Ruzieh, Mohammed; Moustafa, Abdelmoniem; Sabbagh, Ebrahim; Karim, Mohammad M; Karim, Saima
Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain). Work up should include an EKG to differentiate other causes of tachycardia, 24 hour- Holter monitor if indicated, serum thyroid levels, hemoglobin levels and toxicology screen. Electrophysiological studies are not routinely recommended, but should be considered in certain patients in whom concurrent supraventricular tachycardia is suspected. The underlying pathology in IST is yet to be completely understood. However, it is thought that the causes of IST can be broadly classified into two groups; either as an intrinsic increase in sinus node automaticity or an extrinsic cause. Among extrinsic causes, there is evolving evidence that IgG anti-β receptor antibodies are found in IST causing tachycardia. Managing patients with IST includes lifestyle modification, non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Ivabradine has recently emerged as an effective treatment of IST and was shown to be superior to beta-blockers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Nwazue, Victor C; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Biaggioni, Italo; Diedrich, André; Dupont, William D; Robertson, David; Raj, Satish R
Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are 2 disorders characterized by sinus tachycardia. It is debated whether the pathophysiology of IST and POTS results from abnormal autonomic regulation or abnormal sinus node function. We hypothesized that intrinsic heart rate (IHR) after autonomic blockade would be increased in patients with IST but not POTS. We enrolled 48 POTS patients, 8 IST patients, and 17 healthy control (HC) subjects. Intravenous propranolol and atropine were given to block the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the autonomic nervous system in order to determine the IHR. Patients with IST have a higher sympathetic contribution to heart rate when compared with POTS patients (31±13 bpm versus 12±7 bpm, P<0.001) and HC (8±4 bpm; P<0.001) and a trend to less parasympathetic contribution than POTS and HC (IST: 31±11 bpm versus POTS: 46±11 bpm versus HC: 48±11 bpm, ANOVA P=0.108). IHR was not significantly different between IST and either POTS or HC (IST: 111±11 bpm versus POTS: 108±11 bpm versus HC: 106±12 bpm, ANOVA P=0.237). IST patients have more sympathetic tone when compared with either POTS or HC, but IST patients do not have abnormal sinus node automaticity. These data suggest that the treatment of IST and POTS should focus on sympatholysis, reserving sinus node modification for patients with continued debilitating symptoms after beta-blockade and possibly ivabradine. http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00262470.
Scherlag, Benjamin J; Yamanashi, William S; Amin, Rohit; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M
The purpose of the present study was to develop an experimental model of inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) by injecting a catecholamine into a fat pad containing autonomic ganglia (AG) innervating the sinus node (SN). Initial protocols in 3 groups of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs consisted of (1) slowing the heart rate (HR) by electrical stimulation of AG in the fat pad; (2) the effect of intravenous injection of epinephrine (0.1-0.3 mg) on the HR and systolic blood pressure (BP); (3) the response of SN rate to intravenously injected isoproterenol (1 microgm/kg). These studies established a reference for the response to epinephrine injection (mean dose 0.2 +/- 0.9 mg, n = 14) into the fat pad at the base of the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV). ECG leads, right atrial and His bundle electrograms, BP and core body temperature were continuously monitored. Epinephrine, injected into the fat pad, caused a significant increase in heart rate (HR, average: 211 +/- 11/min, p < 0.05 compared to control) but little change in systolic BP, 149 +/- 10 mmHg, p = NS (Group I, N = 8). The tachycardia lasted >30 minutes. Ice mapping and P wave morphology showed the tachycardia origin in the SN in 6/8 and in the crista terminalis (CT) in 2. Injection of 0.4 cc of formaldehyde into the FP restored HR (159 +/- 16) toward baseline (154 +/- 18). In Group II (N = 6), the same regimen induced a significant increase in both HR and systolic BP (194 +/- 17/min and 230 +/- 24 mmHg, respectively) compared to control values (143 +/- 23/min, 162 +/- 24 mmHg) which lasted for > 30 minutes. Ice mapping and P wave morphology showed that the pacemaker was in the SN (1), overlying the CT (2), or atrioventricular junction (2). Formaldehyde (0.4 cc) injected into the FP restored both HR and systolic BP toward baseline values (148 +/- 29/min and 152 +/- 24 mmHg, p = NS) and prevented, slowing of the HR by electrical stimulation of the AG; moreover, the same dose of epinephrine injected
Vatasescu, Radu; Shalganov, Tchavdar; Kardos, Attila; Jalabadze, Khatuna; Paprika, Dora; Gyorgy, Margit; Szili-Torok, Tamas
Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is a rare disorder amenable to catheter ablation when refractory to medical therapy. Radiofrequency (RF) catheter modification/ablation of the sinus node (SN) is the usual approach, although it can be complicated by right phrenic nerve paralysis. We describe a patient with IST, who had symptomatic recurrences despite previous acutely successful RF SN modifications, including the use of electroanatomical mapping/navigation system. We decided to try transvenous cryothermal modification of the SN. We used 2 min applications at -85 degrees C at sites of the earliest atrial activation guided by activation mapping during isoprenaline infusion. Every application was preceded by high output stimulation to reveal phrenic nerve proximity. During the last application, heart rate slowly and persistently fell below 85 bpm despite isoprenaline infusion, but right diaphragmatic paralysis developed. At 6 months follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the diaphragmatic paralysis had partially resolved. This is the first report, we believe, of successful SN modification for IST by endocardial cryoablation, although this case also demonstrates the considerable risk of right phrenic nerve paralysis even with this ablation energy.
Kundu, Amartya; Fitzgibbons, Timothy P
Sinus bradycardia has been reported after administration of pulse dose steroids, although most cases have occurred in children and are asymptomatic. We report a case of acute symptomatic sinus bradycardia due to pulse dose steroids in a woman with multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, this patient also suffered from inappropriate sinus tachycardia due to autonomic involvement of multiple sclerosis. A 48-year-old Caucasian woman with multiple sclerosis and chronic palpitations due to inappropriate sinus tachycardia was prescribed a 5-day course of intravenous methylprednisolone for treatment of an acute flare. Immediately following the fourth dose of intravenous methylprednisolone, she developed dyspnea, chest heaviness, and lightheadedness. She was referred to the emergency department where an electrocardiogram showed marked sinus bradycardia (40 beats per minute). Initial laboratory test results, including a complete blood count, basic metabolic profile and cardiac biomarkers, were normal. She was admitted for observation on telemetry monitoring. Her heart rate gradually increased and her symptoms resolved. Her outpatient dose of atenolol, taken for symptomatic inappropriate sinus tachycardia, was resumed. Our patient's acute symptoms were attributed to symptomatic sinus bradycardia due to pulse dose steroid treatment. Although several theories have been suggested to explain this phenomenon, the exact mechanism still remains unknown. It does not warrant any specific treatment, as it is a self-limiting side effect that resolves after discontinuing steroid infusion. Young patients who are free of any active cardiac conditions can safely be administered pulse dose steroids without monitoring. However, older patients with active cardiac conditions should have heart rate and blood pressure monitoring during infusion. Our patient also suffered from inappropriate sinus tachycardia, a manifestation of autonomic involvement of multiple sclerosis that has not been previously
Webb, S C; Krikler, D M; Hendry, W G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R
Because somatostatin, a neuroregulatory peptide, is found in abundance in the atria and atrioventricular node, its electrophysiological and antiarrhythmic properties were compared with those of verapamil in ten patients with paroxysmal atrioventricular tachycardia. During sinus rhythm, intravenous somatostatin slowed the heart rate whereas verapamil increased it. Though both agents prolonged atrioventricular conduction time and refractoriness, verapamil was more potent. They were equally effective at terminating reentry atrioventricular tachycardia, restoring sinus rhythm in six of seven patients. Whereas verapamil consistently blocked conduction in the atrioventricular node, somatostatin usually induced ventricular extrasystoles at the time of conversion. Somatostatin may have physiological importance in the neurohumoral control of cardiac impulse formation and conduction.
Webb, S C; Krikler, D M; Hendry, W G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R
Because somatostatin, a neuroregulatory peptide, is found in abundance in the atria and atrioventricular node, its electrophysiological and antiarrhythmic properties were compared with those of verapamil in ten patients with paroxysmal atrioventricular tachycardia. During sinus rhythm, intravenous somatostatin slowed the heart rate whereas verapamil increased it. Though both agents prolonged atrioventricular conduction time and refractoriness, verapamil was more potent. They were equally effective at terminating reentry atrioventricular tachycardia, restoring sinus rhythm in six of seven patients. Whereas verapamil consistently blocked conduction in the atrioventricular node, somatostatin usually induced ventricular extrasystoles at the time of conversion. Somatostatin may have physiological importance in the neurohumoral control of cardiac impulse formation and conduction. PMID:2875723
Cellarier, G; Bordes, J; De Greslan, T; Karkowski, L; Gagnon, N; Billhot, M; Cournac, J-M; Rousseau, C; Mac Nab, C; Dubrous, P
As part of French assistance for the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa, a military treatment center for infected healthcare workers was deployed in Conakry, Guinea. Although some cases of bradycardia have been reported since the first Ebola outbreak, they have never been documented to our knowledge. We studied heart rhythm in patients with Ebola virus disease to analyze inappropriate bradycardia and discuss its mechanism. Nine patients who tested positive for Ebola were admitted in March 2015. Baseline clinical data were noted at admission and twice a day during follow-up, and laboratory analyses (with troponin testing) were performed. At admission, patients had no or moderate tachycardia (pulse = 82 ± 27 bpm). Among them, a 32-year-old midwife admitted on her fourth day of symptoms had marked bradycardia: 43 bpm. ECG showed sinus bradycardia with no conduction disturbances or repolarization anomalies; findings were similar for the three other patients with bradycardia (< 60 bpm). During follow-up, her pulse gradually increased, as it did for the other three; all four recovered. Despite several factors likely to promote tachycardia, we observed no or only moderate tachycardia in all patients with Ebola. In our study, ECG recorded sinus rhythm, without significant node dysfunction or atrioventricular block. In the absence of any evidence of myocarditis, we discuss the possibility of a central nervous system cause, associated with encephalitis. We observed relative or marked bradycardia in our patients infected with Ebola. We hypothesize that its causal mechanism was encephalitis.
Differentiation of ventricular and supraventricular tachycardias based on the analysis of the first postpacing interval after sequential anti-tachycardia pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients.
Arenal, Angel; Ortiz, Mercedes; Peinado, Rafael; Merino, Jose L; Quesada, Aurelio; Atienza, Felipe; Alberola, Arcadio García; Ormaetxe, Jose; Castellanos, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Juan C; Pérez, Nicasio; García, Javier; Boluda, Luis; del Prado, Mario; Artés, Antonio
Current discrimination algorithms do not completely avoid inappropriate tachycardia detection. This study analyzes the discrimination capability of the changes of the first postpacing interval (FPPI) after successive bursts of anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) trains in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-recorded tachycardias. We included 50 ICD patients in this prospective study. We hypothesized that the FPPI variability (FPPIV) when comparing bursts with different numbers of beats would be shorter in ventricular tachycardias (VTs) compared with supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs). The ATP (5-10 pulses, 91% of tachycardia cycle length) was programmed for tachycardias >240 ms. Anti-tachycardia pacing was delivered during 37 sinus tachycardias (STs) in an exercise test, 96 induced VTs in an electrophysiological study, and 198 spontaneous episodes (144 VTs and 54 SVTs). The FPPI remained stable after all ATP bursts in VT but changed continuously in SVT; when comparing bursts of 5 and 10 pulses, the FPPIV was shorter in VT (34 +/- 65 vs.138 +/- 69, P<.0001, in all T and 12 +/- 20 vs. 138 +/- 69, P<.0001, in T>or=320 ms) than in SVT. In T>or=320 ms an FPPIV
Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Olshansky, Brian; Huang, David T; Zhang, Claire; Ruwald, Anne-Christine H; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J; Schuger, Claudio
Data on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy and effects of programming by heart rate are lacking. We aimed to characterize inappropriate ICD therapy and assess the effects of novel programming by heart rate. Incidence and causes of inappropriate therapy by heart rate range (below or above 200 bpm) were assessed. Predictors of inappropriate therapy and effects of programming by heart rate were evaluated with multivariate Cox regression models. Crossovers were excluded. Inappropriate therapy occurred in 9.2% of the total patient population, with 19% of patients randomized to study arm A, 3.6% in arm B, and 4.7% in arm C. Inappropriate therapies <200 bpm were attributable to supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)/sinus tachycardia (78%) or atrial fibrillation/flutter (20%). Inappropriate therapy ≥200 bpm occurred because of SVT (47%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (41%), or electromagnetic interference (13%). Conventional ICD programming was associated with more inappropriate therapy <200 bpm than high-rate or delayed therapy, as were younger age, history of atrial arrhythmia, advanced New York Heart Association functional class, ICD versus cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, and absence of diabetes. High-rate and long-delay therapy significantly reduced the risk of inappropriate therapy in the <200 bpm range. Long delay was associated with further reduction of fast (≥200 bpm) inappropriate therapy (P = .032) and a reduction in subsequent inappropriate episodes (P = .006). In MADIT-RIT, inappropriate ICD therapy is most frequent at rates below 200 bpm and can be predicted, and effectively prevented, with high-rate cutoff programming. Long-delay therapy effectively reduces fast inappropriate therapy ≥200 bpm and subsequent events. [ http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00947310]. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is life-threatening subgroup of wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT). VT is usually associated with structural heart diseases, but it can occur in the absence of any cardiovascular diseases. Adverse cardiac effect of sodium bicarbonate in healthy subjects is not well described. A 30-year-old healthy man with excessive intake of sodium bicarbonate-related VT is presented. He was using sodium bicarbonate during last 2 months to lose weight. He has no risk factors and any cardiovascular or systemic diseases. After intravenous administration of amiodarone, tachycardia ended and his rhythm converted to sinus rhythm with normal electrocardiogram. Patient is asymptomatic, and no VT was observed without any medications at 1 year of follow-up.
Hung, Yu-Fa; Yang, Winnie; Chang, Mei-Ling
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) following fenoterol inhalation in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) has never been reported. We report two cases of SVT after fenoterol inhalation in MDI. Case one was a 4-year-old boy who had asthma since early childhood. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) was found after fenoterol inhalation (MDI), which returned to normal sinus rhythm following adenosine injection. The other one was a 9-year-old male who also had asthma since early childhood. He suffered from attacks of PSVT four times after fenoterol inhalation within one year. After verapamil injection and vagal maneuvers, PSVT was converted to normal sinus rhythm. There were no other episodes of SVT after discontinuing usage of fenoterol inhalation for 2 years in the follow-up. We report these two cases to remind pediatricians that cardiac arrhythmias should be evaluated following fenoterol inhalation (MDI).
Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Schuger, Claudio; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; Aktas, Mehmet K; McNitt, Scott; Stockburger, Martin; Merkely, Bela; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J
The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate therapy (MADIT-RIT) trial showed a significant reduction in inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients programmed to high-rate cut-off (Arm B) or delayed ventricular tachycardia therapy (Arm C), compared with conventional programming (Arm A). There is limited data on the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) on the effect of ICD programming. We aimed to elucidate the effect of CRT-D on ICD programming to reduce inappropriate ICD therapy in patients implanted with CRT-D or an ICD, enrolled in MADIT-RIT. The primary end point of this study was the first inappropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacing and inappropriate ICD shock. The study enrolled 742 (49%) patients with an ICD and 757 (51%) patients with a CRT-D. Patients implanted with a CRT-D had 62% lower risk of inappropriate ICD therapy than those with an ICD only (hazard ratio [HR] =0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.57; P<0.001). High-rate cut-off or delayed ventricular tachycardia therapy programming significantly reduced the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy compared with conventional ICD programming in ICD (HR=0.14 [B versus A]; HR=0.21 [C versus A]) and CRT-D patients (HR=0.15 [B versus A]; HR=0.23 [C versus A]; P<0.001 for all). There was a significant reduction in inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacings in both group and a significant reduction in inappropriate ICD shock in CRT-D patients. Patients implanted with a CRT-D have lower risk of inappropriate ICD therapy than those with an ICD. Innovative ICD programming significantly reduces the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy in both ICD and CRT-D patients. http://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00947310. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
The normal cardiac rhythm originates in a specialized region of the heart, the sinus node that is part of the nodal tissue. The rhythmic, impulse initiation of sinus node pacemaker cells results from a spontaneous diastolic depolarization that is initiated immediately after repolarization of the preceding actions potential. This slow diastolic depolarisation is typical of automatic cells and essential to their function. Several currents are involved in this diastolic depolarisation: a hyperpolarization activated inward current, termed "pacemaker" I(f) current, two Ca2+ currents (a L type and a T type), a delayed K+ current and a Na/Ca exchange current. The frequency of the automatic discharge is the main determinant of heart rate. However the sinus node activity is regulated by adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine provokes the hyperpolarization of pacemaker cells and decreases the speed of the spontaneous diastolic depolarisation, thus slowing the sinus rate. Catecholamines lead to sinus tachycardia by increasing the diastolic depolarisation speed. In normal conditions, the observed resting heart rate is lower than the intrinsic frequency of the sinus node due to a "predominance" of the vagal tone. Neural regulation of the heart rate aims at meeting the metabolic needs of the tissues through a varying blood flow. Differences between diurnal and nocturnal mean heart rates are accounted for by neural influences. During the night, the increased vagal tone results in decreased heart rate. The exercise-induced tachycardia results from the sympathetic stimulation. It allows more blood to reach skeletal muscles, and as a consequence an increased supply of oxygen and nutrients. Compared to the variety of clinical arrhythmias, sinus rhythm is the basis for optimal exercise capacity and quality of life.
Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Farqani, Abdullah; Al-Rawahi, Najib
A 10-year-old girl presented to the emergency department of a regional hospital with 1 episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Postictal monitoring followed by a 12-lead electrocardiogram showed fast atrial fibrillation with intermittent wide QRS regular tachycardia. Immediately following this, her rhythm changed to wide QRS irregular tachycardia without hemodynamic compromise. She was suspected to have ventricular tachycardia and was treated with intravenous amiodarone with cardioversion to sinus rhythm. Subsequent electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm showed typical features of manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) accessory pathway. This case illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in patients with atrial fibrillation, wide QRS tachycardia, and undiagnosed WPW syndrome with antidromic conduction of atrial arrhythmias through the accessory pathway. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that undiagnosed wide QRS tachycardias need to be treated with drugs acting on the accessory pathway, thus keeping in mind underlying WPW syndrome as a possibility to avoid potentially catastrophic events.
Lim, Yeong-Min; Uhm, Jae-Sun
The inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare site of focal atrial tachycardia (AT). Here, we report a 20-year-old woman who underwent catheter ablation for anti-arrhythmic drug-resistant AT originating from the IVC. She had undergone open-heart surgery for patch closure of an atrial septal defect 17 years previously and permanent pacemaker implantation for sinus node dysfunction 6 years previously. The AT focus was at the anterolateral aspect of the IVC-right atrial junction, and it was successfully ablated under three-dimensional electroanatomical-mapping guidance. We suspect that the mechanism of this tachycardia was associated with previous IVC cannulation for open-heart surgery. PMID:28541006
Simons, G R; Newby, K H; Kearney, M M; Brandon, M J; Natale, A
The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transvenous low energy cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in patients with ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation and to study the mechanisms of proarrhythmia. Previous studies have demonstrated that cardioversion of atrial fibrillation using low energy, R wave synchronized, direct current shocks applied between catheters in the coronary sinus and right atrium is feasible. However, few data are available regarding the risk of ventricular proarrhythmia posed by internal atrial defibrillation shocks among patients with ventricular arrhythmias or structural heart disease. Atrial defibrillation was performed on 32 patients with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and left ventricular dysfunction. Shocks were administered during atrial fibrillation (baseline shocks), isoproterenol infusion, ventricular pacing, ventricular tachycardia, and atrial pacing. Baseline shocks were also administered to 29 patients with a history of atrial fibrillation but no ventricular arrhythmias. A total of 932 baseline shocks were administered. No ventricular proarrhythmia was observed after well-synchronized baseline shocks, although rare inductions of ventricular fibrillation occurred after inappropriate T wave sensing. Shocks administered during wide-complex rhythms (ventricular pacing or ventricular tachycardia) frequently induced ventricular arrhythmias, but shocks administered during atrial pacing at identical ventricular rates did not cause proarrhythmia. The risk of ventricular proarrhythmia after well-synchronized atrial defibrillation shocks administered during narrow-complex rhythms is low, even in patients with a history of ventricular tachycardia. The mechanism of proarrhythmia during wide-complex rhythms appears not to be related to ventricular rate per se, but rather to the temporal relationship between shock delivery and the repolarization time of the previous QRS complex.
Reduction of inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacing therapies and shocks by a novel suite of detection algorithms in heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: a historical comparison of a prospective database.
Lunati, Maurizio; Proclemer, Alessandro; Boriani, Giuseppe; Landolina, Maurizio; Locati, Emanuela; Rordorf, Roberto; Daleffe, Elisabetta; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Catanzariti, Domenico; Tomasi, Luca; Gulizia, Michele; Baccillieri, Maria Stella; Molon, Giulio; Gasparini, Maurizio
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators improve survival of patients at risk for ventricular arrhythmias, but inappropriate shocks occur in up to 30% of patients and have been associated with worse quality of life and prognosis. In heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds), we evaluated whether a new generation of detection and discrimination algorithms reduces inappropriate shocks. We analysed 1983 Medtronic CRT-D patients (80% male, 67 ± 10 years), 1368 with standard devices (Control CRT-D) and 615 with new generation devices (New CRT-D). Expert electrophysiologists reviewed and classified the electrograms of all device-detected ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation episodes. Total follow-up was 3751 patients-years. Incidence of inappropriate shocks at 1 year was 2.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-3.5] in Control CRT-D and 0.9% (CI = 0.4-2.2) in New CRT-D (hazard ratio = 0.37, CI = 0.21-0.66, P < 0.001). In New CRT-D, inappropriate shocks were reduced by 77% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.23, CI = 0.16-0.35, P < 0.001] and inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacing by 81% (IRR = 0.19, CI = 0.11-0.335, P < 0.001). Annual rate per 100 patient-years for appropriate VF detections was 3.0 (CI = 2.1-4.2) in New CRT-D and 3.2 (CI = 2.1-5.0) in Control CRT-D (P = 0.68), for syncope was 0.4 (CI = 0.2-0.9) in New CRT-D and 0.7 (CI = 0.5-1.0) in Control CRT-D (P = 0.266), and for death was 1.0 (CI = 0.6-1.6) in New CRT-D and 3.5 (CI = 3.0-4.1) in Control CRT-D (P < 0.001). Detection and discrimination algorithms used in new generation CRT-D significantly reduced inappropriate shocks when compared with standard CRT-D. This result, with no compromise on VF sensitivity or risk of syncope, has important implications for patients' quality of life and prognosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tse, Gary; Liu, Tong; Li, Ka Hou Christien; Laxton, Victoria; Wong, Andy On-Tik; Chan, Yin Wah Fiona; Keung, Wendy; Chan, Camie W.Y.; Li, Ronald A.
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) encompasses a group of disorders whereby the heart is unable to perform its pacemaker function, due to genetic and acquired causes. Tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome (TBS) is a complication of SSS characterized by alternating tachycardia and bradycardia. Techniques such as genetic screening and molecular diagnostics together with the use of pre-clinical models have elucidated the electrophysiological mechanisms of this condition. Dysfunction of ion channels responsible for initiation or conduction of cardiac action potentials may underlie both bradycardia and tachycardia; bradycardia can also increase the risk of tachycardia, and vice versa. The mainstay treatment option for SSS is pacemaker implantation, an effective approach, but has disadvantages such as infection, limited battery life, dislodgement of leads and catheters to be permanently implanted in situ. Alternatives to electronic pacemakers are gene-based bio-artificial sinoatrial node and cell-based bio-artificial pacemakers, which are promising techniques whose long-term safety and efficacy need to be established. The aim of this article is to review the different ion channels involved in TBS, examine the three-way relationship between ion channel dysfunction, tachycardia and bradycardia in TBS and to consider its current and future therapies. PMID:28204831
Arroja, José David; Zimmermann, Marc
We report the case of a young man who accidentally received a prolonged electric discharge from electrical wires and released the electric source with the help of an inappropriate shock from his implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), after misinterpretation of the electrical signal by the device as a ventricular tachycardia. This case illustrates the "electrical noise" phenomenon, and underscores the need for precautions for patients with an ICD and their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Vaiphei, Kim; Vaidya, Pankaj C; Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Barwad, Parag; Gupta, Anju
A 10-year-old girl presented with sudden onset recurrent ventricular tachycardia and symmetrical distal peripheral gangrene. She also had pulmonary thromboembolism and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis. Investigations revealed anemia, hemolysis, hypocomplementemia, and elevated IgM anti-beta2 glycoprotein antibody levels. Electrocardiogram and echocardiogram suggested features of a rare cardiac anomaly, which was confirmed at autopsy.
Tse, Gary; Liu, Tong; Li, Ka Hou Christien; Laxton, Victoria; Wong, Andy On-Tik; Chan, Yin Wah Fiona; Keung, Wendy; Chan, Camie W Y; Li, Ronald A
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) encompasses a group of disorders whereby the heart is unable to perform its pacemaker function, due to genetic and acquired causes. Tachycardia‑bradycardia syndrome (TBS) is a complication of SSS characterized by alternating tachycardia and bradycardia. Techniques such as genetic screening and molecular diagnostics together with the use of pre-clinical models have elucidated the electrophysiological mechanisms of this condition. Dysfunction of ion channels responsible for initiation or conduction of cardiac action potentials may underlie both bradycardia and tachycardia; bradycardia can also increase the risk of tachycardia, and vice versa. The mainstay treatment option for SSS is pacemaker implantation, an effective approach, but has disadvantages such as infection, limited battery life, dislodgement of leads and catheters to be permanently implanted in situ. Alternatives to electronic pacemakers are gene‑based bio‑artificial sinoatrial node and cell‑based bio‑artificial pacemakers, which are promising techniques whose long-term safety and efficacy need to be established. The aim of this article is to review the different ion channels involved in TBS, examine the three‑way relationship between ion channel dysfunction, tachycardia and bradycardia in TBS and to consider its current and future therapies.
Brock, Malcolm; Chung, Tae Hwan; Gaddam, Sathvika Reddy; Kathait, Anjaneya Singh; Ober, Cecily; Georgiades, Christos
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is characterized by orthostatic intolerance. Orthostasis (or other mild physical stress) triggers a cascade of inappropriate tachycardia, lightheadedness, palpitations, and often fainting. The underlying defect is sympathetic dysregulation of the heart, which receives its sympathetic tone from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia. Primary hyperhidrosis is also thought to be the result of sympathetic dysregulation. We present the case of a patient treated with CT-guided, percutaneous T2 EtOH sympatholysis for craniofacial hyperhidrosis. The patient also suffered from postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome for many years and was unresponsive to treatment. Immediately after sympatholysis, the patient experienced resolution of both craniofacial hyperhidrosis and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.
Brock, Malcolm, E-mail: email@example.com; Chung, Tae Hwan, E-mail: Tchang7@jhmi.edu; Gaddam, Sathvika Reddy, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is characterized by orthostatic intolerance. Orthostasis (or other mild physical stress) triggers a cascade of inappropriate tachycardia, lightheadedness, palpitations, and often fainting. The underlying defect is sympathetic dysregulation of the heart, which receives its sympathetic tone from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia. Primary hyperhidrosis is also thought to be the result of sympathetic dysregulation. We present the case of a patient treated with CT-guided, percutaneous T2 EtOH sympatholysis for craniofacial hyperhidrosis. The patient also suffered from postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome for many years and was unresponsive to treatment. Immediately after sympatholysis, the patient experiencedmore » resolution of both craniofacial hyperhidrosis and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.« less
Parasramka, Saurabh; Dufresne, Alix
Conflicting studies have been published concerning the association between chocolate and cardiovascular diseases. Fewer articles have described the potential arrhythmogenic risk related to chocolate intake. We present a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a woman after consumption of large quantity of chocolate. A 53-year-old woman with no significant medical history presented to us with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath after consuming large amounts of chocolate. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia at 165 beats per minute, which was restored to sinus rhythm after adenosine bolus injection. Electrophysiology studies showed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which are methylxanthines and are competitive antagonists of adenosine and can have arrhythmogenic potential. Our case very well describes an episode of tachycardia precipitated by large amount of chocolate consumption in a patient with underlying substrate. There are occasional case reports describing association between chocolate, caffeine, and arrhythmias. A large Danish study, however, did not find any association between amount of daily caffeine consumption and risk of arrhythmia.
Emmel, M; Sreeram, N; Brockmeier, K
Idiopathic junctional ectopic tachycardia is a rare arrhythmia in children. Several studies have demonstrated that drug therapy is often ineffective and sometimes the only achieved effect is rate control. Early presentation and frequent recurrence are associated with adverse outcome. Three consecutive children, aged 9, 7 and 12 years respectively, underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation for junctional ectopic tachycardia, after having failed antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The entire His bundle was plotted out and marked, using the Localisa navigation system. The arrhythmia was readily and repeatedly inducible using intravenous isoprenaline infusion and the site of earliest retrograde conduction during tachycardia could be assessed. Ablations were performed in sinus rhythm, empirically targeting the site of earliest retrograde conduction during tachycardia. This approach was successful in abolishing tachyarrhythmia in the first two patients, in whom the successful ablation site was located superoparaseptally. In the third patient, junctional ectopic tachycardia was inducible, despite abolishing retrograde atrial activation, in a septal location on the tricuspid valve annulus. Further ablations in the superoparaseptal region, closer to the His bundle, were successful in rendering tachyarrhythmia noninducible. Over a median follow-up of 10 months, none of the patients has had recurrence of arrhythmia, despite discontinuing all antiarrhythmic medications. Radio frequency catheter ablation of junctional ectopic tachycardia is feasible with preservation of atrioventricular conduction.
de Paola, A A; Balbão, C E; Castiglioni, M L; Barbieri, A; Mendonça, A; Netto, O S; Guiguer Júnior, N; Vattimo, A C; Souza, I A; Portugal, O P
To localize the site of the origin of sustained ventricular tachycardia in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy patients refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy by radionuclide angiography techniques. Five patients underwent radionuclide angiography by intravenous administration of 25mCi 99mTc. The images were obtained in sinus rhythm and during sustained ventricular tachycardia induced in the electrophysiologic laboratory for endocardial mapping. Amplitude and phase images were obtained resulting in a contraction wave synchronic to ventricular dispolarization. All patients had haemodynamic stability during the arrhythmia. One patient had incessant ventricular tachycardia. Mean ejection fraction was 0.38. In 4 patients the site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia was posterior and in one it was localized in the interventricular septum. There was identity in the site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia obtained by endocardial mapping or radionuclide angiography in all patients. The therapy was chemical ablation in 3 patients, surgical aneurysmectomy in one and pharmacologic therapy in the last patient. The site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia can be estimated by analyzing the contraction wave obtained by radionuclide angiography techniques in patients with hemodynamic stable sustained ventricular tachycardia.
Biton, Yitschak; Huang, David T; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rosero, Spencer; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Strasberg, Boris; Zareba, Wojciech; Barsheshet, Alon
There is limited data regarding the relationship between age and inappropriate therapy among patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and resynchronization therapy. We aimed to investigate this relationship and the effect of ICD programming on inappropriate therapy by age. In the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT) 1500 patients were randomized to 3 ICD programming arms: (A) conventional with ventricular tachycardia (VT) therapy ≥170; (B) high-rate cutoff with VT therapy ≥200, and (C) prolonged 60-second delay for VT therapy ≥170. We investigated the relationship between age, the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy (including antitachycardia pacing [ATP] or shock), and ICD programming. Cumulative incidence function Kaplan-Meier graphs showed an inverse relationship between increasing quartiles of age (Q1: ≤55, Q2: 56-64, Q3: 65-71, and Q4: ≥72 years) and the risk for inappropriate therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that each increasing decade of life was associated with 34% (P < .001), 27% (P < .001), and 26% (P < .001) reduction in the risk of inappropriate shock, inappropriate ATP, and any inappropriate therapy, respectively. Treatment arms B and C as compared with arm A were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of inappropriate therapies across all age quartiles (P < .001 for all). Among patients with a primary prevention indication for an ICD, there is an inverse relationship between age and inappropriate ICD therapy. Innovative ICD programming of high-rate cutoff or prolonged delay for VT therapy is associated with significant reductions in inappropriate therapy among all age groups. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blood Pressure; Depression; Panic Attack; Fibromyalgia; POTS; Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia; Coronary Heart Disease; Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD); Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA); Atrial Fibrillation; Diabetes Mellitus; Cancer; Systolic Heart Failure; Diastolic Heart Failure; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Syncope; Vasovagal Syncope
Brady, W J; DeBehnke, D J; Wickman, L L; Lindbeck, G
To compare the use of adenosine and the use of verapamil as out-of-hospital therapy for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). A period of prospective adenosine use (March 1993 to February 1994) was compared with a historical control period of verapamil use (March 1990 to February 1991) for SVT. Data were obtained for SVT patients treated in a metropolitan, fire-department-based paramedic system serving a population of approximately 1 million persons. Standard drug protocols were used and patient outcomes (i.e., conversion rates, complications, and recurrences) were monitored. During the adenosine treatment period, 105 patients had SVT; 87 (83%) received adenosine, of whom 60 (69%) converted to a sinus rhythm (SR). Vagal maneuvers (VM) resulted in restoration of SR in 8 patients (7.6%). Some patients received adenosine for non-SVT rhythms: 7 sinus tachycardia, 18 atrial fibrilation, 7 wide-complex tachycardia (WCT), and 2 ventricular tachycardia; no non-SVT rhythm converted to SR and none of these patients experienced an adverse effect. Twenty-five patients were hemodynamically unstable (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg), with 20 receiving drug and 13 converting to SR; 8 patients required electrical cardioversion. Four patients experienced adverse effects related to adenosine (chest pain dyspnea, prolonged bradycardia, and ventricular tachycardia). In the verapamil period, 106 patients had SVT: 52 (49%) received verapamil (p < 0.001, compared with the adenosine period), of whom 43 (88%) converted to SR (p = 0.11). Two patients received verapamil for WCT; neither converted to SR and both experienced cardiovascular collapse. VM resulted in restoration of SR in 12 patients (11.0%) (p = 0.52). Sixteen patients were hemodynamically unstable, with 5 receiving drug (p = 0.005) and 5 converting to SR; 9 patients required electrical cardioversion (p = 0.48). Four patients experienced adverse effects related to verapamil (hypotension ventricular tachycardia, ventricular
Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A
To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.
Zeng, Shao-ying; Shi, Ji-jun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-wei; Li, Yu-fen
To simplify the methods of transcatheter mapping and ablation in the pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia. While in sinus rhythm, the fascicular potential can be mapped at the posterior septal region (1 - 2 cm below inferior margin of orifice of coronary sinus vein), which display a biphasic wave before ventricular wave, and exist equipotential lines between them. When the fascicular potential occurs 20 ms later than the bundle of His' potential, radiofrequency was applied. Before applying radiofrequency, catheter position must be observed using double angle viewing (LAO 45°RAO 30°), and it should be made sure that the catheter is not at His' bundle. If the electrocardiogram displays left posterior fascicular block, the correct region is identified and ablation can continue for 60 s. Electrocardiogram monitoring should continue for 24 - 48 hours after operation, and notice abnormal repolarization after termination of ventricular tachycardia. Aspirin [2 - 3 mg/(kg·d)] was used for 3 months, and antiarrhythmic drug was discontinued. Surface electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and ultrasound cardiography were rechecked 1 d after operation. Follow-up was made at 1 month and 3 months post-discharge. Recheck was made half-yearly or follow-up was done by phone from then on. Fifteen pediatric patients were ablated successfully, and their electrocardiograms all displayed left posterior fascicular block after ablation. None of the patients had recurrences during the 3 to 12 months follow-up period. In one case, the electrocardiogram did not change after applying radiofrequency ablation and the ventricular tachycardia remained; however, on second attempt after remapping, the electrocardiogram did change. The radiofrequency lasted for 90 seconds and ablation was successful. This case had no recurrences at 6 months follow-up. Transcatheter ablation of the fascicular potential in pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia can simplify
Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.
Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114
Khan, Ejaz; Voudouris, Apostolos; Shorofsky, Stephen R; Peters, Robert W
To describe the clinical course of a patient with multiple ICD shocks in the setting of advanced renal failure and hyperkalemia. The patient was brought to the Electrophysiology Laboratory where the ICD was interrogated. The patient was found to be hyperkalemic (serum potassium 7.6 mg/dl). Analysis of stored intracardiac electrograms from the ICD revealed "triple counting" (twice during his QRS complex and once during the T wave) and multiple inappropriate shocks. Correction of his electrolyte abnormality normalized his electrogram and no further ICD activations were observed. Electrolyte abnormalities can distort the intracardiac electrogram in patients with ICD's and these changes can lead to multiple inappropriate shocks.
Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Ecevit, Ayşe; Tuğcu, Ali Ulaş; Erdoğan, Lkay; Kınık, Sibel Tulgar; Tarcan, Aylin
Neonatal thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition caused by the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mothers with Graves' disease. We report a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis with concurrent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). The female infant, who was born by section due to breech delivery and meconium in the amniotic fluid at 36 weeks of gestation, presented with tachycardia on day 7. Her heart rate was between 260 and 300 beats/min, and an electrocardiogram revealed ongoing SVT. Sotalol was effective after two cardioversions in maintaining sinus rhythm. Thyroid function studies revealed hyperthyroidism in the infant, and her mother was found to have Graves' disease. Since symptoms and signs can vary, especially in preterm infants with neonatal hyperthyroidism, we want to emphasize the importance of prenatal care and follow-ups of Graves' disease associated pregnancies and management of newborns after birth.
Sachanandani, N S; Kale, S S; Skolnick, G B; Barbour, J R; Myckatyn, T M
The internal mammary vessels are frequently chosen as recipient vessels for breast free flap reconstruction. We have noticed that when using the internal mammary recipients that these patients have a propensity for tachycardia that was not previously observed. Our aim was to investigate the factors related to perioperative tachycardia in the microsurgical breast reconstruction population and to address whether use of the internal mammary system is a causative factor in tachycardia. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients who underwent abdominal-based microvascular breast reconstruction at the Washington University School of Medicine between 2002 and 2012 to identify the presence of tachycardia. After application of exclusion criteria, 76 microvascular abdominal-based free flap reconstructions were identified. The internal mammary (IM) TRAM group (n = 24) and the thoracodorsal (TD) TRAM group (n = 52) were compared. A binomial logistic regression was performed with the presence of tachycardia as the dependent variable. There was a higher incidence of tachycardia in the IM TRAM group when compared to the TD TRAM group (p = 0.004). The variables predictive of tachycardia in our logistic regression model were IMA recipient (p = 0.04), need for transfusion (p = 0.03), and presence of fever (p = 0.01). Our study reaffirms that there are several factors that are predictive of tachycardia in the setting of microvascular breast reconstruction. The IMA syndrome should be a recognized cause of tachycardia as using these recipient vessels are shown to be predictive of postoperative tachycardia as shown in our study. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luther, Vishal; Linton, Nick W F; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Koa-Wing, Michael; Lim, Phang Boon; Qureshi, Norman; Ng, Fu Siong; Hayat, Sajad; Whinnett, Zachary; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa
Post-infarct ventricular tachycardia is associated with channels of surviving myocardium within scar characterized by fractionated and low-amplitude signals usually occurring late during sinus rhythm. Conventional automated algorithms for 3-dimensional electro-anatomic mapping cannot differentiate the delayed local signal of conduction within the scar from the initial far-field signal generated by surrounding healthy tissue. Ripple mapping displays every deflection of an electrogram, thereby providing fully informative activation sequences. We prospectively used CARTO-based ripple maps to identify conducting channels as a target for ablation. High-density bipolar left ventricular endocardial electrograms were collected using CARTO3v4 in sinus rhythm or ventricular pacing and reviewed for ripple mapping conducting channel identification. Fifteen consecutive patients (median age 68 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 30%) were studied (6 month preprocedural implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies: median 19 ATP events [Q1-Q3=4-93] and 1 shock [Q1-Q3=0-3]). Scar (<1.5 mV) occupied a median 29% of the total surface area (median 540 points collected within scar). A median of 2 ripple mapping conducting channels were seen within each scar (length 60 mm; initial component 0.44 mV; delayed component 0.20 mV; conduction 55 cm/s). Ablation was performed along all identified ripple mapping conducting channels (median 18 lesions) and any presumed interconnected late-activating sites (median 6 lesions; Q1-Q3=2-12). The diastolic isthmus in ventricular tachycardia was mapped in 3 patients and colocated within the ripple mapping conducting channels identified. Ventricular tachycardia was noninducible in 85% of patients post ablation, and 71% remain free of ventricular tachycardia recurrence at 6-month median follow-up. Ripple mapping can be used to identify conduction channels within scar to guide functional substrate ablation. © 2016 American Heart Association
Survival after shock therapy in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator recipients according to rhythm shocked. The ALTITUDE survival by rhythm study.
