a drainage flow from capillary suction that causes thinning. A full linear stability analysis of this thinning film shows that rupture occurs once the film has thinned to tens of nanometers. Whereas, in an unbounded, quiescent, flat free film, rupture occurs when the thickness is hundreds of nanometers. Finite length, Plateau borders and flow are all found to contribute to the stabilization. The drainage flow leads to several distinct qualitative features as well. In particular, unstable disturbances are advected by the flow to the edges of the thin film. As a result, the edges of the film close to the Plateau borders are more susceptible to rupture that the center of the film.

  12. Preface: Thin films of molecular organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraxedas, J.

    2008-03-01

    This special issue is devoted to thin films of molecular organic materials and its aim is to assemble numerous different aspects of this topic in order to reach a wide scientific audience. Under the term 'thin films', structures with thicknesses spanning from one monolayer or less up to several micrometers are included. In order to narrow down this relaxed definition (how thin is thin?) I suggest joining the stream that makes a distinction according to the length scale involved, separating nanometer-thick films from micrometer-thick films. While the physical properties of micrometer-thick films tend to mimic those of bulk materials, in the low nanometer regime new structures (e.g., crystallographic and substrate-induced phases) and properties are found. However, one has to bear in mind that some properties of micrometer-thick films are really confined to the film/substrate interface (e.g. charge injection), and are thus of nanometer nature. Supported in this dimensionality framework, this issue covers the most ideal and model 0D case, a single molecule on a surface, through to the more application-oriented 3D case, placing special emphasis on the fascinating 2D domain that is monolayer assembly. Thus, many aspects will be reviewed, such as single molecules, self-organization, monolayer regime, chirality, growth, physical properties and applications. This issue has been intentionally restricted to small molecules, thus leaving out polymers and biomolecules, because for small molecules it is easier to establish structure--property relationships. Traditionally, the preparation of thin films of molecular organic materials has been considered as a secondary, lower-ranked part of the more general field of this class of materials. The coating of diverse surfaces such as silicon, inorganic and organic single crystals, chemically modified substrates, polymers, etc., with interesting molecules was driven by the potential applications of such molecular materials

  13. Preparation of thin polymer films for infrared reaction rate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    Procedure for preparing thin films for infrared spectrophotometric analysis involves pressing of a neat mixture of reactants between nonreactive thin polymer films with noninterfering absorption bands. Pressing is done under a pressure that gives desirable thickness. Following this process, the film sandwich is cut to accommodate the laboratory instrument.

  14. ON THE ANALYSIS OF SPECTRA IN TRANSMISSION THROUGH THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Reprint: On the analysis of spectra in transmission through thin films . A technique to investigate the adequacy of the damped harmonicoscillator...model for IR absorption in thin films . Procedure for extracting material parameters and film thickness from the transmission curve.

  15. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  16. Visible photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activities of TiO2 nanobelts modified by In2O3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongru; Tian, Jian; Bo, Yanyan; Zhou, Yanli; Wang, Xinzhen; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-02-01

    Novel In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance were successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. Well-dispersed In2O3 nanoparticles with small sizes are uniformly attached on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts to form In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures. The TiO2 nanobelts as backbones restrict the aggregation of In2O3 nanoparticles, resulting in the formation of smaller In2O3 nanoparticles with more interaction sites for pollutants. The visible photocatalytic activity of as-prepared heterostructures for degradation of methyl blue (MB) is higher than those of TiO2 nanobelts and In2O3 nanoparticles alone. Moreover, the In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure shows an enhanced PEC performance under irradiation of visible light. The enhanced photocatalytic and PEC activities are mainly ascribed to the synergic effect of efficient charge separation of heterostructure, visible-light harvesting ability of In2O3, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites by the small size of In2O3 nanoparticles. Finally, based on the experimental results of Mott-Schottky, UV-vis DRS, photocurrent and open-circuit voltage response, a possible photocatalytic mechanism over the In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure is proposed.