Powell, Brian D; Saxon, Leslie A; Boehmer, John P; Day, John D; Gilliam, F Roosevelt; Heidenreich, Paul A; Jones, Paul W; Rousseau, Matthew J; Hayes, David L
This study sought to determine if the risk of mortality associated with inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks is due to the underlying arrhythmia or the shock itself. Shocks delivered from ICDs are associated with an increased risk of mortality. It is unknown if all patients who experience inappropriate ICD shocks have an increased risk of death. We evaluated survival outcomes in patients with an ICD and a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator enrolled in the LATITUDE remote monitoring system (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) through January 1, 2010. First shock episode rhythms from 3,809 patients who acutely survived the initial shock were adjudicated by 7 electrophysiologists. Patients with a shock were matched to patients without a shock (n = 3,630) by age at implant, implant year, sex, and device type. The mean age of the study group was 64 ± 13 years, and 78% were male. Compared with no shock, there was an increased rate of mortality in those who received their first shock for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65, p < 0.0001), ventricular fibrillation/polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (HR: 2.10, p < 0.0001), and atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR: 1.61, p = 0.003). In contrast, mortality after first shocks due to sinus tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia (HR: 0.97, p = 0.86) and noise/artifact/oversensing (HR: 0.91, p = 0.76) was comparable to that in patients without a shock. Compared with no shock, those who received their first shock for ventricular rhythms and atrial fibrillation had an increased risk of death. There was no significant difference in survival after inappropriate shocks for sinus tachycardia or noise/artifact/oversensing. In this study, the adverse prognosis after first shock appears to be more related to the underlying arrhythmia than to an adverse effect from the shock itself. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by
Le Guludec, D.; Bourguignon, M.; Sebag, C.
Accuracy of Fourier phase mapping of radionuclide gated biventriculograms in detecting the origin of abnormal ventricular activation was studied during ventricular tachycardia or preexcitation. Group I included six patients suffering from clinical recurrent VT; 3 gated blood pool studies were acquired for each patient: during sinus rhythm, right ventricular pacing, and induced sustained VT-Group II included seven patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and recurrent paroxysmal tachycardia; 3 gated blood pool studies were acquired for each patient: during sinus rhythm, right atrial pacing and orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia. Each acquisition lasted 5 min, in 30 degrees-40 degrees left anterior oblique projection. In Groupmore » I, the Fourier phase mapping was consistent with QRS morphology and axis during VT (5/6), except in one patient with LV aneurysm and LBBB electrical pattern during VT. Origin of VT on phase mapping was located in the right ventricle (n = 2) or in left ventricle (n = 4), at the border of wall motion abnormalities each time they existed (5/6). In Group II, the phase advance correlated with the location of the accessory pathway determined by ECG and endocardial mapping (n = 6) and per-operative epicardial mapping (n = 1). Discrimination between anterior and posterior localization of paraseptal pathways and location of intermittent preexcitation was not possible. We conclude that Fourier phase mapping is an accurate method for locating the origin of VT and determining its etiology. It can help locate the site of ventricular preexcitation in patients with only one accessory pathway; its accuracy in locating multiple accessory pathways remains unknown.« less
Page, Stephen P; Watts, Troy; Yeo, Wee Tiong; Mehul, Dhinoja
This report describes a patient presenting with a narrow complex tachycardia in the context of prior myocardial infarction and impaired ventricular function. Electrophysiological studies confirmed ventricular tachycardia and activation and entrainment mapping demonstrated a critical isthmus within an area of scar involving the His-Purkinje system accounting for the narrow QRS morphology. This very rare case shares some similarities with upper septal ventricular tachycardia seen in patients with structurally normal hearts, but to our knowledge has not been seen previously in patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:25057222
Marchlinski, F; Callans, D; Gottlieb, C; Rodriguez, E; Coyne, R; Kleinman, D
Uniform success for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias has been difficult to achieve using standard catheter mapping and ablation techniques. In addition, our understanding of the complex relationship between atrial anatomy, electrophysiology, and surface ECG P wave morphology remains primitive. The magnetic electroanatomical mapping and display system (CARTO) offers an on-line display of electrical activation and/or signal amplitude related to the anatomical location of the recorded sites in the mapped chamber. A window of electrical interest is established based on signals timed from an electrical reference that usually represents a fixed electrogram recording from the coronary sinus or the atrial appendage. This window of electrical interest is established to include atrial activation prior to the onset of the P wave activity associated with the site of origin of a focal atrial tachycardia. Anatomical and electrical landmarks are defined with limited fluoroscopic imaging support and more detailed global chamber and more focal atrial mapping can be performed with minimal fluoroscopic guidance. A three-dimensional color map representing atrial activation or voltage amplitude at the magnetically defined anatomical sites is displayed with on-line data acquisition. This display can be manipulated to facilitate viewing from any angle. Altering the zoom control, triangle fill threshold, clipping plane, or color range can all enhance the display of a more focal area of interest. We documented the feasibility of using this single mapping catheter technique for localizing and ablating focal atrial tachycardias. In a consecutive series of 8 patients with 9 focal atrial tachycardias, the use of the single catheter CARTO mapping system was associated with ablation success in all but one patient who had a left atrial tachycardia localized to the medial aspect of the orifice of the left atrial appendage. Only low power energy delivery was used in this patient because of the
Yılmaz, Fevzi; Beydilli, Inan; Kavalcı, Cemil; Yılmaz, Serkan
Summary Background: Pregnancy can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias not previously present in seemingly well individuals. Atrial and ventricular premature beats are frequently present during pregnancy and are usually benign. Supraventricular tachycardia and malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias occur less frequently. Maternal and fetal arrhythmias occurring during pregnancy may jeopardize the life of the mother and the fetus. Case Report: A 32-year-old pregnant women at 26 weeks gestation presented to the emergency department with palpitation. She had mild chest discomfort after a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) episode but did not have syncope. After monitoring and access of an IV line, vagal manoeuvres were applied but the rhythm was resistant. Then she was treated with 5 mg metoprolol IV, but the SVT persisted. Then after IV infusion of adenosine triphosphate 6 to 12 mg, the rhythm was resistant. Synchronized cardioversion with 100 joules was performed. Patients’ rhythm was normalized to a sinus rhythm. She was discharged from hospital without any adverse effects following 24-hour monitoring. Conclusions: All pregnant patients with SVT require careful maternal and fetal monitoring during treatment, and close collaboration between the managing obstetrician and the cardiologist is essential. PMID:23569481
Calvo, David; Pérez, Diego; Rubín, José; García, Daniel; Ávila, Pablo; Javier García-Fernández, F; Pachón, Marta; Bravo, Loreto; Hernández, Jesús; Miracle, Ángel L; Valverde, Irene; Gozalez-Vasserot, Mar; Árias, Miguel Ángel; Jimenez-Candíl, Javier; Morís, César
Tachycardia mediated by septal accessory pathways (AP) and atypical atrioventricular nodal re-entry (AVNRT) require careful electrophysiologic evaluation for differential diagnosis. We aim to describe the differential behaviour of local ventriculo-atrial (VA) intervals which predicts the tachycardia mechanism. The local VA intervals at the para-Hisian septum were measured under three different situations: (i) tachycardia; (ii) sustained entrainment from the right ventricular apex (RVA); and (iii) continuous pacing from the RVA during sinus rhythm. Differences were computed as follows: Δ-VAentr = VA during entrainment - VA during tachycardia; and Δ-VApac = VA while pacing during sinus rhythm - VA during tachycardia. In contrast to AVNRT, we hypothesized that an invariable retrograde conduction through the septal AP will keep the result of the subtractions close to 0 ms in cases of ortodromic atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT). We analysed 55 atypical AVNRT (45% posterior type) and 82 AVRT (10 anteroseptal, 18 para-Hisian, 12 mid-septal, and 42 posteroseptal). Δ-VAentr was longer for AVNRT (98.5 ± 40.3 ms) compared with septal AP (-5.7 ± 19.3 ms; P < 0.001). A value of 50 ms showed 98.7% sensitivity and 92% specificity (AUC 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-1). According to physiological criteria, a negative Δ-VAentr remains unobserved in the case of AVNRT (positive predictive value 100% for septal AP). Δ-VApac was also longer for AVNRT (66.5 ± 14.6 ms) compared with septal AP (-9.7 ± 3.3 ms; P < 0.001). A value of 50 ms showed 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity (AUC 0.86; 95% CI 0.76-0.93). Delta of the local VA intervals enables distinction between atypical AVNRT and AVRT mediated by septal AP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Effects of chronic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on human atrial mechanical function after reversion of atrial arrhythmias to sinus rhythm: reversal of tachycardia-mediated atrial cardiomyopathy with fish oils.
Kumar, Saurabh; Sutherland, Fiona; Wheeler, Miriam; Heck, Patrick M; Lee, Geoffrey; Teh, Andrew W; Garg, Manohar L; Morgan, John G; Sparks, Paul B
Atrial mechanical stunning is a form of tachycardia-mediated atrial cardiomyopathy that manifests after reversion of persistent atrial arrhythmias to sinus rhythm. This study sought to examine whether chronic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with fish oils can reverse atrial mechanical stunning. Patients undergoing reversion of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) to sinus rhythm were randomized to a control group (n = 26) or an omega-3 group (n = 23). The latter were prescribed 6 g/day of fish oil for ≥1 month prior to the procedure. Parameters of left atrial appendage function were compared immediately before and immediately after reversion. After fish oil intake for a mean of 70 days, the following were noted favoring the omega-3 group among both AF and AFL patients: (1) 2-fold higher serum omega-3 levels (P < .001), (2) less mean decrease in emptying velocity (e.g., AF: 8% vs. 32%, P = .02), (3) less mean decrease in appendage emptying fraction (e.g., AFL: 7% vs. 60%, P = .002), (4) lower incidence of new or increased spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (e.g., AF: 11% vs. 62.5%, P = .003), and (5) lower incidence of atrial mechanical stunning (e.g., AFL: 20% vs. 100%, P = .001). Omega-3 intake conferred protection against stunning in a multivariable analysis (odds ratio 0.18, P = .02). Chronic fish oil ingestion in humans attenuates atrial mechanical stunning after reversion of atrial arrhythmias to sinus rhythm. This suggests that fish oils may target or even reverse underlying cellular and/or structural remodeling that occurs in response to persistent atrial arrhythmias. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vagal maneuvers cause increase in vagal tone, which has been shown to slow many types supraventricular tachycardia, such as atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm is usually not associated with vagal manuvers. Thus, AF is classically treated with medication and electrical cardioversion. Here, we present a 29-year-old male with no cardiovascular history and a low atherosclerotic risk profile who developed AF which converted into sinus rhythm immediately after a digital rectal exam. The patient remained asymptomatic after a 3-month follow-up. This implies that the digital rectal exam can be considered as an additional attempt to convert AF to sinus rhythm in AF patients. PMID:21769254
Vigano, A N; Minzioni, G; Graffigna, A; Paganini, F; Salerno, J A
The article deals with the modern approaches to the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia . The authors analyse the results of operations in ectopic atrial tachycardias, the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, modal re-entry tachycardias, and atrial fibrillation . The last-named is of most interest because the authors possess experience in a new operation for isolation of the internodal tracts. In all conditions the authors obtained convincing evidence on the efficacy of modern surgical treatment in supraventricular tachycardias.
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias
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Dijkman, B; Wellens, H J
Dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) technology extended ICD therapy to more than termination of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It created the basis for dual chamber arrhythmia management in which dependable detection is important for treatment and prevention of both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Dual chamber detection algorithms were investigated in two Medtronic dual chamber ICDs: the 7250 Jewel AF (33 patients) and the 7271 Gem DR (31 patients). Both ICDs use the same PR Logic algorithm to interpret tachycardia as ventricular tachycardia (VT), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), or dual (VT+ SVT). The accuracy of dual chamber detection was studied in 310 of 1,367 spontaneously occurring tachycardias in which rate criterion only was not sufficient for arrhythmia diagnosis. In 78 episodes there was a double tachycardia, in 223 episodes SVT was detected in the VT or ventricular fibrillation zone, and in 9 episodes arrhythmia was detected outside the boundaries of the PR Logic functioning. In 100% of double tachycardias the VT was correctly diagnosed and received priority treatment. SVT was seen in 59 (19%) episodes diagnosed as VT. The causes of inappropriate detection were (1) algorithm failure (inability to fulfill the PR
Rosman, Jonathan; Tawil, Joseph; Hanon, Sam; Schweitzer, Paul
We report a case of an elderly man who presented to the emergency room complaining of palpitations. Electrocardiogram revealed wide QRS tachycardia with a narrow beat within the tachycardia. Most commonly, a narrow complex beat during a wide complex tachycardia suggests a capture or fusion beat in the setting of ventricular tachycardia. However, there are situations where supraventricular tachycardia can also manifest this way. In our patient a pacemaker interrogation clarified the diagnosis.
Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that occurs at all ages. Its management is determined by presenting symptoms and previous history of the patient. Patients present with a continuum of symptoms ranging from palpitations to syncope. The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia increases with age. To discuss the etiology, precipitating factors, and acute management of supraventricular tachycardia; and to discuss nodal reentry circuits and representative electrocardiographic findings. We present the case of an 84-year-old man with gallstone pancreatitis, choledolcholithiasis, and cholecystitis complicated by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. We review this dysrhythmia, emphasizing its significance in elderly patients. Supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that can result in syncope or myocardial infarction. We present a case of an elderly man with new-onset atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentry tachycardia, possibly precipitated by overdrive of his autonomic nervous system due to pain and infection. As the percentage of the elderly in our population is growing rapidly and the incidence of AV nodal reentry tachycardia increases with age, emergency physicians should be familiar with this dysrhythmia-its etiology, precipitating factors, presentations, and treatment. It will present more frequently in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Atrial Flutter; Tachycardia, Supraventricular; Tachycardia, Atrial Ectopic; Tachycardia, Reciprocating; Tachycardia Atrial; Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry; Tachycardia, Paroxysmal; Fetal Hydrops
Tao, Susumu; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Ciuffo, Luisa A; Yoneyama, Kihei; Lima, Joao A C; Frank, Terry F; Weiss, Robert G; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Wu, Katherine C
Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks, commonly caused by atrial fibrillation (AF), are associated with an increased mortality. Because impaired left atrial (LA) function predicts development of AF, we hypothesized that impaired LA function predicts inappropriate shocks beyond a history of AF. We prospectively analyzed the association between LA function and incident inappropriate shocks in primary prevention ICD candidates. In the Prospective Observational Study of ICD (PROSE-ICD), we assessed LA function using tissue-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) prior to ICD implantation. A total of 162 patients (113 males, age 56 ± 15 years) were included. During the mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 2.9 years, 26 patients (16%) experienced inappropriate shocks due to AF (n = 19; 73%), supraventricular tachycardia (n = 5; 19%), and abnormal sensing (n = 2; 8%). In univariable analyses, inappropriate shocks were associated with AF history prior to ICD implantation, age below 70 years, QRS duration less than 120 milliseconds, larger LA minimum volume, lower LA stroke volume, lower LA emptying fraction, impaired LA maximum and preatrial contraction strains (S max and S preA ), and impaired LA strain rate during left ventricular systole and atrial contraction (SR s and SR a ). In multivariable analysis, impaired S max (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.96, P = 0.044), S preA (HR: 0.94, P = 0.030), and SR a (HR: 0.25, P < 0.001) were independently associated with inappropriate shocks. The receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that SR a improved the predictive value beyond the patient demographics including AF history (P = 0.033). Impaired LA function assessed by tissue-tracking CMR is an independent predictor of inappropriate shocks in primary prevention ICD candidates beyond AF history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Orczykowski, Michał; Jaworska-Wilczyńska, Maria; Urbanek, Piotr; Bodalski, Robert; Derejko, Paweł; Gajek, Jacek; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek
We present a case of a 61 year-old woman with tachycardia originating close to the His bundle where radiofrequency (RF) ablation may bear potential risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. In this case report we discuss the possibility of a AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough. Patient was safely and effectively treated with RF catheter ablation.
Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Schuger, Claudio; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina; Olshansky, Brian; Greenberg, Henry; Cannom, David S; Estes, N A Mark; Ruwald, Martin H; Huang, David T; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Beck, Christopher A; Goldstein, Robert; Brown, Mary W; Kautzner, Josef; Shoda, Morio; Wilber, David; Zareba, Wojciech; Daubert, James P
The benefit of novel implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming in reducing inappropriate ICD therapy and mortality was demonstrated in Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT). However, the cause of mortality reduction remains incompletely evaluated. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality, with focus on ICD therapy and programming in the MADIT-RIT population. In MADIT-RIT, 1500 patients with a primary prophylactic indication for ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator were randomized to 1 of 3 different ICD programming arms: conventional programming (ventricular tachycardia zone ≥170 beats per minute), high-rate programming (ventricular tachycardia zone ≥200 beats per minute), and delayed programming (60-second delay before therapy ≥170 beats per minute). Multivariate Cox models were used to assess the influence of time-dependent appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing) and randomized programming arm on all-cause mortality. During an average follow-up of 1.4±0.6 years, 71 of 1500 (5%) patients died: cardiac in 40 patients (56.3%), noncardiac in 23 patients (32.4%), and unknown in 8 patients (11.3%). Appropriate shocks (hazard ratio, 6.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.13-12.75; P<0.001) and inappropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-5.31; P=0.01) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk. There was no evidence of increased mortality risk in patients who experienced appropriate antitachycardia pacing only (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-2.88; P=0.98). Randomization to conventional programming was identified as an independent predictor of death when compared with patients randomized to high-rate programming (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.71; P=0.03). In MADIT-RIT, appropriate shocks, inappropriate ICD therapy, and randomization to
Sato, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Hirofumi; Inoda, Ayako; Miura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Yoko; Suzuki, Kenji
We report a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) that occurred during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A 59-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for VATS lobectomy under general anesthesia. After inserting a thoracic epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with intravenous administration of propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of desfurane in an air/oxygen mixture and intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Recurrent PSVT occurred three times, and the last episode of PSVT continued for 50 minutes regardless of administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Synchronized electric shock via adhesive electrode pads on the patient's chest successfully converted PSVT back to normal sinus rhythm. The remaining course and postoperative period were uneventful. An electrophysiological study performed after hospital discharge detected concealed WPW syndrome, which had contributed to the development of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Concealed WPW syndrome is a rare, but critical complication that could possibly cause lethal atrial tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period. In the present case, cardioversion using adhesive electrode pads briefly terminated PSVT in a patient with concealed WPW syndrome.
Cleary, Daniel R; Siler, Dominic A; Whitney, Nathaniel; Selden, Nathan R
OBJECTIVE Surgical simulation has the potential to supplement and enhance traditional resident training. However, the high cost of equipment and limited number of available scenarios have inhibited wider integration of simulation in neurosurgical education. In this study the authors provide initial validation of a novel, low-cost simulation platform that recreates the stress of surgery using a combination of hands-on, model-based, and computer elements. Trainee skill was quantified using multiple time and performance measures. The simulation was initially validated using trainees at the start of their intern year. METHODS The simulation recreates intraoperative superior sagittal sinus injury complicated by air embolism. The simulator model consists of 2 components: a reusable base and a disposable craniotomy pack. The simulator software is flexible and modular to allow adjustments in difficulty or the creation of entirely new clinical scenarios. The reusable simulator base incorporates a powerful microcomputer and multiple sensors and actuators to provide continuous feedback to the software controller, which in turn adjusts both the screen output and physical elements of the model. The disposable craniotomy pack incorporates 3D-printed sections of model skull and brain, as well as artificial dura that incorporates a model sagittal sinus. RESULTS Twelve participants at the 2015 Western Region Society of Neurological Surgeons postgraduate year 1 resident course ("boot camp") provided informed consent and enrolled in a study testing the prototype device. Each trainee was required to successfully create a bilateral parasagittal craniotomy, repair a dural sinus tear, and recognize and correct an air embolus. Participant stress was measured using a heart rate wrist monitor. After participation, each resident completed a 13-question categorical survey. CONCLUSIONS All trainee participants experienced tachycardia during the simulation, although the point in the simulation
... called ablation ) may be done. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be used. It is a device ... V tach; Tachycardia - ventricular Patient Instructions Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Images Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator References Garan H. ...
Li, Yi-gang; Grönefeld, Gerian; Israel, Carsten; Lu, Shang-biao; Wang, Qun-shan; Hohnloser, Stefan H
Atrial tachycardia or flutter is common in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation. Radiofrequency catheter ablation to treat this arrhythmia has not been well defined in this setting. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of various symptomatic atrial arrhythmias and the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation in these patients. Electrophysiological study and catheter ablation were performed in patients with symptomatic tachyarrhythmia. One Halo catheter with 20 poles was positioned around the tricuspid annulus of the donor right atrium, or positioned around the surgical anastomosis when it is necessary. Three quadripolar electrode catheters were inserted via the right or left femoral vein and positioned in the recipient atrium, the bundle of His position, the coronary sinus. Programmed atrial stimulation and burst pacing were performed to prove electrical conduction between the recipient and the donor atria and to induce atrial arrhythmias. Out of 55 consecutive heart transplantation patients, 6 males [(58 +/- 12) years] developed symptomatic tachycardias at a mean of (5 +/- 4) years after heart transplantation. Electrical propagation through the suture line between the recipient and the donor atrium was demonstrated during atrial flutter or during recipient atrium and donor atrium pacing in 2 patients. By mapping around the suture line, the earliest fragmented electrogram of donor atrium was assessed. This electrical connection was successfully ablated in the anterior lateral atrium in both patients. There was no electrical propagation through the suture line in the other 4 patients. Two had typical atrial flutter in the donor atrium which was successfully ablated by completing a linear ablation between the tricuspid annulus and the inferior vena cava. Two patients had atrial tachycardia which was ablated in the anterior septal and lateral donor atrium. There were no procedure-related complications. Patients were free of
Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A
The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Caspersen, Leslie A; Walter, Lindsey M; Walsh, Sandra A; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F
This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining sinusitis (pronounced sign-you-side-tis). The purpose of this plain language summary is to provide patients with standard language explaining their condition in an easy-to-read format. This summary applies to those 18 years of age or older with sinusitis. The summary is featured as an FAQ (frequently asked question) format. The summary addresses how to manage and treat sinusitis symptoms. Adult sinusitis is often called a sinus infection. A healthcare provider may refer to a sinus infection as rhinosinusitis (pronounced rhi-no-sign-you-side-tis). This includes the nose as well as the sinuses in the name. A sinus infection is the swelling of the sinuses and nasal cavity.The summary is based on the published 2015 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of adult sinus infections. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing sinus infections by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Zhu, Ye; Gu, Xiang; Xu, Chao
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are capable of effectively terminating malignant ventricular arrhythmia and are the most effective way to prevent sudden cardiac death. However, some evidences demonstrated that both anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and ICD shock can also bring adverse prognosis. A 66-year-old Han Chinese man with prior ICD implantation was admitted to our hospital because of frequent ICD shocks. Although intravenous amiodarone and esmolol succinate were administered daily, the patient suffered 155 episodes of VT/VF during 8 weeks after implantation. After repeated discharge of the device, the pacing threshold of the patient increased gradually. Considering the inappropriate increase of the pacing threshold, we decided to reposition the right ventricular (RV) lead with good sensing and threshold parameters confirmed. Subsequent 22 months interrogation follow-up revealed a stable lead position and electrical specifications. Furthermore, antiarrhythmic drugs were maximally increased, while ATP burst was remarkably decreased and the inappropriate ICD shock never occurred until now. An inappropriate pacing threshold was increased secondary to repeated ICD electrical storm. A timely active lead position adjustment reduced the pacing threshold and eliminated the risk of premature battery depletion.
Teh, Andrew W; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M
Focal atrial tachycardia is an unusual form of supraventricular tachycardia arising from defined anatomic locations and sites within the atria. Although recent advances in mapping technology have facilitated successful ablation, the surface ECG remains an important aid in localizing the focus. This review discusses the use of P-wave morphology on surface ECG to localize the site of focal atrial tachycardia.
Drigalla, Dorian; Essler, Shannon E; Stone, C Keith
Lightning strike is a rare medical emergency. The primary cause of death in lightning strike victims is immediate cardiac arrest. The mortality rate from lightning exposure can be as high as 30%, with up to 70% of patients left with significant morbidity. An 86-year-old male was struck by lightning while driving his vehicle and crashed. On initial emergency medical services evaluation, he was asymptomatic with normal vital signs. During his transport, he lost consciousness several times and was found to be in atrial fibrillation with intermittent runs of ventricular tachycardia during the unconscious periods. In the emergency department, atrial fibrillation persisted and he experienced additional episodes of ventricular tachycardia. He was treated with i.v. amiodarone and admitted to cardiovascular intensive care unit, where he converted to a normal sinus rhythm on the amiodarone drip. He was discharged home without rhythm-control medications and did not have further episodes of dysrhythmias on follow-up visits. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Lightning strikes are one of the most common injuries suffered from natural phenomenon, and short-term mortality ordinarily depends on the cardiac effects. This case demonstrates that the cardiac effects can be multiple, delayed, and recurrent, which compels the emergency physician to be vigilant in the initial evaluation and ongoing observation of patients with lightning injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sághy, László; Tutuianu, Cristina; Szilágyi, Judith
One of the most important proarrhythmic complications after left atrial (LA) ablation is regular atrial tachycardia (AT) or flutter. Those tachycardias that occur after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation can cause even more severe symptoms than those from the original arrhythmia prior to the index ablation procedure since they are often incessant and associated with rapid ventricular response. Depending on the method and extent of LA ablation and on the electrophysiological properties of underlying LA substrate, the reported incidence of late ATs is variable. To establish the exact mechanism of these tachycardias can be difficult and controversial but correlates with the ablation technique and in the vast majority of cases the mechanism is reentry related to gaps in prior ablation lines. When tachycardias occur, conservative therapy usually is not effective, radiofrequency ablation procedure is mostly successful, but can be challenging, and requires a complex approach. PMID:25308808
Kolb, Christof; Sturmer, Marcio; Babuty, Dominique; Sick, Peter; Davy, Jean Marc; Molon, Giulio; Schwab, Jörg Otto; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Wickliffe, Andrew; Lennerz, Carsten; Semmler, Verena; Siot, Pierre-Henri; Reif , Sebastian
The programming of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) influences inappropriate shock rates. The aim of the study is to analyse rates of patients with appropriate and inappropriate shocks according to detection zones in the OPTION trial. All patients received dual chamber (DC) ICDs randomly assigned to be programmed either to single chamber (SC) or to DC settings including PARAD+ algorithm. In a post-hoc analysis, rates of patients with inappropriate and appropriate shocks were calculated for shocks triggered at heart rates ≥170 bpm (ventricular tachycardia zone) and at rates ≥200 bpm (ventricular fibrillation zone). In the SC group, higher rates of patients with total and inappropriate shocks were delivered at heart rates ≥170 bpm than at rates ≥200 bpm (total shocks: 21.1% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.002; inappropriate shocks: 7.6% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.016; appropriate shocks: 15.2% vs. 13.5%; p = n.s.). No such differences were observed in the DC group (total shocks: 14.3% vs. 12.6%; p = n.s.; inappropriate shocks: 3.9% vs. 3.6%; p = n.s.; appropriate shocks: 12.2% vs. 10.4%; p = n.s.). The higher frequency of patients with total shocks with SC settings than with DC settings that benefit from PARAD+ was driven by a higher percentage of patients with inappropriate shocks in the VT zone (170–200 bpm) in the SC population. PMID:26892534
Canepa-Anson, R; Williams, M; Marshall, J; Mitsuoka, T; Lightman, S; Sutton, R
A woman with tachycardia associated with polyuria was investigated. Electrophysiological analysis showed that the tachycardia was an atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia. Programmed stimulation was then used to provoke and sustain the tachycardia for 40 minutes. Polyuria, with an appreciable increase in free water clearance, was observed. This was associated with reduction in plasma and urinary arginine vasopressin concentrations. Appreciable natriuresis also developed. These results support the hypothesis that the polyuria with increased free water clearance and the natriuresis occurring during sustained tachycardia in man are due to inhibition of secretion of vasopressin and the release of natriuretic factor. PMID:6434116
Issa, Ziad F
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with ventriculoatrial (VA) block. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient with paroxysmal SVT and intermittent VA block. Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia with upper common pathway block and orthodromic nodoventricular or nodofascicular re-entrant tachycardia was considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic characteristics were most compatible with non-re-entrant junctional tachycardia. The arrhythmia was cured by ablation at the right atrial posterior septum.
Hanon, Sam; Shapiro, Michael; Schweitzer, Paul
The following article presents an unusual case of atrial tachycardia, initially misdiagnosed due to a lack of clear P waves. The diagnosis was eventually confirmed using the atrial electrogram from the patient's pacemaker.
Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui
Abstract Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient. In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved. Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471
Jani, Sonal; Schweitzer, Paul
In these short historical notes, we describe the early history of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia was probably first noted in 1918 by Wilson and Robinson. In a publication describing complete heart block and ventriculophasic arrhythmia, they noted a tachyarrhythmia characterized by multiple extrasystoles of different types at a rapid rate. Also, we briefly discuss the earliest recognized torsades de pointes by Dessertenes in 1966 and the first description of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, by Reid in 1977.
Spurrell, R A; Nathan, A W; Bexton, R S; Hellestrand, K J; Nappholz, T; Camm, A J
Thirteen patients suffering from reentrant supraventricular tachycardia have undergone implantation of a scanning extrastimulus pacemaker. This pacemaker is fully implanted and automatic, and it requires no external control device to activate or control it. The pacemaker is activated when tachycardia occurs. After four cycles an extrastimulus is induced with a preset coupling time from a sensed intracardiac potential, and every four cycles thereafter a further extrastimulus occurs, but on each occasion there is a decrement in coupling cycle by 6 ms until 90 ms of the cardiac cycle has been scanned by extrastimuli. When necessary, two extrastimuli can be introduced with a fixed but preset coupling time between them. Every four beats two extrastimuli are induced but the coupling time between the spontaneous cardiac potential and the first stimulus is decreased by 6 ms until 90 ms of the cardiac cycle has been scanned. The coupling time between the two stimuli is fixed throughout the scan. When termination of tachycardia occurs the successful timing variables are retained in the pacemaker memory so that at the onset of the next episode of tachycardia these settings are used first. Pacemaker pulse width, sensitivity, tachycardia trigger rate, coupling intervals for both stimuli and the use of single or double extrastimuli are all programmable transcutaneously. Three patients required single, and seven patients double ventricular premature stimuli; three patients required double atrial premature stimuli for termination of tachycardia. Despite frequent attacks of tachycardia before implantation, only two patients had a sustained attack of tachycardia after pacemaker implantation.
Janardhan, Ajit H.; Li, Wenwen; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Yeung, Michael; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.
Objectives To develop a low-energy electrotherapy that terminates ventricular tachycardia (VT) when anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) fails. Background High-energy ICD shocks are associated with device failure, significant morbidity and increased mortality. A low-energy alternative to ICD shocks is desirable. Methods Myocardial infarction (MI) was created in 25 dogs. Sustained, monomorphic VT was induced by programmed stimulation. Defibrillation electrodes were placed in the RV apex, and coronary sinus (CS) and LV epicardium (LVP). If ATP failed to terminate sustained VT, the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of standard versus experimental electrotherapies were measured. Results Sustained VT ranged from 276–438 bpm (mean 339 bpm). The RV-CS shock vector had lower impedance than RV-LVP (54.4±18.1 Ω versus 109.8±16.9, Ω p<0.001). A single shock required between 0.3±0.2 J to 5.9±2.5 J (mean 2.64±3.22 J; p=0.008) to terminate VT, and varied depending upon the phase of the VT cycle at which it was delivered. In contrast, multiple shocks delivered within 1 VT cycle length were not phase-dependent and achieved lower DFT compared to a single shock (0.13±0.09 J for 3 shocks, 0.08±0.04 J for 5 shocks, 0.09±0.07 J for 7 shocks; p<0.001). Finally, a multi-stage electrotherapy (MSE) achieved significantly lower DFT compared to a single biphasic shock (0.03±0.05 J versus 2.37±1.20 J, respectively, p<0.001). At a peak shock amplitude of 20 V, MSE achieved 91.3% of terminations versus 10.5% for a biphasic shock (p<0.001). Conclusions MSE achieved a major reduction in DFT compared to a single biphasic shock for ATP-refractory monomorphic VT, and represents a novel electrotherapy to reduce high-energy ICD shocks. PMID:23141483
Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.
BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.
Castrejón-Castrejón, Sergio; Ortega, Marta; Pérez-Silva, Armando; Doiny, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Filgueiras, David; López-Sendón, José L.; Merino, José L.
The efficacy of catheter-based ablation techniques to treat atrial fibrillation is limited not only by recurrences of this arrhythmia but also, and not less importantly, by new-onset organized atrial tachycardias. The incidence of such tachycardias depends on the type and duration of the baseline atrial fibrillation and specially on the ablation technique which was used during the index procedure. It has been repeatedly reported that the more extensive the left atrial surface ablated, the higher the incidence of organized atrial tachycardias. The exact origin of the pathologic substrate of these trachycardias is not fully understood and may result from the interaction between preexistent regions with abnormal electrical properties and the new ones resultant from radiofrequency delivery. From a clinical point of view these atrial tachycardias tend to remit after a variable time but in some cases are responsible for significant symptoms. A precise knowledge of the most frequent types of these arrhythmias, of their mechanisms and components is necessary for a thorough electrophysiologic characterization if a new ablation procedure is required. PMID:21941669
García-Castro, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonia; Guirao-Arrabal, Emilio; Carrillo-Alascio, Pedro Luis
Symptoms of hypopituitarism are usually chronic and nonspecific, but rarely the disease can have acute and life threatening manifestations. We report a 53 years old female with a pituitary adenoma that was admitted to our hospital because of syncope. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval. Frequent runs of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were noted on telemetry. The patient had a history of severe acute headaches in the previous days and laboratory tests revealed severe secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and a decrease in pituitary hormones. A magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed changes in the size and contrast enhancement of the adenoma. A diagnosis of hypopituitarism secondary to pituitary apoplexy was made and treatment with hydrocortisone and, subsequently, levothyroxine was started. Hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism should be considered as unusual causes for reversible cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias.
Pürerfellner, Helmut; Sanders, Prashanthan; Sarkar, Shantanu; Reisfeld, Erin; Reiland, Jerry; Koehler, Jodi; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Urban, Luboš; Dekker, Lukas R C
Intermittent change in p-wave discernibility during periods of ectopy and sinus arrhythmia is a cause of inappropriate atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in insertable cardiac monitors (ICM). To address this, we developed and validated an enhanced AF detection algorithm. Atrial fibrillation detection in Reveal LINQ ICM uses patterns of incoherence in RR intervals and absence of P-wave evidence over a 2-min period. The enhanced algorithm includes P-wave evidence during RR irregularity as evidence of sinus arrhythmia or ectopy to adaptively optimize sensitivity for AF detection. The algorithm was developed and validated using Holter data from the XPECT and LINQ Usability studies which collected surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and continuous ICM ECG over a 24-48 h period. The algorithm detections were compared with Holter annotations, performed by multiple reviewers, to compute episode and duration detection performance. The validation dataset comprised of 3187 h of valid Holter and LINQ recordings from 138 patients, with true AF in 37 patients yielding 108 true AF episodes ≥2-min and 449 h of AF. The enhanced algorithm reduced inappropriately detected episodes by 49% and duration by 66% with <1% loss in true episodes or duration. The algorithm correctly identified 98.9% of total AF duration and 99.8% of total sinus or non-AF rhythm duration. The algorithm detected 97.2% (99.7% per-patient average) of all AF episodes ≥2-min, and 84.9% (95.3% per-patient average) of detected episodes involved AF. An enhancement that adapts sensitivity for AF detection reduced inappropriately detected episodes and duration with minimal reduction in sensitivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology
Nilsson, Björn M; Lindström, Leif; Mohsen, Issam; Holmlöv, Karolina; Bodén, Robert
Tachycardia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Tachycardia is also a known clozapine adverse effect. However, whether clozapine-associated tachycardia is persistent is not known. Thirty clozapine-treated patients with clinical tachycardia were investigated with 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG). Baseline peripheral heart rate (HR) was 106.7±7.8. The ambulatory ECG 24-hour-HR was 98.7±9.7. Baseline HR and 24-hour-HR correlated strongly (r=0.74, p=0.000003). Daytime HR was 106.4±9.9 and nighttime HR 89.2±12.0. Low dose bisoprolol reduced HR significantly. The high 24-hour-HR indicates a persistent tachycardia. Tachycardia should not discourage from clozapine use but the findings indicate a need of guidelines for detection and treatment of clozapine-associated tachycardia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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... Achy feeling in your upper teeth Sinusitis or migraine? Migraines and headaches from sinusitis are easy to confuse ... types of headaches may overlap. Both sinusitis and migraine headache pain often gets worse when you bend ...
Graffigna, A; Vigano, M; Pagani, F; Salerno, G
Atrial tachycardia is an infrequent but potentially dangerous arrhythmia which often determines cardiac enlargement. Surgical ablation of the arrhythmia is effective and safe, provided a careful atrial mapping is performed and the surgical technique is tailored to the individual focus location. Eight patients underwent surgical ablation of ectopic atrial tachycardia between 1977 and 1990. Different techniques were adopted for each patient according to the anatomical location of the focus and possibly associated arrhythmias. Whenever possible, a closed heart procedure was chosen. In 1 patient a double focal origin was found and treated by separate procedures. In 1 patient with ostium secundum atrial septal defect and atrial flutter, surgical isolation of the right appendage and the ectopic focus was performed. In all patients ectopic atrial tachycardia was ablated with maintenance of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal function as well as internodal conduction. In follow-up up to December 1991, no recurrency was recorded.
Agius, A M; Jones, N S; Muscat, R
So-called 'sinus pain' is a common complaint in GP and ear, nose and throat clinics, and patients often receive treatment with antibiotics and decongestants. Recent evidence suggests that facial pain may not be related to the sinuses at all and that doctors may have to rethink their prescribing strategy.
Objective To report a rare case of unilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by contralateral sphenoid sinusitis. Case report A 33-year-old female visited our hospital for severe, right-sided, temporal headache, chemosis, periorbital edema, and proptosis. These signs were associated with congested erythematous nasal mucosa with purulent discharge from the right superior nasal meatus. Contrast enhanced CT showed dilated left superior ophthalmic vein, suggestive of thrombosis, contrast enhancement of the left cavernous sinuses, and dilation of cavernous sinus, indicating cavernous sinus inflammation. The right maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses showed mucosal thickening and retention of purulent material. She was diagnosed with cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by contralateral sphenoid sinusitis. All clinical symptoms and signs improved after endoscopic sphenoidotomy and appropriate medical treatment. Conclusions Sphenoiditis can cause contralateral cavernous sinus thrombosis. Early surgical sphenoidotomy and aggressive medical treatment are the cornerstones of successful management of this life-threatening complication. PMID:23497466
Aral, Murat; Keles, Erol; Kaygusuz, Irfan
To investigate aerob-anaerob microorganisms growth in maxillary and ethmoid sinuses by evaluating aspiration materials from patients with chronic sinusitis. The study was performed prospectively, and there were 31 patients (23 men, 8 women; mean age, 31.4+/-14.15, between 18-65 years) who had endoscopic sinus surgery because of chronic sinusitis. During the operation, when the maxillary sinus ostium and ethmoid sinus were opened, readily aspirated materials from sinuses were evaluated regarding aerob and anaerob bacteria. Nose and throat swap samples were collected preoperatively to determine the upper respiratory tract flora and also to understand the relationship between the flora and the microorganisms aspirated from sinuses. Total aerob bacteria count, which was isolated from preoperative nasal swab cultures, was 36, and aerob-anaerob bacteria count that included cultures taken from maxillary and ethmoid sinuses during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery was 42. For each 2 samples, the most common isolated aerob bacteria were coagulase (-) staphylococci. Microorganisms were isolated in 87.0% of 27 patients, in which cultures taken from maxillary and ethmoid sinuses during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery were included. It is determined that the isolated aerob bacteria rate was 90.4%, and the isolated anaerob bacteria rate was 14.2%. All of the 6 samples in which anaerob bacteria isolated were all maxillary sinus aspiration materials. Microorganisms that isolated from the nose and the sinuses were similar with the rate of 25.8%, and microorganisms that isolated from the throat cultures and sinuses were similar with the rate of 22.5%. This study reveals the aerob and anaerob microbiology of the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses so the treatment of chronic sinusitis will be easier.
CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... Risks for a CT scan includes: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than regular ...
PSVT; Supraventricular tachycardia; Abnormal heart rhythm - PSVT; Arrhythmia - PSVT; Rapid heart rate - PSVT; Fast heart rate - PSVT ... Normally, the chambers of the heart (atria and ventricles) contract in ... are caused by an electrical signal that begins in an area ...
Hien, Maximilian D; Benito Castro, Fernando; Fournier, Philippe; Filleron, Anne; Tran, Tu-Anh
We report on a rare but severe complication of adenosine use in a child with reentry tachycardia. Treatment with adenosine, which is the standard medical therapy of atrioventricular reentry tachycardia, led to the development of an irregular wide complex tachycardia, caused by rapid ventricular response to atrial fibrillation. The girl was finally stabilized with electrical cardioversion. We analyze the pathomechanism and discuss possible treatment options. Atrial fibrillation, as well as its conduction to the ventricles, can be caused by adenosine. Rapid ventricular response in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is more frequent than previously believed. A patient history of atrial fibrillation is a contraindication for cardioversion with adenosine and needs to be assessed in children with reentry tachycardia. High-risk patients may potentially profit from prophylactic comedication with antiarrhythmic agents, such as flecainide, ibutilide, or vernakalant, before adenosine administration.
Nilsson, Björn M; Edström, Oscar; Lindström, Leif; Wernegren, Petter; Bodén, Robert
Tachycardia is a known adverse effect during clozapine treatment. However, prevalence reported differs widely between studies and hitherto there are no studies comparing clozapine-treated patients with a similar control group. The present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of tachycardia in patients treated with clozapine and antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAI). Data on heart rate (HR), concomitant medication, and relevant anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected for all clozapine-treated patients (n=174) in a defined catchment area and compared with data on patients treated with LAI (n=87). In total, 33% of patients on long-term clozapine treatment had tachycardia (HR>100) compared with 16% in the LAI group (P<0.001). The mean HR was 91 in the clozapine group and 82 in the LAI group (P<0.001). Clozapine dose correlated with HR. The majority of patients with HR more than 100 received no specific treatment for tachycardia. In conclusion, the prevalence of tachycardia was twice as high in patients treated with clozapine as in a similar patient group with severe schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The tachycardia was in many cases clinically unnoticed. Tachycardia during antipsychotic treatment is a common phenomenon that must be monitored for actively and, when noticed, further investigated and treated.
Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Ohuchi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Takehiro; Negishi, Jun; Toyota, Naoki; Kagisaki, Koji; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Yamada, Osamu
In left atrial isomerism (LAI), both atria show left atrial morphology. Although bradyarrhythmias are frequent and highly complex in LAI patients, previous studies have reported a low incidence of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of SVT in LAI, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of SVTs in 83 patients with LAI (age at last follow-up, 15.3±10.5 years). There were 27 SVTs in 19 patients (23%), including nine episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) and eight non-reentrant SVTs. Sixteen of the 19 patients with SVT had histories of atriotomy, but the three patients with AF or non-reentrant tachycardia had no history of atriotomy. The rates of freedom from SVT were 66% and 59% at ages of 20 and 30 years, respectively; the corresponding rates for freedom from AF were 89% and 74%. In multivariate analysis, the predictors of SVT were age (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26; p=0.003) and sinus node dysfunction (SND) (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.57-13.34; p=0.01). In patients with LAI, SVTs are common, and AF and non-reentrant SVTs are the major type of SVTs. The incidence of AF was high in young patients with LAI. The lack of anatomical barriers in the atria that allow the formation of macro-reentrant circuits may account for the higher incidence of AF and non-reentrant SVT than macro-reentrant tachycardia. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of SND with age should contribute to a higher incidence of SVT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klein, L S; Shih, H T; Hackett, F K; Zipes, D P; Miles, W M
Radiofrequency energy has been used safely and successfully to eliminate accessory pathways in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and the substrate for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. However, this form of ablation has had only limited success in eliminating ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. In contrast, direct-current catheter ablation has been used successfully to eliminate ventricular tachycardia in patients with and without structural heart disease. The purpose of this study was to test whether radiofrequency energy can safely and effectively ablate ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease. Sixteen patients (nine women and seven men; mean age, 38 years; range, 18-55 years) without structural heart disease who had ventricular tachycardia underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation to eliminate the ventricular tachycardia. Two patients presented with syncope, nine with presyncope, and five with palpitations only. Mean duration of symptoms was 6.7 years (range, 0.5-20 years). Radiofrequency catheter ablation successfully eliminated ventricular tachycardia in 15 of 16 patients (94%). Sites of ventricular tachycardia origin included the high right ventricular outflow tract (12 patients), the right ventricular septum near the tricuspid valve (three patients), and the left ventricular septum (one patient). The only ablation failure was in a patient whose ventricular tachycardia arose from a region near the His bundle. An accurate pace map, early local endocardial activation, and firm catheter contact with endocardium were associated with successful ablation. Radiofrequency ablation did not cause arrhythmias, produced minimal cardiac enzyme rise, and resulted in no detectable change in cardiac function by Doppler echocardiography. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease is effective and safe and may be considered as
The objective was to assess the impact of ostial obstruction and anatomical variations on paranasal sinus functioning during viral colds with computed tomography (CT) in subjects with and without a history of sinusitis. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-three volunteers with a history of recurrent sinusitis and 25 subjects without such history who had an early (symptoms for 2-4 d) natural cold were examined by taking viral specimens and CT scans and recording symptoms. The pathological sinus changes in the CT scans were scored, and several paranasal bony anatomical variations recorded. Viral origin of the cold was identified in 32 (67%) subjects, similarly in the two groups. Ostiomeatal obstruction and anatomical variations were equally frequent in the subjects with and without a sinusitis history (17 of 23 vs. 17 of 25 for ostial obstruction and 17 of 23 vs. 20 of 25 for at least one variation, respectively). However, in the case of ostiomeatal obstruction the combined CT score of ethmoidal and maxillary sinuses was significantly higher in the subjects with a sinusitis history than in those without (mean +/- SD, 3.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 2.3 +/- 1.2 [P =.05, t test]). In the sinusitis-prone subjects, several variations were associated significantly with various pathological sinus CT changes (septal deviation, horizontally situated processus uncinatus, large concha bullosa, and laterally concave concha media), whereas in the control subjects, only the presence of Haller cells was related to sphenoidal sinus disease. Ostiomeatal complex obstruction and bony anatomical variations seem to have a greater impact on the functioning of paranasal sinuses during viral colds in sinusitis-prone subjects than in subjects without a sinusitis history. These differences may be associated with the increased risk of bacterial sinusitis.
Adegbiji, W. A.; Alabi, B. S.; Olajuyin, O. A.; Nwawolo, C. C.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preauricular sinus abscess is a common congenital external ear disease. This abscess is usually misdiagnosed because it is commonly overlooked during physical examination. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 9.3% in Ilorin, north central Nigeria This study is to determine the distribution and clinical presentation of the preauricular sinus abscess in Ekiti, south west Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective hospital based study of all patients with diagnosis of preauricular sinus abscess seen in our clinic carried out between April 2008 to March 2010. Detailed clinical history, administered interviewer’s assisted questionnaires full examination and. Data obtained were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Preauricular sinus were noticed in 184 (4.4%) out of 4170 patients seen during the study period. Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed in 21 (11.4%) of the preauricular sinuses especially in children. Unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common presenting complaints were preauricular swelling (81.0%), 90.5% with recurrent earaches, 76.2% with ear discharges. All patients had antibiotic / analgesic while 17 out of 21 (81.0%) had surgical excisions. CONCLUSION: Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed among 11.4% of the preauricular sinuses especially in children, unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common complaints were otorrhoea, earaches, and swelling and they were mostly managed surgically. PMID:24711764
Prabhu, Mukund A; Thajudeen, Anees; Vk, Ajit Kumar; J, Tharakan; B V, Prasad Srinivas; Namboodiri, Narayanan
Left atrial (LA) reentrant tachycardias are not uncommon in regions where rheumatic heart disease is prevalent. Some of these arrhythmias may be curable by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). However, there are limited data pertaining to this in existing literature. Three patients who had rheumatic mitral valve disease with past history of surgical-/catheter-based intervention and having no significant residual disease had symptomatic atrial flutter despite optimal medical management. An electrophysiological study confirmed an LA focal/micro-reentrant mechanism in all. There was patchy scarring of the LA, and successful RFA of these arrhythmias could be achieved. The focal nature of the scar in these patients may suggest that the rheumatic involvement of the atrium or the hemodynamic consequence of the vulvar lesion causes nonuniform insult to the atrial tissue and limited scar. At least in some patients with limited scarring, early RFA may help in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prager, N A; Cox, J L; Lindsay, B D; Ferguson, T B; Osborn, J L; Cain, M E
The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term clinical outcome of patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias treated surgically. Ectopic atrial tachycardia is an uncommon arrhythmia that can be symptomatic and is associated with the development of a cardiomyopathy. Management strategies are not well defined because of the paucity of data on the long-term effectiveness of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. The long-term clinical impact of medical and surgical therapy was determined in 15 consecutive patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. All 15 patients were initially treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (mean 5.7 +/- 2.2 drugs/patient). An effective drug regimen was identified in only 5 (33%) of the 15 patients; the remaining 10 patients were treated surgically. In each, individualized surgical procedures were guided by computer-assisted intraoperative mapping, with atrial plaques comprising up to 156 electrodes. Focal ablation was performed in four patients and atrial isolation procedures in six. The 10 patients treated surgically were followed up a mean of 4 +/- 3.2 years. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in one patient. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in two patients, one of whom also required reoperation for constrictive pericarditis. There were no operative deaths. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in three (60%) of the five patients discharged on antiarrhythmic drug therapy during a mean follow-up interval of 6.4 +/- 4.3 years. There was one nonarrhythmic death. Map-guided surgery demonstrated long-term efficacy in abolishing symptoms in 9 of the 10 patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. Results demonstrate that surgery is effective for patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias who are not easily treated with antiarrhythmic drugs.
... sinuses: Apply a warm, moist washcloth to your face several times a day. Drink plenty of fluids to thin ... do help, they may only slightly reduce the time it takes for the ... the face Severe swelling around the eyes Acute sinusitis should ...
Burkhardt, J David; Saliba, Walid I; Schweikert, Robert A; Cummings, Jennifer; Natale, Andrea
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and ventricular tachycardia may arise from the coronary cusps. Navigation, mapping, and ablation in the coronary cusps can be challenging. Remote magnetic navigation may offer an alternative to conventional manually operated catheters. We report a case of left coronary cusp ventricular tachycardia ablation using remote magnetic navigation. Right ventricular outflow tract and coronary cusp mapping, and ablation of the left coronary cusp using a remote magnetic navigation and three-dimensional (3-D) mapping system was performed in a 28-year-old male with frequent, symptomatic PVCs and ventricular tachycardia. Successful ablation of left coronary cusp ventricular tachycardia was performed using remote magnetic navigation. Remote magnetic navigation may be used to map and ablate PVCs and ventricular tachycardia originating from the coronary cusps.
Gujrathi, Aatish; Wakode, P T
It is a clinical dilemma whether patients having no symptoms of sinusitis but sinus haziness in X-ray should be considered as sinusitis or not and patients clinically having sinusitis and do not have radiological evidence should be considered as case of sinusitis or not. This study is an attempt to discuss this issue in details. To study diagnostic efficacy of conventional X-ray para nasal sinus water's view in sinusitis. To study the proportion of asymptomatic individuals showing haziness in conventional X-ray para nasal sinus water's view. Sensitivity and specificity of sinus X-ray in combination (conventional + digital) is 95 and 44%, respectively. Proportion of asymptomatic individuals showing haziness in conventional X-ray and digital X-ray paranasal sinus water's view are 52.4 and 75%, respectively. X-ray paranasal sinus water's view undoubtedly yields valuable information regarding sinus pathology. However it should not be accepted as a diagnosis in itself, but considered in the light of patient's history and clinical findings.
... rhythm problems (arrhythmias) in which the heart's natural pacemaker (sinus node) doesn't work properly. The sinus ... people with sick sinus syndrome eventually need a pacemaker to keep the heart in a regular rhythm. ...
Ozin, Bulent; Pirat, Bahar; Muderrisoglu, Haldun
Tachycardia induced tachycardias are not common in clinical practice, and it is believed that most cases of double tachycardia are coincidental. The existence of two different tachycardias in the same patient almost always poses problems in the electrophysiology laboratory. However, in rare instances, the emergence of a second tachycardia can actually provide invaluable information about the first one. In this report, we describe a 30-year-old woman who presented with palpitations. Electrophysiological study revealed that atrial programmed stimulation at baseline induced right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia. The study also showed that each of the tachycardias was able to induce the other. A short run of RVOT tachycardia during supraventricular tachycardia was able to entrain the latter. This finding provided important information about the nature of the supraventricular tachycardia, which proved to be atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Both of these tachycardias were successfully ablated, and the patient’s palpitations disappeared. PMID:16943976
Sousa, Pedro A; Pereira, Salomé; Candeias, Rui; de Jesus, Ilídio
Correct diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia remains a challenge. Differential diagnosis between ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, and although data from clinical history and physical examination may suggest a particular origin, it is the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram that usually enables this differentiation. Since 1978, various electrocardiographic criteria have been proposed for the differential diagnosis of wide complex tachycardias, particularly the presence of atrioventricular dissociation, and the axis, duration and morphology of QRS complexes. Despite the wide variety of criteria, diagnosis is still often difficult, and errors can have serious consequences. To reduce such errors, several differential diagnosis algorithms have been proposed since 1991. However, in a small percentage of wide QRS tachycardias the diagnosis remains uncertain and in these the wisest decision is to treat them as ventricular tachycardias. The authors' objective was to review the main electrocardiographic criteria and differential diagnosis algorithms of wide QRS tachycardia. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...
Martinelli, L; Goggi, C; Graffigna, A; Salerno, J A; Chimienti, M; Klersy, C; Viganò, M
The purpose of this report is to present a 5 year experience in electrophysiologically guided surgical treatment of post-infarction ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a consecutive series of 39 patients. In every case the arrhythmia was not responsive to pluripharmacological therapy. The diagnostic steps included preoperative endocardial, intraoperative epi- and endocardial mapping, automatically carried out when possible. Surgical techniques were: classic Guiraudon's encircling endocardial ventriculotomy (EEV), partial EEV, endocardial resection (ER), cryoablation or combined procedures. The hospital mortality was of 4 patients (10%). During the follow-up period (1-68 mo), 4 patients (11%) died of cardiac non-VT related causes. Among the survivors, 90% are in sinus rhythm. The authors consider electrophysiologically guided surgery a safe and reliable method for the treatment of post-infarction VT and suggest more extensive indications. They stress the importance of automatic mapping in pleomorphic and non-sustained VT, and the necessity of tailoring the surgical technique to the characteristics of each case.
... usually not severe and is easy to treat. What Is Sinusitis? Sinusitis is the medical term for inflammation ( ... try to reduce close contact with anyone who is sneezing often or has signs and symptoms of sinusitis. What Can I Do to Feel Better? If your ...
Fang, Yiqin; An, Xueyin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho
In the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening, the ostium can be blocked when the sinus membrane is lifted, causing drainage disturbances and sinusitis. Here, we present 3 cases in which maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed using a crestal approach in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening (>10 mm). The effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique on sinus mucosal thickening and bone formation in the sinus were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography. None of the patients exhibited an increase in sinus membrane thickness. No complications were encountered during the follow-up periods, and bone formation was observed around the implants at the sinus floor. All implants were functioning successfully. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening allows for minimally invasive sinus grafting and simultaneous implant placement and does not increase sinus membrane thickness.
Hayakawa, Itaru; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Yukari; Hataya, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro
Abdominal pain is common in children, but expeditious diagnosis of life- or organ-threatening diseases can be challenging. An evidence-based definition of tachycardia in children was established recently, but its diagnostic utility has not yet been studied. To test the hypothesis that abdominal pain with tachycardia may pose a higher likelihood of life- or organ-threatening diseases in children. A nested case-control study was conducted in a pediatric emergency department in 2013. Tachycardia was defined as a resting heart rate of more than 3 standard deviations above the average for that age. Life- or organ-threatening diseases were defined as "disorders that might result in permanent morbidity or mortality without appropriate intervention." A triage team recorded vital signs before emergency physicians attended patients. Patients with tachycardia (cases) and without tachycardia (controls) were systematically matched for age, sex, and month of visit. The groups were compared for the presence of life- or organ-threatening diseases. There were 1683 visits for abdominal pain, 1512 of which had vital signs measured at rest. Eighty-three patients experienced tachycardia, while 1429 did not. Fifty-eight cases and 58 controls were matched. Life- or organ-threatening diseases were more common in the case group (19%) than the control group (5%, p=0.043). The relative risk of tachycardia to the presence of the diseases was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2-12.0). Tachycardia significantly increased the likelihood of life- or organ-threatening diseases. Tachycardia in children with abdominal pain should alert emergency physicians to the possibility of serious illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Each year, around 20 in every 1,000 people in the UK consult their GP about a suspected sinus infection,1 which means that each GP sees an average of about 50 such cases annually.2 Although most people recover from acute sinusitis with or without treatment within 10 days of seeing a GP,2 it is estimated that around 92% of those who consult their GP with a sinus infection are prescribed an antibacterial.1 Here we review the management of patients with acute sinusitis, and the place of antibacterial and other treatments.
Zhu, Yuanjia; Kolawole, Tiwalola; Jimenez, Xavier F
Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is structurally similar to amphetamines. Its primary toxic effects include seizure, sinus tachycardia, hypertension, and agitation; however, at higher amounts of ingestion, paradoxical cardiac effects are seen. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who ingested 13.5 g of bupropion, a dose higher than any other previously reported. The patient presented with seizure, sinus tachycardia with prolonged QTc and QRS intervals, dilated pupils, and agitation. Four days after overdose, the patient's sinus tachycardia and prolonged QTc and QRS intervals resolved with symptomatic management, but she soon developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, and mild transaminitis. With continued conservative management and close monitoring, her sinus bradycardia resolved 8 days after the overdose. The transaminitis resolved 12 days after the overdose. Our findings are consistent with previously reported toxic effects associated with common overdose amounts of bupropion. In addition, we have observed transient cardiotoxicity manifesting as sinus bradycardia associated with massive bupropion overdose. These findings are less frequently reported and must be considered when managing patients with massive bupropion overdose. We review the psychopharmacologic implications of this and comment on previous literature.
Miyake, Christina Y; Webster, Gregory; Czosek, Richard J; Kantoch, Michal J; Dubin, Anne M; Avasarala, Kishor; Atallah, Joseph
The effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the management of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in young patients is not known. ICD discharges are not always effective and inappropriate discharges are common, both resulting in morbidity and mortality. This is a multicenter, retrospective review of young patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic VT and ICDs from 5 centers. ICD discharges were evaluated to determine arrhythmia mechanism, appropriateness, efficacy of therapy, and complications. A total of 24 patients were included. Median (interquartile range) ages at onset of catecholaminergic polymorphic VT symptoms and ICD implant were 10.6 (5.0-13.8) years and 13.7 (10.7-16.3) years, respectively. Fourteen patients received 140 shocks. Ten patients (42%) experienced 75 appropriate shocks and 11 patients (46%) received 65 inappropriate shocks. On actuarial analysis, freedom from appropriate shock at 1 year after ICD implant was 75%. Of appropriate shocks, only 43 (57%) demonstrated successful primary termination. All successful appropriate ICD discharges were for ventricular fibrillation. No episodes of polymorphic VT or bidirectional VT demonstrated successful primary termination. The adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) cycle length of successful discharges was significantly shorter than unsuccessful discharges (168 [152-184] ms versus 245 [229-262] ms; adjusted P=0.002). Electrical storm occurred in 29% (4/14) and induction of more malignant ventricular arrhythmias in 36% (5/14). There were no deaths. ICD efficacy in catecholaminergic polymorphic VT depends on arrhythmia mechanism. Episodes of ventricular fibrillation were uniformly successfully treated, whereas polymorphic and bidirectional VT did not demonstrate successful primary termination. Inappropriate shocks, electrical storm, and ICD complications were common.
... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...
... headache. Acute sinusitis is mostly caused by the common cold. Unless a bacterial infection develops, most cases resolve ... Acute sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, ...
Glik, Amir; Benkovich, Elya; Kesler, Anat; Ifergan, Gal; Benifla, Moni; Shelef, Ilan
Intracranial hypertension develops in only some patients with lateral sinus thrombosis (LST), for reasons that are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible association between patency of the unaffected sinus and clinical presentation of unilateral LST. A computerized search identified patients with LST, hospitalized in Soroka Medical Center. Patients with signs of increased intracranial pressure (iICP) and those with normal intracranial pressure (nICP) were compared. CT venography or MR venography confirmed the diagnosis, located the thrombosis, and determined the dominant lateral sinus (LS). Diameters of the right and left LSs (the occluded and unaffected) were compared to the diameter of the distal superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Of the 50 patients identified, 30 had iICP and 20 nICP. The dominant LS was the right one in 39 (78%) and the left one in 8 (16%); 3 (6%) had equal LS dominance. The dominant sinus was affected in 32 (70%) and the non-dominant in 15 (30%) patients. iICP was detected in 28/32 (81%) of patients with the dominant side affected, and 3/15 (20%) of those with non-dominant thrombotic sinus (P = .002). The unaffected sinus was narrower in iICP patients (size relative to SSS diameter = 43% in iICP vs. 86% in nICP [P = .0002]; size grading, according to Farb's method was 1.86 in the iICP vs. 3.57 in the nICP group [P = .0001]). Thrombosis was more common in the dominant LS. Unaffected LS patency appears to be associated with the development of increased ICP. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
At present the dual chamber pacing, originally developed for patients with AV blockades, is widely used also for patients with Sick sinus syndrome (tachycardic-bradycardic type). But these patients often cause therapeutical problems to their physicians. In these cases either antiarrhythmic therapy is necessary to prevent recurrent supraventricular tachycardias (which are cause of rapid ventricular pacing) or in the case of failure of AA therapy the pacing mode has to be changed to DDI/R, which excludes physiological VAT pacing. The Auto Mode Switching (AMS) function ensures adequate ventricular pacing rate in the time of SV arrhythmias. Effects of dual chamber pacemakers equipped with AMS were studied in a group of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrilation and/or atrial flutter. Therapy brings effects in lower of expenses due to less frequent visits at the physician, lower rate of rehospitalizations and lower need for powerful AA therapy.
Ergul, Yakup; Koca, Serhat; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan
In Ebstein's anomaly (EA), tachycardia substrates are complex, and accessory pathway (AP) ablations are often challenging. This study demonstrates the utility of the EnSite Velocity system (St. Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) in the catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia in children with EA. Twenty patients [Female/Male = 8/12, median age 11.5 years (2.6-18)] with EA who underwent catheter ablation guided by the EnSite Velocity system between December 2011 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Five patients had severe EA, and two of them were at Fontan palliation pathway. The most common indications for ablations were palpitations/syncope and treatment-resistant arrhythmias. Thirty-one tachycardia substrate foci (21 manifest AP, 2 concealed AP, 4 Mahaim AP, 3 focal atrial tachycardias, and 1 typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia) were detected in 20 patients. There were multiple tachycardia substrates in 11 patients (55%). The patient-based acute procedure success rate was 19/20 (95%), and the tachycardia-based success rate was 30/31 (97%). The mean procedure time was 170 ± 43 min (90-265). Fluoroscopy was not used in 15 (75%) patients. The mean fluoroscopy time in the remaining five patients was 3.6 ± 2.9 min (0.7-7.8). During a mean follow-up of 35.1 ± 20.3 months (6-60), tachycardia recurred in four patients (4/19, 21%). No complications were seen. Catheter ablation of arrhythmias can be performed effectively and safely in pediatric EA patients by using a limited fluoroscopic approach with the help of electroanatomical mapping systems. However, the rate of tachycardia recurrence at follow-up remains high.
Mudgil, Shikha P; Wise, Scott W; Hopper, Kenneth D; Kasales, Claudia J; Mauger, David; Fornadley, John A
The correlation between facial and/or head pain in patients clinically suspected of having sinusitis and actual localized findings on sinus computed tomographic (CT) imaging are poorly understood. To prospectively evaluate the relationship of paranasal sinus pain symptoms with CT imaging. Two hundred consecutive patients referred by otolaryngologists and internists for CT of the paranasal sinuses participated by completing a questionnaire immediately before undergoing CT. Three radiologists blinded to the patients' responses scored the degree of air/fluid level, mucosal thickening, bony reaction, and mucus retention cysts using a graded scale of severity (0 to 3 points). The osteomeatal complexes and nasolacrimal ducts were also evaluated for patency. Bivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between patients' localized symptoms and CT findings in the respective sinus. One hundred sixty-three patients (82%) reported having some form of facial pain or headache. The right temple/forehead was the most frequently reported region of maximal pain. On CT imaging the maxillary sinus was the most frequently involved sinus. Bivariate analysis failed to show any relationship between patient symptoms and findings on CT. Patients with a normal CT reported a mean 5.88 sites of facial or head pain versus 5.45 sites for patients with an abnormal CT. Patient-based responses of sinonasal pain symptoms fail to correlate with findings in the respective sinuses. CT should therefore be reserved for delineating the anatomy and degree of sinus disease before surgical intervention.
Voss, Frederik; Eckardt, Lars; Busch, Sonia; Estner, Heidi L; Steven, Daniel; Sommer, Philipp; von Bary, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht
The AV-reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) is a supraventricular tachycardia with an incidence of 1-3/1000. The pathophysiological basis is an accessory atrioventricular pathway (AP). Patients with AVRT typically present with palpitations, an on-off characteristic, anxiety, dyspnea, and polyuria. This type of tachycardia may often be terminated by vagal maneuvers. Although the clinical presentation of AVRT is quite similar to AV-nodal reentrant tachycardias, the correct diagnosis is often facilitated by analyzing a standard 12-lead ECG at normal heart rate showing ventricular preexcitation. Curative catheter ablation of the AP represents the therapy of choice in symptomatic patients. This article is the fourth part of a series written to improve the professional education of young electrophysiologists. It explains pathophysiology, symptoms, and electrophysiological findings of an invasive EP study. It focusses on mapping and ablation of accessory pathways.
... connected to chronic sinusitis Aspirin sensitivity that causes respiratory symptoms An immune system disorder, such as HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis Hay fever or another allergic condition that affects your sinuses Regular exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke Complications Chronic ...
Morgan, Kate; Chojenta, Catherine; Tavener, Meredith; Smith, Angela; Loxton, Deb
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome is most commonly seen in women of child bearing age, however little is known about its effects in pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted in March 2015 and updated in February 2018. Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception. The ClinicalTrials.gov site and bibliographies were searched. MeSH and Emtree headings and keywords included; Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, and were combined with pregnancy and pregnancy related subject headings and keywords. Searches were limited to English. Eligible articles contained key words within the title and or abstract. Articles were excluded if Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome was not pre-existing. Eleven articles were identified as eligible for inclusion. Studies were appraised using the PRISMA 2009 guidelines. The overall quality of evidence was poor using the NHMRC Evidence Grading Matrix, which was attributed to small sample sizes and mostly observational studies, emphasizing the need for future high quality research. Findings in this review must be used with caution due to the poor quality of the literature available. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome should not be a contraindication to pregnancy. Symptom course is variable during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Continuing pre-conception medication may help symptoms, with no significant risks reported. Obstetric complications, not Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, should dictate mode of delivery. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome did not appear to affect the rate of adverse events. These results are important in determining appropriate management and care in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sucu, Murat; Davutoglu, Vedat; Ozer, Orhan
External electrical cardioversion was first performed in the 1950s. Urgent or elective cardioversions have specific advantages, such as termination of atrial and ventricular tachycardia and recovery of sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is life-saving when applied in urgent circumstances. The succcess rate is increased by accurate tachycardia diagnosis, careful patient selection, adequate electrode (paddles) application, determination of the optimal energy and anesthesia levels, prevention of embolic events and arrythmia recurrence and airway conservation while minimizing possible complications. Potential complications include ventricular fibrillation due to general anesthesia or lack of synchronization between the direct current (DC) shock and the QRS complex, thromboembolus due to insufficient anticoagulant therapy, non-sustained VT, atrial arrhythmia, heart block, bradycardia, transient left bundle branch block, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, transient hypotension, pulmonary edema and skin burn. Electrical cardioversion performed in patients with a pacemaker or an incompatible cardioverter defibrillator may lead to dysfunction, namely acute or chronic changes in the pacing or sensitivity threshold. Although this procedure appears fairly simple, serious consequences might occur if inappropriately performed. PMID:19448376
Makary, Christian; Rebaudi, Alberto; Menhall, Abdallah; Naaman, Nada
To radiographically monitor sinus membrane swelling after lateral sinus floor elevation surgery at short and long healing periods. For 26 patients seeking posterior maxillary implant-supported reconstruction, 32 lateral sinus floor elevations were performed using Piezosurgery. Sinus membranes were grafted using synthetic calcium phosphate bone substitutes, and graft volume was measured in cubic centimeters for each case. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination was conducted preoperatively in all patients and for each grafted sinus at 1 day (n = 8), 2 days (n = 9), 3 days (n = 8), or 7 days (n = 7) after surgery. Control CBCT was then performed for all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Sinus membrane thickness was measured on cross-sectional CBCT images at nine standardized points per sinus, before lateral sinus floor elevation and at all postoperative examinations. Mean sinus membrane thickness was 0.73 mm before surgery, and 5 mm, 4.1 mm, 5.9 mm, and 7 mm, respectively, at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery. First week combined postoperative CBCT measurements of membrane thickness was 5.4 mm, then 1.3, 0.68, and 0.39 mm at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, after surgery. Membrane thickness significantly increased the first week after surgery and gradually decreased significantly at 3, 6, and 12 months in all groups (P < .001). First-week postoperative measurements showed a significant increase in membrane thickness at 3 days compared with the 1- and 2-day results (P < .001) and at 7 days compared with all other time points (P < .001). Membrane thickness at 2 days did not change significantly compared with 1-day measurements. Larger graft volume was positively correlated with an increase in membrane thickness after surgery at all time points (n = 32; r = 0.527; P < .001). After lateral sinus floor elevation surgery, transient swelling of sinus membrane is observed. It reaches a peak value 7 days after surgery and completely resolves over
Donovan, Michael S; Kassop, David; Liotta, Robert A; Hulten, Edward A
Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SV-ASD) have nonspecific clinical presentations and represent a diagnostic imaging challenge. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the initial diagnostic imaging modality. However, detection rates have been as low as 12%. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) improves diagnostic accuracy though it may not detect commonly associated partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides a noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific imaging modality of SV-ASD. We describe a case of an adult male with exercise-induced, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia who presented with palpitations and dyspnea. Despite nondiagnostic imaging results on TTE, CMR proved to be instrumental in visualizing a hemodynamically significant SV-ASD with PAPVR that ultimately led to surgical correction.
Donovan, Michael S.; Kassop, David; Liotta, Robert A.; Hulten, Edward A.
Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SV-ASD) have nonspecific clinical presentations and represent a diagnostic imaging challenge. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the initial diagnostic imaging modality. However, detection rates have been as low as 12%. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) improves diagnostic accuracy though it may not detect commonly associated partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides a noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific imaging modality of SV-ASD. We describe a case of an adult male with exercise-induced, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia who presented with palpitations and dyspnea. Despite nondiagnostic imaging results on TTE, CMR proved to be instrumental in visualizing a hemodynamically significant SV-ASD with PAPVR that ultimately led to surgical correction. PMID:25705227
Gunderson, Bruce D; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Wood, Mark A; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Shepard, Richard K; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead failures often present as inappropriate shock therapy. An algorithm that can reliably discriminate between ventricular tachyarrhythmias and noise due to lead failure may prevent patient discomfort and anxiety and avoid device-induced proarrhythmia by preventing inappropriate ICD shocks. The goal of this analysis was to test an ICD tachycardia detection algorithm that differentiates noise due to lead failure from ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We tested an algorithm that uses a measure of the ventricular intracardiac electrogram baseline to discriminate the sinus rhythm isoelectric line from the right ventricular coil-can (i.e., far-field) electrogram during oversensing of noise caused by a lead failure. The baseline measure was defined as the product of the sum (mV) and standard deviation (mV) of the voltage samples for a 188-ms window centered on each sensed electrogram. If the minimum baseline measure of the last 12 beats was <0.35 mV-mV, then the detected rhythm was considered noise due to a lead failure. The first ICD-detected episode of lead failure and inappropriate detection from 24 ICD patients with a pace/sense lead failure and all ventricular arrhythmias from 56 ICD patients without a lead failure were selected. The stored data were analyzed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to detect lead failures. The minimum baseline measure for the 24 lead failure episodes (0.28 +/- 0.34 mV-mV) was smaller than the 135 ventricular tachycardia (40.8 +/- 43.0 mV-mV, P <.0001) and 55 ventricular fibrillation episodes (19.1 +/- 22.8 mV-mV, P <.05). A minimum baseline <0.35 mV-mV threshold had a sensitivity of 83% (20/24) with a 100% (190/190) specificity. A baseline measure of the far-field electrogram had a high sensitivity and specificity to detect lead failure noise compared with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.
de Paola, A A; Mendonça, A; Balbão, C E; Tavora, M Z; da Silva, R M; Hara, V M; Guiguer Júnior, N; Vattimo, A C; Souza, I A; Portugal, O P
A 8-year-old female patient with refractory incessant atrial tachycardia, very symptomatic and with left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.25. Electrophysiological study and endocardial mapping localized the site of the origin of atrial tachycardia in the superior right atrium. In this site 2 applications of radiofrequency current (25V, 20 and 50 seconds) resulted in termination of the atrial tachycardia. She was discharged off antiarrhythmic drugs and after 2 months ejection fraction was 0.52. She was completely asymptomatic 6 months after ablation procedure.
Domingo, Diana; Neco, Patricia; Fernández-Pons, Elena; Zissimopoulos, Spyros; Molina, Pilar; Olagüe, José; Suárez-Mier, M Paz; Lai, F Anthony; Gómez, Ana M; Zorio, Esther
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a malignant disease, due to mutations in proteins controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. While the phenotype is characterized by polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias under stress, supraventricular arrhythmias may occur and are not fully characterized. Twenty-five relatives from a Spanish family with several sudden deaths were evaluated with electrocardiogram, exercise testing, and optional epinephrine challenge. Selective RyR2 sequencing in an affected individual and cascade screening in the rest of the family was offered. The RyR2(R420Q) mutation was generated in HEK-293 cells using site-directed mutagenesis to conduct in vitro functional studies. The exercise testing unmasked catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in 8 relatives (sensitivity = 89%; positive predictive value = 100%; negative predictive value = 93%), all of them carrying the heterozygous RyR2(R420Q) mutation, which was also present in the proband and a young girl without exercise testing, a 91% penetrance at the end of the follow-up. Remarkably, sinus bradycardia, atrial and junctional arrhythmias, and/or giant post-effort U-waves were identified in patients. Upon permeabilization and in intact cells, the RyR2(R420Q) expressing cells showed a smaller peak of Ca(2+) release than RyR2 wild-type cells. However, at physiologic intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, equivalent to the diastolic cytosolic concentration, the RyR2(R420Q) released more Ca(2+) and oscillated faster than RyR2 wild-type cells. The missense RyR2(R420Q) mutation was identified in the N-terminus of the RyR2 gene in this highly symptomatic family. Remarkably, this mutation is associated with sinus bradycardia, atrial and junctional arrhythmias, and giant U-waves. Collectively, functional heterologous expression studies suggest that the RyR2(R420Q) behaves as an aberrant channel, as a loss- or gain-of-function mutation depending on cytosolic intracellular Ca(2
Ali, Hussam; Epicoco, Gianluca; De Ambroggi, Guido; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; Cappato, Riccardo
Regular narrow QRS tachycardia, particularly if well-tolerated, is usually considered a "benign" arrhythmia of a supraventricular origin. This case concerns an 82-year-old male with ischemic heart disease who presented with recurrent episodes of a narrow QRS tachycardia that was initially diagnosed and treated as atrial tachyarrhythmia. However, careful physical examination and ECG analysis established the correct diagnosis, and the patient was managed appropriately. Remarkably, the observation of irregular cannon A waves, and Lewis lead recording, confirmed atrioventricular dissociation during tachycardia and indicated its underlying mechanism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Straznitskas, Andrew D; Wong, Sylvia; Kupchik, Nicole; Carlbom, David
Development of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia after an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is associated with significantly increased cardiac arrest mortality. To examine differences in epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest between patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop and patients who did not. Data were collected for 2 groups of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest and an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole: those who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop (cases) and those who did not (controls). Dosing of epinephrine during cardiac arrest and other variables were compared between cases and controls. Of the 215 patients identified with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole, 51 (23.7%) had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop. Throughout the total duration of arrest, including periods of return of spontaneous circulation, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.4 minutes compared with 1 mg every 5 minutes in controls (P= .001). For the total duration of pulselessness, excluding periods of return of spontaneous circulation during the arrest, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.1 minutes versus 1 mg every 4.3 minutes in controls (P= .001). More frequent administration of epinephrine during cardiac arrest is associated with development of secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Huet, Bernard; Cauterman, Maxime
Several studies of inappropriate (in the sense of the AEP) hospital days highlighted associations between two factors (rate of inappropriateness and reasons for inappropriateness, rate of inappropriateness and appropriate setting of care,..). The aim of this communication is to present a study on real associations, at constant factor, between five factors associated with hospital inappropriate days: medical management process, reason for inappropriateness, scheduled admission, rate of inappropriateness, length of stay. We used the European version of Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for evaluation of inappropriate days and the French protocol ;for analysis of inappropriate days. The study set in three Parisian hospitals, four clinical departments, three specialities. 523 patients were included in the study, 5663 days were evaluated on a wide variety of pathologies: 27 Medical Management Processes. Results show that there are real associations (elimination of transitive associations) between five factors : medical management process and discharge processes, reason for inappropriateness, scheduled admission, rate of inappropriate days, length of stay. Multiple Correspondence Analysis on all "groups of contiguous days related with the same reason for inappropriateness" shows five profiles of queues integrating various medical management processes.
Carson, R. P.; Appalsamy, M.; Diedrich, A.; Davis, T. L.; Robertson, D.