  17. Intrinsic instability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Hu, H.; Rokoni, A. A.; Sun, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The instability of a thin liquid film on nanostructures is not well understood but is important in liquid-vapor two-phase heat transfer (e.g., thin film evaporation and boiling), lubrication, and nanomanufacturing. In thin film evaporation, the comparison between the non-evaporating film thickness and the critical film breakup thickness determines the stability of the film: the film becomes unstable when the critical film breakup thickness is larger than the non-evaporating film thickness. In this study, a closed-form model is developed to predict the critical breakup thickness of a thin liquid film on 2D periodic nanostructures based on the minimization of system free energy in the limit of a liquid monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water thin films on square nanostructures of varying depth and wettability, and the simulations agree with the model predictions. The results show that the critical film breakup thickness increases with the nanostructure depth and the surface wettability. The model developed here enables the prediction of the minimum film thickness for a stable thin film evaporation on a given nanostructure.

  18. Intrinsic instability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokoni, Arif; Hu, Han; Sun, Liyong; Sun, Ying

    2016-11-01

    The instability of a thin liquid film on nanostructures is not well understood but is important in liquid-vapor two-phase heat transfer (e.g., thin film evaporation and boiling), lubrication, and nanomanufacturing. In thin film evaporation, the comparison between the non-evaporating film thickness and the critical film breakup thickness determines the stability of the film: the film becomes unstable when the critical film breakup thickness is larger than the non-evaporating film thickness. In this study, a closed-form model is developed to predict the critical breakup thickness of a thin liquid film on 2D periodic nanostructures based on minimization of system free energy in the limit of a liquid monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water thin films on square nanostructures of varying depth and wettability and the simulations agree with the model predictions. The results show that the critical film breakup thickness increases with the nanostructure depth and the surface wettability. The model developed here enables the prediction of the minimum film thickness for stable thin film evaporation on a given nanostructure.

  19. Indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles induce progressive lung injury distinct from lung injuries by copper oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeongeun; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Cho, Wan-Seob

    2016-04-01

    Indium is an essential element in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays and other electronic devices, and several forms of indium compounds have been developed, including nanopowders, films, nanowires, and indium metal complexes. Although there are several reports on lung injury caused by indium-containing compounds, the toxicity of nanoscale indium oxide (In2O3) particles has not been reported. Here, we compared lung injury induced by a single exposure to In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) to that caused by benchmark high-toxicity nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) NPs. In2O3 NPs at doses of 7.5, 30, and 90 cm(2)/rat (50, 200, and 600 µg/rat) were administered to 6-week-old female Wistar rats via pharyngeal aspiration, and lung inflammation was evaluated 1, 3, 14, and 28 days after treatment. Neutrophilic inflammation was observed on day 1 and worsened until day 28, and severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was observed on post-aspiration days 14 and 28. In contrast, pharyngeal aspiration of NiO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1 and lymphocytic inflammation with PAP on day 28. Pharyngeal aspiration of CuO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1, but symptoms were completely resolved after 14 days and no PAP was observed. The dose of In2O3 NPs that produced progressive neutrophilic inflammation and PAP was much less than the doses of other toxic particles that produced this effect, including crystalline silica and NiO NPs. These results suggest that occupational exposure to In2O3 NPs can cause severe lung injury.

  20. Gadolinium thin films as benchmark for magneto-caloric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmich, Lars; Bartke, Marianne; Teichert, Niclas; Schleicher, Benjamin; Fähler, Sebastian; Hütten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    We report on the preparation of Gadolinium thin films by means of sputter deposition on Silicon Oxide wafers. A series of samples with different buffer layers and various substrate temperatures has been produced. The film on an amorphous Tantalum buffer deposited at 773 K shows the highest increase of magnetization during the phase transition at the Curie temperature. Further detailed analysis of the magnetic properties has been conducted by VSM.

  1. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought. PMID:28287698

  2. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  3. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  4. Hole transport in porphyrin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Tom J.; Goossens, Albert