Clinically relevant autonomic dysfunction can result from either complete or partial loss of sympathetic outflow to effector organs. Reported animal models of autonomic neuropathy have aimed to achieve complete lesions of sympathetic nerves, but incomplete lesions might be more relevant to certain clinical entities. We hypothesized that loss of sympathetic innervation would result in a predicted decrease in arterial pressure and a compensatory increase in heart rate. Increased heart rate due to loss of sympathetic innervation is seemingly paradoxical, but it provides a mechanistic explanation for clinical autonomic syndromes such as neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. Partially dysautonomic animals were generated by selectively lesioning postganglionic sympathetic neurons with 150 mg/kg 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored using radiotelemetry. Systolic blood pressure decreased within hours postlesion (Delta>20 mm Hg). Within 4 days postlesion, heart rate rose and remained elevated above control levels. The severity of the lesion was determined functionally and pharmacologically by spectral analysis and responsiveness to tyramine. Low-frequency spectral power of systolic blood pressure was reduced postlesion and correlated with the diminished tyramine responsiveness (r=0.9572, P=0.0053). The tachycardia was abolished by treatment with the beta-antagonist propranolol, demonstrating that it was mediated by catecholamines acting on cardiac beta-receptors. Partial lesions of the autonomic nervous system have been hypothesized to underlie many disorders, including neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. This animal model may help us better understand the pathophysiology of autonomic dysfunction and lead to development of therapeutic interventions.
Berei, Theodore J; Lillyblad, Matthew P; Almquist, Adrian K
Lacosamide is a new-generation antiepileptic drug (AED) most commonly used adjunctively in the setting of partial-onset seizures refractory to traditional therapy. We describe the first case report, to our knowledge, of a patient who developed recurrent, sustained ventricular tachycardia with multiple administrations of lacosamide in an acute setting. A 70-year-old woman with a history significant for valvular heart disease was admitted to the inpatient cardiology service for worsening heart failure. On hospital day 7, she received a bioprosthetic aortic valve. Prior to surgery and immediately after, the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal. After developing multiple generalized tonic-clonic seizures refractory to levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproic acid, the decision was made to initiate lacosamide. Two hours following the second lacosamide dose, the patient developed a wide complex QRS that transitioned into sustained ventricular tachycardia requiring electrical cardioversion. Sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred again, just hours after the third dose of lacosamide was given. Following cessation of lacosamide, the patient's QRS interval normalized and has since had no documented episodes of ventricular tachycardia. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening rhythmic disturbances in patients initiated on lacosamide and the need for vigilant ECG, electrolyte, and drug-drug monitoring.
Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myung-Yong
Among patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) can coexist in a single patient. Direct transition of both tachycardias is rare; however, it can occur after premature atrial or ventricular activity if the cycle lengths of the two tachycardias are similar. Furthermore, persistent atrial activation by an accessory pathway (AP) located outside of the AV node during ongoing AVNRT is also rare. This article describes a case of uncommon atrial activation by an AP during AVNRT and gradual transition of the two supraventricular tachycardias without any preceding atrial or ventricular activity in a patient with preexcitation syndrome.
Jorissen, M; Hermans, R; Bertrand, B; Eloy, P
Paranasal sinus anatomy and variations have gained interest with the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery and the concept of the ostiomeatal complex. Anatomical variations can be divided in structural abnormalities, (increased) pneumatization and supplementary openings. Most anatomical variations are equally found in control and sinusitis patients. The anatomical variations which are most commonly associated with sinus pathology are septal deviations, true conchae bullosae and supplementary maxillary ostia but the latter one only when recycling is present. The knowledge of anatomical variations is most important in the surgical management and specifically in the prevention of complications.
Chung, Lawrance K; Cheung, Yuri; Lagman, Carlito; Au Yong, Nicholas; McBride, Duncan Q; Yang, Isaac
The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, raises safety concerns as they become increasingly common for commercial, personal, and recreational use. Collisions between drones and people may result in serious injuries. A 13-year-old male presented with a comminuted depressed skull fracture causing effacement of the superior sagittal sinus secondary to a racing drone impact. The patient experienced a brief loss of consciousness and reported lower extremity numbness and weakness after the accident. Imaging studies revealed bone fragments crossing the superior sagittal sinus with a short, focal segment of blood flow interruption. Neurosurgical intervention was deferred given the patient's improving neurological deficits, and the patient was treated conservatively. He was discharged home in stable condition. Drones may represent a hazard when operated inappropriately due to their capacity to fly at high speeds and altitudes. Impacts from drones can carry enough force to cause skull fractures and significant head injuries. The rising popularity of drones likely translates to an increased incidence of drone-related injuries. Thus, clinicians should be aware of this growing trend.
Bansal, Neha; Karpawich, Peter P; Sriram, Chenni S
Accelerated junctional rhythm has been reported in children in the setting of acute rheumatic fever; however, we describe a hitherto unreported case of isolated junctional tachycardia in a child with streptococcal pharyngitis, not meeting revised Jones criteria for rheumatic fever. A previously healthy, 9-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with complaints of sore throat, low-grade fever, and intermittent chest pain. She was found to have a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test. The initial electrocardiogram showed junctional tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation in addition to prolonged and aberrant atrioventricular conduction. An echocardiogram revealed normal cardiac anatomy with normal biventricular function. The patient responded to treatment with amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The junctional tachycardia and other electrocardiogram abnormalities resolved during follow-up.
Wang, Huan; Che, Xiaoru
Differentiation of wide QRS complex tachycardia required repeated electrophysiological stimuli and mapping. However, instability of tachycardia would increase the difficulty in differential diagnosis. In this paper, we reported a wide QRS tachycardia following ablation of an atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia participated by a poster-septal accessory pathway. Limited differentiation strategy was performed because the wide QRS tachycardia was self-limited and with unstable hemodynamics. We analyzed the mechanism of the wide QRS tachycardia by only 4 beats ventricular overpacing. On the basis of the last ventricular pacing, an atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia was confirmed. After slow-pathway modification, the wide QRS tachycardia was eliminated. It was an atypical atrial-ventricular node reentrant tachycardia with right bundle branch block. Reasonable analysis based on electrophysiological electrophysiologic knowledge was the basis of successful diagnosis and treatment.
Garbacea, Antoanela; Lozada, Jaime L; Church, Christopher A; Al-Ardah, Aladdin J; Seiberling, Kristin A; Naylor, W Patrick; Chen, Jung-Wei
Transcrestal sinus membrane elevation is a surgical procedure performed to increase the bone volume in the maxillary sinus cavity. Because of visual limitations, the potential for maxillary sinus membrane perforations may be greater than with the lateral approach technique. The aim of this study was to macroscopically investigate ex vivo the occurrence of sinus membrane perforation during surgery using 3 transcrestal sinus floor elevation methods. Twenty fresh human cadaver heads, with 40 intact sinuses, were used for simultaneous sinus membrane elevation, placement of graft material, and dental implants. Real-time sinus endoscopy, periapical digital radiographs, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images were subsequently used to evaluate the outcome of each surgical procedure. Perforation rates for each of the 3 techniques were then compared using a significance level of P < .05. No statistically significant differences in the perforation rate (P = .79) were found among the 3 surgical techniques. Although the sinus endoscope noted a higher frequency of perforations at the time of implant placement as compared with instrumentation or graft insertion, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .04). The CBCT readings were judged to be more accurate for identifying evidence of sinus perforations than the periapical radiographs when compared with the direct visualization with the endoscope. This pilot study demonstrated that a sinus membrane perforation can occur at any time during the sinus lift procedure, independent of the surgical method used.
Chen, Minglong; Gu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Zhang, Fengxiang; Yang, Gang; Li, Mingfang; Lu, Xinzheng; Cao, Kejiang; Ouyang, Feifan
Accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the right bundle branch (RBB) is rare and published clinical data on such arrhythmia are scarce. In this study, we will describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of a cohort of patients with this novel arrhythmia. Eight patients (5 men; median age, 25 years) with RBB-AIVR/VT were consecutively enrolled in the study. Pharmacological testing, exercise treadmill testing, electrophysiological study, and catheter ablation were performed in the study patients, and ECG features were characterized. All RBB-AIVR/VTs were of typical left bundle-branch block morphology with atrioventricular dissociation. The arrhythmias, which demonstrated chronotropic variability, were often isorhythmic with sinus rhythm and were accelerated by physical exercise, stress, and intravenous isoprenaline infusion. The rate of RBB-AIVR/VT varied from 45 to 200 beats per minute. Two patients experienced syncope, and 3 had impaired left ventricular function. Metoprolol was proven to be the most effective drug to decelerate the arrhythmia rate and relieve symptoms. Electrophysiology study was performed in 5 patients and the earliest activation with a sharp RBB potential was localized in the mid or distal RBB area. Catheter ablation terminated the arrhythmia with subsequent RBB block morphology during sinus rhythm. During follow-up, patients' symptoms were controlled with normalization of left ventricular function either on metoprolol or by catheter ablation. RBB-AIVR/VT is an unusual type of ventricular arrhythmia. It can result in significant symptoms and depressed ventricular function and can be successfully treated with catheter ablation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Santilli, R A; Perego, M; Crosara, S; Gardini, F; Bellino, C; Moretti, P; Spadacini, G
The 12-lead surface ECG is validated for differentiating supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) in humans. Despite the description of SVT in veterinary medicine, no studies have analyzed the electrocardiographic features of this type of arrhythmias in dogs. To describe the specific electrocardiographic criteria used to differentiate the most common SVT in dogs. Twenty-three dogs examined at Clinica Veterinaria Malpensa for SVT with the mechanism documented by electrophysiologic studies (EPS). Twelve-lead electrocardiographic variables obtained from 14 dogs with orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (OAVRT) and 9 dogs with focal atrial tachycardia (FAT) were compared. Dogs with FAT had faster heart rates (278 +/- 62 versus 229 +/- 42 bpm; P= .049) and less QRS alternans (33 versus 86%; P= .022). P waves appeared during tachycardia in 22 dogs, with a superior axis in 100% of OAVRT and 22% of FAT (P < .001). OAVRT was characterized by a shorter RP interval (85.0 +/- 16.8 versus 157.1 +/- 37.3 ms; P < .001) and smaller RP/PR ratio (0.60 +/- 0.18 versus 1.45 +/- 0.52; P < .001). Repolarization anomalies were present in 64% of OAVRT and no FAT (P < .001). Multivariate analysis identified QRS alternans and a positive P wave in aVR during tachycardia as independent predictors of arrhythmia type. Electrocardiographic criteria used in people for differentiating SVT can also be applied in dogs.
Wise, Shelby; Ross, Amanda; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard
Individuals with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome share many symptoms with those who have chronic fatigue syndrome; one of which is severe fatigue. Previous literature found that those with chronic fatigue syndrome experience many forms of fatigue. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome also experience multidimensional fatigue and whether these individuals can be clustered into subgroups based on the types of fatigue they endorse. A convenience sample of 138 participants (aged 14-29) with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome completed questionnaires that assessed fatigue, brain fog symptom severity, activities that improve brain fog, and brain fog-related disability. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the Fatigue Types Questionnaire, and a three-factor solution was produced. Factor scores were then used to cluster the patients into groups using a TwoStep cluster analysis. This resulted in two clusters, a high severity group and a low severity group. The clusters were then compared on a number of items related to symptom expression. Individuals within the more severe cluster had significantly more brain fog at the beginning and end of the survey when compared to cluster two. Those in the more severe cluster also described more activity impairment as well as more frequent, more severe, and more debilitation from postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and brain fog. The findings of the factor analysis suggest that patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome experience fatigue as a multidimensional construct and they also can be subgrouped based on symptom severity.
Márquez, Samuel; Tessema, Belachew; Clement, Peter Ar; Schaefer, Steven D
Frontal and/or maxillary sinusitis frequently originates with pathologic processes of the ethmoid sinuses. This clinical association is explained by the close anatomical relationship between the frontal and maxillary sinuses and the ethmoid sinus, since developmental trajectories place the ethmoid in a strategic central position within the nasal complex. The advent of optical endoscopes has permitted improved visualization of these spaces, leading to a renaissance in intranasal sinus surgery. Advancing patient care has consequently driven the need for the proper and accurate anatomical description of the paranasal sinuses, regrettably the continuing subject of persistent confusion and ambiguity in nomenclature and terminology. Developmental tracking of the pneumatization of the ethmoid and adjacent bones, and particularly of the extramural cells of the ethmoid, helps to explain the highly variable adult morphology of the ethmoid air sinus system. To fully understand the nature and underlying biology of this sinus system, multiple approaches were employed here. These include CT imaging of living humans (n = 100), examination of dry cranial material (n = 220), fresh tissue and cadaveric anatomical dissections (n = 168), and three-dimensional volume rendering methods that allow digitizing of the spaces of the ethmoid sinus for graphical examination. Results show the ethmoid sinus to be highly variable in form and structure as well as in the quantity of air cells. The endochondral bony origin of the ethmoid sinuses leads to remarkably thin bony contours of their irregular and morphologically unique borders, making them substantially different from the other paranasal sinuses. These investigations allow development of a detailed anatomical template of this region based on observed patterns of morphological diversity, which can initially mask the underlying anatomy. For example, the frontal recess, ethmoid infundibulum, and hiatus semilunaris are key anatomical
Maryniak, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Alicja; Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Miszczak-Knecht, Maria; Walczak, Franciszek; Szumowski, Lukasz
The current study sought to assess cognitive and emotional functions among children and adolescents with atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). 113 patients (62 girls and 51 boys ages, 9-18 years) scheduled for radiofrequency ablation due to AVRT or AVNRT underwent neuropsychologic examination. The study excluded patients who had experienced cardiac arrest, congenital heart defects, neurologic disorders, or other diseases affecting cognitive or emotional development. Standardized tests for examining verbal and visual memory as well as visual-spatial functioning were performed. For patients exhibiting deficits in two or more tests, a diagnosis of "cognitive deficits" was determined. Levels of anxiety were tested using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive deficits were found in 47.8 % of the patients. The age at first arrhythmia attack was related to memory dysfunction. The mean age at which the first symptoms occurred was significantly lower for patients with deficits (8.3 years) than for patients who had no deficit (10.2 years) (t = 2.15; p = 0.03). Boys exhibited a significantly higher level of trait anxiety than girls (t = 3.42; p = 0.0009). A significant negative correlation was found between anxiety and the age at appearance of the first symptoms (r = -0.26; p = 0.005). These findings led us to conclude that cognitive and emotional developments can be negatively affected by AVNRT and AVRT, particularly if tachycardia appears early in life.
Lansley, J A; Tucker, W; Eriksen, M R; Riordan-Eva, P; Connor, S E J
Pulsatile tinnitus is experienced by most patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The pathophysiology remains uncertain; however, transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence have been proposed as potential etiologies. We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence was increased in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and pulsatile tinnitus relative to those without pulsatile tinnitus and a control group. CT vascular studies of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus ( n = 42), without pulsatile tinnitus ( n = 37), and controls ( n = 75) were independently reviewed for the presence of severe transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence according to published criteria. The prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus was compared with that in the nonpulsatile tinnitus idiopathic intracranial hypertension group and the control group. Further comparisons included differing degrees of transverse sinus stenosis (50% and 75%), laterality of transverse sinus stenosis/sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence, and ipsilateral transverse sinus stenosis combined with sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence. Severe bilateral transverse sinus stenoses were more frequent in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension than in controls ( P < .001), but there was no significant association between transverse sinus stenosis and pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group. Sigmoid sinus dehiscence (right- or left-sided) was also more common in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension compared with controls ( P = .01), but there was no significant association with pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group. While our data
McFadden, E A; Woodson, B T; Fink, J N; Toohill, R J
Aspirin sensitivity, asthma, and chronic sinusitis with polyposis comprises the syndrome of Aspirin Triad (AT). The sinusitis associated with this disease is often fulminate and difficult to treat. In order to evaluate the surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis of AT a 17-year retrospective study of 80 patients was performed. Friedman Class III or IV sinus CT scans were present in 73 patients (90%) preoperatively. Twenty-five patients (30.1%) had steroid-dependent asthma and an additional 40 (50%) required intermittent oral steroids for asthma control. All patients underwent bilateral sinus surgery by either a conservative or a radical approach. Patients were followed from 3 weeks to 16 years postoperatively, with an average followup of 3 years. Sixty-eight patients (85%) had significant improvement in their sinus symptoms and 67 (83%) had relief of their asthma. The eight patients (10%) who remained steroid dependent required smaller doses of steroids. Seven patients (8.8%) had nonoperative orbital complications. There was a significant incidence of revision surgery after both conservative and radical sinus procedures. We conclude that surgical treatment by either a conservative or a radical approach controlled the sinusitis in the majority of AT patients, but neither was effective in eliminating the need for subsequent sinus surgery in a significant number of patients with severe sinus disease (Classes III and IV). Control of the sinus disease has a definite beneficial effect on steroid dependency and the need for intermittent oral steroids in managing the asthma in AT. We recommend conservative surgery in the surgical treatment of these patients. AT patients also require close long-term followup with intense medical management of their chronic respiratory inflammation that appears to put them at increased risk for nonoperative complications of their severe sinusitis.
Himbert, C; Lascault, G; Tonet, J; Coutte, R; Busquet, P; Frank, R; Grosgogeat, Y
The authors report a case of syncopal ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a respiratory-dependent rate responsive pacemaker, followed-up for valvular heart disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and sustained atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The introduction of low dose betablocker therapy with reinforcement of the treatment of cardiac failure controlled the ventricular arrhythmia, after suppression of the data responsive function had been shown to be ineffective. The authors discuss the role of the rate responsive function in the triggering of the ventricular tachycardias.
Kaczmarek, I; Bilska, J; Osmola, K; Nowaczyk, M T
Mycotic infection of paranasal sinus could be the etiological factor of chronic sinusitis. The increase in number of fungal sinusitis cases have been reported recently among nonimmunocompromised patient after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth. Nonspecific clinical signs and incorrect radiologic pictures interpretation as well as loss of therapeutic standards seems to be the cause of false negative diagnosis and difficulties in treatment of fungal sinusitis. Clinical and radiological picture of maxillary sinus aspergillosis was described in this paper. In the period of 2006-2009 in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery 19 patient with fungal maxillary sinusitis was treated. The endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth of the related side was performed previously in 80% examined cases. In 2 cases there were immunocompromised patients with immunosuppressive treatment. In 16 cases patients were referred to our Department due to metallic foreign body of the maxillary sinus. Routine diagnostic radiological imaging was performed in each case: paranasal sinus view--Water's view and panoramic radiograph (orthopantomograph). In 4 cases imaging was extended with computer tomography (CT) visualization. The surgical treatment was performed in each case. The final diagnosis was puted on histopathological examination and fungal culture. In 16 cases of analysed group histopathological examination and fungal culture revealed aspergilosis. In 2 cases fungal culture was negative, but histopathology slices confirm presence of hyphae of Aspergillus. In 1 case the root canal sealer was found in the maxillary sinus. In none case invasive form of aspergillosis was confirmed. In all cases Water's view of paranasal sinuses and ortopantomograph showed partially or totally clouded sinus with well-defined, single or multifocal radiopaque object similar to metallic foreign body. Characteristic finding in CT imaging was well-defined radiodence concretions that have been attributed to
Mjahad, A; Rosado-Muñoz, A; Bataller-Mompeán, M; Francés-Víllora, J V; Guerrero-Martínez, J F
To safely select the proper therapy for Ventricullar Fibrillation (VF) is essential to distinct it correctly from Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) and other rhythms. Provided that the required therapy would not be the same, an erroneous detection might lead to serious injuries to the patient or even cause Ventricular Fibrillation (VF). The main novelty of this paper is the use of time-frequency (t-f) representation images as the direct input to the classifier. We hypothesize that this method allow to improve classification results as it allows to eliminate the typical feature selection and extraction stage, and its corresponding loss of information. The standard AHA and MIT-BIH databases were used for evaluation and comparison with other authors. Previous to t-f Pseudo Wigner-Ville (PWV) calculation, only a basic preprocessing for denoising and signal alignment is necessary. In order to check the validity of the method independently of the classifier, four different classifiers are used: Logistic Regression with L2 Regularization (L2 RLR), Adaptive Neural Network Classifier (ANNC), Support Vector Machine (SSVM), and Bagging classifier (BAGG). The main classification results for VF detection (including flutter episodes) are 95.56% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, 88.80% sensitivity and 99.5% specificity for ventricular tachycardia (VT), 98.98% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity for normal sinus, and 96.87% sensitivity and 99.55% specificity for other rhythms. Results shows that using t-f data representations to feed classifiers provide superior performance values than the feature selection strategies used in previous works. It opens the door to be used in any other detection applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarsam, Sinan; Sidiqi, Ibrahim; Shah, Dipak; Zughaib, Marcel
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most common form of supraventricular tachycardia. In contrast, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern consists of an accessory pathway, which may result in the development of ventricular arrhythmias. Frequent tachycardia caused by AVNRT and accessory pathways may play a role in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. A 54-year-old man presented with palpitations and acute decompensated congestive heart failure. His baseline EKG showed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern. While hospitalized, he had an episode of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). He underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation for AVNRT, and his accessory pathway was also ablated even though its conduction was found to be weak. He was clinically doing well on follow-up visit, with resolution of his heart failure symptoms and normalization of left ventricular function on echocardiography. This case raises the question whether the accessory pathway plays a role in the development of systolic dysfunction, and if there is any role for ablation in patients with asymptomatic WPW pattern.
Muminagic, Sahib; Masic, Tarik; Babajic, Emina; Asotic, Mithat
Frontal sinus fractures make up about 2-15% of all facial fractures.This is relatively low frequency of occurrence, but it has a large potential of complication and may involve not only the frontal sinuse but more importantly the brain and the eyes. The management depends of the complexity. If anterior wall is fractured with grossly involved nasofrontal duct (NFD) in the injury it is paramount to occlude NFD. Very often, sinus obliteration is done at the same time. In our expirience autogenous cancellous bone graft is considered to be the best grafting material. It has the less short - or long-term complications and the donor site morbidity is insignificant.
Abrahamson, I A; Baluyot, S T; Tew, J M; Scioville, G
Although not uncommon, and certainly not rare, frontal sinus mucocele was seen in 4 cases by the authors. Since one of the cases was rather unusual, we were prompted to evaluate the subject and prepare this manuscript. Gradual onset of unilateral proptosis should make one suspicious of a mucocele involving the paranasal sinuses, the frontal and ethmoid being the 2 most common locations. Diplopia, due to limited ocular motility on upward gaze, along with proptosis and epiphora are frequently the presenting symptoms which, in one particular case, paradoxically improved at first with topical anti-inflammatory therapy . A team approach (ophthalmologist, radiologist, otorhinolaryngologist, and neurosurgeon) are essential for an accurate diagnosis and therapeutic approach to this problem. The use of a precut template from the Caldwell projection is a very useful device to outline the contours of the frontal sinus during surgery. The not-so-frequent use of abdominal fat to fill the frontal sinus cavity is presented with no apparent postoperative fat necrosis. A 5-year follow-up has shown the patient to be free of recurrences.
Eshaghian, J; Anderson, R L
Orbital pseudotumor is a difficult diagnosis to establish preoperatively. The relationship between sinus disease and orbital pseudotumor is controversial. We describe two patients with unilateral proptosis, diplopia, palpable orbital masses, ocular discomfort, and sinus problems of short duration. Echographically, both had low reflective masses in the orbit and the adjacent sinuses. Roentgenograms and echograms were interpreted as showing erosion of the bony orbital wall. A presumptive diagnosis of sinus malignant neoplasm with orbital extension was made. Sinus histopathologic examination in one case and nasal histopathologic examination in the other showed chronic inflammatory changes compatible with the diagnosis of pseudotumor. At orbitotomy, one patient had vessels communicating between the orbital and sinus lesions, and both patients had irregular pitting of the bone next to the histologically proved orbital pseudotumors. The lytic erosive changes predicted preoperatively were not present. Simultaneous orbital and sinus pseudotumors seem to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Those concerned with the diagnosis and management of orbital disease should be aware of this entity.
de la Rosa Riestra, Adriana; Rubio Caballero, José Amador; Freites Estévez, Alfonso; Alonso Belló, Javier; Botas Rodríguez, Javier
An 83-year-old male suffering from severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis received an implant of a biological aortic prosthesis through the femoral artery without complications. Seven days after dischargement he experienced a syncope. The patient was wearing an ECG holter monitor that day, which showed a wide QRS complex tachycardia of 300 beats per minute. The electrophysiological study revealed a bundle-branch reentry ventricular tachycardia as the cause of the syncope. Radio-frequency was applied on the right-bundle branch. Twelve months later, the patient has remained asymptomatic. PMID:27134443
Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana
To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination
Chirilă, Lucian; Rotaru, Cristian; Filipov, Iulian; Săndulescu, Mihai
The sinus lift was first described in 1974 and it has proven to be a predictable procedure ever since. The complications of this surgical procedure are reported in the literature to be low, and can include acute maxillary sinusitis, scattering of the grafting material into the sinus cavity, wound dehiscence and Schneiderian membrane perforations. We aimed to evaluate the rate of acute maxillary sinusitis after sinus lift procedures and the appropriate management strategies. Between 2013 and 2015, 245 dental implants were placed in 116 patients (76 males and 40 females) with concomitant bone augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. The sinus lifting procedure was bilateral in 35 patients and unilateral in 81 patients (a total of 151 sinuses). Maxillary sinusitis occurred in 5 patients (4.3 %). The clinical signs of infection were: headache, locoregional pain, cacosmia, inflammation of the oral buccal mucosa and rhinorrhea or unilateral nasal discharge. A mucosal fistula was observed during inspection in one patient. The management included only the removal of the grafting material in 3 patients, in 1 patient the grafting material was removed together with all the implants, and in 1 patient only 2 implants and the grafting material were removed, 1 implant being left in place. The sinus cavity was irrigated with metronidazole solution and antibiotic therapy with clindamycin and metronidazole was prescribed for 10 days. Subsequently, all signs of infection disappeared within 5 to 7 days and normal sinus function and drainage were restored. Although sinus lift is regarded as a safe and reliable procedure, acute sinusitis is a possible complication which has to be managed immediately in order to reduce the risk of further complications like pansinusitis, osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone, and spreading of the infection in the infratemporal space or orbital cavity. To minimize risk, caution must be taken with all the steps of the procedure, in order not to
Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John YK; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N
Background Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Methods Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on two fresh cadavers to open all eight sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240 mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/s (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. Results In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. Conclusions This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. PMID:26880742
Hernandez, Antonio; And Others
Laboratory tests including blood count serum electrolyte measures, and electroencephalograms were performed on seven children ages 1 day to 18 years with recurrent attacks of rapid heart action known as idiopathic paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. (CL)
Topdag, Murat; Iseri, Mete; Sari, Fatih; Erdogan, Selvet; Keskin, I Gurkan
Objectives: We present the clinical and radiological features, treatment protocols, and medium-long-term results of our patients following surgery for paranasal sinus mucocele, along with a review of the relevant literature. Materials and methods: A total of 18 patients (11 women and 7 men) who underwent surgery for paranasal sinus mucocele at Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, between 2006 and 2013 were examined retrospectively. The mean patient age was 41 (range 4-73). Demographic and radiological features, symptoms, treatment protocols, and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Results: The most frequently affected sinus was the maxillary sinus (n=9, 50%) followed by the frontal sinus (n=6, 33%) and sphenoidal sinus (n=3, 16%). The main symptom was headache. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele was applied in all 18 patients, while frontal sinus exploration with the osteoplastic flap procedure was performed in one patient and the Caldwell-Luc operation was performed in another patient. The Caldwell-Luc procedure was subsequently required in one patient (6%) and endoscopic revision surgery was required in another patient (6%). Conclusion: Sinus mucocele that enlarges, eroding the surrounding bone tissue, and induces various clinical symptoms due to the impression of the expansile mass, is treated surgically, and must be planned carefully to prevent serious complications. PMID:26770462
Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier
Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045
Beswick, Daniel M; Mace, Jess C; Soler, Zachary M; Ayoub, Noel F; Rudmik, Luke; DeConde, Adam S; Smith, Timothy L
Appropriateness criteria to determine surgical candidacy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have recently been described. This study stratified patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) according to these new appropriateness criteria and evaluated postoperative improvements among appropriateness categories. Adult patients with uncomplicated CRS electing ESS were prospectively enrolled in a multi-institutional cohort study between March 2011 and June 2015 to assess outcomes. Subsequently, appropriateness criteria that consider preoperative medical therapy, 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) scores, and Lund-Mackay computed tomography scores were retrospectively applied. A total of 92.6% (436 of 471) were categorized as "appropriate" ESS candidates, 3.8% (18 of 471) as "uncertain," and 3.6% (17 of 471) as "inappropriate." Among uncertain patients, two-thirds (12 of 18) had identifiable reasons for undergoing ESS, most commonly oral corticosteroid intolerance (n = 6). Postoperative follow-up was available for 79% (n = 372). Clinically significant SNOT-22 improvements occurred in both appropriate and uncertain groups (all P < 0.050) but not among the inappropriate group. The inappropriate group reported less mean improvement in SNOT-22 total score compared to appropriate (P = 0.008) and uncertain (P = 0.006) groups. The vast majority of patients (∼93%) who underwent ESS in a multi-institutional research program were identified as appropriate candidates for surgical intervention, as defined by current appropriateness criteria. Valid considerations frequently exist for offering ESS to patients categorized as uncertain. Appropriate and uncertain candidates report similar, clinically significant SNOT-22 improvements following surgery. Patients classified as inappropriate reported significantly less improvement following ESS. Surgical appropriateness criteria may assist in predicting outcomes of ESS. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The
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Detection of fat in the cranium usually indicates the presence of a fat-containing tumor such as lipoma, dermoid cyst or teratoma. However, since 1982, Hasso et al demonstrated with CT the presence of normal adipose tissue in the cavernous sinus, the mere existence of fat in the cranium does not necessarily mean the presence of a fatty tumor. The author first described fat deposition in the superior sagittal sinus and torcular Herophili following a CT study performed in 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, frequency, and anatomical correlations of fat in the dural sinus as demonstrated on CT. Fat was detected in the cavernous sinus in 20% of all cases (492/2408), and occurred more frequently (25%) in those older than 50 years. Fat was less frequent in the other dural sinuses (3%; 75/2296). The most common location was the torcular Herophili, followed in decreasing order of frequency by the straight sinus, inferior sagittal sinus, superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus. Pathological examination was performed in three cases. Fat deposition was composed of normal adipose tissue and was devoid of fibrous encapsulation or infiltration. In one case, the fat seemed to be partly exposed to the subarachnoid space on CT, whereas on autopsy, thin dura mater covering the fat nodule was confirmed. Fat in the dural sinus must be differentiated from cavernous nodule or sinus thrombosis. The Hounsfield unit may be helpful in making a definitive diagnosis.
Miller, D L; Doppman, J L
Bilateral simultaneous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinuses is an extremely sensitive, specific, and accurate test for diagnosing Cushing disease and distinguishing between that entity and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. It is also valuable for lateralizing small hormone-producing adenomas within the pituitary gland. The inferior petrosal sinuses connect the cavernous sinuses with the ipsilateral internal jugular veins. The anatomy of the anastomoses between the inferior petrosal sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the venous plexuses at the base of the skull varies, but it is almost always possible to catheterize the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, variations in size and anatomy are often present between the two inferior petrosal sinuses in a patient. Advance preparation is required for petrosal sinus sampling. Teamwork is a critical element, and each member of the staff should know what he or she will be doing during the procedure. The samples must be properly labeled, processed, and stored. Specific needles, guide wires, and catheters are recommended for this procedure. The procedure is performed with specific attention to the three areas of potential technical difficulty: catheterization of the common femoral veins, crossing the valve at the base of the left internal jugular vein, and selective catheterization of the inferior petrosal sinuses. There are specific methods for dealing with each of these areas. The sine qua non of correct catheter position in the inferior petrosal sinus is demonstration of reflux of contrast material into the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. Images must always be obtained to document correct catheter position. Special attention must be paid to two points to prevent potential complications: The patient must be given an adequate dose of heparin, and injection of contrast material into the inferior petrosal sinuses and surrounding veins must be done gently and carefully. When the procedure is performed as outlined, both inferior
Graffigna, A; Minzioni, G; Ressia, L; Vigano, M
Three patients underwent surgical ablation for ventricular tachycardia resulting from an aneurysm of the membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Two patients had a definite history of cardiac murmur during infancy, and one of them was found at the time of operation to have a left-to-right shunt through the apex of the aneurysm. The earliest ventricular activation sites were located around the neck of the aneurysm and were ablated in 1 patient by encircling the endocardial ventriculotomy and by cryoablation in the remaining 2. After focus resection had been completed, aneurysm resection and ventricular septal reconstruction were performed. All patients were alive and free of ventricular tachycardia and did not need medication as of 61, 66, and 88 months postoperatively. Spontaneous closure of a ventricular septal defect may lead to the formation of an aneurysm in the ventricular septum that may sustain ventricular tachycardias. Such arrhythmias can be effectively treated using electrically guided surgical techniques.
Lerma, Claudia; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen; Glass, Leon
The objective was to determine the characteristics of heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias prior to the onset of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Sixty-eight beat-to-beat time series from 13 patients with an ICD were analyzed to quantify heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias. The episodes of VT were classified in one of two groups depending on whether the sinus rate in the 1 min preceding the VT was greater or less than 90 beats per minute. In a subset of patients, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability was often observed up to 20 min prior to the VT. There was a non-significant trend to higher incidence of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) before VT compared to control recordings. The patterns of the ventricular arrhythmias were highly heterogeneous among different patients and even within the same patient. Analysis of the changes of heart rate and heart rate variability may have predictive value about the onset of VT in selected patients. The patterns of ventricular arrhythmia could not be used to predict onset of VT in this group of patients.
Amasyali, Basri; Kilic, Ayhan
Focal atrial tachycardia arising from the right atrial appendage usually responds well to radiofrequency ablation; however, successful ablation in this anatomic region can be challenging. Surgical excision of the right atrial appendage has sometimes been necessary to eliminate the tachycardia and prevent or reverse the resultant cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had right atrial appendage tachycardia resistant to multiple attempts at ablation with use of conventional radiofrequency energy guided by means of a 3-dimensional mapping system. The condition led to cardiomyopathy in 3 months. The arrhythmia was successfully ablated with use of a 28-mm cryoballoon catheter that had originally been developed for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cryoballoon ablation without isolation of the right atrial appendage. It might also be an alternative to epicardial ablation or surgery when refractory atrial tachycardia originates from the right atrial appendage.
El Garhy, Mohammad; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lauer, Bernward
Shock coil interaction in patients with multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads is occasionally observed. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of shock coil interaction and its clinical relevance. All ICD patients (646 patients) who came to follow up control in our ICD ambulance between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011 in the department of cardiology in Bad Berka hospital were retrospectively evaluated in this study. All baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics and postoperative chest x ray in postero-anterior and lateral view as well as clinical and ICD follow up data were evaluated. Among 646 patients 42 had multiple ICD leads (6.5%) of whom 36 patients (5.5% of total cohort patients and 85.7% of patients with multiple ICD leads) had shock coil interaction and presented the study group (Group I). The control group (Group II) consisted of 610 patients without coil-coil interaction including patients with single shock lead (604 patients) or patients with multiple leads but without interaction between shock coils (6 patients). Inappropriate anti-tachycardia therapies and RV lead revisions were more frequent in patients with interaction between shock coils (Group I vs Group II: 27.7% and 5.7%; p = 0.049 and 30.6% vs 6.4; p = 0.0001, respectively). Interaction between shock coils may be one of possible causes of lead failure and resulted in inappropriate therapies and subsequent lead revision. Copyright © 2018 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mardinger, Ofer; Moses, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Manor, Yifat; Tulchinsky, Ze'ev; Nissan, Joseph
This study was a retrospective assessment of reentry sinus augmentation compared with sinus augmentation performed for the first time. There were 38 subjects who required sinus augmentation. The study group (17 patients, 21 sinuses) included subjects following failure of a previous sinus augmentation procedure that required reentry augmentation. The control group (21 patients, 21 sinuses) included subjects in which sinus augmentation was performed for the first time. Patients' medical files were reviewed. A preformed questionnaire was used to collect data regarding demographic parameters, medical and dental health history, habits, and intra- and postoperative data. Operative challenges in the study group included adhesions of the buccal flap to the Schneiderian membrane (62%, 13/21, P<.001), bony fenestration of the lateral wall with adhesions (71%, 15/21, P<.001), limited mobility of a clinical fibrotic Schneiderian membrane (71%, 15/21, P<.001), and increased incidence of membrane perforations (47%, 10/21, versus 9.5%, 2/21, P=.03). In the control group the Schneiderian membrane was thin and flexible. Sinus augmentation succeeded in all cases of both groups. Implant failure was significantly higher in the study group (11% versus 0%, P<.001). Clinical success of reentry sinus augmentation is predictable despite its complexity. Clinicians should be aware of anatomical changes caused by previous failure of this procedure. Patients should be informed about the lower success rate of implants when reentry sinus augmentation is required. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis directly alters the tachycardia produced by sympathetically-derived norepinephrine. The NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 micromol/kg, i.v.), produced a marked rise in mean arterial blood pressure. This pressor response was associated with a fall in heart rate which involved the withdrawal of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. The NO-donor, sodium nitroprusside (5 microg/kg, i.v.), produced a pronounced fall in mean arterial blood pressure but only a minor increase in heart rate. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 micromol/kg, i.v.), and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (10 micromol/kg, i.v.), produced falls in mean arterial blood pressure and pronounced increases in heart rate. The indirectly acting sympathomimetic agent, tyramine (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.), produced a pressor response and a tachycardia. The effects of sodium nitroprusside, tyramine, isoproterenol and 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP on mean arterial blood pressure were not markedly affected by L-NAME. However, the tachycardia produced by these agents was considerably exaggerated in the presence of this NO synthesis inhibitor. These findings suggest that L-NAME potentiates the tachycardia produced by sympathetically-derived norepinephrine. The increased responsiveness to norepinephrine may involve (i) a rapid up-regulation of cardiac beta1-adrenoceptors and cAMP signaling in cardiac pacemaker cells due to the loss of the inhibitory influence of cardiac NO, and (ii) the up-regulation of beta1-adrenoceptor-mediated signal transduction processes in response to the L-NAME-induced withdrawal of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity.
Ernst, Sabine; Chun, Julian K R; Koektuerk, Buelent; Kuck, Karl-Heinz
We report on a 63-year-old female patient in whom an electrophysiologic study discovered a hemi-azygos continuation. Using the magnetic navigation system, remote-controlled ablation was performed in conjunction with the 3D electroanatomical mapping system. Failing the attempt to advance a diagnostic catheter from the femoral vein, a diagnostic catheter was advanced via the left subclavian vein into the coronary sinus. The soft magnetic catheter was positioned in the right atrium via the hemi-azygos vein, and 3D mapping demonstrated an ectopic atrial tachycardia. Successful ablation was performed entirely remote controlled. Fluoroscopy time was only 7.1 minutes, of which 45 seconds were required during remote navigation. Remote-controlled catheter ablation using magnetic navigation in conjunction with the electroanatomical mapping system proved to be a valuable tool to perform successful ablation in the presence of a hemi-azygos continuation.
Vázquez, Alejandro; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson
The frontal sinus is the most complex of all paranasal sinuses. Given its proximity to the cranial vault and orbit, frontal sinus pathology can progress to involve these structures and lead to significant morbidity, or even mortality. Surgical management of the frontal sinus is technically challenging. Various open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to the otolaryngologist. This article presents an overview of the major disease entities that affect the frontal sinus, with a special emphasis on treatment principles and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samore, Naseer Ahmed; Imran Majeed, Syed Muhammad; Kayani, Azhar Mahmud; Bhalli, Muhammad Asif; Shabbir, Muhammad
To determine the outcome of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation (RFCA) as a non-pharmacological curative therapy for idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) and to identify procedure-related complications. Descriptive study. The Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from February 2001 to October 2008. Ninety eight consecutive patients with idiopathic VT, resistant to drug therapy, who underwent Electrophysiology Studies (EPS) radiofrequency catheter ablation were enrolled. Clinical and electrophysiological variables were recorded and a descriptive analysis was done. Out of the 98 patients, 79 were males (80.6%). The mean age was 33.29+11.93 years. Modes of presentation were sustained VT, Repetitive Monomorphic VT (RMVT), Non-sustained VT (NSVT) and Ventricular Premature Beats (VPBs). Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) VT was found in 37 patients, 37 had Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia (ILVT), 20 had Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT) VT, and Inflow Right Ventricular Tachycardia (IRVT) was found in 7 patients. Other sites of origin of VT were infrequent. Eight patients had dual morphologies of VT. Atrioventricular Nodal Re-entry Tachycardia (AVNRT) was found in 8 patients. RFCA was successful in abolishing inducible VT in 88 patients. One patient developed complete AV block requiring a permanent pacemaker. Results of this study confirm a high degree of success and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation as curative therapy for idiopathic ventricular tachycardia.
Parry, S; Richardson, D; O'Shea, D; Sen, B; Kenny, R
OBJECTIVE—To assess the diagnostic value of supine and upright carotid sinus massage in elderly patients. DESIGN—Prospective controlled cohort study. SETTING—Three inner city accident and emergency departments and a dedicated syncope facility. PATIENTS—1375 consecutive patients aged > 55 years presenting with unexplained syncope and drop attacks; 25 healthy controls. INTERVENTIONS—Bilateral supine carotid sinus massage, repeated in the 70° head up tilt position if the initial supine test was not diagnostic of cardioinhibitory and mixed carotid sinus hypersensitivity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Diagnosis of cardioinhibitory or mixed carotid sinus hypersensitivity; clinical characteristics of supine v upright positive groups. RESULTS—226 patients were excluded for contraindications to carotid sinus massage. Of 1149 patients undergoing massage, 223 (19%) had cardioinhibitory or mixed carotid sinus hypersensitivity; 70 (31%) of these had a positive response to massage with head up tilt following negative supine massage (95% confidence interval, 25.3% to 37.5%). None of the healthy controls showed carotid sinus hypersensitivity on erect or supine massage. The initially positive supine test had 74% specificity and 100% sensitivity; these were both 100% for the upright positive test. The clinical characteristics of the supine v upright positive subgroups were similar. CONCLUSIONS—The diagnosis of carotid sinus hypersensitivity amenable to treatment by pacing may be missed in one third of cases if only supine massage is performed. Massage should be done routinely in the head up tilt position if the initial supine test is negative. Keywords: carotid sinus; tilt table testing; syncope; elderly patients PMID:10618329
Hu, Zhi; Sun, Daming; Zhou, Quansheng; Wang, Yuli; Gu, Jingcheng; Han, Yaohua
to explore the relationship between the maxillary sinus volume and the amount of alveolar bone, and the effect of molar loss upon the maxillary sinus was further analyzed,by measuring adult maxillary sinus volume, sinus ridge distance, and calculating the gasification coefficient of maxillary sinus. One hundred and ninety cases (361 maxillary sinus) with CT examinations were collected, they were divided into group A and group B, 121 cases (242 maxillary sinus) of normal subjects served as group A, 42 cases (65 maxillary sinus) with molar part off were B group, in which 31 maxillary sinus with a molar loss were group B1,22 maxillary sinus with two molar loss were B2 group,12 maxillary sinus with three molar loss (one molar remains) were B3 group, 27 cases (54 maxillary sinus) with upper teeth off were C group. Bymeasureing the maxillary sinus volume, sinus ridge distance and the size of the maxillary sinus, calculating the gasification coefficient, we analyzed the relationship between maxillary volume and sinus ridge distance, and comparatively analyzed the differences among the three groups in the size, gasification coefficient, volume of maxillary sinus and sinus ridge distance. In the normal group,the volume of maxillary sinus and sinus ridge distance had a correlation coefficient of -0. 63,(P< 0.05); Sinus ridge distance in group A was larger than the other two groups (P<0.05), and larger in B group than in C group (P<0. 05), anteroposterior maxillary sinus diameter and reft-right diameter in C group was greater than in A group and B group(P<0.05), group C gasification coeffiecent was less than A group and B group (P<0. 05). The volume of maxillary sinus is negatively correlated with the amont of alveolar bone; Upper teeth's shedding promotes maxillary sinus deformation; Maxiuary sinus volume has a tendency to decrease.
Al-Wattar, Kais M
The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology of perianal abscess or discharges in neonates and infants and some of them are perianal sinuses with blind inner end without connection to the anal canal, and some of these cases have a different histological pattern. Complete surgical excision and primary closure of their wounds can cure these patients. Between January 1988 and December 2000, (81) neonates and infants (aged 2 weeks to 2 years) with perianal sinuses, fistula-in-ano abscess dealt in the Al-Zahrawi and Al-Khansa Teaching Hospitals, Mosul, Iraq, were studied. Fifty-one patients displayed an onset of symptoms during their first year of age, all cases had a gentle probing and proctoscopy under general anesthesia, and the discharge from abscess from the patients were sent for culture. Thirty patients with proper sinuses had excision of the sinus and primary closure; children with fistulae underwent fistulectomy; perianal abscesses drained. All the excised specimens were examined histopathologically. All children, except 3, were boys. Out of the 81 cases studied, 30 patients (37%) proved to have proper sinuses with blind inner end. Eight of these showed a different histological pattern, and in 2 cases, the histopathology was that of rectal duplication, the microbiology of the discharge from the proper sinuses was showing a predominance of non-gut derived organisms. All patients cured by excision of the sinuses and primary closure. Fistulae are the most common perianal discharging lesions in neonates and infants, blind sinuses are another cause in a considerable number. We propose a diagnostic strategy and treatment for those children presenting with discharging perianal lesions; for anticipation of these sinuses 3 points need to be considered before attempting surgery. 1) Blind sinus tract on gentle probing. 2) Normal anal and rectal mucosa on proctoscopy. 3) High bacterial yield of non-gut derived organisms on culture of the pus or discharge. Their
Pereira, Ivan Dias Fernandes; Grando, Marcela Miguel; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Castiglia, Yara Marcondes Machado; Vane, Luís Antônio; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; do Nascimento, Paulo; Amorim, Rosa Beatriz; Rodrigues, Geraldo Rolim; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Ganem, Eliana Marisa
Cardiovascular changes associated with neuraxial blocks are a cause of concern due to their frequency and because some of them can be considered physiological effects triggered by the sympathetic nervous system blockade. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraoperative cardiovascular complications and predictive factors associated with neuraxial blocks in patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing non-obstetric procedures over an 18-year period in a tertiary university hospital--HCFMB-UNESP. A retrospective analysis of the following complications was undertaken: hypertension, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, and sinus tachycardia. These complications were correlated with anesthetic technique, physical status (ASA), age, gender, and preoperative co-morbidities. The Tukey test for comparisons among proportions and logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. 32,554 patients underwent neuraxial blocks. Intraoperative complications mentioned included hypotension (n=4,109), sinus bradycardia (n=1,107), sinus tachycardia (n=601), and hypertension (n=466). Hypotension was seen more often in patients undergoing continuous subarachnoid anesthesia (29.4%, OR=2.39), ≥ 61 years of age, and female (OR=1.27). Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia were the complications observed more often. Hypotension was related to anesthetic technique (CSA), increased age, and female. Tachycardia and hypertension may not have been directly related to neuraxial blocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ucer, T C
A common and serious intraoperative complication of sinus floor lift is perforation of the sinus lining. Several strategies to prevent or treat it have had varying results. We report the results of an audit of 13 consecutive sinus grafts in 11 patients in which nasal suction was used to facilitate raising the sinus lining, and to reduce the risk of perforation.
Liu, T C; Yu, X F; Gu, Z W; Bai, W L; Wang, Z H; Cao, Z W
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the causes and the strategy of frontal sinusitis after transfrontal craniotomy by endoscopic frontal sinus surgery and traditional surgery with facial incision. Method: A total of thirty-four patients with frontal sinusitis after transfrontal craniotomy were admitted, with the symptom of purulence stuff, headache and upper eyelid discharging. The onset time was 2.6 years on average. The frontal sinus CT and MRI images showed frontal sinusitis. Twenty-seven patients were treated with endoscopic frontal sinus surgery, and seven patient was treated with combined endoscopic and traditional frontal sinus surgery. In the revision surgery, the bone wax and inflammatory granulation tissue were cleaned out in both operational methods. The cure standard was that the postoperative frontal sinus inflammation disappeared and the drainage of the volume recess was unobstructed. Result: Thirty-four patients had a history of transfrontal craniotomy, and there was a record of bone wax packing in every operation. Among twenty-seven patients with endoscopic frontal sinus surgery, Twenty-five cases cured and two cases were operated twice. Seven patients were cured with combined endoscopic and traditional frontal sinus surgery. Conclusion: The frontal sinusitis after transfrontal craniotomy may be related to the inadequate sinus management, especially bone wax to be addressed to the frontal sinus ramming leading to frontal sinus mucosa secretion obstruction and poor drainage. Endoscopic frontal sinus surgery is a way of minimally invasive surgery. The satisfying curative effect can be obtained by endoscopic removal of bone wax, inflammatory granulation tissue, and the enlargement of frontal sinus aperture after exposure to the frontal sinus, and some cases was treated with both operation method.
Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire
Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.
Fry, Andrew C.; Parks, Michael J.
This case study examined a weight-trained (WT) male who had an unusually high heart rate response to heavy resistance exercise and self-administered anabolic androgenic steroids as an ergogenic aid to training. The subject was compared to 18 other WT people. His tachycardia response occurred only in the presence of a pressure load and not with a…
Salama, N; Oakley, R J; Skilbeck, C J; Choudhury, N; Jacob, A
Sinus drainage is impeded by the transition spaces that the anterior paranasal sinuses drain into, not the ostia themselves. Addressing the transition spaces and leaving the ostia intact, using the minimally invasive sinus technique, should reverse chronic rhinosinusitis. To assess patient benefit following use of the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients underwent the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptoms (i.e. blocked nose, poor sense of smell, rhinorrhoea, post-nasal drip, facial pain and sneezing) were recorded using a visual analogue scale, pre-operatively and at six and 12 weeks post-operatively. Patients were also surveyed using the Glasgow benefit inventory, one and three years post-operatively. We found a significant reduction in all nasal symptom scores at six and 12 weeks post-operatively, and increased total quality of life scores at one and three years post-operatively (25.2 and 14.8, respectively). The patient benefits of treatment with the minimally invasive sinus technique compare with the published patient benefits for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Matthias, Anne Thushara; Indrakumar, Jegarajah
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Rigors due to shivering can cause electrocardiogram artifacts mimicking various cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We describe an 80-year-old Sri Lankan man with an abnormal electrocardiogram mimicking narrow complex tachycardia during the immediate post-operative period. Electrocardiogram changes caused by muscle tremor during rigors could mimic a narrow complex tachycardia. Identification of muscle tremor as a cause of electrocardiogram artifact can avoid unnecessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention to prevent arrhythmias.
Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282
Kolb, Christof; Ocklenburg, Rolf
For physicians involved in the treatment of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) the knowledge of tachycardia detection algorithms is of paramount importance. This knowledge is essential for adequate device selection during de-novo implantation, ICD replacement, and for troubleshooting during follow-up. This review describes tachycardia detection algorithms incorporated in ICDs by Sorin/LivaNova and analyses their strengths and weaknesses.
Khan, Mohsin K; Elmouchi, Darryl
The right atrial appendage is an uncommon site of origin for ectopic atrial tachycardia. Right atrial appendage tachycardia (RAAT) has been noted to be prevalent in young males and responds well to radiofrequency ablation. We report a case of RAAT resistant to multiple attempts of ablation that responded to ablation using Stereotaxis Niobe™ Magnetic Navigation System (RMN, Stereotaxis, St. Louis, MO, USA). ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Sung-Hwan; Oh, Yong-Seog; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Choi, Ik Jun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Shin, Woo-Seung; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Jang, Sung-Won; Lee, Man Young; Rho, Tai-Ho
Little is known about the long-term outcomes of catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) using remote magnetic navigation system (RMN). One hundred twenty patients underwent catheter ablation of SVTs with RMN (Niobe, Stereotaxis, USA): atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT; n = 59), atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT; n = 45), and focal atrial tachycardia (AT, n = 16). The outcome of AVRT with right free wall accessory pathway was compared with those of a group of 26 consecutive patients undergoing manual ablation. Mean follow-up period was 2.2 ± 1.4 years. Overall arrhythmia-free survival was 86%; AVRT (77%), AVNRT (96%), and focal AT (71%). After the learning period (initial 50 cases), procedural outcomes had improved for AVRT and AVNRT (91% in overall group, 90% in AVRT group, 100% in AVNRT group, and 68% in focal AT group). The recurrence-free rate was higher for the free wall accessory pathways than those of the other sites (92 vs. 73%, log-rank P = 0.06). Furthermore, when it is confined for the right free wall accessory pathway, RMN showed excellent long-term outcome (7/7, 100 %) compared to the results of manual approach (18/26, 69.2%, log-rank P = 0.07). RMN showed favorable long-term outcomes for the ablation of SVT. In our experience, RMN-guided ablation may be associated with a higher success rate as compared to manual ablation when treating right-sided free wall pathways.
Luo, Huifang; Wang, Jierui; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo
The frontal sinus, due to its unique anatomical features, has become an important element in research for individual identification. Previous studies have demonstrated the use of frontal sinus as an indicator for sex discrimination; however, the sex discrimination rate using frontal sinus was lower compared to that using the traditional morphological methods. In order to improve the sex discrimination percentage, we developed a new method involving the measurement of the frontal sinus index and frontal sinus area from lateral cephalogram radiographs. In this study, 475 digital lateral cephalograms of adult Han citizens from Xinjiang were included. The maximum height, depth, and area of the frontal sinus were calculated using the NemoCeph NX software. The frontal sinus index (ratio of the maximum height to the depth of frontal sinus) was also computed. Statistical analysis results showed significant differences in the frontal sinus index and area between males and females. Discriminant function equation derived from this study differentiated between sexes with 76.6% accuracy. The results demonstrated that the use of frontal sinus index and area for sex discrimination was more accurate than using the frontal sinus index alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lopes, Lázara Montezano; Figueiredo, Tácita Pires de; Costa, Soraya Coelho; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira
The goal of this study was to assess how often potentially inappropriate medicines are used by the elderly at home, and analyze its clinical significance. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study, a segment of a study on the use of medication conducted at a public hospital. Inappropriate medication was classified according to the three criteria in the 2012 Beers List. 190 elderly were included in this study; the prevalence of the use of inappropriate medicines was 44.2%. The therapeutic classes of most often used inappropriate medicines were non-steroid anti-inflammatories, cardiovascular agents, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. We found a positive association between the use of inappropriate medicines and polypharmacy, polypathology and hypertension. The 2013 Rename identified 35 inappropriate drugs (34.3%). The study showed a high prevalence of using inappropriate medicines by the elderly. The clinical consequences of using inappropriate medicines are important for public health due to the risk of adverse events and a negative impact on elderly functionality. When it comes to caring for the elderly, it is important to develop measures to foster the rational use of medication.
Greener, Ian D.; Sasano, Tetsuo; Wan, Xiaoping; Igarashi, Tomonori; Strom, Maria; Rosenbaum, David S.; Donahue, J. Kevin
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the links between connexin43 (Cx43) expression, myocardial conduction velocity, and ventricular tachycardia in a model of healed myocardial infarction. Background Post-infarction ventricular arrhythmias frequently cause sudden death. Impaired myocardial conduction has previously been linked to ventricular arrhythmias. Altered connexin expression is a potential source of conduction slowing identified in healed scar border tissues. The functional effect of increasing border-zone Cx43 has not been previously evaluated. Methods Twenty-five Yorkshire pigs underwent anterior infarction by transient left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by weekly testing for arrhythmia inducibility. Twenty animals with reproducibly inducible sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were randomized 2:1:1 to receive AdCx43, Adβgal, or no gene transfer. One week later, animals underwent follow-up electrophysiologic study and tissue assessment for several functional and molecular measures. Results Animals receiving AdCx43 had less electrogram fractionation and faster conduction velocity in the anterior-septal border zone. Only 40% of AdCx43 animals remained inducible for ventricular tachycardia, while 100% of controls were inducible after gene transfer. AdCx43 animals had 2-fold higher Cx43 protein levels in the anterior-septal infarct border, with similar percents of phosphorylated and intercalated disk-localized Cx43 compared with controls. Conclusions These data mechanistically link Cx43 expression to slow conduction and arrhythmia susceptibility in the healed scar border zone. Targeted manipulation of Cx43 levels improved conduction velocity and reduced ventricular tachycardia susceptibility. Cx43 gene transfer represents a novel treatment strategy for post-infarction arrhythmias. PMID:22883636
Miglets, A W; Saunders, W H; Ayers, L
Three of the four previously described patients with isolated aspergilosis of the sphenois sinus died, owing to intracranial extension of the infection. The case reports of two patients with sphenoid aspergillosis are presented in which surgical exteriorization and aeration of the involved sinus was curative.
Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Kadowaki, Akito; Ishida, Tomoko; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Liang, Nan
Our laboratory has demonstrated that the cardiomotor component of aortic baroreflex is temporarily inhibited at the onset of spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats, without altering carotid sinus baroreflex. A reason for this dissociation may be attributed to a difference in the responses between aortic nerve activity (AoNA) and carotid sinus nerve activity (CsNA) during spontaneous motor activity. The stimulus-response curves of AoNA and CsNA against mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were compared between the pressor interventions evoked by spontaneous motor activity and by intravenous administration of phenylephrine or norepinephrine, in which the responses in heart rate (HR) were opposite (i.e., tachycardia vs. baroreflex bradycardia), despite the identical increase in MAP of 34-40 mmHg. In parallel to the pressor response, mean AoNA and CsNA increased similarly by 78-81 and by 88 % of the baseline control, respectively, irrespective of whether the pressor response was evoked by spontaneous motor activity or by a pharmacological intervention. The slope of the stimulus-response curve of the mean AoNA became greater (P < 0.05) during spontaneous motor activity as compared to the pharmacological intervention. On the other hand, the stimulus-response curve of the mean CsNA and its slope were equal (P > 0.05) between the two pressor interventions. Furthermore, the slopes of the stimulus-response curves of both diastolic AoNA and CsNA (defined as the minimal value within a beat) exhibited a greater increase during spontaneous motor activity. All differences in the slopes of the stimulus-response curves were abolished by restraining HR at the intrinsic cardiac frequency. In conclusion, mean mass activities of both aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors are able to encode the beat-by-beat changes in MAP not only at rest but also during spontaneous motor activity and spontaneous motor activity-related reduction of aortic baroreceptor activity is denied
Kremers, M S; Black, W H; Lange, R; Wells, P J; Solo, M
Electrocardiographic signal-averaging during sinus rhythm (61 to 99 beats/min) and atrial pacing (100 to 171 beats/min) were performed to determine the effect of heart rate on late potentials in 15 patients without (group 1) and 7 patients with (group 2) inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). In sinus rhythm (79 +/- 12 vs 77 +/- 12 beats/min, difference not significant), the duration of the low-amplitude signal less than 40 microV was longer in group 2 than group 1 (43 +/- 21 vs 26 +/- 8 ms, p = 0.034) and more patients had late potentials (57 vs 7%, p = 0.021), but QRS duration (121 +/- 32 vs 98 +/- 19 ms) and terminal voltage (33 +/- 33 vs 50 +/- 26 ms) were not significantly different. With atrial pacing in group 1 (128 +/- 16 beats/min), 3 patients developed a simultaneous decrease in terminal voltage and an increase in terminal QRS duration consistent with a late potential, but mean total and terminal durations were unchanged. Terminal voltage increased (50 +/- 26 to 59 +/- 40) but not significantly. With atrial pacing in group 2 (119 +/- 12 beats/min) all patients either had a late potential or developed a simultaneous decrease in terminal voltage and an increase in terminal QRS duration (p = 0.001 vs group 1). Root mean square (p = 0.001 vs group 1). Root mean square voltage decreased (33 +/- 23 to 22 +/- 23) and became significantly different from group 1 (p = 0.017). Mean QRS duration, root mean square terminal voltage and low-amplitude terminal QRS duration, however, were unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lerman, B B; Dong, B; Stein, K M; Markowitz, S M; Linden, J; Catanzaro, D F
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is a generic term that describes the various forms of ventricular arrhythmias that occur in patients without structural heart disease and in the absence of the long QT syndrome. Many of these tachycardias are focal in origin, localize to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), terminate in response to beta blockers, verapamil, vagal maneuvers, and adenosine, and are thought to result from cAMP-mediated triggered activity. DNA was prepared from biopsy samples obtained from myocardial tissue from a patient with adenosine-insensitive idiopathic ventricular tachycardia arising from the RVOT. Genomic sequences of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 were determined after amplification by PCR and subcloning. A point mutation (F200L) in the GTP binding domain of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 was identified in a biopsy sample from the arrhythmogenic focus. This mutation was shown to increase intracellular cAMP concentration and inhibit suppression of cAMP by adenosine. No mutations were detected in Galphai2 sequences from myocardial tissue sampled from regions remote from the origin of tachycardia, or from peripheral lymphocytes. These findings suggest that somatic cell mutations in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway occurring during myocardial development may be responsible for some forms of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:9637720
El-Shmaa, Nagat S; Ezz, Hoda Alsaid Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed
To assess the efficacy of labetalol versus nitroglycerin for induction of controlled hypotension during sinus endoscopic surgery. A prospective, double-blind and randomized study. Carried out in operating room in university hospital. 60 patients of both sexes, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, age range from 20 to 60years; scheduled for elective sinus endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia (GA). Patients were divided into two groups (30 each). NTG group received nitroglycerin infusion at a dose of 2-5μg/kg/min, LAB group received labetalol infusion at a dose of 0.5-2mg/min. Surgical condition was assessed by surgeon using average category scale (ACS) of 0-5, a value of 2-3 being ideal. In both groups mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was gradually reduced till the ideal ACS for assessment of surgical condition, the target of ACS was 2-3 or lower. Both studied drugs achieved desired hypotension and improved visualization of surgical field by decreasing bleeding in the surgical site, but ideal surgical conditions were created at mild hypotension (MAP 70-75) in LAB group while same conditions were created at MAP of 65-69mmHg in NTG group. Mean heart rate (HR) was significantly higher in NTG group as compared to LAB group. Blood loss decreased significantly in LAB group. Both labetalol and NTG are effective and safe drugs for induction of controlled hypotension during sinus endoscopic surgery. While, labetalol was better as it offered optimum operative condition with mild decrease in blood pressure, decreased surgical bleeding and less tachycardia during the surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu
Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hayashi, Kentaro; Fukunaga, Masato; Yamaji, Kyohei; An, Yoshimori; Nagashima, Michio; Hiroshima, Kenichi; Ohe, Masatsugu; Makihara, Yu; Yamashita, Kennosuke; Ando, Kenji; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Goya, Masahiko
The clinical efficacy of catheter ablation (CA) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the mechanism and predictors of recurrence are not yet completely elucidated. Of 963 consecutive patients who underwent PAF ablation during the study period, a total of 108 patients with SSS (SSS group) and 108 matched controls without SSS (non-SSS group) were followed up. During the follow-up period (mean, 32.8±17.5 months), the SSS group had significantly higher AF recurrence rate since the last procedure than the non-SSS group (26.9% vs. 12.0%; P=0.02). The SSS group had significantly higher prevalence of non-pulmonary vein (non-PV) foci than the non-SSS group (25.9% vs. 13.9%; P=0.027). On multivariate analysis congestive heart failure (HR, 13.7; 95% CI: 1.57-119; P=0.02) and non-PV foci (HR, 5.75; 95% CI: 1.69-19.6; P=0.005) were independent predictors of recurrence following CA in the SSS group. In the SSS group, 88 patients had bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome without prior permanent pacemaker implantation. Of these, 6 required pacemaker implantation because of AF and sinus pause recurrence. Patients with SSS are at higher risk of AF recurrence after CA. Non-PV foci are associated with AF recurrence following PAF with SSS.
Štoković, Nikola; Trkulja, Vladimir; Dumić-Čule, Ivo; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Vukičević, Slobodan; Grgurević, Lovorka
The human sphenoid sinus is an extremely variable cavity and an important landmark in hypophyseal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the sphenoid sinus type, size, extent of pneumatization and occurrence of protrusions of the adjacent neurovascular structures. A total of 51 randomly selected skulls (≥20 years of age, 33 male; 102 sinuses) were analyzed using cone beam computed tomography to estimate pneumatization extension beyond the body of the sphenoid (planum sphenoidale, pterygoid process, greater wings, clivus, dorsum sellae) and protrusions of the maxillary, mandibular, optic or pterygoid nerve or the internal carotid artery. Difference in pneumatization type between the left and the right-sided sinus was observed in 45% of the skulls. Conchal pneumatization was registered in 2%, presellar in 24%, sellar in 41% and postsellar in 33% of total sinuses. Presellar sinuses frequently pneumatized planum sphenoidale and sporadically other structures, and were characterized by sporadic optic nerve protrusions. Sellar and particularly postsellar sinuses were characterized by simultaneous pneumatization extensions and neurovascular protrusions. In the case of postsellar-type sinuses, the probability of these multiple interactions was not affected by their actual size, while it increased with the increasing sinus dimensions in the case of sellar-type sinuses. A more detailed analysis indicated that increasing sinus height, length or width increased the probability of interactions and pneumatization of particular surrounding structures. Data suggest that the sphenoid sinus pneumatization type and dimensions might be used to estimate the risks of iatrogenic injury during transsphenoidal surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmıs; Simsek, Huseyin; Karaman, Ahmet
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between frontal sinus morphology and hand-wrist bone maturation by using postero-anterior (PA) cephalometric radiographs. The study sample consisted of 220 patients divided into eleven groups based on the hand-wrist radiographs. The right and left maximum height, width and area of the frontal sinus parameters were measured in postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs 220 subjects aged 8-18 years. The hand-wrist skeletal maturation stages were evaluated on the hand-wrist radiographs using the method of Fishman. The Kendall tau-b values were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the hand-wrist skeletal maturation stages and the frontal sinus parameters. The right and left frontal sinus areas and widths were found to be larger in males than in females (p < 0.05). In males, a significant difference was observed in all frontal sinus parameters in different maturation stages (p < 0.001), while a statistically significant correlation was found in females between the left frontal sinus area, right frontal sinus height, right frontal sinus width and different maturation stages (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the relationship between frontal sinus dimensions obtained from PA cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist maturation stages suggests that frontal sinuses can be used in determining growth and development.
Ketch, Terry; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, RoseMarie; Robertson, David
BACKGROUND: The baroreflex normally serves to buffer blood pressure against excessive rise or fall. Baroreflex failure occurs when afferent baroreceptive nerves or their central connections become impaired. In baroreflex failure, there is loss of buffering ability, and wide excursions of pressure and heart rate occur. Such excursions may derive from endogenous factors such as stress or drowsiness, which result in quite high and quite low pressures, respectively. They may also derive from exogenous factors such as drugs or environmental influences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Impairment of the baroreflex may produce an unusually broad spectrum of clinical presentations; with acute baroreflex failure, a hypertensive crisis is the most common presentation. Over succeeding days to weeks, or in the absence of an acute event, volatile hypertension with periods of hypotension occurs and may continue for many years, usually with some attenuation of pressor surges and greater prominence of depressor valleys during long-term follow-up. With incomplete loss of baroreflex afferents, a mild syndrome of orthostatic tachycardia or orthostatic intolerance may appear. Finally, if the baroreflex failure occurs without concomitant destruction of the parasympathetic efferent vagal fibers, a resting state may lead to malignant vagotonia with severe bradycardia and hypotension and episodes of sinus arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Although baroreflex failure is not the most common cause of the above conditions, correct differentiation from other cardiovascular disorders is important, because therapy of baroreflex failure requires specific strategies, which may lead to successful control.
Nouraei, S A R; Elisay, A R; Dimarco, A; Abdi, R; Majidi, H; Madani, S A; Andrews, P J
To study the radiologic anatomy of the paranasal sinuses in patients with and without chronic rhinosinusitis to assess whether anatomic variations are associated with disease pathology, and to identify those variants that may impact operative safety. Tertiary referral otolaryngology unit. Incidence and nature of anatomic variants with potential impact on operative safety, and the presence or absence of sinus mucosal disease and its correlation with anatomic variants with a potential impact on mucociliary clearance. We reviewed 278 computed tomographic scans from patients with rhinosinusitis symptoms to investigate anatomic variations that may predispose to sinusitis or impact on operative safety. The incidence of variants with potential impact on sinus drainage was compared between patients with and without sinus mucosal disease with logistic regression. A closed osteomeatal complex was identified in 148 patients (53%), followed by concha bullosa in 98 patients (35%). Closed osteomeatal complex and nasal polyposis were independent risk factors for sinus mucosal disease. Anatomic variants with a potential impact on operative safety included anterior clinoid process pneumatization (18%), infraorbital ethmoid cell (12%), sphenomaxillary plate (11%), and supraorbital recess (6%). In 92% of patients, the level difference between the roof of the ethmoid cavity and the cribriform plate was Keros I. Bony anatomic variants do not increase the risk of sinus mucosal disease. However, anatomic variants with a potential impact on operative safety occur frequently and need to be specifically sought as part of preoperative evaluation.
Liu, Yuchun; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Gao, Xiang
The superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and transverse sinus are the major dural sinuses that receive a considerable amount of venous drainage. The occlusion of them has been suggested to cause intracranial hypertension, hemorrhage, and lead to potentially fatal consequences. We reported a 35-year-old woman with headache presented to our emergency department with a decreased level of consciousness and epileptic seizures. The examination of speech, higher mental function, and cranial nerve were normal. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated both subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage and brain edema at the right temporal lobe accompanied by high density shadow in the right transverse sinus. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed extensive thrombosis of the SSS and bilateral transverse sinus. The SSS and transverse sinus thrombosis, accompanied by right temporal lobe hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). An emergent mechanical thrombectomy by placed Solitair AB stent in the SSS, respectively, passed left and right sigmoid sinus-transverse sinus route. We removed the most clots, DSA revealed recanalization of the SSS and left transverse sinus was seen with normalization of the venous outflow, the occlusion of right transverse sinus was still present. There were 4 hours after patient back to neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU), patient appeared anisocoria (R/L:4.0/2.5 mm), bilateral light reflexes disappeared, then we took a CT reexamination revealed intraparenchymal hemorrhage increased, brain edema was aggravated at the left temporal lobe, and mild midline shift. Subsequently, we performed decompressive hemicraniectomy and puncture the hematoma supplemented by B ultrasonic. Anticoagulation treatment was initiated 24 hours after surgery, and follow-up DSA showed gradually improved patency in the SSS and bilateral transverse sinus. Despite occlusion of the SSS and bilateral transverse sinus, patient's symptoms resolved after the operations and he
Chen, Ming-long; Yang, Bing; Xu, Dong-jie; Zou, Jian-gang; Shan, Qi-jun; Chen, Chun; Chen, Hong-wu; Li, Wen-qi; Cao, Ke-jiang
To report the electrophysiological findings and the ablation strategies in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATAs) or atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after left atrial circumferential ablation (LACA) in the treatment of AF. 91 patients with AF had LACA procedure from April 2004 to May 2006, 19 of which accepted the second ablation procedure due to ATAs or AF recurrence. In all the 19 patients [17 male, 2 female, age 25 - 65 (53 +/- 12) years], 11 presented with paroxysmal AF before the first ablation procedure, 2 with persistent AF and 6 with permanent AF. Pulmonary vein potentials (PVP) were investigated in both sides in all the patients. Delayed PVP was identified inside the left circular line in 5 patients, in the right in 1 and both in 2 during sinus rhythm. "Gap" conduction was found and successfully closed guided by circular mapping catheter. In 3 cases, irregular left atrial tachycardia was caused by fibrillation rhythm inside the left ring via decremental "gap" conduction. Reisolation was done successfully again guided by 3-D mapping and made the left atrium in sinus rhythm but the fibrillation rhythm was still inside the left ring. Pulmonary vein tachycardia with 1:1 conduction to the left atrium presented in one case and reisolation stopped the tachycardia. No PVP was discovered in both sides in 4 patients but other tachycardias could be induced, including two right atrial scar related tachycardias, two supraventricular tachycardias mediated by concealed accessory pathway, one cavo-tricuspid isthmus dependent atrial flutter and one focal atrial tachycardia near the coronary sinus ostium. All the tachycardias in these 4 patients were successfully ablated with the help of routine and 3-D mapping techniques. In the rest 3, which were in AF rhythm, LACA was successfully done again. After a mean follow-up of 4 - 26 (11.5 +/- 8.5) months, 16 patients were symptom free without anti-arrhythmic drug therapy; 1 of them had frequent palpitation attack with
Pampapati, Praveenkumar; Rao, Hejmadi Tati Gururaj; Radhesh, Srinivasan; Anand, Hejjaji Krishnamurthy; Praveen, Lokkur Srinivasamurthy
Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is a rare condition arising from any of the three aortic sinuses. Among them, an aneurysm arising from the left coronary sinus is the rarest. Most of these cases were earlier diagnosed using echocardiography and conventional angiography. But with the availability of advanced imaging modalities like 64 slice cardiac CT and MR modalities, this condition can be accurately assessed noninvasively. We report a case of ruptured aneurysm originating from the left coronary sinus with a long windsock type of fistulous track between the aneurysm and right atrium evaluated by 64 slice cardiac CT imaging. This was later confirmed perioperatively.
Ha, Seung Min; Cho, Young Suk; Cho, Gyu Chong; Jo, Choong Hyun; Ryu, Ji Young
The aim of this study was to ascertain if a modified carotid sinus massage (CSM) using ultrasonography is superior to the conventional CSM for vagal tone generation. This was a prospective, crossover, clinical trial including 30 subjects with sinus rhythm. Participants were paired, and they performed 2 types of CSM to each other. To perform the conventional technique, pressure was exerted at the point where the maximal impulse of the carotid pulse was palpated. In the modified technique, participants localized the point of maximal diameter just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery using ultrasonography and applied pressure to that point. Mean differences between premaneuver and postmaneuver R-R intervals and heart rates were compared. The distance from the midline of the neck (x distance) to the angle of the mandible (y distance) was measured, and the mean distance between the 2 techniques was compared. The baseline mean premaneuver R-R interval and heart rate did not differ significantly between the 2 techniques. The postmaneuver R-R interval and heart rate as well as the mean R-R interval and heart rate differences were significantly greater in the modified CSM. The mean location determined using the modified CSM was located 0.8 cm lateral and 0.8 cm superior to the mean location of the conventional CSM. The modified CSM using ultrasonography might be more useful than the conventional CSM in reverting episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and may be a suitable alternative for treating the same in the emergency department. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... chlorophyll, fungi must absorb food from dead organic matter. Fungi share with bacteria the important ability to ... production, they can live in a damp and dark environment. The sinuses, consisting of moist, dark cavities, ...
Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram
The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Anon, Jack B; Paglia, Margaret; Xiang, Jim; Ambrose, Paul G; Jones, Ronald N; Kahn, James B
This study assessed daily aspirate samples from an indwelling sinus catheter during high-dose, short-course levofloxacin (750 mg daily x 5 days) treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis. Pathogens were isolated from 4 of 18 recruited patients. Bacteriologic eradication occurred within 24 h for 3 patients and 72 h for the 4th.
Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T
The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.
Guy, W Marshall; Brissett, Anthony E
This article discusses the classic and contemporary management strategies for treating frontal sinus fractures. The goals of management of frontal sinus fractures are to create a safe sinus by minimizing the likelihood of early and late complications while preserving the function of the sinus and maintaining the cosmetic appearance of the upper face. The assessment and classification of patients with frontal sinus injuries, their management, and the treatment of complications are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tan, Maw Pin; Murray, Alan; Hawkins, Terry; Chadwick, Thomas J.; Kerr, Simon R. J.; Parry, Steve W.
Background Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG) scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M) were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG. Results Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21), asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12) and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9) were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005) and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032). There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326) or late H:M (p = 0.351) between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls. Conclusions Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation
Tan, Maw Pin; Murray, Alan; Hawkins, Terry; Chadwick, Thomas J; Kerr, Simon R J; Parry, Steve W
Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG) scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M) were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG. Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21), asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12) and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9) were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005) and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032). There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326) or late H:M (p = 0.351) between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation provides additional clues to
Ekinci, Adnan; Karataş, Duran; Yetiş, Abdurrahman; Erenler, Behice Hande; Ozcan, Muge
Paranasal fibrosarcoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is a very rare malignant tumor. It is usually presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. In this clinical report, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, and treatment principles of a paranasal fibrosarcoma originating from the right maxillary sinus and obstructing the right nasal passage are discussed.A 55-year-old male patient was admitted to the authors clinic with complaints of nasal obstruction and epistaxis lasting for 2 years. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed a mass lesion which obstructed the right nasal passage and caused frequent epistaxis. An opacity consistent with soft tissue lesion which was originated from the right maxillary sinus and filled the right nasal passage was observed in paranasal tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the mass lesion was contrasted. Tumor was seen to erode orbital floor, and lateral and anterior walls of the maxillary sinus. Biopsy result was reported as papilloma. The patient was treated with Denker approach as anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was eroded by the tumor lesion and the mass lesion was excised. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy as pathological diagnosis was reported as paranasal fibrosarcoma.
Baĭdik, O D; Logvinov, S V; Zubarev, S G; Sysoliatin, P G; Gurin, A A
Methods of light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to study the samples of maxillary sinus (MS) mucous membrane (MM) under normal conditions and in odontogenic sinusitis. To study the normal structure, the samples were obtained at autopsy from 26 human corpses 12-24 hours after death. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study was performed on biopsies of grossly morphologically unchanged MS MM, obtained during the operations for retention cysts in 6 patients. MS MM in perforative sinusitis was studied using the biopsies obtained from 43 patients. The material is broken into 4 groups depending on perforative sinusitis duration. Under normal conditions, MS MM is lined with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. Degenerative changes of ciliated epithelial cells were already detected at short time intervals after MS perforations and become apparent due to reduction of specific volume of mitochondria and, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and increase of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. In the globlet cells, the reduction of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was associated with the disturbance of the secretory product release. At time intervals exceeding 3 months, epithelium underwent metaplasia into simple cuboidal and stratified squamous keratinized, while in MS MM lamina propria, cellular infiltration was increased. CD4+ cell content in sinus MM gradually increased, while at late periods after perforation occurrence it decreased. Low CD4+ cell count within the epithelium and the absence of muromidase on the surface of MS MM was detected. With the increase of the time interval since MS perforation, the number of CD8+ and CD20+ cells in MS MM was found to increase.
... is a common term, but can be misleading. Facial pain/pressure or headache that occurs without nasal congestion ... sinusitis. There are many causes of headaches and facial pain. These include migraine headaches, tension headaches, temporomandibular joint ( ...
Recognition of the potential for phrenic nerve injury (PNI) often prompts less aggressive attempts at catheter ablation of multiple forms of tachycardia or abandoning ablation altogether. Some novel techniques to avoid PNI during catheter ablation have been described. Five patients (age: 13-57 years, three females) with ectopic atrial tachycardia originating from the right atrial free wall (RAFW) near the phrenic nerve underwent electrophysiology study with three-dimensional mapping and endocardial cryoablation. Upstream phrenic pacing was performed after cryoadherence was achieved, and cryoablation of ectopic foci was performed during close observation for occurrence of PNI and tachycardia elimination. Cryoablation acutely eliminated five of six atrial tachycardias originating close to the phrenic nerve. Transient PNI during cryothermy occurred in two patients, and resolved within 3 minutes. Patients were observed overnight on telemetry, with no early recurrences of targeted atrial tachycardias and no evidence of PNI. At last follow-up of 1-39 months, four patients were arrhythmia free on no medications. Catheter cryoablation during simultaneous upstream phrenic nerve pacing can lead to safe and effective elimination of focal atrial tachycardias originating from the RAFW close to the phrenic nerve. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chao, Hong-Ming; Chuang, Chia-Jueng; Chen, Ke-Chi; Chu, Chih-Chun; Chou, Jung-Mao
A 5-year-old male presented with the history of whitish discharge from a midline sinus opening just above the pubis for 2 months. Attempted radiography of the sinus revealed a blind fistula and voiding cystourethrography was normal. The fistula was excised deep to the subpubic space without any evidence of connection to the lower urinary tract. Pathologic evaluation of the lesion revealed a ciliated-columnar lining with stratified-squamous and transitional epithelium. To our knowledge, a subpubic sinus with this unique presentation of epithelium has not been reported previously.