    2001-09-01

    Hole transport in p-type organic semiconductors is a key issue in the development of organic electronic devices. Here the diffusion of holes in porphyrin thin films is investigated. Smooth anatase TiO2 films are coated with an amorphous thin film of zinc-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (ZnTCPP) molecules acting as sensitizer. Optical excitation of the porphyrin stimulates the injection of electrons into the conduction band of TiO2. The remaining holes migrate towards the back electrode where they are collected. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage analysis reveal that the TiO2/ZnTCPP system can be regarded as an n-p heterojunction, with a donor density of ND=2.0×1016 cm-3 for TiO2 and an acceptor density NA=4.0×1017 cm-3 for ZnTCPP films. The acceptor density in porphyrin films increases to 1.3×1018 cm-3 upon irradiation with 100-mW cm-2 white light. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, in which ac-modulated irradiation is applied, is used to measure the transit times of the photogenerated holes through the films. A reverse voltage bias hardly affects the transit time, whereas a small forward bias yields a decrease of the transit time by two orders of magnitude. Application of background irradiation also reduces the transit time considerably. These observations are explained by the presence of energy fluctuation of the highest-occupied molecular orbital level in the porphyrin films due to a dispersed conformational state of the molecules in the amorphous films. This leads to energetically distributed hole traps. Under short circuit and reverse bias, photogenerated holes reside most of the time in deep traps and their diffusivity is only 7×10-11 cm2 s-1. Deep traps are filled by application of a forward bias and by optical irradiation leading to reduction of the transit time and a concomitant increase of the diffusivity up to 2×10-7 cm2 s-1.

  5. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.

    2005-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskeméti, G.; Kresz, N.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Nógrádi, A.

    2005-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm 2. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 × 10 -3 Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm 2. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified "protein cube" method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  7. Onset of Plasticity in Thin Polystyrene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurmessa, Bekele J.; Croll, Andrew B.

    2013-02-01

    Polymer glasses have numerous advantageous mechanical properties in comparison to other materials. One of the most useful is the high degree of toughness that can be achieved due to significant yield occurring in the material. Remarkably, the onset of plasticity in polymeric materials is very poorly quantified, despite its importance as the ultimate limit of purely elastic behavior. Here, we report the results of a novel experiment which is extremely sensitive to the onset of yield and discuss its impact on measurement and elastic theory. In particular, we use an elastic instability to locally bend and impart a local tensile stress in a thin, glassy polystyrene film, and directly measure the resulting residual stress caused by the bending. We show that plastic failure is initiated at extremely low strains, of the order 10-3 for polystyrene. Not only is this critical strain found to be small in comparison to bulk measurement, we show that it is influenced by thin film confinement—leading to an increase in the critical strain for plastic failure as film thickness approaches zero.

  8. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  9. Localized resistive regions in superconducting thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanchenko, Y.; Mikheenko, P.

    1982-02-01

    A phenomenological model for resistive domains produced in semiconducting thin films on passage of a transport current through them is presented. The resistivity is pronouncedly nonequilibrium and is due to a magnetic flux through the specimen. The domains appear at sites of edge defects or inhomogeneities whose role reduces to lowering of the potential barrier to the entrance of the vortices. The kinetics of the flux in the specimen and the dissipation caused by it are considered. The heat-balance equation for a film with a domain is solved and the current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is calculated. Some quantitative features of the CVC are predicted, viz., absence of hysteresis at thermostat temperature T/sub 0/ close to the superconductor critical temperature T/sub c/, the presence of a voltage discontinuity under given-current conditions, passage of the differential conductivity sigma(T/sub 0/) of the initial resistive part of the CVC through a maximum, the presence of an excess current in the resistive part on the forward CVC after the temperature instability sets in, and others. Results are presented of an experimental verification of the model by measuring the CVC of thin indium films at thermostat temperatures zeta/sub 0/ = 1-T/sub 0//T/sub c/ between 10/sup -4/ and 10/sup -1/. The experimental and theoretical results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  11. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  12. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. The magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both the stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 30 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern.

  13. Onset of plasticity in thin polystyrene films.

    PubMed

    Gurmessa, Bekele J; Croll, Andrew B

    2013-02-15

    Polymer glasses have numerous advantageous mechanical properties in comparison to other materials. One of the most useful is the high degree of toughness that can be achieved due to significant yield occurring in the material. Remarkably, the onset of plasticity in polymeric materials is very poorly quantified, despite its importance as the ultimate limit of purely elastic behavior. Here, we report the results of a novel experiment which is extremely sensitive to the onset of yield and discuss its impact on measurement and elastic theory. In particular, we use an elastic instability to locally bend and impart a local tensile stress in a thin, glassy polystyrene film, and directly measure the resulting residual stress caused by the bending. We show that plastic failure is initiated at extremely low strains, of the order 10(-3) for polystyrene. Not only is this critical strain found to be small in comparison to bulk measurement, we show that it is influenced by thin film confinement--leading to an increase in the critical strain for plastic failure as film thickness approaches zero.