Eloy, Jean Anderson; Marchiano, Emily; Vázquez, Alejandro
This review discusses extended endoscopic and open sinus surgery for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Extended maxillary sinus surgery including endoscopic maxillary mega-antrostomy, endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy, and inferior meatal antrostomy are described. Total/complete ethmoidectomy with mucosal stripping (nasalization) is discussed. Extended endoscopic sphenoid sinus procedures as well as their indications and potential risks are reviewed. Extended endoscopic frontal sinus procedures, such the modified Lothrop procedure, are described. Extended open sinus surgical procedures, such as the Caldwell-Luc approach, frontal sinus trephine procedure, external frontoethmoidectomy, frontal sinus osteoplastic flap with or without obliteration, and cranialization, are discussed. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Griffith, M J; Bexton, R S; McComb, J M
To assess the financial implications of antitachycardia pacing in patients with frequent supraventricular tachycardia. Intertach pacemakers were implanted in 25 patients (mean age 47 years, five men): 22 had atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia. The patients had failed a mean of 4.9 (range zero to eight) drugs and had been admitted to hospital 3.7 (zero to 31) times over a symptomatic period of 13.9 years (two months to 54 years). The mean admission time for implantation was 2.8 (two to seven) days. One patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome subsequently underwent surgery. Infection occurred in two patients, and pain over the pacemaker required its resiting in two. Two patients have had one admission each for tachycardia. Six patients remain on anti-arrhythmic drugs. Costs were calculated including value added tax, capital charges, and allocated overheads. The cost a year before pacing was 1174 pounds including drug costs, clinic visits, and hospital admissions. The mean cost of pacemaker implantation was 3364.22 pounds, including the pacemaker and lead, admission and procedure, readmissions and first pacing check. Subsequent annual follow up cost was 73.72 pounds including annual clinic visits and drug costs. The cost of pacing is 4241 pounds whereas medical management costs 7044 pounds assuming pacemaker life of six years: with a 10 year life the cost is 4537 pounds compared with 11,740 pounds: with a 12 year life the cost is 4685 pounds compared with 14,088 pounds. The excess cost of implantation of an antitachycardia pacemaker is minimal in patients with frequent supraventricular tachycardia despite drug treatment and is justified by excellent control of symptoms and reduction of drug use and hospital admissions.
Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune
Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gehanno, P; Darantière, S; Dubreuil, C; Chobaut, J C; Bobin, S; Pages, J C; Renou, G; Bobin, F; Arvis, P; Stass, H
A pharmacokinetic study was carried out to determine moxifloxacin concentrations in sinus tissue, after oral moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 5 days to patients with chronic sinusitis, undergoing elective sinus surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of seven treatment groups, in which tissues were sampled 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24 or 36 h post-dose. A control group with non-infected nasal polyps was also included. Forty-eight patients (13 female, 35 male, mean age 47.1 years) were allocated to one of each active treatment group (n = 42) or to the control group (n = 6). Tissue and plasma samples were taken simultaneously and stored frozen until assayed by HPLC. Thirty-nine patients were fully valid for pharmacokinetic analysis. The geometric mean moxifloxacin plasma concentration increased from 2.32 mg/L at 2 h to a maximum of 3.37 mg/L at 4 h post-dose, decreasing to 0.37 mg/L at 36 h post-dose. The moxifloxacin concentration in sinus mucosa was consistently greater than that in plasma being 4.56-5.73 mg/kg from 2 to 6 h and 2.81-1.25 mg/kg from 12 to 36 h post-dose. The elimination rates in plasma and sinus tissues were similar. The tissue/plasma ratio was c. 200% between 2 and 6 h, and up to 328.9% at 36 h. Results were similar whatever the site of tissue sampling (maxillary sinus, anterior ethmoid sinus or nasal polyps). Tissue levels exceeded the MIC(90) of all pathogens commonly causing acute sinusitis (e.g. 5-30 x MIC for Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.25 mg/L). These results sup-port the use of moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily as a regimen for the treatment of sinus infections.
Guo, W-Y; Lee, C-C J; Lin, C-J; Yang, H-C; Wu, H-M; Wu, C-C; Chung, W-Y; Liu, K-D
Sinus stenosis occasionally occurs in dural arteriovenous fistulas. Sinus stenosis impedes venous outflow and aggravates intracranial hypertension by reversing cortical venous drainage. This study aimed to analyze the likelihood of sinus stenosis and its impact on cerebral hemodynamics of various types of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Forty-three cases of dural arteriovenous fistula in the transverse-sigmoid sinus were reviewed and divided into 3 groups: Cognard type I, type IIa, and types with cortical venous drainage. Sinus stenosis and the double peak sign (occurrence of 2 peaks in the time-density curve of the ipsilateral drainage of the internal jugular vein) in dural arteriovenous fistula were evaluated. "TTP" was defined as the time at which a selected angiographic point reached maximum concentration. TTP of the vein of Labbé, TTP of the ipsilateral normal transverse sinus, trans-fistula time, and trans-stenotic time were compared across the 3 groups. Thirty-six percent of type I, 100% of type IIa, and 84% of types with cortical venous drainage had sinus stenosis. All sinus stenosis cases demonstrated loss of the double peak sign that occurs in dural arteriovenous fistula. Trans-fistula time (2.09 seconds) and trans-stenotic time (0.67 seconds) in types with cortical venous drainage were the most prolonged, followed by those in type IIa and type I. TTP of the vein of Labbé was significantly shorter in types with cortical venous drainage. Six patients with types with cortical venous drainage underwent venoplasty and stent placement, and 4 were downgraded to type IIa. Sinus stenosis indicated dysfunction of venous drainage and is more often encountered in dural arteriovenous fistula with more aggressive types. Venoplasty ameliorates cortical venous drainage in dural arteriovenous fistulas and serves as a bridge treatment to stereotactic radiosurgery in most cases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Wang, Ying; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Ernv; Zhang, Wei; Su, Xianming
To explore the correlationship between brady sinus arrhythmia and the levels of serum klotho protein in aged. 104 patients over 75 years old with brady sinus arrhythmia (experiment group) were enrolled, including 34 cases of sinus arrest, 43 cases of sinus bradycardia and 25 cases of atrioventricular block. 109 patients over 75 years old without brady sinus arrhymia were chosen as control group. All subjects were monitored by Holter. The levels of serum klotho protein were detected and compared among three groups. The correlation between the frequency of sinus arrest and the levels of serum klotho protein was analyzed simultaneously. The levels of serum klotho protein in experiment group were lower than that in control group (P<0.01); the sinus arrest frequency was negatively correlated with the levels of serum klotho protien. The levels of serum klotho protein in patients with sinus arrest were lower than that with sinus bradycardia and atrioventricularblock (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between sinus bradycardia group and atrioventricular block group. The levels of serum klotho protein may reflect the function of sinoatrial node and could be used as an index to estimate the function of sinoatrial node.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section... nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. A carotid sinus nerve stimulator is an implantable device used to decrease arterial pressure by stimulating Hering's nerve at the carotid sinus. (b) Classification. Class...
Pomar Blanco, P; Martín Villares, C; San Román Carbajo, J; Fernández Pello, M; Tapia Risueño, M
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is nowadays the "gold standard" for frontal sinus pathologies, but management of acute situations and the aproach and/or the extent of the surgery perfomed in the frontal recess remains controversial nowadays. We report our experience in 4 patients with orbital celulitis due to frontal sinusitis who underwent combined external surgery (mini-trephination) and endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients managed sinus patency without any complications. We found this combined sinusotomy as an easy, effective and reproductible technique in order to resolve the difficult surgical management of complicated frontal sinusitis.
Oz, Aslihan Zeynep; Oz, Abdullah Alper; El, Hakan; Palomo, Juan Martin
To evaluate the maxillary sinus volumes in unilaterally impacted canine patients and to compare the volumetric changes that occur after the eruption of canines to the dental arch using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pre- (T0) and posttreatment (T1) CBCT records of 30 patients were used to calculate maxillary sinus volumes between the impacted and erupted canine sides. The InVivoDental 5.0 program was used to measure the volume of the maxillary sinuses. The distance from impacted canine cusp tip to the target point on the palatal plane was also measured. Right maxillary sinus volume was statistically significantly smaller compared to that of the left maxillary sinus when the canine was impacted on the right side at T0. According to the T1 measurements there was no significant difference between the mean volumes of the impaction side and the contralateral side. The distance from the canine tip to its target point on the palatal plane were 17.17 mm, and the distance from the tip to the target point was 15.14 mm for the left- and right-side impacted canines, respectively, and there was a significant difference between the mean amount of change of both sides of maxillary sinuses after treatment of impacted canines. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines created a significant increase in maxillary sinus volume when the impacted canines were closer with respect to the maxillary sinus.
Gomes, Cinthya Cristina; Pinto, Larissa Christina Costa; Victor, Fernanda Loretti; Silva, Erlange Andrade Borges da; Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Sarquis, Maria Inês de Moura; Camões, Isabel Coelho Gomes
Diseases of the maxillary sinus have been associated with dental roots near the maxillary sinus that have undergone endodontic treatment. To investigate the presence of filamentous fungi in patients with dental roots near the maxillary sinus who had apical periodontitis treated endodontically, and to alert practitioners that this could be a possible avenue of contamination of the sinus in patients who develop maxillary sinus infection. Cross-sectional study in 60 palatal roots of the first maxillary molars near the maxillary sinus, that underwent endodontic treatment for apical periodontitis. After removal of the filling material, dentin shavings were collected and placed in test tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar and chloramphenicol. The phenotype was determined by macroscopic and microscopic examination of the colonies. For polymerase chain reaction, the primers ITS-5 and ITS-4 were used. The sequences obtained were compared with those deposited at GenBank using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program. Filamentous fungi were isolated from 6 of 60 canals (10%): Aspergillus niger (6.7%), Aspergillus versicolor (1.6%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (1.6%). Root canals near the maxillary sinus with endodontic treatment and apical periodontitis may exhibit positive cultures for filamentous fungi. Interested professionals should be alert, because these microorganisms have pathogenic characteristics that can cause disease of odontogenic origin in the maxillary sinus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Senior, B; Wirtschafter, A; Mai, C; Becker, C; Belenky, W
To quantitatively evaluate the long-term impact of sinus surgery on paranasal sinus development in the pediatric patient. Longitudinal review of eight pediatric patients treated with unilateral sinus surgery for periorbital or orbital cellulitis with an average follow-up of 6.9 years. Control subjects consisted of two groups, 9 normal adult patients with no computed tomographic evidence of sinusitis and 10 adult patients with scans consistent with sinusitis and a history of sinus-related symptoms extending to childhood. Application of computed tomography (CT) volumetrics, a technique allowing for precise calculation of volumes using thinly cut CT images, to the study and control groups. Paired Student t test analyses of side-to-side volume comparisons in the normal patients, patients with sinusitis, and patients who had surgery revealed no statistically significant differences. Comparisons between the orbital volumes of patients who did and did not have surgery revealed a statistically significant increase in orbital volume in patients who had surgery. Only minimal changes in facial volume measurements have been found, confirming clinical impressions that sinus surgery in children is safe and without significant cosmetic sequelae.
The inappropriate use of Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments by the public has been the subject of debate for many years. Patients often attend departments with problems which could equally have been treated by the primary care services in the community. However, despite much research into why patients choose to visit A & E departments rather than their general practitioners, efforts to reverse this trend have generally failed. If the professional view of what is appropriate cannot be enforced, perhaps the label 'inappropriate' belongs to the A & E services rather than the patient.
Wang, Ying; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Ernv; Zhang, Wei; Su, Xianming
Objective: To explore the correlationship between brady sinus arrhythmia and the levels of serum klotho protein in aged. Methods: 104 patients over 75 years old with brady sinus arrhythmia (experiment group) were enrolled, including 34 cases of sinus arrest, 43 cases of sinus bradycardia and 25 cases of atrioventricular block. 109 patients over 75 years old without brady sinus arrhymia were chosen as control group. All subjects were monitored by Holter. The levels of serum klotho protein were detected and compared among three groups. The correlation between the frequency of sinus arrest and the levels of serum klotho protein was analyzed simultaneously. Results: The levels of serum klotho protein in experiment group were lower than that in control group (P<0.01); the sinus arrest frequency was negatively correlated with the levels of serum klotho protien. The levels of serum klotho protein in patients with sinus arrest were lower than that with sinus bradycardia and atrioventricularblock (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between sinus bradycardia group and atrioventricular block group. Conclusion: The levels of serum klotho protein may reflect the function of sinoatrial node and could be used as an index to estimate the function of sinoatrial node. PMID:26550342
Teul, Iwona; Lorkowski, Jacek; Lorkiewicz, Wieslaw; Nowakowski, Dariusz
Breathing vitally serves body homeostasis. The prevalence of upper airway infections is often taken as an indicator of overall health status of a population living at a given time. In the present study we examined the unearthed remains of skulls from the XIII-XV century inhabitants searching for signs of maxillary sinusitis. Maxillary sinuses of the skulls of 92 individuals were inspected macroscopically and, if necessary, endoscopically. Osseous changes, including the pitting and abnormal spicule formation were present in 69 cases (75.0 %). It was found that, overall, dental infection was a major cause of maxillary sinusitis (18.8 %). Severe bone changes were observed in the adults' skulls, but were also present in the sinus walls of children's skulls. Post-inflammatory changes were manifest as remodeling and damage to the sinus walls. The results indicate that both children and adults of the Middle Ages suffered from chronic sinusitis. These observations confirm that the climate, environment, and lifestyle of the medieval populations contributed to the morbidity of the upper respiratory tract.
Sartipy, Ulrik; Albåge, Anders; Insulander, Per; Lindblom, Dan
This article presents a review on the efficacy of surgical ventricular restoration and direct surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular aneurysm or dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. The procedure includes a non-electrophysiologically guided subtotal endocardiectomy and cryoablation in addition to endoventricular patch plasty of the left ventricle. Coronary artery bypass surgery and mitral valve repair are performed concomitantly as needed. In our experience, this procedure yielded a 90% success rate in terms of freedom from spontaneous ventricular tachycardia, with an early mortality rate of 3.8%. A practical guide to the pre- and postoperative management of these patients is provided.
Qian, Zhiyong; Guo, Jianghong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yao; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zou, Jiangang
Abstract Ventricular tachycardia storm (VTS) is defined as a life-threatening syndrome of three or more separate episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) leading to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy within 24 hours. Patients with VTS have poor outcomes and require immediate medical attention. ICD shocks have been shown to be associated with increased mortality in several studies. Optimal programming in minimization of ICD shocks may decrease mortality. Large controlled trials showed that long detection time and high heart rate detection threshold reduced ICD shock burden without an increase in syncope or death. As a fundamental therapy of ICD, antitachycardia pacing (ATP) can terminate most slow VT with a low risk of acceleration. For fast VT, burst pacing is more effective and less likely to result in acceleration than ramp pacing. One algorithm of optimal programming management during a VTS is presented in the review. PMID:25745473
Griffith, M J; Bexton, R S; McComb, J M
OBJECTIVE--To assess the financial implications of antitachycardia pacing in patients with frequent supraventricular tachycardia. PATIENTS--Intertach pacemakers were implanted in 25 patients (mean age 47 years, five men): 22 had atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia. The patients had failed a mean of 4.9 (range zero to eight) drugs and had been admitted to hospital 3.7 (zero to 31) times over a symptomatic period of 13.9 years (two months to 54 years). RESULTS--The mean admission time for implantation was 2.8 (two to seven) days. One patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome subsequently underwent surgery. Infection occurred in two patients, and pain over the pacemaker required its resiting in two. Two patients have had one admission each for tachycardia. Six patients remain on anti-arrhythmic drugs. Costs were calculated including value added tax, capital charges, and allocated overheads. The cost a year before pacing was 1174 pounds including drug costs, clinic visits, and hospital admissions. The mean cost of pacemaker implantation was 3364.22 pounds, including the pacemaker and lead, admission and procedure, readmissions and first pacing check. Subsequent annual follow up cost was 73.72 pounds including annual clinic visits and drug costs. The cost of pacing is 4241 pounds whereas medical management costs 7044 pounds assuming pacemaker life of six years: with a 10 year life the cost is 4537 pounds compared with 11,740 pounds: with a 12 year life the cost is 4685 pounds compared with 14,088 pounds. CONCLUSION--The excess cost of implantation of an antitachycardia pacemaker is minimal in patients with frequent supraventricular tachycardia despite drug treatment and is justified by excellent control of symptoms and reduction of drug use and hospital admissions. PMID:8461232
BAHAR, Sadullah; BOLAT, Durmus; DAYAN, Mustafa Orhun; PAKSOY, Yahya
ABSTRACT The 2- and 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy and the morphometric properties of the paranasal sinuses of the foal have received little or no attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to obtain details of the paranasal sinuses using multiplane CT imaging to create 3D models and to determine morphological and morphometric data for the sinuses using the 3D models. The heads of five female foals were used in this study. The heads were scanned using computed tomography (CT) in the rostrocaudal direction. After the heads had been frozen, anatomical sections were obtained in the scan position. The 3D models of sinuses and the skull were prepared using MIMICS®. These models were used to assess the surface area and volume of the sinuses, the width, height and orientation of the apertures connecting these sinuses and finally the planar relation of the sinuses with the skull. The right and left sides of all anatomical structures, except the sphenoid sinuses, had symmetric organization on CT images and anatomical sections. The total sinus surface area and volume on both sides were 214.4 cm2 and 72.9 ml, respectively. The largest and the smallest sinuses were the frontal sinus (41.5 ml) and the middle conchal sinus (0.2 ml), respectively. It was found that the planes bounding the sinuses passed through easily palpable points on the head. In conclusion, 3D modeling in combination with conventional sectional imaging of the paranasal sinuses of the foal may help anatomists, radiologists, clinicians and veterinary students. PMID:24004969
Bahar, Sadullah; Bolat, Durmus; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun; Paksoy, Yahya
The 2- and 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy and the morphometric properties of the paranasal sinuses of the foal have received little or no attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to obtain details of the paranasal sinuses using multiplane CT imaging to create 3D models and to determine morphological and morphometric data for the sinuses using the 3D models. The heads of five female foals were used in this study. The heads were scanned using computed tomography (CT) in the rostrocaudal direction. After the heads had been frozen, anatomical sections were obtained in the scan position. The 3D models of sinuses and the skull were prepared using MIMICS(®). These models were used to assess the surface area and volume of the sinuses, the width, height and orientation of the apertures connecting these sinuses and finally the planar relation of the sinuses with the skull. The right and left sides of all anatomical structures, except the sphenoid sinuses, had symmetric organization on CT images and anatomical sections. The total sinus surface area and volume on both sides were 214.4 cm(2) and 72.9 ml, respectively. The largest and the smallest sinuses were the frontal sinus (41.5 ml) and the middle conchal sinus (0.2 ml), respectively. It was found that the planes bounding the sinuses passed through easily palpable points on the head. In conclusion, 3D modeling in combination with conventional sectional imaging of the paranasal sinuses of the foal may help anatomists, radiologists, clinicians and veterinary students.
Yu, Huanxin; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Gang
To investigate the causes, clinical manifestation and treatment principles of frontal sinus tract after the frontal approach craniotomy. The clinic data of 13 patients with frontal skin sinus tract after the frontal approach craniotomy were retrospectively analyzed. All of them were described in the clinical record to have undergone frontal sinus mucosa pushing down or shaving and bone wax filling in the frontal sinus during the surgery, of whom 3 cases had history of frontal abscess incision drainage. All patients were performed endoscopic frontal sinus surgery and forehead skin sinus tract excision and suture. All of the patients successfully recovered after one-stage operation, and the frontal skin sinus tract was healed. The frontal approach craniotomy with postoperative frontal sinus tract was related with the improper use of bone wax tamponade and sealing of frontal sinus. The treatment principles were to remove bone wax, remove inflammatory granulation tissue around the sinus tract, and to open frontal sinus and promote frontal sinus drainage.
This article discusses how to work with a child who uses inappropriate language. The words inappropriately used by young children are grouped into five categories: (1) names of body parts considered as private, and their nicknames; (2) bathroom words and body products; (3) religion-related words; (4) sexually charged words overheard when adults…
Ho, Jacqueline; Bailey, Michelle; Zaunders, John; Mrad, Nadine; Sacks, Raymond; Sewell, William; Harvey, Richard J
Nasal polyposis is a common development in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and sinus mucosa and polyp tissue have been used interchangeably in studies investigating CRS. However, potential differences may exist between these 2 tissue types, which have not been entirely characterized. A cross-sectional study of CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery was conducted. Sinus mucosal biopsies and corresponding polyp tissue were obtained from the same sinus cavity via flow cytometry, single-cell suspensions identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), CD4 and CD8 T cells, activated CD4 and CD8 T cells, plasma cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), regulatory T cells, T follicular helper cells, B cells, and immunoglobulin A (IgA)(+) and IgG(+) B cells. Cells were measured as a percentage of CD45(+) cells. Paired nonparametric comparisons between sinus and polyp tissue were performed. Ten patients (50% female; age 48 ± 16 years) were recruited. Significantly elevated ILC2 levels were found in polyp tissue compared to sinus mucosa (0.12 [0.07 to 0.23] vs 0.07 [0.04 to 0.16], p = 0.02), as well as plasma cells (2.25 [0.84 to 3.68] vs 1.18 [0.74 to 2.41], p = 0.01); pDCs (0.15 [0.12 to 0.50[ vs 0.04 [0.02 to 0.17], p = 0.03); activated CD8 T cells (29.22 [17.60 to 41.43] vs 16.32 [10.07 to 36.16], p = 0.04) and IgG(+) B cells (6.96 [0.06 to 11.82] vs 1.51 [0.38 to 5.13], p = 0.04). Other cell populations showed no significant differences. Polyps have a similar cellular composition to that of mucosa. Higher levels of ILC2s, plasma cells, pDCs, activated CD8 T cells, and IgG(+) B cells in polyp tissue may be reflective of cell populations driving nasal polyp development. The cellular machinery of CRS is present in polyps and representative of the disease process. This pilot study strongly suggests that a larger study would provide significant insights into the relationship of sinus mucosa to pathogenesis of nasal polyps. © 2014 ARS
Thornton, Andrew S; Jordaens, Luc J
Navigation, mapping, and ablation in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) can be difficult. Catheter navigation using external magnetic fields may allow more accurate mapping and ablation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of RVOT tachycardia ablation using remote magnetic navigation. Mapping and ablation were performed in eight patients with outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias. Tachycardia mapping was undertaken with a 64-polar basket catheter, followed by remote activation and pace-mapping using a magnetically enabled catheter. The area of interest was localized on the basket catheter in seven patients in whom an RVOT arrhythmia was identified. Remote navigation of the magnetic catheter to this area was followed by pace-mapping. Ablation was performed at the site of perfect pace-mapping, with earliest activation if possible. Acute success was achieved in all patients (median four applications). Median procedural time was 144 minutes, with 13.4 minutes of patient fluoroscopy time and 3.8 minutes of physician fluoroscopy time. No complications occurred. One recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean 366 days). RVOT tachycardias can be mapped and ablated using remote magnetic navigation, initially guided by a basket catheter. Precise activation and pace-mapping are possible. Remote magnetic navigation permitted low fluoroscopy exposure for the physician. Long-term results are promising.
Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh
The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419
Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh
The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.
Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.
Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.
Hssaine, K; Belhoucha, B; Rochdi, Y; Nouri, H; Aderdour, L; Raji, A
Mucocele is a pseudo-cystic tumor of the paranasal sinuses. Despite its benign histological nature, it is aggressive towards neighboring structures (orbit and brain). Our aim was to study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and evolution aspects of this pathology. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 9 years on 32 patients operated on and followed for mucocele in our department. Mean age was 43.28 years with a sex ratio to 1. Mucoceles were located in the fronto-ethmoid sinus (27 cases), the maxillary sinus (3 cases) and the sphenoid sinus (2 cases). The most common symptoms were periorbital swelling and exophthalmia. CT scan confirmed the diagnosis in the majority of cases. MRI was performed in 3 patients. Surgery consisted in a large marsupialization by endonasal approach in 30 cases, and by a combined approach in two cases. A recurrence was observed in two patients after a mean period of 18 months. Mucocele is a benign and expansive pseudo-cystic tumor, affecting mostly adults and developing in the paranasal sinuses. Clinical symptoms are not specific. It may reveal itself by ophthalmic or intracranial complications. Diagnosis is based on imaging (CT and MRI). Endonasal surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of mucoceles and is endowed with low morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Butler, J; Harriss, D R; Sinclair, M; Westaby, S
BACKGROUND--Arrhythmias are a common cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. This study assessed the efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in reducing the incidence of atrial fibrillation or flutter and ventricular arrhythmias after coronary artery surgery. METHODS--A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. 60 patients received a 24 hour intravenous infusion of amiodarone (15 mg/kg started after removal of the aortic cross clamp) followed by 200 mg orally three times daily for 5 days, and 60 patients received placebo. RESULTS--6 patients (10%) in the amiodarone group and 14 (23%) in the placebo group needed treatment for arrhythmias (95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference between groups was 0 to 26%, p = 0.05). The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia detected clinically and requiring treatment was lower in the amiodarone group (8% amiodarone v 20% placebo, 95% CI 0 to 24%, p = 0.07). The incidence detected by 24 hour Holter monitoring was similar (17% amiodarone v 20% placebo). Untreated arrhythmias in the amiodarone group were either clinically benign and undetected (n = 3) or the ventricular response rate was slow (n = 2). Age > 60 years was a positive risk factor for the development of supraventricular tachycardia in the amiodarone group but not in the placebo group. Fewer patients had episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation recorded on Holter monitoring in the amiodarone group (15% amiodarone v 33% placebo, 95% CI 3 to 33%, p = 0.02). Bradycardia (78% amiodarone v 48% placebo, 95% CI 14% to 46%, p < 0.005) and pauses (7% amiodarone v 0% placebo) occurred in more amiodarone treated patients. Bradycardia warranted discontinuation of treatment in one patient treated with amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of clinically significant tachycardia was reduced by amiodarone. The ventricular response rate was slowed in supraventricular tachycardia, but the induction of bradycardia may preclude the routine use of amiodarone
You, Joon S.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Kim, James; Ison, Sean; Wong, Brian; Cui, Haotian; Bhandarkar, Naveen
Efficient management of chronic sinusitis remains a great challenge for primary care physicians. Unlike ENT specialists using Computed Tomography scans, they lack an affordable and safe method to accurately screen and monitor sinus diseases in primary care settings. Lack of evidence-based sinusitis management leads to frequent under-treatments and unnecessary over-treatments (i.e. antibiotics). Previously, we reported low-cost optical imaging designs for oral illumination and facial optical imaging setup. It exploits the sensitivity of NIR transmission intensity and their unique patterns to the sinus structures and presence of fluid/mucous-buildup within the sinus cavities. Using the improved NIR system, we have obtained NIR sinus images of 45 subjects with varying degrees of sinusitis symptoms. We made diagnoses of these patients based on two types of evidence: symptoms alone or NIR images along. These diagnostic results were then compared to the gold standard diagnosis using computed tomography through sensitivity and specificity analysis. Our results indicate that diagnosis of mere presence of sinusitis that is, distinguishing between healthy individuals vs. diseased individuals did not improve much when using NIR imaging compared to the diagnosis based on symptoms alone (69% in sensitivity, 75% specificity). However, use of NIR imaging improved the differential diagnosis between mild and severe diseases significantly as the sensitivity improved from 75% for using diagnosis based on symptoms alone up to 95% for using diagnosis based on NIR images. Reported results demonstrate great promise for using NIR imaging system for management of chronic sinusitis patients in primary care settings without resorting to CT.
Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Heussen, Nicole; Peters, Florian; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Modabber, Ali
The morphometric analysis of maxillary sinus was recently presented as a helpful instrument for sex determination. The aim of the present study was to examine the volume and surface of the fully dentate, partial, and complete edentulous maxillary sinus depending on the sex. Computed tomography data from 276 patients were imported in DICOM format via special virtual planning software, and surfaces (mm) and volumes (mm) of maxillary sinuses were measured. In sex-specific comparisons (women vs men), statistically significant differences for the mean maxillary sinus volume and surface were found between fully dentate (volume, 13,267.77 mm vs 16,623.17 mm, P < 0.0001; surface, 3480.05 mm vs 4100.83 mm, P < 0.0001) and partially edentulous (volume, 10,577.35 mm vs 14,608.10 mm, P = 0.0002; surface, 2980.11 mm vs 3797.42 mm, P < 0.0001) or complete edentulous sinuses (volume, 11,200.99 mm vs 15,382.29 mm, P < 0.0001; surface, 3118.32 mm vs 3877.25 mm, P < 0.0001). For males, the statistically different mean values were calculated between fully dentate and partially edentulous (volume, P = 0.0022; surface, P = 0.0048) maxillary sinuses. Between the sexes, no differences were only measured for female and male partially dentate fully edentulous sinuses (2 teeth missing) and between partially edentulous sinuses in women and men (1 teeth vs 2 teeth missing). With a corresponding software program, it is possible to analyze the maxillary sinus precisely. The dentition influences the volume and surface of the pneumatic maxillary sinus. Therefore, sex determination is possible by analysis of the maxillary sinus event through the increase in pneumatization.
Torok, Collin M; Nogueira, Raul G; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Stapleton, Christopher J; Patel, Aman B; Rabinov, James D
The purpose of this article is to present a case series of transarterial venous sinus occlusion for dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. From 2006 to 2012, 11 patients with DAVF of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses were treated with transarterial closure of the affected venous sinus using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX). The consecutive retrospective cohort included six female and five male patients with an age range of 30-79. Patients presented with stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, headache, focal neurologic deficit or cognitive change. Lesions were categorized as Cognard II a + b (n = 5) or Cognard II b (n = 6). Four of this latter group consisted of isolated sinus segments. Selection criteria for dural sinus occlusion included direct multi-hole fistulas involving a broad surface in length or circumference of the sinus wall. External carotid artery (ECA) branches were directly embolized when considered safe. High-risk arterial supply from ICA, PICA, AICA or ECA cranial nerve branches were closed via retrograde approach during sinus occlusion. DAVF closure was accomplished in all 11 patients with a total of 17 embolization procedures using ONYX. High-risk arterial collaterals were closed via artery-artery or artery-sinus-artery embolization. The vein of Labbe was spared in the four cases with initial antegrade flow. No neurologic complications occurred, and DAVF closures were durable on three-month angiography. Transarterial closure of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. © The Author(s) 2016.
Noroozi, Nelson; Modabber, Ali; Hölzle, Frank; Braunschweig, Till; Riediger, Dieter; Gerressen, Marcus; Ghassemi, Alireza
Carotid sinus syndrome is a serious manifestation of head and neck malignancy. The purpose of this study was to clarify the presence of carotid sinus syndrome in a patient with cystadenolymphoma. To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date. A 45-year-old woman with one-week-old swelling in the left mandibular angle having disturbing symptoms of vertigo, consciousness and sinus arrest. Holter monitoring revealed several episodes of sinus arrest. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined space-occupying lesion of about 31 mm in length and 17 mm in width located in the deep lobe of the left parotid gland. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a large mass extending into the carotid space and protruding into the parapharyngeal space. Parotidectomy was performed. Surgical removal of the tumor resulted in complete amelioration of symptoms and disappearance of electrocardiogram abnormalities. Here we report on a clinical case of carotid sinus syndrome associated with cystadenolymphoma. To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date, and is made more remarkable as a possible differential diagnosis after clarification of all possible causes. Early diagnosis and immediate management can minimize complications.
Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595
Yuh, W.T.C.; Simonson, T.M.; Tali, E.T.
To study MR patterns of venous sinus occlusive disease and to relate them to the underlying pathophysiology by comparing the appearance and pathophysiologic features of venous sinus occlusive disease with those of arterial ischemic disease. The clinical data and MR examinations of 26 patients with venous sinus occlusive disease were retrospectively reviewed with special attention to mass effect, hemorrhage, and T2-weighted image abnormalities as well as to abnormal parenchymal, venous, or arterial enhancement after intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Follow-up studies when available were evaluated for atrophy, infraction, chronic mass effect, and hemorrhage. Mass effect was present in 25 of 26more » patients. Eleven of the 26 had mass effect without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Fifteen patients had abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, but this was much less extensive than the degree of brain swelling in all cases. No patient showed abnormal parenchymal or arterial enhancement. Abnormal venous enhancement was seen in 10 of 13 patients who had contrast-enhanced studies. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was seen in nine patients with high signal on T2-weighted images predominantly peripheral to the hematoma in eight. Three overall MR patterns were observed in acute sinus thrombosis: (1) mass effect without associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, (2) mass effect with associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images and/or ventricular dilatation that may be reversible, and (3) intraparenchymal hematoma with surrounding edema. MR findings of venus sinus occlusive disease are different from those of arterial ischemia and may reflect different underlying pathophysiology. In venous sinus occlusive disease, the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (vasogenic edema and abnormal parenchymal enhancement) does not always occur, and brain swelling can persist up to 2 years with or without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. 34 refs., 5 figs.« less
Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis
We reviewed all journal articles relevant to endoscopic medial maxillectomy in patients with recalcitrant chronic maxillary sinusitis in order to present all indications, the underlying pathophysiology and the developed surgical techniques. Despite the high success rate of middle meatal antrostomy, cases with persistent maxillary sinus disease exist and often need a more extended endoscopic procedure for the better control of the disease. Such surgical option uses gravity for better sinus drainage and offers better saline irrigation, local application of medications and follow-up inspection. An endoscopic medial maxillectomy and its modified forms offer a wider surgical field and access to all 'difficult' areas of the maxillary sinus. Patients with previous limited endoscopic sinus surgery or extended open surgery, cystic fibrosis, extensive mucoceles, allergic fungal sinusitis, odontogenic infections, foreign bodies and so on may suffer from recurrent disease requiring an endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Depending on the disease, various modifications of the procedure can be performed preserving the anterior buttress, nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate if possible.
Ramadan, H H
Recent advances in imaging and endoscopy has increased our awareness of chronic sinusitis. The teaching has been that chronic sinusitis is mainly caused by anaerobes; however, recent studies have found that the role of anaerobes is small, especially in children. A prospective study was conducted on 76 adults who failed medical treatment for chronic sinusitis and were scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery. Specimens were obtained on all 76 patients at the time of surgery and were sent for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Anaerobic organisms were isolated in 7.6% of the cases, and aerobes were isolated in 76.3% of the patients. The most common aerobic organism was the Staphylococcus species, whereby resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics was 21.7%. All past studies on the bacteriology in adults were made before the era of endoscopic sinus surgery and the newer-generation antibiotics. According to our results, it seems there is a change in trend in the bacteriology of chronic sinusitis in adults.
Beale, M D; Pritchett, J T; Kellner, C H
A patient receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), clozapine, and intravenous caffeine sodium benzoate developed supraventricular tachycardia. This was rapidly treated with intravenous verapamil. Subsequent maintenance ECT given without caffeine was well tolerated. We believe the combination of clozapine and caffeine at the time of ECT was responsible for the arrhythmia.
Krause, Ulrich; Backhoff, David; Klehs, Sophia; Schneider, Heike E; Paul, Thomas
Monitoring of catheter contact force during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been shown to increase efficacy and safety. However, almost no data exists on the use of this technology in catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in those patients. Catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia using monitoring of catheter contact force was performed in 28 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-two patients matched according to gender, age, and body weight with congenital heart disease undergoing catheter ablation without contact force monitoring served as control group. Parameters reflecting acute procedural success, long-term efficacy, and safety were compared. Acute procedural success was statistically not different in both groups (contact force 93 % vs. control 84 %, p = 0.3). Likewise the recurrence rate 1 year after ablation as shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis did not differ (contact force 28 % vs. control 37 %, p = 0.63). Major complications were restricted to groin vessel injuries and occurred in 3 out of 60 patients (contact force n = 1; control n = 2). Complications related to excessive catheter contact force were not observed. The present study did not show superiority of catheter contact force monitoring during ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with CHD in terms of efficacy and safety. Higher contact force compared to pulmonary vein isolation might therefore be required to increase the efficacy of catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.
Abazari, Azin; Chak, Garrick; Feldon, Steven E
To describe the association of sinus opacification with exacerbation of thyroid eye disease. Three cases followed orbital decompression performed when disease was quiescent and one case occurred without prior orbital or sinus surgery. Retrospective observational case series. Four patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients with thyroid eye disease (TED), whose ophthalmopathy was stable after orbital decompression surgery, experienced recurrence of TED signs and symptoms after development of sinus inflammation. The fourth patient with TED did not have orbital surgery but presented with unilateral ophthalmopathy and ipsilateral sinus opacification. Paranasal sinus disease can exacerbate TED, possibly through a nonspecific inflammatory response. Minimizing inflammation proximal to the orbit may afford some protection against progression of the orbital process occurring in TED.
Kars, Ayhan; Atalay, Fatma; Kilic, Korhan; Bingöl, Fatih; Can, Yusuf
Pilonidal sinuses are recurrent chronic inflammatory lesions which may occur due to penetration of hair particles into skin. Herein, the authors report a pilonidal sinus case that is unusually seen on nasal dorsum and totally excised with the open technique rhinoplasty method. A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to the authors' outpatient clinic with complaints of dysmorphism and discharge from nasal dorsum. Physical examination revealed a swelling in nasal dorsum and hair-containing fistula. Excision was performed with an open rhinoplasty approach. Histo-pathology examination revealed pilonidal sinus. While pilonidal sinus is usually located in sacro-coccygeal region, it may also be seen in atypical localizations like nasal dorsum. Although the prediagnosis of a hair-containing lesion usually includes dermoid cyst, pilonidal sinus should also be considered and histo-pathological examination should certainly be performed. It is a problematic condition when it is symptomatic; however, management and treatment of the disease is easy when correct diagnosis is made.
Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; García-Delgado, Raúl; OʼValle, Francisco; Catena, Andrés; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo
To investigate the correlation between patient-dependent variables and dimensional variations of the maxillary sinus. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 394 individual cone-beam computed tomography scans were evaluated by one calibrated examiner to measure the total volume of the maxillary sinus, the distance between the medial and the lateral walls at 5, 10, and 15 mm vertically from the sinus floor, the height of septa (if present), and the height of the maxillary sinus cavity from both the alveolar crest and the sinus floor to the meatus. Recorded patient-dependent variables were age, gender, and edentulism status. Total maxillary sinus volume was significantly smaller in completely and partially edentulous patients than in dentate subjects. This finding was influenced by age, as older patients exhibited less volume, regardless of gender and edentulism status. Age showed an indirect correlation with the distance to the meatus, the sinus volume, and the mediolateral dimensions. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory meatus in this population was 29.19%. The dimensions of the maxillary sinus are influenced by age and edentulism status being reduced by aging and tooth loss.
Sinus elevation through the crestal approach has become a routine procedure for implant placement in the posterior edentulous maxilla. The combination of flapless surgery and crestal sinus elevation with simultaneous placement of implants is an attractive surgical approach for implant grafting in the posterior maxilla, but its efficacy and safety have seldom been studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of flapless crestal sinus floor elevation using piezosurgery and a hydraulic sinus elevation system with simultaneous implant placement. Between October 2009 and August 2010, flapless implant surgery using a crestal approach, accompanied by simultaneous hydraulic sinus elevation and grafting, was performed. Patients were followed up clinically and with intraoral and panoramic radiographs. Any postoperative complications, including swelling, discomfort, infection, fractures, and implant loss, were recorded, and sinus bone gain was measured. Thirty-one sinuses were elevated and 35 implants were placed. Patients were a mean of 41.2 ± 6.69 years old, and 45% were women. The sinus was elevated to 7 to 15 mm, and no membrane perforations were noted. The mean follow-up period was 21 weeks. The mean bone gain under the maxillary sinus was 12.03 ± 2.1 mm, and all implants displayed primary stability with a mean insertion torque ≥ 15 Ncm. No postoperative discomfort, swelling, hematoma, infection, or bone fenestration was noted. One patient experienced prolonged edema in the lower eyelid region, and another lost an implant. In this retrospective analysis, flapless crestal sinus floor elevation was safe and effective, decreasing surgical discomfort and trauma and early implant failures.
Bhushan, Bharat; Rychlik, Karen; Schroeder, James W
To examine the age related volume change of the maxillary sinus in children by measuring the change of the height, weight, and depth using computed tomography (CT). Children <18 years of age who underwent a CT Scan of the sinuses for reasons other than sinus related issues were included in the study. 139 patients were included (68 females and 71 Males) and the mean age of the patients was 9.6 ± 5.4 years. The cohort was divided into three groups based on their ages - Age <6 years (n = 45), age between 6 and 12 years (n = 44) and age > 12 years (n = 50). Patients in each age group demonstrated an increase in their Maxillary sinus height (p<0.001). Patients < 6years of age and between 6 and 12 years of age had a significant increase in their maxillary sinus width and depth (p < 0.001). The maxillary sinus width, depth and volume did not increase significantly after the age of 12 years in these patients. We demonstrated periods of significant size increase of the maxillary sinuses as determined by different dimensions in children at various ages. The height of the maxillary sinus has steady growth from birth to at least the age of 18 years. The width and depth increase up to 12 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Experimental evaluation of the role of the coronary sinus pressure in the regulation of coronary return volume via the coronary sinus. Surgical considerations in atrio-pulmonary diversion procedures].
Fantidis, P; Fernández Ruiz, M A; Madero Jarabo, R; Moreno Granados, F; Cordovilla Zurdo, G; Sanz Galeote, E
In order to find out the validity of the vascular waterfall mechanism in coronary venous circulation, the role of coronary sinus pressure in the regulation of coronary return volume via the coronary sinus is studied in healthy animals. An experimental model of pressure regulation in the coronary sinus was prepared, and aortic pressure, EKG and the cardiac output (measured by thermodilution) were recorded. The return volume via the coronary sinus was measured at coronary sinus pressure of 10 or less, 15, 20, and 25 mmHg or more, for a total of 36 determinations. Increased coronary sinus pressure did not produce significant changes in aortic pressure, heart rate, cardiac index or coronary return volume via coronary sinus. When coronary sinus pressure was 25 mmHg or more, there was a significant decline in the average of coronary return volume via coronary sinus. Nevertheless, stepwise variant regression showed that the coronary sinus pressure per se does not condition the volume of coronary return via the coronary sinus. Our results suggest that in the healthy animals, the vascular waterfall mechanism in coronary venous circulation is not valid. Our results suggest that in the correction of congenital cardiac malformations using atriopulmonary anastomosis procedures, employing techniques that ensure coronary sinus drainage into the left atrium, in order to avoid the hemodynamic repercussions attributable to the vascular waterfall mechanism, is not justified.
Shi, Linggai; Liu, Jun; Ma, Jiqing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Guangke
Treatment of frontal sinus using surgery is complicated owing to the complex anatomical structure of the sinus region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Draf IIb endoscopic frontal sinus surgery treatment for frontal sinus lesions using the agger nasi approach on 19 patients (28 left or and right nasal cavities). A 10-12 mm excision of the upper frontal maxilla was performed for endoscopic resection between the middle turbinate and lateral nasal wall. No serious complications in frontal sinus surgery treatment for the removal of the frontal sinus were observed. Patients were followed up after surgery for 6-36 months. Chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps were identified in 10 cases (19 left or and right nasal cavities; disease control, 15 left or and right nasal cavities; and disease partial control, 4 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma was observed in 9 cases (9 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma were successfully treated in 8 cases, and 1 case of recurrence was observed. In conclusion, the nasal endoscopic Draf IIb agger nasi approach is a minimally invasive treatment for frontal sinus lesions. This surgical procedure is safe and less complicated and may be applied in the clinic.
Fox-Lewis, A; Coltart, G; Rice, S; Sen, R; Gourtsoyannis, Y; Hyare, H; Gupta, R K
We report a case of a 31 year old male with extensive subclinical sinusitis leading to erosion in the cribriform plate and subsequent meningitis caused by the organism Moraxella osloensis . The patient presented to the emergency department with rapid onset confusion, neck stiffness and headache. Inflammatory markers, renal and liver function, and a chest radiograph were all normal. CT Head showed extensive polyp disease in the paranasal sinuses with expansion of the left frontal sinus and CT Sinuses revealed an area of low attenuation in the cribriform plate consistent with bony erosion. MRI Head showed thick loculated sinus inflammation. Lumbar puncture yielded CSF with a high white cell count of predominantly mononuclear cells, no visible organisms and an elevated protein. CSF microscopy, culture and viral PCR were not diagnostic, and so the CSF was sent for 16S rDNA PCR screening, which identified the rDNA of Moraxella osloensis . Moraxella osloensis is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis, with only a few reported cases. This case illustrates that sinusitis, while a common condition, when severe can predispose to intracranial infection with atypical and low virulence organisms such as Moraxella species, which do not commonly cause invasive CNS disease. This case represents the first case of Moraxella osloensis meningitis reported from the United Kingdom.
... and pituitary gland for neurosurgeons, or to the orbits (eye sockets) for certain ophthalmology procedures. Each individual ... that the sinuses are located next to the orbits (eye sockets) and directly beneath the bottom of ...
... the heart (atria). This area is the heart's pacemaker. It may be called the sinoatrial node, sinus ... do so. You may need a permanent implanted pacemaker if your symptoms are related to bradycardia (slow ...
... to prevent spreading germs is to teach your family the importance of frequent hand washing , particularly when they're sick. Treatment Doctors may prescribe oral antibiotics to treat cases of sinusitis thought to be ...
Mehra, Lalit; Raheja, Shashi; Agarwal, Sneh; Rani, Yashoda; Kaur, Kulwinder; Tuli, Anita
Coronary venous catheterisation has been used for performing various cardiologic interventions. The procedure might become complicated due to obstruction offered by the valve of coronary sinus (Thebesian valve) the acute bend of the Great Cardiac Vein (GCV). The present study sought to expound the anatomical considerations of coronary venous catheterization and to elucidate the potential causes of obstruction and the complications of this procedure. In this cross-sectional observational study, coronary sinus and GCV were dissected in 40, formalin fixed, adult cadaveric human hearts. Course, length, diameter and angle of bend of GCV, length of coronary sinus and its diameter at its ostium in right atrium were recorded. Thebesian valve morphology and percentage coverage of coronary sinus ostium was recorded. Relation of the coronary sinus and GCV with their neighbouring arteries was described. Coronary sinus: near its termination was directly related to the left atrium. Length: 35.35±4.43 mm (1 SD). Diameter: 11.75 ± 2.66mm. Diameter of CS ostium was more in hearts where Thebesian valve was absent. GCV travelled superficial or deep to the left diagonal artery and crossed circumflex artery superficially. Length: 96.23 ±22.52mm. Diameter: 5.99 ±1.02mm. Angle of bend: 107 ±6.74 degrees. Thebesian valve: Absent in 3 hearts. Various morphologies were observed: thin band, thin band with fenestrations, broad band with fenestrations, well developed semilunar valve (Thin/thick). In five hearts, valve covered more than 50% of coronary sinus ostium. Coronary sinus and GCV diameter will help cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons to choose an appropriate sized catheter and their length will decide the length of catheter advancement. Thebesian valve may cause obstruction to the catheter due to an extensive coverage of coronary sinus ostium, which is seen in 12.5% cases. The obtuse angle of GCV has to be negotiated in order to enter this vessel. Arteries lying deep to
Lovasova, Kvetuse; Kachlik, David; Rozpravkova, Mirela; Matusevska, Maria; Ferkova, Jana; Kluchova, Darina
During the physiological ageing process atrophy of the alveolar bone appears in vertical direction. This bone resorption causes pushing the limits of the maxillary sinus at the expense of a degraded bone. The sinus volume increases due to the facial development in children and adolescents or during the ageing process due to the loss of teeth and bone mass. The main aim of this study is to determine the sinus shape and sinus floor morphology related to age. Human adult male and female cadaveric heads (aged 37 to 83 years) with different dental status were used. The three-dimensional CAD/CAM software was used to scan the solid impressions of the maxillary sinus to visualize the real sinus shape and sinus floor. Subsequently, other findings are shown in tables and evaluated graphically. The maxillary sinus morphology, its relationship to the nasal cavity, the sub sinus alveolar bone height, displacement of the lowest and highest points of sinus, and the sinus relationship to the roots of the upper teeth were studied and evaluated. Some septa, crests, and the prominent infraorbital canal were also found in the area of the sinus floor. This paper provides a unique view on the maxillary sinus and its changes during the ageing process with preserved topographical relations in a representative sample of the Slovak population. The visualization of the maxillary sinus anatomy is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment plans for dental implants and during current surgical procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lin, Lian-Yu; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Ming-Tai; Hua, Yu Chuan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Wu, Mei-Hwan
To delineate the long-term outcomes and mechanisms of pediatric sinus bradycardia. Participants with sinus bradycardia who were identified from a survey of 432,166 elementary and high school students, were enrolled 10 years after the survey. The clinical course, heart rate variability, and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4) gene were assessed. A total of 104 (male:female was 60:44; prevalence, 0.025%) participants were observed to have sinus bradycardia at age 15.5 ± 0.2 years with a mean heart rate of 48.4 ± 0.4 beats per minute; 86 study participants (83%) responded to clinical assessment and 37 (36%) underwent laboratory assessment. Athletes composed 37.8% of the study participants. During the extended 10-year follow-up, 15 (17%) of the participants had self-limited syncopal episodes, but none had experienced life-threatening events. According to Holter recordings, none of the participants had heart rate <30 beats per minute or a pause longer than 3 seconds. Compared with 67 age- and sex-matched controls, the variables of heart rate based on the spectral and time domain analysis of the participants with sinus bradycardia were all significantly higher, indicating higher parasympathetic activity. The results of mutation analysis were negative in the HCN4 gene in all of our participants. The long-term outcomes of the children and adolescents with sinus bradycardia identified using school electrocardiographic survey are favorable. Parasympathetic hyperactivity, instead of HCN4 gene mutation, is responsible for the occurrence of sinus bradycardia. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Turan, Şükrü; Kaya, Ercan; Pınarbaşlı, Mehmet Özgür; Çaklı, Hamdi
Objective Paranasal sinus osteomas are benign tumors that are smooth-walled, slow-growing, and induced by bone tissue. Although their most common localization is the frontal sinus, some osteomas are seen in the ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses. Frontal sinus osteomas are often asymptomatic; however, when they become symptomatic, headache is the most common complaint. In this study, we aimed to analyze the postoperative results of patients who were diagnosed with frontal sinus osteoma and were operated with appropriate surgical techniques. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who were diagnosed with frontal sinus osteoma and were operated in our department between March 2009 and July 2014. The following parameters were analyzed: patients’ age and gender, complaints at the time of admission to our clinic, pathological findings from physically examination, tumor features observed in preoperative paranasal sinus computed tomography (size and localization), surgical methods applied, intra- and postoperative complications, and recurrence rates. All patients preoperatively provided informed consent. Results Of the 14 patients, 7 were males and 7 were females, with a mean age of 40.57 years. A total of 11 (79%) osteomas were located within the frontal sinus and 3 (21%) within the frontal recess. External surgical approach was performed to 11 patients, endoscopic approach was performed to 2 patients and external and endoscopic approach was performed to 1 patient together. Conclusion Although the preferred surgical method in frontal sinus osteoma depends depended on size and localization of tumors, experience of surgeon is also important. Although the external surgical approach is appropriate for large and laterally localized osteomas, the endoscopic approach is appropriate for small and inferomedially localized osteomas. In both surgical approaches the site of origin should be drilled. PMID:29391998
Roka, Attila; Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet
Although cardiac resynchronization therapy improves morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and electrical dyssynchrony, the rate of nonresponders using standard indications and implant techniques is still high. Optimal coronary sinus lead positioning is important to increase the chance of successful resynchronization. Patient factors such as cause of heart failure, type of dyssynchrony, scar burden, coronary sinus anatomy, and phrenic nerve capture may affect the efficacy of the therapy. Several modalities are under investigation. Alternative left ventricular lead implantation strategies are occasionally required when the transvenous route is not feasible or would result in a suboptimal lead position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roka, Attila; Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet
Although cardiac resynchronization therapy improves morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and electrical dyssynchrony, the rate of nonresponders using standard indications and implant techniques is still high. Optimal coronary sinus lead positioning is important to increase the chance of successful resynchronization. Patient factors such as cause of heart failure, type of dyssynchrony, scar burden, coronary sinus anatomy, and phrenic nerve capture may affect the efficacy of the therapy. Several modalities are under investigation. Alternative left ventricular lead implantation strategies are occasionally required when the transvenous route is not feasible or would result in a suboptimal lead position. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The unique microbiology of sinusitis of dental origin that is associated with intracranial abscesses (IAs) and the correlation between the organisms at the two sites has not been reported before. This report describes the author's experience during a 30-year period in studying the microbiology of 8 IAs and their corresponding sinusitis of dental origin. Aspirates of pus from 8 infected sinuses associated with odontogenic infections and their corresponding IAs were studied for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Polymicrobial flora was found in all 8 sinuses and 7 IAs, and the number of isolates varied from 1 to 5. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from all sinuses and IAs. A total of 28 isolates (3.5 isolates per site; 25 strict anaerobic, 1 aerobic or facultative, and 2 microaerophilic) were recovered from the sinuses, and 20 isolates (2.5 isolates per site; 16 strict anaerobic, 1 aerobic or facultative, and 3 microaerophilic) were found in the IAs. The bacterial isolates were Fusobacterium spp (14), Prevotella spp (11), Peptostreptococcus spp (13), microaerophilic streptococci (5), Veillonella parvula (3), and beta-hemolytic streptococci group F(2). Concordance in the microbiological findings between the sinus and the IA was found in all instances; however, certain organisms were only present at one site. These data illustrate the concordance in the organisms recovered from sinusitis of dental origin and their associated IAs and confirm the importance of anaerobic bacteria in sinusitis and IAs of dental origin.
... infection. Nasal corticosteroid sprays may help control underlying chronic inflammation but will not treat the immediate infection. Decreased ... With opening of the sinuses, smell may improve. Chronic inflammation of the olfactory nerve (the nerve of smell) ...
Koa-Wing, Michael; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Luther, Vishal; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Linton, Nick; Sandler, Belinda; Qureshi, Norman; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Francis, Darrel P; Jackman, Warren; Kanagaratnam, Prapa
Ripple Mapping (RM) is designed to overcome the limitations of existing isochronal 3D mapping systems by representing the intracardiac electrogram as a dynamic bar on a surface bipolar voltage map that changes in height according to the electrogram voltage-time relationship, relative to a fiduciary point. We tested the hypothesis that standard approaches to atrial tachycardia CARTO™ activation maps were inadequate for RM creation and interpretation. From the results, we aimed to develop an algorithm to optimize RMs for future prospective testing on a clinical RM platform. CARTO-XP™ activation maps from atrial tachycardia ablations were reviewed by two blinded assessors on an off-line RM workstation. Ripple Maps were graded according to a diagnostic confidence scale (Grade I - high confidence with clear pattern of activation through to Grade IV - non-diagnostic). The RM-based diagnoses were corroborated against the clinical diagnoses. 43 RMs from 14 patients were classified as Grade I (5 [11.5%]); Grade II (17 [39.5%]); Grade III (9 [21%]) and Grade IV (12 [28%]). Causes of low gradings/errors included the following: insufficient chamber point density; window-of-interest<100% of cycle length (CL); <95% tachycardia CL mapped; variability of CL and/or unstable fiducial reference marker; and suboptimal bar height and scar settings. A data collection and map interpretation algorithm has been developed to optimize Ripple Maps in atrial tachycardias. This algorithm requires prospective testing on a real-time clinical platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background To reduce inappropriate admissions and stays with the application of an improvement cycle in patients admitted to a University Hospital. The secondary objective is to analyze the hospital cost saved by reducing inadequacy after the implementation of measures proposed by the group for improvement. Methods Pre- and post-analysis of a sample of clinical histories studied retrospectively, in which the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) was applied to a representative hospital sample of 1350 clinical histories in two phases. In the first phase the AEP was applied retrospectively to 725 admissions and 1350 stays. The factors associated with inappropriateness were analysed together with the causes, and specific measures were implemented in a bid to reduce inappropriateness. In the second phase the AEP was reapplied to a similar group of clinical histories and the results of the two groups were compared. The cost of inappropriate stays was calculated by cost accounting. Setting: General University Hospital with 426 beds serving a population of 320,000 inhabitants in the centre of Murcia, a city in south-eastern Spain. Results Inappropriate admissions were reduced significantly: 7.4% in the control group and 3.2% in the intervention group. Likewise, inappropriate stays decreased significantly from 24.6% to 10.4%. The cost of inappropriateness in the study sample fell from 147,044 euros to 66,642 euros. The causes of inappropriateness for which corrective measures were adopted were those that showed the most significant decrease. Conclusions It is possible to reduce inadequacy by applying measures based on prior analysis of the situation in each hospital. PMID:23075150
Sardana, Vijay; Mittal, Lal Chand; Meena, S R; Sharma, Deepti; Khandelwal, Girish
Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT as a rare complication of primary Varicella zoster virus. Vasculitic arterial infarction is known while venous stroke has rarely been reported with Varicella-zoster virus infection. Here, we report an immunocompetent 30 yr old male who developed chickenpox after contact with his daughter two month back. He presented with acute neurological deficit, one week after onset of skin lesion. MR venography revealed non-visualisation of left transverse sinus and left sigmoid sinus suggestive of venous sinus thrombosis. Varicella infection is rarely associated with venous sinus thrombosis. Possibly hypercoagulable state produced by the infection or direct invasion of virus in venous endothelial wall with subsequent damage to endothelium leading to thrombosis could be the cause.
Leung, Man-Kit; Rachakonda, Leelanand; Weill, David; Hwang, Peter H
In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who are candidates for lung transplant, pretransplant sinus surgery has been advocated to avoid bacterial seeding of the transplanted lungs. This study reviews the 17-year experience of pretransplant sinus surgery among CF patients at a major transplant center. Retrospective chart review was performed in all CF patients who underwent heart-lung or lung transplantation at Stanford Medical Center between 1988 and 2005. Postoperative culture data from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sinus aspirates were evaluated, in addition to survival data. Eighty-seven CF transplant recipients underwent pretransplant sinus surgery; 87% (n=59/68) of patients showed recolonization of the lung grafts with Pseudomonas on BAL cultures. The median postoperative time to recolonization was 19 days. Bacterial floras cultured from sinuses were similar in type and prevalence as the floras cultured from BAL. When compared with published series of comparable cohorts in which pretransplant sinus surgery was not performed, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Pseudomonas recolonization. Times to recolonization also were similar. Survival rates in our cohort were similar to national survival rates for CF lung transplant recipients. Despite pretransplant sinus surgery, recolonization of lung grafts occurs commonly and rapidly with a spectrum of flora that mimics the sinus flora. Survival rates of CF patients who undergo prophylactic sinus surgery are similar to those from centers where prophylactic sinus surgery is not performed routinely. Pretransplant sinus surgery does not appear to prevent lung graft recolonization and is not associated with overall survival benefit.
Krennmair, Gerald; Krainhöfner, Martin; Maier, Harald; Weinländer, Michael; Piehslinger, Eva
This study was intended to calculate the augmentation volume for a sinus lift procedure based on cross-sectional computerized tomography (CT) scans for 2 different augmentation heights. Based on area calculations of cross-sectional CT scans, the volume of additional bone needed was calculated for 44 sinus lift procedures. The amount of bone volume needed to raise the sinus floor to heights of both 12 and 17 mm was calculated. To achieve a sinus floor height of 12 mm, it was necessary to increase the height by a mean of 7.2+/-2.1 mm (range, 3.0 to 10.5 mm), depending on the residual ridge height; to achieve a height of 17 mm, a mean of 12.4+/-2.0 mm (range, 8.5 to 15.5 mm) was required (P < .01). The calculated augmentation volume for an augmentation height of 12 mm was 1.7+/-.9 cm3; for an augmentation height of 17 mm, the volume required was 3.6+/-1.5 cm3. Increasing the height of the sinus lift by 5 mm, ie, from 12 mm to 17 mm augmentation height, increased the augmentation volume by 100%. A significant correlation was found between augmentation height and the calculated sinus lift augmentation volume (r = 0. 78, P < .01). Detailed preoperative knowledge of sinus lift augmentation volume is helpful as a predictive value in deciding on a donor site for harvesting autogenous bone and on the ratio of bone to bone substitute to use. Calculation of the augmentation size can help determine the surgical approach and thus perioperative treatment and the costs of the surgery for both patients and clinicians.
Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu
The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306
Janardhan, Ajit H; Li, Wenwen; Fedorov, Vadim V; Yeung, Michael; Wallendorf, Michael J; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R
The authors sought to develop a low-energy electrotherapy that terminates ventricular tachycardia (VT) when antitachycardia pacing (ATP) fails. High-energy implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks are associated with device failure, significant morbidity, and increased mortality. A low-energy alternative to ICD shocks is desirable. Myocardial infarction was created in 25 dogs. Sustained, monomorphic VT was induced by programmed stimulation. Defibrillation electrodes were placed in the right ventricular apex, and coronary sinus and left ventricular epicardium. If ATP failed to terminate sustained VT, the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of standard versus experimental electrotherapies were measured. Sustained VT ranged from 276 to 438 beats/min (mean 339 beats/min). The right ventricular-coronary sinus shock vector had lower impedance than the right ventricular-left ventricular patch (54.4 ± 18.1 Ω versus 109.8 ± 16.9 Ω; p < 0.001). A single shock required between 0.3 ± 0.2 J to 5.9 ± 2.5 J (mean 2.64 ± 3.22 J; p = 0.008) to terminate VT, and varied depending upon the phase of the VT cycle in which it was delivered. By contrast, multiple shocks delivered within 1 VT cycle length were not phase dependent and achieved lower DFT compared with a single shock (0.13 ± 0.09 J for 3 shocks, 0.08 ± 0.04 J for 5 shocks, and 0.09 ± 0.07 J for 7 shocks; p < 0.001). Finally, a multistage electrotherapy (MSE) achieved significantly lower DFT compared with a single biphasic shock (0.03 ± 0.05 J versus 2.37 ± 1.20 J; respectively, p < 0.001). At a peak shock amplitude of 20 V, MSE achieved 91.3% of terminations versus 10.5% for a biphasic shock (p < 0.001). MSE achieved a major reduction in DFT compared with a single biphasic shock for ATP-refractory monomorphic VT, and represents a novel electrotherapy to reduce high-energy ICD shocks. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russo, Mario S; Drago, Fabrizio; Silvetti, Massimo S; Righi, Daniela; Di Mambro, Corrado; Placidi, Silvia; Prosperi, Monica; Ciani, Michele; Naso Onofrio, Maria T; Cannatà, Vittorio
Aim Transcatheter cryoablation is a well-established technique for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia in children. Fluoroscopy or three-dimensional mapping systems can be used to perform the ablation procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the success rate of cryoablation procedures for the treatment of right septal accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal re-entry circuits in children using conventional or three-dimensional mapping and to evaluate whether three-dimensional mapping was associated with reduced patient radiation dose compared with traditional mapping. In 2013, 81 children underwent transcatheter cryoablation at our institution, using conventional mapping in 41 children - 32 atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and nine atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia - and three-dimensional mapping in 40 children - 24 atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and 16 atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia. Using conventional mapping, the overall success rate was 78.1 and 66.7% in patients with atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia or atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia, respectively. Using three-dimensional mapping, the overall success rate was 91.6 and 75%, respectively (p=ns). The use of three-dimensional mapping was associated with a reduction in cumulative air kerma and cumulative air kerma-area product of 76.4 and 67.3%, respectively (p<0.05). The use of three-dimensional mapping compared with the conventional fluoroscopy-guided method for cryoablation of right septal accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal re-entry circuits in children was associated with a significant reduction in patient radiation dose without an increase in success rate.
Shilkofski, Nicole A; Nelson, Kristen L; Hunt, Elizabeth A
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most frequent tachydysrhythmia in children. SVT with hemodynamic compromise should be terminated by immediate electrical cardioversion. Study objectives were to: (1) establish time to recognition and cardioversion of simulated unstable SVT; and (2) document delays and mistakes made during cardioversion. Ten teams of pediatric residents were presented with an unresponsive "patient" (Laerdal SimMan) in unstable SVT. Actions of team members and simulator timestamps of key events were recorded. A retrospective review of events and time logs was performed with primary outcome measure of time to successful cardioversion. Median time to cardioversion was 8.9 minutes (range, 5.3 minutes to unsuccessful scenario terminated at 15 minutes). In 20% of scenarios, the patient was never cardioverted. Ninety percent of teams administered adenosine, but 44% of attempts demonstrated incorrect administration technique. Other maneuvers before cardioversion: 70% administered fluid, 60% attempted vagal maneuvers, 30% requested electrocardiogram, 30% requested antiarrhythmics. In 20% of scenarios, the rhythm was misidentified. When cardioversion was performed, 25% failed to use gel, 37.5% failed to synchronize, 25% used inappropriate energy doses. In 60% of scenarios, no oxygen was administered. In 90% there was no assignment of Glasgow Coma Scale, and no assessment of mental status in 30%. In 60% perfusion was not assessed. Median time to cardioversion of 8.9 minutes is inconsistent with AHA recommendations for treatment of unstable SVT with "immediate cardioversion." Delays were secondary to lack of recognition of "unstable" SVT, due to failure to assess perfusion and mental status. Errors encountered during simulation identify curriculum reform targets.
Novak, V.; Novak, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Low, P. A.
Orthostatic tachycardia is common but its specificity remains uncertain. Our preliminary work suggested that using autonomic function testing in conjunction with time-frequency mapping (TFM), it might be possible to characterize a subset of the postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), that is due to a restricted autonomic neuropathy. We describe 20 patients (17 women and 3 men, aged 14-43 years) with florid POTS and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, aged 20-41 years). Autonomic failure was quantified by its distribution (cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor) and severity, a symptom profile was generated, and spectral indices, based on modified Wigner distribution during rest and head-up tilt (80 degrees) were evaluated. During tilt-up POTS patients differed from controls by an excessive heart rate (> 130 bpm) (P < 0.001), and higher diastolic pressure (P < 0.01). During rest, cardiovagal oscillations (at respiratory frequencies [RF]) and slow rhythms at nonrespiratory frequencies (NONRF) (from 0.01 to 0.07 Hz) in R-R intervals (RRI) (P < 0.01) were reduced. Both RF and NONRF rhythms in RRI were further blunted with tilt-up (P < 0.001). Slow adrenergic vasomotor rhythms in blood pressure (BP) (approximately 0.07 Hz) surged with tilt-up and returned to normal levels afterwards. The index of sympatho-vagal balance (NONRF-Systolic BP (SBP)/RF-RRI) was dramatically increased in POTS (P < 0.001). Distal postganglionic sudomotor failure was observed, and impairment of the BP responses to the Valsalva maneuver (phase II) suggested peripheral adrenergic dysfunction. Persistent orthostatic dizziness, tiredness, gastrointestinal symptoms and palpitations were common in POTS patients. It is possible to identify a subset of POTS patients who have a length-dependent autonomic neuropathy, affecting the peripheral adrenergic and cardiovagal fibers, with relative preservation of cardiac adrenergic fibers.
Choi, Kevin J.; Chang, Bora; Woodard, Charles R.; Powers, David B.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Puscas, Liana
The management of frontal sinus fractures has evolved in the endoscopic era. The development of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has been incorporated into management algorithms proposed by otolaryngologists, but the extent of its influence on plastic surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons is heretofore unknown. A cross-sectional survey was performed to assess the practice pattern variations in frontal sinus fracture management across multiple surgical disciplines. A total of 298 surveys were reviewed. 33.5% were facial plastic surgeons with otolaryngology training, 25.8% general otolaryngologists, 25.5% plastic surgeons, and 15.1% oral and maxillofacial surgeons. 74.8% of respondents practiced in an academic setting. 61.7% felt endoscopic sinus surgery changed their management of frontal sinus fractures. 91.8% of respondents favored observation for uncomplicated, nondisplaced frontal sinus outflow tract fractures. 36.4% favored observation and 35.9% favored endoscopic sinus surgery for uncomplicated, displaced frontal sinus outflow tract fractures. For complicated, displaced frontal sinus outflow tract fractures, obliteration was more frequently favored by plastic surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons than those with otolaryngology training. The utility of FESS in managing frontal sinus fractures appears to be recognized across multiple surgical disciplines. PMID:28523084
Selcuk, Omer Tarık; Erol, Bekir; Renda, Levent; Osma, Ustun; Eyigor, Hulya; Gunsoy, Behcet; Yagci, Buket; Yılmaz, Deniz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate and altitude differences on the volume of paranasal sinuses and on the frequency of anatomic variations by comparing the paranasal sinus tomograms (PNSCT) of patients who were born and living in a cold, dry climate at high altitude with those of patients who were born and living on the coast at sea level in a temperate climate. We also aimed to determine differences relating to gender. A total of 55 PNSCTs of 55 patients from the city center of Antalya and 60 PNSCTs of 60 patients from the city center of Agrı were evaluated and compared prospectively. The study included a total of 115 patients with a mean age of 44.75 ± 9.64 years (range, 27-63 years). Group 1 (Antalya) comprised 26 females (47.3%) and 29 males (52.7%) with a mean age of 36.7 ± 12.4 years. Group 2 (Agrı) comprised 25 females (41.7%) and 35 males (58.3%) with a mean age of 35.1 ± 13.4 years. Maxillary sinus volumes were 18.27 cm(3) (range, 5.04-37.62) and 15.06 cm(3) (4.11-41.40); sphenoid sinus volumes were 7.81 cm(3) (1.80-20.63) and 6.35 cm(3) (0.54-16.50); frontal sinus volumes were 5.51 cm(3) (0.50-29.25) and 3.76 cm(3) (0.68-22.81) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in term of volumes (p > 0.025). Both maxillary and frontal sinus volumes were greater in males compared to females (p < 0.025). The mean value of the maxillary sinus volume was 15.7 ± 5.3 cm(3) and was significantly larger in males than in females (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant correlation between the volume of maxillary sinuses with age or side. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of septum deviation and concha bullosa rates (p = 0.469 and p = 0.388). There have been many studies of nasal cavity changes due to climatic conditions but this is the first study to measure the difference of paranasal sinus volumes. No difference was determined in the anatomic
Guppy, Kern H; Ochi, Calvin
A 30-year-old right-handed man with a history of schizophrenia presented with 2 self-inflicted drywall screws in the skull. The patient was sleepy but easily arousable; blood tests showed he had taken methamphetamines. Computed tomography and computed tomography angiography of the head showed the frontal screw abutted left of the superior sagittal sinus, and the posterior screw went through the superior sagittal sinus with no extravasation of contrast material at either site. Both screws were removed with exposure of the sagittal sinus using U-shaped craniectomies. There was no bleeding on the removal of the screws. It appears the posterior screw entered between the leaflets of the sagittal sinus dura mater. The patient had returned to work without any sequelae 1 month after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Fang-fang; Xu, Ling; Chen, Bao-xia; Cui, Ming; Zhang, Yuan
As anorexia patients always go to the psychiatric clinic, little is concerned about the occurrence of sinus bradycardia in these patients for cardiologists and psychiatrists. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between anorexia and sinus bradycardia, and the feature analysis, differential diagnosis and therapeutic principles of this type of sinus bradycardia. We report a case of sinus bradycardia in an anorexia patient with the clinical manifestations, laboratory exams, auxiliary exams, therapeutic methods, and her prognosis, who was admitted to Peking University Third Hospital recently. The patient was a 19-year-old female, who had the manifestation of anorexia. She lost obvious weight in a short time (about 15 kg in 6 months), and her body mass index was 14.8 kg/m(2). The patient felt apparent palpitation, chest depression and short breath, without dizziness, amaurosis or unconsciousness. Vitals on presentation were notable for hypotension, and bradycardia. The initial exam was significant for emaciation, but without lethargy or lower extremity edema. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with her heart rate being 32 beats per minute. The laboratory work -up revealed her normal blood routine, electrolytes and liver function. But in her thyroid function test, the free thyroid (FT) hormones 3 was 0.91 ng/L (2.3-4.2 ng/L),and FT4 was 8.2 ng/L (8.9-18.0 ng/L), which were all lower; yet the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was normal 1.48 IU/mL (0.55-4.78 IU/mL). Ultrasound revealed her normal thyroid. Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, fear of gaining weight or distorted perception of body image, and amenorrhea. Anorexia patients who lose weight apparently in short time enhance the excitability of the parasympathetic nerve, and inhibit the sympathetic nerve which lead to the appearance of sinus bradycardia, and functional abnormalities of multiple systems such as hypothyroidism. But this kind of sinus
Locke, Robin L; Lang, Nichole J
Some children show anger inappropriate for the situation based on the predominant incentives, which is called context-inappropriate anger. Children need to attend to and interpret situational incentives for appropriate emotional responses. We examined associations of context-inappropriate anger with emotion recognition and attention problems in 43 preschoolers (42% male; M age = 55.1 months, SD = 4.1). Parents rated context-inappropriate anger across situations. Teachers rated attention problems using the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report Form. Emotion recognition was ability to recognize emotional faces using the Emotion Matching Test. Anger perception bias was indicated by anger to non-anger situations using an adapted Affect Knowledge Test. 28% of children showed context-inappropriate anger, which correlated with lower emotion recognition (β = -.28) and higher attention problems (β = .36). Higher attention problems correlated with more anger perception bias (β = .32). This cross-sectional, correlational study provides preliminary findings that children with context-inappropriate anger showed more attention problems, which suggests that both "problems" tend to covary and associate with deficits or biases in emotion knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.
Persson, Linda; Andersson, Mats; Cassel-Engquist, Märta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune
We demonstrate a novel nonintrusive technique based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to investigate human sinuses in vivo. The technique relies on the fact that free gases have spectral imprints that are about 10.000 times sharper than spectral structures of the surrounding tissue. Two gases are detected; molecular oxygen at 760 nm and water vapor at 935 nm. Light is launched fiber optically into the tissue in close proximity to the particular maxillary sinus under study. When investigating the frontal sinuses, the fiber is positioned onto the caudal part of the frontal bone. Multiply scattered light in both cases is detected externally by a handheld probe. Molecular oxygen is detected in the maxillary sinuses on 11 volunteers, of which one had constantly recurring sinus problems. Significant oxygen absorption imprint differences can be observed between different volunteers and also left-right asymmetries. Water vapor can also be detected, and by normalizing the oxygen signal on the water vapor signal, the sinus oxygen concentration can be assessed. Gas exchange between the sinuses and the nasal cavity is also successfully demonstrated by flushing nitrogen through the nostril. Advantages over current ventilation assessment methods using ionizing radiation are pointed out.
Sung, Raphael K; Kim, Albert M; Tseng, Zian H; Han, Frederick; Inada, Keiichi; Tedrow, Usha B; Viswanathan, Mohan N; Badhwar, Nitish; Varosy, Paul D; Tanel, Ronn; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Stephenson, William G; Scheinman, Melvin
Fascicular tachycardia (FT) is an uncommon cause of monomorphic sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). We describe 6 cases of FT with multiform QRS morphologies. Six of 823 consecutive VT cases were retrospectively analyzed and found attributable to FT with multiform QRS patterns, with 3 cases exhibiting narrow QRS VT as well. All underwent electrophysiology study including fascicular potential mapping, entrainment pacing, and electroanatomic mapping. The first 3 cases describe similar multiform VT patterns with successful ablation in the upper mid septum. Initially, a right bundle branch block (RBBB) VT with superior axis was induced. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) targeting the left posterior fascicle (LPF) resulted in a second VT with RBBB inferior axis. RFCA in the upper septum just apical to the LBB potential abolished VT in all cases. Cases 4 and 5 showed RBBB VT with alternating fascicular block compatible with upper septal dependent VT, resulting in bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRT) after ablation of LPF and left anterior fascicle (LAF). Finally, Cases 5 and 6 demonstrated spontaneous shift in QRS morphology during VT, implicating participation of a third fascicle. In Case 6, successful ablation was achieved over the proximal LAF, likely representing insertion of the auxiliary fascicle near the proximal LAF. Multiform FTs show a reentrant mechanism using multiple fascicular branches. We hypothesize that retrograde conduction over the septal fascicle produces alternate fascicular patterns as well as narrow VT forms. Ablation of the respective fascicle was successful in abolishing FT but does not preclude development of BBRT unless septal fascicle is targeted and ablated. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bonanno, C; Ometto, R; Finocchi, G; Rulfo, F; La Vecchia, L; Vincenzi, M
Incessant ventricular tachycardia is an arrhythmia refractory to conventional antiarrhythmic treatment. We describe the case of 55-year-old man who presented incessant ventricular tachycardia in the early post-acute phase of myocardial infarction. Optimal coronary revascularization was not effective, but radiofrequency catheter ablation was able to eliminate the anatomic substrate and clinical arrhythmic recurrence.
South, Harry L; Osoro, Moses; Overly, Tjuan
We report a 73-year-old male with late onset monomorphic ventricular tachycardia following mitral valve repair (MVR). Typically, injury to epicardial arteries following mitral valve repair/replacement presents immediately as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, worsening ECG changes, increasing cardiac biomarkers, or new wall motion abnormalities. Our case illustrates a "late complication" of a distorted circumflex artery following mitral valve repair and the importance of early diagnostic angiography and percutaneous intervention.
Error, Marc; Ashby, Shaelene; Orlandi, Richard R; Alt, Jeremiah A
Objective To determine if the introduction of a systematic preoperative sinus computed tomography (CT) checklist improves identification of critical anatomic variations in sinus anatomy among patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. Study Design Single-blinded prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods Otolaryngology residents were asked to identify critical surgical sinus anatomy on preoperative CT scans before and after introduction of a systematic approach to reviewing sinus CT scans. The percentage of correctly identified structures was documented and compared with a 2-sample t test. Results A total of 57 scans were reviewed: 28 preimplementation and 29 postimplementation. Implementation of the sinus CT checklist improved identification of critical sinus anatomy from 24% to 84% correct ( P < .001). All residents, junior and senior, demonstrated significant improvement in identification of sinus anatomic variants, including those not directly included in the systematic review implemented. Conclusion The implementation of a preoperative endoscopic sinus surgery radiographic checklist improves identification of critical anatomic sinus variations in a training population.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inappropriate use of the seal. 369.4 Section... OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.4 Inappropriate use of the seal. The Railroad Retirement Board shall not grant permission for use of the seal in those instances where use of the seal will...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inappropriate use of the seal. 369.4 Section... OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.4 Inappropriate use of the seal. The Railroad Retirement Board shall not grant permission for use of the seal in those instances where use of the seal will...
Sato, Tadasu; Sasahara, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Yu; Yamaguma, Yu; Kokubun, Souichi; Yajima, Takehiro; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki
Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) was performed on human paranasal sinuses. It was found that in the paranasal sinuses, mucous membranes contain PGP 9.5-immunoreactive (PGP 9.5-IR) nerve fibers. Such nerve fibers terminated around large blood vessels as fine varicosities. Isolated PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers were scattered beneath the epithelium. Glandular tissues were also innervated by PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers. These fibers were numerous in the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, and relatively rare in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. CGRP-IR nerve fibers were common in the maxillary sinus whereas TRPV2-IR nerve fibers were abundant in the ethmoid sinus. They were located around large blood vessels in the lamina propria. Many subepithelial nerve fibers contained TRPV2 immunoreactivity in the ethmoid sinus. CGRP- and TRPV2-IR nerve fibers were very infrequent in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. In the human trigeminal ganglion (TG), sensory neurons contained CGRP or TRPV2 immunoreactivity. CGRP-IR TG neurons were more common than TRPV2-IR TG neurons. CGRP-IR TG neurons were of various cell body sizes, whereas TRPV2-IR TG neurons were mostly medium-to-large. In addition, human spinal and principal trigeminal sensory nuclei contained abundant CGRP- and TRPV2-IR varicosities. This study indicates that CGRP- and TRPV2-containing TG neurons probably innervate the paranasal sinus mucosae, and project into spinal and principal trigeminal sensory nuclei. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Anastasius, Malcolm; Yiannikas, John
We present an interesting case of a young man with coronary artery vasospasm complicating scombroid fish poisoning illness. The initial presentation included tachycardia and significant hypotension. A 12-lead ECG showed sinus tachycardia with marked widespread ST segment depression and ST elevation in aVR. Symptoms subsequently improved with intravenous fluid rehydration, antihistamines, and glyceral trinitrate. The underlying pathogenesis and treatment of this rarely described manifestation of the fish poisoning illness is discussed.