  14. Silicon surface passivation by polystyrenesulfonate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianhui; Shen, Yanjiao; Guo, Jianxin; Chen, Bingbing; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Feng; Liu, Haixu; Xu, Ying; Mai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The use of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) thin films in a high-quality passivation scheme involving the suppression of minority carrier recombination at the silicon surface is presented. PSS has been used as a dispersant for aqueous poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene. In this work, PSS is coated as a form of thin film on a Si surface. A millisecond level minority carrier lifetime on a high resistivity Si wafer is obtained. The film thickness, oxygen content, and relative humidity are found to be important factors affecting the passivation quality. While applied to low resistivity silicon wafers, which are widely used for photovoltaic cell fabrication, this scheme yields relatively shorter lifetime, for example, 2.40 ms on n-type and 2.05 ms on p-type wafers with a resistivity of 1-5 Ω.cm. However, these lifetimes are still high enough to obtain high implied open circuit voltages (Voc) of 708 mV and 697 mV for n-type and p-type wafers, respectively. The formation of oxides at the PSS/Si interface is suggested to be responsible for the passivation mechanism.

  15. Preparation and characterization of Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Kanica; Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Ravi Chand; Thangaraj, Rengasamy

    2017-08-01

    Pure and Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles are synthesized by the co-precipitation method and are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Gas sensing properties of the sensors has been investigated towards methanol, ethanol, acetone and LPG at different operating temperatures. It is found that the sensor response magnitude of the 3% Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles sensors is higher to 50 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C, to acetone at 350 °C and to LPG at 400 °C. This is mainly attributed to the large number of oxygen vacancies and defects in doped sensors as corroborated by the photoluminescence studies.

  16. Nano-inclusions: a novel approach to tune the thermal conductivity of In2O3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Liu, Yong; Chen, Bo; Liu, Da-Bo; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Marcelli, Augusto

    2013-10-28

    Indium oxides such as In2O3 based thermoelectric ceramics exhibit a figure of merit ZT ~0.5 above 1000 K, while optimized ZnO based thermoelectrics may reach ZT ~0.3 at 1273 K. A way to further optimize the thermoelectric performance is to tune the thermal conductivity. In this work, a reduction of the thermal conductivity greater than 30% has been observed. Combining thermal conductivity measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray Absorption Fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) data and Full Multiple Scattering calculations, we associated the phenomenon with an effective scattering of mid- and long-wavelength phonons by embedded ZnO nano-inclusions in the In2O3 matrix. The results suggest a protocol for the synthesis of new heat-designed materials for many novel applications, such as high ZT thermoelectrics, thermal crystals, heat optics devices, etc.

  17. Reducing the In2O3(111) Surface Results in Ordered Indium Adatoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Margareta; Seiler, Steffen; Meyer, Bernd; Boatner, Lynn A; Schmid, M.; Diebold, U.

    2014-01-01

    The In2O3(111) surface can be transformed from an oxidized bulk termination to one that is covered by single In adatoms. As each adatom sits at one specific site within the surface unit cell they form a well-ordered (1 1) superstructure. Annealing at 500 C in O2 or in ultrahigh vacuum results in a fully reversible conversion between these two surface terminations; this transformation and intermediate stages were followed with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Formation of this novel surface structure under reducing conditions is corroborated by Density Functional Theory (DFT). The reduced adatom-covered and the oxidized In2O3(111) surfaces are expected to exhibit different chemical and electronic properties, which can easily be exploited by the facile and reversible switching between the two terminations.

  18. Controlled assembly of In2O3 nanowires on electronic circuits using scanning optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song-Woo; Jo, Gunho; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2009-09-28

    In(2)O(3) nanowires can be used effectively as building blocks in the production of electronic circuits used in transparent and flexible electronic devices. The fabrication of these devices requires a controlled assembly of nanowires at crucial places and times. However, this kind of controlled assembly, which results in the fusion of nanowires to circuits, is still very difficult to execute. In this study, we demonstrate the benefits of using various lengths of In(2)O(3) nanowires by using non-contact mechanisms, such as scanning optical tweezers, to place them on designated targets during the fabrication process. Furthermore, these nanowires can be stabilized at both ends of the conducting wires using a focused laser, and later in the process, the annealed technique, so that proper flow of electrons is affected.

  19. Annealing temperature dependent non-monotonic d0 ferromagnetism in pristine In2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Haiming; Xing, Pengfei; Yao, Dongsheng; Wu, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Cubic bixbyite In2O3 nanoparticles with room temperature d0 ferromagnetism were prepared by sol-gel method with the air annealing temperature ranging from 500 to 900 °C. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman-scattering and photoluminescence were carried out to demonstrate the presence of oxygen vacancies. The lattice constant, the atomic ratio of crystal O and In, the Raman peak at 369 cm-1, the PL emission peak at 396 nm and the saturation magnetization of d0 ferromagnetism all had a consistent non-monotonic change with the increasing annealing temperature. With further considering the relation between the grain size and the distribution of oxygen vacancies, we think that d0 ferromagnetism in our samples is directly related with the singly charged oxygen vacancies at the surface of In2O3 nanoparticles.

  20. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  1. Electron Damage Effects on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS THESIS Jeremy S. Best, Captain, USMC AFIT-ENP-13-M-37 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-37 ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS...M-37 ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS Jeremy S. Best, BS Aerospace Engineering Captain, USMC Approved: Dr. John McClory

  2. Porous Organic Cage Thin Films and Molecular-Sieving Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Qilei; Jiang, Shan; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Sun, Shijing; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-06

    Porous organic cage molecules are fabricated into thin films and molecular-sieving membranes. Cage molecules are solution cast on various substrates to form amorphous thin films, with the structures tuned by tailoring the cage chemistry and processing conditions. For the first time, uniform and pinhole-free microporous cage thin films are formed and demonstrated as molecular-sieving membranes for selective gas separation.

  3. Site identity and importance in cosubstituted bixbyite In2O3

    DOE PAGES

    Rickert, Karl; Harris, Jeremy; Sedefoglu, Nazmi; ...

    2017-02-09

    The bixbyite structure of In2O3 has two nonequivalent, 6-coordinate cation sites and, when Sn is doped into In2O3, the Sn prefers the “b-site” and produces a highly conductive material. When divalent/tetravalent cation pairs are cosubstituted into In2O3, however, the conductivity increases to a lesser extent and the site occupancy is less understood. We examine the site occupancy in the MgxIn2–2xSnxO3 and ZnxIn2–2xSnxO3 systems with high resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction and density functional theory computations, respectively. In these sample cases and those that are previously reported in the MxIn2–2xSnxO3 (M = Cu, Ni, or Zn) systems, the solubility limit ismore » greater than 25%, ensuring that the b-site cannot be the exclusively preferred site as it is in Sn:In2O3. Prior to this saturation point, we report that the M2+ cation always has at least a partial occupancy on the d-site and the Sn4+ cation has at least a partial occupancy on the b-site. The energies of formation for these configurations are highly favored, and prefer that the divalent and tetravalent substitutes are adjacent in the crystal lattice, which suggests short range ordering. Diffuse reflectance and 4-point probe measurements of MgxIn2–xSnxO3 demonstrate that it can maintain an optical band gap >2.8 eV while surpassing 1000 S/cm in conductivity. Furthermore, understanding how multiple constituents occupy the two nonequivalent cation sites can provide information on how to optimize cosubstituted systems to increase Sn solubility while maintaining its dopant nature, achieving maximum conductivity.« less

  4. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sonny Xiao-zhe

    2003-01-01

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO2 plasma or by N+ implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zni, a native shallow donor. In NO2-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N2)O, a shallow double donor. In NO2-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N2O and N2. Upon annealing, N2O decomposes into N2 and O2. In furnace-annealed samples N2 redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N2 bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N+ implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N2)O and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  5. Hydrogen centers and the conductivity of In2O3 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Weikai; Smithe, Kirby; Weiser, Philip; ...

    2015-02-24

    A series of infrared absorption experiments and complementary theory have been performed in order to determine the properties of OH and OD centers in In2O3 single crystals. Annealing In2O3 samples in H2 or D2 at temperatures near 450°C produces an n-type layer ≈0.06mm thick with an n-type doping of 1.6×1019 cm-3. The resulting free-carrier absorption is correlated with an OH center with a vibrational frequency of 3306 cm-1 that we associate with interstitial H+. Additional O-H (O-D) vibrational lines are assigned to metastable configurations of the interstitial H+(D+) center and complexes of H (D) with In vacancies. In addition, unlikemore » other oxides studied recently where H trapped at an oxygen vacancy is the dominant shallow donor (ZnO and SnO2, for example), interstitial H+ is found to be the dominant H-related shallow donor in In2O3.« less

  6. Optical and vibrational properties of (ZnO)k In2O3 natural superlattice nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margueron, Samuel; Pokorny, Jan; Skiadopoulou, Stella; Kamba, Stanislav; Liang, Xin; Clarke, David R.

    2016-05-01

    A thermodynamically stable series of superlattices, (ZnO)kIn2O3, form in the ZnO-In2O3 binary oxide system for InO1.5 concentrations from about 13 up to about 33 mole percent (m/o). These natural superlattices, which consist of a periodic stacking of single, two-dimensional sheets of InO6 octahedra, are found to give rise to systematic changes in the optical and vibrational properties of the superlattices. Low-frequency Raman scattering provides the evidence for the activation of acoustic phonons due to the folding of Brillouin zone. New vibrational modes at 520 and 620 cm-1, not present in either ZnO or In2O3, become Raman active. These new modes are attributed to collective plasmon oscillations localized at the two-dimensional InO1.5 sheets. Infrared reflectivity experiments, and simulations taking into account a negative dielectric susceptibility due to electron carriers in ZnO and interface modes of the dielectric layer of InO2, explain the occurrence of these new modes. We postulate that a localized electron gas forms at the ZnO/InO2 interface due to the electron band alignment and polarization effects. All our observations suggest that there are quantum contributions to the thermal and electrical conductivity in these natural superlattices.

  7. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  8. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  9. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  10. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  11. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  12. Enhanced electrothermal pumping with thin film resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of thin film heaters to enhance electrothermal pumping in microfluidic systems. Thin film heating electrothermal pumping is more efficient than Joule heating alone. Numerical simulations of an asymmetric electrode array are performed to demonstrate the advantages of incorporating thin film heaters. This specific simulation shows that thin film heater electrothermal pumping provides approximately two and one-half times more volumetric flow than Joule heating alone for the same input power to both systems. In addition, external heating allows for electrothermal pumping to be applicable to low conductivity media.

  13. Stresses in Tungsten Thin Films for Single Photon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Laurna; Lita, Adriana; Balzar, Davor

    2004-10-01

    Tungsten thin films are used both as photon absorbers and thermometers and are considered for the fabrication of Single Photon Detectors with possible application in quantum computing. These applications require operation close to the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, which is ˜15 mK for alpha-W and up to 4 K for beta-W. The addition of an antireflective silicon oxide coating over the thin film increases the efficiency of the detectors, but suppresses the thin film's Tc. The objective of this study was to examine whether the difference in stress values may affect the Tc and phase composition in the thin films. Stresses in tungsten thin films originate from growing process, and from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate, thin film, and coating. Stresses were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) through the changes in interplanar spacings. The measurements were carried out both on a W thin film sputtered onto a Si substrate, and another sample with an additional silicon oxide capping, at both room and low ( ˜8 K) temperatures. Based on these measurements and calculations, a correlation was established between the Tc and stresses in thin films, which can explain the suppression of the Tc in capped thin films.

  14. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  15. Krypton ion induced structural phase transition in zirconia thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasaritha, P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Magudapathy, P.; Krishnan, R.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The ZrO2 thin film was grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and irradiated with 60 keV Kr+ ions. The as-prepared and ion irradiated ZrO2 thin films were characterised with high resolution transmission electron microscope(HRTEM). The as-prepared ZrO2 thin film was found to be monoclinic in structure. Upon 60 keV Kr+ ion implantation, the ZrO2 thin films transformed from monoclinic to tetragonal phase along with the formation of krypton bubbles.

  16. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  17. Progress on thin-film sensors for space propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to develop thin-film thermocouples for Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. Thin-film thermocouples have been developed for aircraft gas turbine engines and are in use for temperature measurement on turbine blades to 1800 F. The technology established for aircraft gas turbine engines will be adapted to the materials and environment encountered in the SSME. Specific goals are to expand the existing in-house thin-film sensor technology and to test the survivability and durability of thin-film sensors in the SSME environment.

  18. Thin-Film Photovoltaics: Status and Applications to Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of thin film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space are discussed. There have been great advances in thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications; transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper iridium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon alloys. The possibility of thin film multi bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  19. Applications of thin-film photovoltaics for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the potential applications of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space. There have been great advances in thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. Transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper indium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon arrays. The possibility of using thin-film multi-bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  20. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.