Grant, A; von Schoenberg, M; Grant, H R; Miller, R F
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of radiologically-diagnosed paranasal sinus disease in HIV-1 seropositive patients. SUBJECTS AND SETTING--476 patients admitted to a dedicated inpatient unit for HIV and AIDS at the Middlesex Hospital, London, between September 1988 and February 1992. DESIGN--Retrospective review of patients' case notes and radiological records. RESULTS--30 patients (6.3%) had radiological evidence of paranasal sinus disease. At the time of admission, sinusitis was in the differential diagnosis in only 12 of the 30 patients; 13 patients were initially diagnosed as having meningitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the causative organism in four patients, all of whom had advanced HIV disease. All four responded to appropriate antibiotics but had early relapse of infection. CONCLUSIONS--Sinusitis is an important and under-recognised cause of morbidity in patients with HIV disease. Images PMID:8335314
Monigatti-Tenkorang, Joanna; Jousset, Florian; Pascale, Patrizio; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Ruchat, Patrick; Fromer, Martin; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Pruvot, Etienne
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) may be triggered by intermittent atrial tachycardia, and ultimately lead to persistent AF. However, the mechanisms by which intermittent atrial tachycardia promotes sustained AF are not well understood. Eight sheep were chronically implanted with 2 pacemakers for the recording of broadband right atrial unipolar electrograms, and for the delivery of electrophysiological stimulation protocols and intermittent right atrial tachycardia. Right atrial kinetics of activation recovery interval (ARI) as a surrogate for action potential duration, of conduction time and velocity, and of repolarization alternans were analyzed at incremental pacing rates during the remodeling process induced by weeks of intermittent atrial tachycardia until the development of sustained AF. Intermittent atrial tachycardia decreased ARI and blunted its rate adaptation, facilitated atrial capture, and slowed conduction at high rates, and increased susceptibility to pacing-induced AF. In spite of blunted ARI rate adaptation, right atrial repolarization alternans was maintained during remodeling, and further increased in magnitude just before rapid pacing-induced AF. This study suggests that weeks of intermittent right atrial tachycardia result in a gradual electrical remodeling favorable for wavebreaks and reentry that may facilitate fibrillation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano
Absract The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects. PMID:27847394
Liberman, Joshua D; Whelan, Chad T
BACKGROUND Many inpatients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) inappropriately. This indiscriminate usage increases costs and avoidable side-effects. Practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) methodology may improve compliance with published guidelines. OBJECTIVE To investigate the response of internal medicine residents to an educational intervention regarding SUP. DESIGN A prospective, pre and postintervention cohort study using an educational intervention based on PBLI. PATIENTS Three groups of consecutively admitted patients (1 group preintervention and 2 groups postintervention) on the medicine ward at a University Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Rates of inappropriate SUP prescription and discharge with an inappropriate prescription. RESULTS One month after the intervention, inappropriate prophylaxis was significantly decreased (59% pre, 29% postintervention, P<.002). The rate of discharge with an inappropriate prescription also decreased, but was not significant (25% pre, 14% postintervention, P = .14). In the 6-month postintervention cohort, inappropriate SUP remained lower (59% pre, 33% postintervention, P<.007). The rate of discharge with an inappropriate prescription was also significantly lower (25% pre, 7% postintervention, P<.009). CONCLUSION Practice-based learning and improvement can improve compliance with published guidelines, and change practice patterns. After the intervention, both inappropriate prophylaxis and inappropriate prescriptions upon discharge were reduced. Importantly, the intervention was sustained, transmitted across academic years to a new class of interns who had not directly experienced the intervention. PMID:16704396
The effect of atrial pacing site on electrophysiological properties of the atrioventricular junction and induction of atrioventricular nodal reentry in patients with typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.
Kiedrowicz, Radosław M; Kaźmierczak, Jarosław; Wielusiński, Maciej
Clinical studies in humans have shown the site of atrial stimulation to influence atrioventricular (AV) conduction times and refractory periods, the demonstration of dual AV nodal (AVN) pathways, and induction of AVN reentry. These studies often found conflicting results. Moreover, among enrolled patients a minority of them were found to have AVN reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of right and left atrial pacing on the electrophysiological properties of the AV junction in the typical AVNRT population. Ninety-two consecutive patients with typical AVNRT were included. Atrial pacing was performed from the high right atrium (HRA) and the left atrium via the proximal coronary sinus (CS). Stimulation from either the HRA or the CS could result in dual AVN physiology and AVNRT. No site-dependent differences in the ease of induction of dual AVN pathways with variability of initiation from either site were found. However, AVNRT was easier to induce from the HRA. With CS pacing the leftward but not the rightward AVN approaches were the entry point to the AV node because of significantly shorter AH conduction times compared to HRA pacing. Conduction over the leftward AVN extensions could initiate the tachycardia with significantly shorter critical AH interval compared to conduction over the rightward AVN extensions; however, the AH interval during AVNRT and its cycle length were not significantly different. Rightward and leftward AVN extensions are regular features of the AV node. Their different electrophysiological properties lead to variation in the demonstration of discontinuous AVN conduction and AVNRT during right and left atrial pacing. Despite the observation that the left AVN extensions could compose the entry point to the reentrant circuit, there is no evidence that they constitute the critical component of sustained typical AVNRT.
Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Gordon, Bruce R; Wang, De Yun
We evaluated, by CFD simulation, effects of accessory ostium (AO) on maxillary sinus ventilation. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from an adult CT scan with two left maxillary AOs (sinus I) and one right AO (sinus II), then compared to an identical control model with all AOs sealed (sinuses III and IV). Transient simulations of quiet inspiration and expiration at 15 L/min, and nasal blow at 48 L/min, were calculated for both models using low-Reynolds-number turbulent analysis. At low flows, ventilation rates in sinuses with AOs (I ≈ 0.46 L/min, II ≈ 0.54 L/min), were both more than a magnitude higher than sinuses without AOs (II I ≈ 0.019 L/min, IV ≈ 0.020 L/min). Absence of AO almost completely prevented sinus ventilation. Increased ventilation of sinuses with AOs is complex. Under high flow conditions mimicking nose blowing, in sinuses II, III, and IV, the sinus flow rate increased. In contrast, the airflow direction through sinus I reversed between inspiration and expiration, while it remained almost constant throughout the respiration cycle in sinus II. CFD simulation demonstrated that AOs markedly increase maxillary sinus airflow rates and alter sinus air circulation patterns. Whether these airflow changes impact maxillary sinus physiology or pathophysiology is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte
Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran.
Sarmiento, Lorena; Rojas-Soto, Gladys E.
Background The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and management of bronchiolitis in a population of hospitalized infants. Methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, we determined independent predictors of the inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and management of bronchiolitis in a population of hospitalized infants. We defined a composite outcome score as the main outcome variable. Results Of the 303 included patients, 216 (71.3%) experienced an inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and treatment of bronchiolitis. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that atopic dermatitis (OR 5.30; CI 95% 1.14–24.79; p = 0.034), length of hospital stay (OR 1.48; CI 95% 1.08–2.03; p = 0.015), and the number of siblings (OR 1.92; CI 95% 1.13–3.26; p = 0.015) were independent predictors of an inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and treatment of the disease. Conclusions Inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and treatment of bronchiolitis was a highly prevalent outcome in our population of study. Participants with atopic dermatitis, a longer hospital stay, and a greater number of siblings were at increased risk for inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and management of the disease. PMID:28758127
Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H
We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals.
Shimizu, H; Hozawa, J; Saito, H; Murai, K; Hirata, H; Takasaka, T; Togawa, K; Konno, A; Kimura, Y; Kikuchi, A
In the period 1983 to 1985, 66 patients presented to six Japanese university hospitals with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Using self-administered questionnaires, a case-control study was conducted to examine history of nasal diseases, occupational exposures, and other possible risk factors for this disease. For each patient, two controls were selected from the general population, matched to the patient by sex, age (+/- 5 years), and district of residence. A history of chronic sinusitis was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p = 0.05). A high relative risk was also observed in males with an occupational history of woodworking or joinery, particularly when these jobs involved sanding or lathing practices (RR = 7.5, p = 0.02). No association between cigarette smoking and maxillary sinus cancer was observed in this study and no evidence was found that indoor air pollution in the home is involved in cancer development.
Hadar, T; Shvero, J; Nageris, B I; Yaniv, E
To present our experience of endoscopic surgery for symptomatic mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus. Retrospective study. Teaching hospital, Israel. 60 patients with 65 symptomatic cysts of the maxillary sinus who were operated on endoscopically. Only patients with large cysts that filled at least 50% of the sinus space were included. A rigid nasal endoscope was used in all cases; most of the cysts were removed through the natural sinus ostium. Cysts recurred in only two patients during the first postoperative year. There were no complications from the procedure. The endoscopic approach to the treatment of maxillary sinus cyst is associated with a low rate of recurrence (3% in this study) and no complications, and we recommend it as the surgical procedure of choice. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Jacob, Sarah I; Drees, Randi; Pinkerton, Marie E; Bentley, Ellison M; Peek, Simon F
A 13-month-old Holstein bull was presented for right-sided exophthalmos. Ophthalmologic examination noted that the animal was visual in both eyes, but that the right pupil was persistently dilated and very sluggish to constrict when stimulated with a bright light and that normal ocular motility was absent. Fundic examination of the right eye was normal as was a complete ophthalmologic examination of the left eye. Radiographs at presentation did not reveal the presence of sinusitis or other skull abnormalities. Initial treatment comprised intravenous antibiotics and anti-inflammatories for orbital inflammation over a 14-day period. There was no perceptible change in the appearance or neuro-ophthalmologic examination of the right eye during hospitalization. The animal was discharged to the owner's care, but 3 weeks later was found recumbent with unilateral strabismus of the left eye and a fixed right pupil. Due to the inability to rise and rapid deterioration, humane euthanasia was performed, and a full postmortem examination, preceded by a MRI, was performed that identified abscesses extending bilaterally through the round foramina obliterating the cavernous sinus region, as well as abscessation of the right mandible, right trigeminal neuritis, right-sided sinusitis, and right-sided otitis media. Cavernous sinus syndrome should be considered in cattle with a combination of exophthalmos and neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities involving cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, whose branches are located within the cavernous sinus. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Selen, Daryl J; Gilbert, Matthew P
A 22-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 24-hour history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, and mild headache. She denied shortness of breath, chest pain, or anxiety, and didn't have a history of cardiac problems. The physical examination revealed tachycardia (heart rate, 135 beats/min) and a respiratory rate of 24 breaths per minute.
Nishio, S; Samoto, K; Takeshita, I; Matsumoto, K; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M
Two patients with sphenoid sinus inverting papilloma who were treated either by transcranial or sublabial trans-septal approach are reported. Inverting papillomas arising from the sphenoid sinus are exceedingly rare. The clinical and neuro-imaging features, as well as surgical treatment, for sphenoid sinus tumours are also briefly discussed. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Chijiwa, Tsuyoshi; Suganuma, Toshiyuki; Takigawa, Toshimichi; Edogawa, Seiji; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Yanagida, Shigeki; Hatada, Junichi
Pilonidal sinus is known to be common among soldiers but not among Asian individuals. Few reports have discussed the occurrence of pilonidal sinus in the navy. We analyzed the incidence and etiological factors of 12 cases (11 patients, with 1 recurrence) of pilonidal sinus diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 in Japan Self-Defense Force Hospital Yokosuka. All patients were male, and all lesions were in the sacral area. The patients' average age and body mass index were 29.1 years and 27.4, respectively. The surgical procedures used were primary closures (10 cases, 83.3%) and flaps (two cases, 16.7%), and the number of postoperative hospital days averaged 11.8. Pilonidal sinus was not found to be significantly common among Japan Self-Defense Force personnel in general (7 of 11 patients with pilonidal sinus; not significant); however, it was significantly more common among the crew members of Japan Self-Defense Force ships (seven of seven patients; p < 0.05), which suggests that the on-board lifestyle contributes to the occurrence of pilonidal sinus.
Coumans, Jean-Valery; Walcott, Brian P; Redjal, Navid; Kahle, Kristopher T; Nahed, Brian V
Dermal sinus tracts are a form of spinal dysraphism that arises from a failure of dysjunction early in embryogenesis. They are diagnosed in pediatric patients and who present with a dimple, infection, or neurologic deficit. The tract is surgically excised en bloc to avoid contamination from the tract, which harbors bacteria. However, dermal sinus tracts typically terminate intradurally, rendering their en bloc excision difficult. To avoid entering the tract, allowing for an en bloc excision, we modified the usual technique employed for accessing the spinal intradural space. An en bloc excision of the dermal sinus tract was successfully performed. The patient recovered from the procedure neurologically intact and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. We conclude that en bloc excision of a dermal sinus tract down to the intradural space is feasible with modifications to standard operative technique. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chou, T D; Chu, C C; Diau, G Y; Chiang, J H
A 14-month-old girl had purulent discharge from a sinus over the subpubic region for 2 weeks. Radiography and voiding cystourethrography revealed a 4.5 cm. long fistula extending to the retropubic region without any connection to the lower urinary tract. The fistula was excised. Histological findings revealed that the fistula had 3 different types of epithelium: stratified squamous, transitional and columnar. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that the sinus was most likely a remnant of the cloaca.
Zha, Y; Lv, W; Gao, Y L; Zhu, Z Z; Gao, Z Q
Objective: To design and produce cross-sectional anatomical models of paranasal sinuses for the purpose of demonstrating drainage pathways of each nasal sinus for the young doctors. Method: We reconstructed the three-dimensional model of sinuses area based on CT scan data, and divided it into 5 thick cross-sectional anatomy models by 4 coronal plane，which cross middle points of agger nasi cell, ethmoid bulla, posterior ethmoid sinuses and sphenoid sinus respectively. Then a 3D printerwas used to make anatomical cross-sectional anatomical models. Result: Successfully produced a digital 3D printing cross-sectional models of paranasal sinuses. Sinus drainage pathways were observed on the models. Conclusion: The cross-sectional anatomical models made by us can exactly and intuitively demonstrate the ostia of each sinus cell and they can help the young doctors to understand and master the key anatomies and relationships which are important to the endoscopic sinus surgery. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.
Lublinsky, S; Friedman, A; Kesler, A; Zur, D; Anconina, R; Shelef, I
MRV is an important blood vessel imaging and diagnostic tool for the evaluation of stenosis, occlusions, or aneurysms. However, an accurate image-processing tool for vessel comparison is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an automated technique for vessel cross-sectional analysis. An algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis was developed that included 7 main steps: 1) image registration, 2) masking, 3) segmentation, 4) skeletonization, 5) cross-sectional planes, 6) clustering, and 7) cross-sectional analysis. Phantom models were used to validate the technique. The method was also tested on a control subject and a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (4 large sinuses tested: right and left transverse sinuses, superior sagittal sinus, and straight sinus). The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated before and after lumbar puncture in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The vessel-analysis algorithm had a high degree of stability with <3% of cross-sections manually corrected. All investigated principal cranial blood sinuses had a significant cross-sectional area increase after lumbar puncture (P ≤ .05). The average triangularity of the transverse sinuses was increased, and the mean circularity of the sinuses was decreased by 6% ± 12% after lumbar puncture. Comparison of phantom and real data showed that all computed errors were <1 voxel unit, which confirmed that the method provided a very accurate solution. In this article, we present a novel automated imaging method for cross-sectional vessels analysis. The method can provide an efficient quantitative detection of abnormalities in the dural sinuses. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Levitt, Michael R; McGah, Patrick M; Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Kalani, M Yashar S; Kim, Louis J; Aliseda, Alberto
Background and Purpose Idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been associated with dural venous sinus stenosis in some patients, but the hemodynamic environment of the dural venous sinuses has not been quantitatively described. Here, we present the first such computational fluid dynamics model using patient-specific blood pressure measurements. Materials and Methods Six patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and at least one stenosis or atresia at the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction underwent MRV followed by cerebral venography and manometry throughout the dural venous sinuses. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models were created using MRV anatomy, with venous pressure measurements as boundary conditions. Blood flow and wall shear stress were calculated for each patient. Results Computational models of dural venous sinuses were successfully reconstructed in all six patients with patient-specific boundary conditions. Three patients demonstrated a pathologic pressure gradient (≥ 8 mm Hg) across four dural venous sinus stenoses. Small sample size precludes statistical comparisons, but average overall flow throughout the dural venous sinuses of patients with pathologic pressure gradients was higher than in those without (1041.00 ± 506.52 vs. 358.00 ± 190.95 mL/min). Wall shear stress was also higher across stenoses in patients with pathologic pressure gradients (37.66 ± 48.39 vs 7.02 ± 13.60 Pa). Conclusion The hemodynamic environment of the dural venous sinuses can be computationally modeled using patient-specific anatomy and physiological measurements in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. There was substantially higher blood flow and wall shear stress in patients with pathological pressure gradients. PMID:27197986
Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Reed, Gregory K.; Rivas, Kristi D.; Kadey, Heather J.
Functional analyses identified children whose inappropriate mealtime behavior was maintained by escape and adult attention. Function-based extinction procedures were tested individually and in combination. Attention extinction alone did not result in decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior or a significant increase in acceptance. By contrast,…
Nocini, Pier Francesco; D'Agostino, Antonio; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Favero, Vittorio; Pessina, Mattia; Procacci, Pasquale
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between Le Fort I osteotomy and the anatomic, radiologic, and symptomatic modifications of the maxillary sinus. Subjects who had undergone Le Fort I osteotomy from January 2008 to December 2013 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. The eligibility criteria were the availability of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan taken before and 12 to 24 months after the procedure. The exclusion criteria were the unavailability of CBCT scans, the use of tobacco, and previous orthognathic procedures. The primary predictor variable was time (pre-vs postoperative). The primary outcome variables were the sinus volume, mucosal thickening, iatrogenic alterations in the sinus anatomy, and rhinosinusitis symptoms, evaluated using the Sino-Nasal Outcome 20-item Test (SNOT-20). Descriptive statistics were computed for each variable, and paired analyses were used to compare the pre- and postoperative values. The data from 64 subjects (mean age 27; 59.4% were female; median follow-up 32.4 months, range 13 to 66 months) were studied. Postoperatively, 1.6% of the sample (0% preoperatively) had moderate-to-severe and 15.6% (3.1% preoperatively) had mild-to-moderate sinusitis symptoms. The rest of the sample presented with mild to no symptoms. The increase in the SNOT scores after surgery was statistically significant (P = .016). Radiologic evidence of postoperative inflammatory processes affecting the paranasal sinuses was found in 27.3% of the sinuses (9.4% preoperatively). The postoperative Lund-Mackay scores were significantly greater (P = .0005). A 19% decrease was found in the mean postoperative sinus volume, with a 37% incidence of iatrogenic injury. The study results indicate that Le Fort I osteotomies can have an important impact on sinus health. The postoperative radiologic evidence of maxillary sinus inflammatory processes and the incidence of rhinosinusitis symptoms and iatrogenic damage in these
Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte
Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. PMID:26966601
Dufeau, David L.; Witmer, Lawrence M.
Modern crocodylians, including Alligator mississippiensis, have a greatly elaborated system of pneumatic sinuses invading the cranium. These sinuses invade nearly all the bones of the chondrocranium and several bony elements of the splanchnocranium, but patterns of postnatal paratympanic sinus development are poorly understood and documented. Much of crocodylomorph—indeed archosaurian—evolution is characterized by the evolution of various paratympanic air sinuses, the homologies of which are poorly understood due in large part to the fact that individual sinuses tend to become confluent in adults, obscuring underlying patterns. This study seeks to explore the ontogeny of these sinuses primarily to clarify the anatomical relations of the individual sinuses before they become confluent and thus to provide the foundation for later studies testing hypotheses of homology across extant and extinct Archosauria. Ontogeny was assessed using computed tomography in a sample of 13 specimens covering an almost 19-fold increase in head size. The paratympanic sinus system comprises two major inflations of evaginated pharyngeal epithelium: the pharyngotympanic sinus, which communicates with the pharynx via the lateral (true) Eustachian tubes and forms the cavum tympanicum proprium, and the median pharyngeal sinus, which communicates with the pharynx via the median pharyngeal tube. Each of these primary inflations gives rise to a number of secondary inflations that further invade the bones of the skull. The primary sinuses and secondary diverticula are well developed in perinatal individuals of Alligator, but during ontogeny the number and relative volumes of the secondary diverticula are reduced. In addition to describing the morphological ontogeny of this sinus system, we provide some preliminary exploratory analyses of sinus function and allometry, rejecting the hypothesis that changes in the volume of the paratympanic sinuses are simply an allometric function of braincase
Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, H; Hayashi, T; Shimamoto, Y; Ishiyama, N
We report a case of a 17-year-old male who had hit the front of his head in a traffic accident. CT scan revealed contusional hemorrhage and pneumocephalus of the left frontal lobe 10 hours after the accident. A month later he complained of rhinorrhea and CT scan revealed intracerebral pneumocephalus. One day he complained of headache and began to vomit after he sneezed. CT scan revealed that the pneumocephalus had become worse and air had spread throughout the subarachnoid space. Bone CT scan revealed the air communicated from the frontal sinus to the intracerebral air cavity. 3D-CT scan revealed bone defect in the roof of the ethmoid sinus. The intraoperative findings revealed that the intracerebral air cavity communicated with the frontal sinus and ethmoid sinus. Though the brain which dropped into the paranasal sinus, adhered to the dura mater around the bone defect, a part of the brain had come off from the dura mater around the frontal sinus. We suspected that the intracerebral air cavity communicated with the frontal sinus initially. When the air cavity communicated with the ethmoid sinus secondarily, intracranial pressure abated and air came into the subarachnoid space from the frontal sinus.
Future in-vehicle crash avoidance warning systems will inevitably deliver : inappropriate alarms from time to time, caused for example, by situations where : algorithms have correctly identified an object but pose no threat or danger to : the driver....
Beklen, Arzu; Pihakari, Antti; Rautemaa, Riina; Hietanen, Jarkko; Ali, Ahmed; Konttinen, Yrjö T
Bone grafts are used for bone augmentation to ensure optimal implant placement. However, this procedure may sometimes cause sinusitis. The case of a 44-year-old woman with the diagnosis of recurrent and chronic sinusitis of her right maxillary sinus with a history of dental implant surgery is presented. After several attempts with normal standard sinusitis therapy, unrecognized bone substitute was removed from the sinus cavity, which finally led to resolution of the sinusitis. This case reiterates the importance of a careful examination, consultation, and second opinion for the selection of optimal treatment.
Parra, Marcelo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario
Maxillary sinus lift for dental implant installation is a well-known and versatile technique; new techniques are presented based on the physiology of intrasinus bone repair. The aim of this review was to determine the status of graftless maxillary sinus lift and analyze its foundations and results. A search was conducted of the literature between 1995 and 2015 in the Medline, ScienceDirect, and SciELO databases using the keywords "maxillary sinus lift," "blood clot," "graftless maxillary sinus augmentation," and "dental implant placement." Ten articles were selected for our analysis of this technique and its results. Despite the limited information, cases that were followed for at least six months and up to four years had a 90% success rate. Published techniques included a lateral window, elevation of the sinus membrane, drilling and dental implant installation, descent of the membrane with variations in the installation of the lateral wall access and suturing. The physiology behind this new bone formation response and the results of the present research were also discussed. We concluded that this is a promising and viable technique under certain inclusion criteria.
Tuli, Isha Preet; Sengupta, Subhabrata; Munjal, Sudeep; Kesari, Santosh Prasad; Chakraborty, Suvamoy
Chronic Sinusitis, an extremely persistent illness, is surgically best treated by Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The ostiomeatal complex is the main area targeted and within it uncinate process is the first anatomical structure encountered. The significance of anatomical variations concerning age and sex of uncinate process in chronic sinusitis were evaluated. A prospective study on 50 patients of chronic sinusitis (100 uncinate processes) was done. The results were tabulated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. Type I superior attachment of uncinate process (67 %) was the most common variety in all ages and both sexes and a statistically significant relationship between Type I superior attachment of uncinate process and sex was found (p < 0.05). The typical uncinate process was most common (70 %) followed by medial deviation of the uncinate (24 %). This difference in occurrence was significant with respect to both age and sex (p < 0.05). Anatomical variations of uncinate process are not responsible for causing chronic sinusitis. Mere presence of these variations of uncinate is not an indication for FESS.
Lloyd, G A
Seventy-five patients with a wide range of sinus disease have been investigated by magnetic resonance (MR): these included congenital conditions, allergic and inflammatory sinus disease, fungus infections, and the necrotizing granulomata. In addition, a variety of benign and malignant tumours have been examined, and in the more recent sinus malignancies the paramagnetic contrast agent, Gadolinium (Gd) DTPA (Schering Health Care) has been used. This experience of magnetic resonance scanning has shown that it is superior to computed tomography in demonstrating the extent of malignant disease in the nose and sinuses; most especially when Gd DTPA is used, reaching an accuracy of over 96% by biopsy correlation. An additional advantage of this technique is the wide coverage of the head and neck for the assessment of malignant disease, provided by direct 3 plane imaging and the multislice facility. The main disadvantage of magnetic resonance of the sinuses is the poor demonstration of calcification and bone. For this reason the MR scans may need to be augmented by high resolution CT performed specifically to show bone detail. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:2926770
Paul, Siba Prosad; Blaikley, Sarah; Peevers, Camilla; Fitz-John, Lin
This article describes the management in emergency departments of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children. Of all forms of symptomatic arrhythmia in infants, children and adolescents, SVT is the most common. Its clinical presentation varies with the child's age, and it can be difficult to diagnose in infants and young children. It is important that the nurses in the emergency department consider a diagnosis of SVT in young children with histories of poor feeding, lethargy, irritability, excessive sweating or pallor (Zeigler 1994) and in older children with histories of palpitations, dizziness, chest pain, syncope or shortness of breath (Uzun 2010). If SVT is suspected, a 12-lead electrocardiogram should be recorded. Vagal manoeuvre may be successful but in some cases intravenous adenosine is necessary. Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are at risk of sudden cardiac death associated with SVT, and should not be treated with calcium channel blockers or digoxin.
Saindane, Amit M.; Bruce, Beau B.; Desai, Nilesh K.; Roller, Lauren A.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie
OBJECTIVE Transverse sinus stenosis is an imaging finding very highly associated with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Patients with the Chiari I malformation may potentially have elevated ICP due to impairment of CSF flow at the foramen magnum. This study evaluated whether patients with Chiari I malformation have transverse sinus stenosis and other imaging findings indicative of elevated ICP. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patients with Chiari I malformation treated surgically and 76 control subjects were identified retrospectively. All control subjects and all patients with Chiari I malformation (preoperatively) underwent standardized contrast-enhanced brain MRI including a contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted sequence from which curved reformats of the transverse sinuses were generated. Two different readers blinded to the diagnosis then independently evaluated these curved reformats for severity of transverse sinus stenosis. Orbital and skull-base findings previously described in association with elevated ICP were also evaluated. Frequency of MRI findings between the two groups was compared. RESULTS Patients with Chiari I malformation had significantly greater frequency of unilateral or bilateral transverse sinus stenosis than did control subjects (p < 0.001). There was complete interreader agreement on presence or absence of transverse sinus stenosis by patient (κ = 1.0 [95% CI, 0.89–1.0]). Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, and body mass index found that transverse sinus stenosis significantly predicted Chiari I malformation versus control status (odds ratio, 11.2 [95% CI, 2.1–59.0]; p = 0.004) but that no other features were significantly associated with the Chiari I malformation. Patients with Chiari I malformation who had transverse sinus stenosis had significantly greater pituitary flattening than did those without transverse sinus stenosis (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION Patients with Chiari I malformation have higher likelihood of trans
Saindane, Amit M; Bruce, Beau B; Desai, Nilesh K; Roller, Lauren A; Newman, Nancy J; Biousse, Valérie
Transverse sinus stenosis is an imaging finding very highly associated with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Patients with the Chiari I malformation may potentially have elevated ICP due to impairment of CSF flow at the foramen magnum. This study evaluated whether patients with Chiari I malformation have transverse sinus stenosis and other imaging findings indicative of elevated ICP. Thirty patients with Chiari I malformation treated surgically and 76 control subjects were identified retrospectively. All control subjects and all patients with Chiari I malformation (preoperatively) underwent standardized contrast-enhanced brain MRI including a contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted sequence from which curved reformats of the transverse sinuses were generated. Two different readers blinded to the diagnosis then independently evaluated these curved reformats for severity of transverse sinus stenosis. Orbital and skull-base findings previously described in association with elevated ICP were also evaluated. Frequency of MRI findings between the two groups was compared. Patients with Chiari I malformation had significantly greater frequency of unilateral or bilateral transverse sinus stenosis than did control subjects (p < 0.001). There was complete interreader agreement on presence or absence of transverse sinus stenosis by patient (κ = 1.0 [95% CI, 0.89-1.0]). Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, and body mass index found that transverse sinus stenosis significantly predicted Chiari I malformation versus control status (odds ratio, 11.2 [95% CI, 2.1-59.0]; p = 0.004) but that no other features were significantly associated with the Chiari I malformation. Patients with Chiari I malformation who had transverse sinus stenosis had significantly greater pituitary flattening than did those without transverse sinus stenosis (p = 0.02). Patients with Chiari I malformation have higher likelihood of transverse sinus stenosis, which may reflect associated
Davel, Graciela; Featherston, Patricia; Fernández, Anibal; Abrantes, Ruben; Canteros, Cristina; Rodero, Laura; Sztern, Carlos; Perrotta, Diego
We report the first case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Actinomucor elegans in an 11-year-old patient. Histopathological and mycological examinations of surgical maxillary sinuses samples showed coenocytic hyphae characteristic of mucoraceous fungi. The fungi recovered had stolons and rhizoids, nonapophyseal and globose sporangia, and whorled branched sporangiophores and was identified as A. elegans. After surgical cleaning and chemotherapy with amphotericin B administered intravenously and by irrigation, the patient became asymptomatic and the mycological study results were negative. PMID:11158140
Pirner, S; Tingelhoff, K; Wagner, I; Westphal, R; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M; Bootz, F; Eichhorn, Klaus W G
Manual segmentation of computed tomography (CT) datasets was performed for robot-assisted endoscope movement during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Segmented 3D models are needed for the robots' workspace definition. A total of 50 preselected CT datasets were each segmented in 150-200 coronal slices with 24 landmarks being set. Three different colors for segmentation represent diverse risk areas. Extension and volumetric measurements were performed. Three-dimensional reconstruction was generated after segmentation. Manual segmentation took 8-10 h for each CT dataset. The mean volumes were: right maxillary sinus 17.4 cm(3), left side 17.9 cm(3), right frontal sinus 4.2 cm(3), left side 4.0 cm(3), total frontal sinuses 7.9 cm(3), sphenoid sinus right side 5.3 cm(3), left side 5.5 cm(3), total sphenoid sinus volume 11.2 cm(3). Our manually segmented 3D-models present the patient's individual anatomy with a special focus on structures in danger according to the diverse colored risk areas. For safe robot assistance, the high-accuracy models represent an average of the population for anatomical variations, extension and volumetric measurements. They can be used as a database for automatic model-based segmentation. None of the segmentation methods so far described provide risk segmentation. The robot's maximum distance to the segmented border can be adjusted according to the differently colored areas.
Thulasidas, Ponnaiah; Vaidyanathan, Venkatraman
Introduction Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has a long-term high rate of success for symptomatic improvement in patients with medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. As the popularity of the technique continues to grow, however, so does the population of patients with postsurgical persistent sinus disease, especially in those with a large window for ventilation and drainage. In addition, chronic infections of the sinuses especially fungal sinusitis have a higher incidence of recurrence even though a wide maxillary ostium had been performed earlier. This subset of patients often represents a challenge to the otorhinolaryngologist. Objectives To identify the patients with chronic recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis and devise treatment protocols for this subset of patients. Methods A retrospective review was done of all patients with persistent maxillary sinus disease who had undergone modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy between 2009 and 2012. We studied patient demographics, previous surgical history, and follow-up details and categorized the types of endoscopic medial maxillectomies performed in different disease situations. Results We performed modified endoscopic medial maxillectomies in 37 maxillary sinuses of 24 patients. The average age was 43.83 years. Average follow-up was 14.58 months. All patients had good disease control in postoperative visits with no clinical evidence of recurrences. Conclusion Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective surgery for treatment of chronic, recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis. PMID:25992084
Farke, Andrew A
Frontal sinuses in goats and other mammals have been hypothesized to function as shock absorbers, protecting the brain from blows during intraspecific combat. Furthermore, sinuses are thought to form through removal of ;structurally unnecessary' bone. These hypotheses were tested using finite element modeling. Three-dimensional models of domesticated goat (Capra hircus) skulls were constructed, with variable frontal bone and frontal sinus morphology, and loaded to simulate various head-butting behaviors. In general, models with sinuses experienced higher strain energy values (a proxy for shock absorption) than did models with unvaulted frontal bones, and the latter often had higher magnitudes than models with solid vaulted frontal bones. Furthermore, vaulted frontal bones did not reduce magnitudes of principal strain on the surface of the endocranial cavity relative to models with unvaulted frontal bones under most loading conditions. Thus, these results were only partially consistent with sinuses, or the bone that walls the sinuses, acting as shock absorbers. It is hypothesized that the keratinous horn sheaths and cranial sutures are probably more important for absorbing blows to the head. Models with sinuses did exhibit a more ;efficient' distribution of stresses, as visualized by histograms in which models with solid frontal bones had numerous unloaded elements. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sinuses result at least in part from the removal of mechanically unnecessary bone.
Krishna, Satheesh; Schieda, Nicola; Flood, Trevor A; Shanbhogue, Alampady Krishna; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Siegelman, Evan
This article presents methods to improve MR imaging approach of disorders of the renal sinus which are relatively uncommon and can be technically challenging. Multi-planar Single-shot T2-weighted (T2W) Fast Spin-Echo sequences are recommended to optimally assess anatomic relations of disease. Multi-planar 3D-T1W Gradient Recalled Echo imaging before and after Gadolinium administration depicts the presence and type of enhancement and relation to arterial, venous, and collecting system structures. To improve urographic phase MRI, concentrated Gadolinium in the collecting systems should be diluted. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) should be performed before Gadolinium administration to minimize T2* effects. Renal sinus cysts are common but can occasionally be confused for dilated collecting system or calyceal diverticula, with the latter communicating with the collecting system and filling on urographic phase imaging. Vascular lesions (e.g., aneurysm, fistulas) may mimic cystic (or solid) lesions on non-enhanced MRI but can be suspected by noting similar signal intensity to the blood pool and diagnosis can be confirmed with MR angiogram/venogram. Multilocular cystic nephroma commonly extends to the renal sinus, however, to date are indistinguishable from cystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Solid hilar tumors are most commonly RCC and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). Hilar RCC are heterogeneous, hypervascular with epicenter in the renal cortex compared to UCC which are centered in the collecting system, homogeneously hypovascular, and show profound restricted diffusion. Diagnosis of renal sinus invasion in RCC is critically important as it is the most common imaging cause of pre-operative under-staging of disease. Fat is a normal component of the renal sinus; however, amount of sinus fat correlates with cardiovascular disease and is also seen in lipomatosis. Fat-containing hilar lesions include lipomas, angiomyolipomas, and less commonly other tumors which engulf sinus
García de Hombre, Alina María; Pérez Peñate, Armando
The cholesterol granuloma is well known in the middle ear, in the mastoid antrum and the air cells of temporal bone, mostly related to a chronic infectious process. There are other localizations such as the pleura, lung, pericardium, kidneys, arterial wall, nerves, brain, testicles, lymphatic ganglion and in the paranasals sinuses. Its localization in the mediofacial area is very unfrequent, having only been described 44 cases up to the year 2002. We present a 42 year-old patient, who required surgical treatment because of a increase in the volume of area her left facial of one month's old. It resulted to be secundary to an expansion of the maxilar sinus, such as seen on the computerized tomography carried out on the patient. The diagnosis was cholesterol granuloma, performed, through the anatomo-pathology study. We review the litterature on this subject and analyse the possible etiologic cause of this lesion, its clinic, diagnostic methodology and treatment.
Balk, Ethan M; Zucker, Deborah R; Engels, Eric A; Wong, John B; Williams, John W; Lau, Joseph
OBJECTIVE Symptoms suggestive of acute bacterial sinusitis are common. Available diagnostic and treatment options generate substantial costs with uncertain benefits. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of alternative management strategies to identify the optimal approach. DESIGN For such patients, we created a Markov model to examine four strategies: 1) no antibiotic treatment; 2) empirical antibiotic treatment; 3) clinical criteria-guided treatment; and 4) radiography-guided treatment. The model simulated a 14-day course of illness, included sinusitis prevalence, antibiotic side effects, sinusitis complications, direct and indirect costs, and symptom severity. Strategies costing less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained were considered “cost-effective.” MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS For mild or moderate disease, basing antibiotic treatment on clinical criteria was cost-effective in clinical settings where sinusitis prevalence is within the range of 15% to 93% or 3% to 63%, respectively. For severe disease, or to prevent sinusitis or antibiotic side effect symptoms, use of clinical criteria was cost-effective in settings with lower prevalence (below 51% or 44%, respectively); empirical antibiotics was cost-effective with higher prevalence. Sinus radiography-guided treatment was never cost-effective for initial treatment. CONCLUSIONS Use of a simple set of clinical criteria to guide treatment is a cost-effective strategy in most clinical settings. Empirical antibiotics are cost-effective in certain settings; however, their use results in many unnecessary prescriptions. If this resulted in increased antibiotic resistance, costs would substantially rise and efficacy would fall. Newer, expensive antibiotics are of limited value. Additional testing is not cost-effective. Further studies are needed to find an accurate, low-cost diagnostic test for acute bacterial sinusitis. PMID:11679039
Yüksel Aslier, Nesibe Gül; Karabay, Nuri; Zeybek, Gülşah; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Kiray, Amaç; Sütay, Semih; Ecevit, Mustafa Cenk
We aimed to define the classification of frontal sinus pneumatization patterns according to three-dimensional volume measurements. Datasets of 148 sides of 74 dry skulls were generated by the computerized tomography-based volumetry to measure frontal sinus volumes. The cutoff points for frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were tested by ROC curve analysis and the validity of the diagnostic points was measured. The overall frequencies were 4.1, 14.2, 37.2 and 44.5 % for frontal sinus aplasia, hypoplasia, medium size and hyperplasia, respectively. The aplasia was bilateral in all three skulls. Hypoplasia was seen 76 % at the right side and hyperplasia was seen 56 % at the left side. The cutoff points for diagnosing frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were '1131.25 mm(3)' (95.2 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity) and '3328.50 mm(3)' (88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity), respectively. The findings provided in the present study, which define frontal sinus pneumatization patterns by CT-based volumetry, proved that two opposite sides of the frontal sinuses are asymmetric and three-dimensional classification should be developed by CT-based volumetry, because two-dimensional evaluations lack depth measurement.
Plash, Walker B; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Garland, Emily M; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Dupont, William D; Raj, Satish R
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by increased heart rate (ΔHR) of ≥30 bpm with symptoms related to upright posture. Active stand (STAND) and passive head-up tilt (TILT) produce different physiological responses. We hypothesized these different responses would affect the ability of individuals to achieve the POTS HR increase criterion. Patients with POTS (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) underwent 30 min of TILT and STAND testing. ΔHR values were analyzed at 5 min intervals. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis was performed to determine optimal cut point values of ΔHR for both TILT and STAND. TILT produced larger ΔHR than STAND for all 5 min intervals from 5 min (38±3 bpm vs. 33±3 bpm; P=0.03) to 30 min (51±3 bpm vs. 38±3 bpm; P<0.001). Sensitivity (Sn) of the 30 bpm criterion was similar for all tests (TILT-10=93%, STAND-10=87%, TILT30=100%, and STAND30=93%). Specificity (Sp) of the 30 bpm criterion was less at both 10 and 30 min for TILT (TILT10=40%, TILT30=20%) than STAND (STAND10=67%, STAND30=53%). The optimal ΔHR to discriminate POTS at 10 min were 38 bpm (TILT) and 29 bpm (STAND), and at 30 min were 47 bpm (TILT) and 34 bpm (STAND). Orthostatic tachycardia was greater for TILT (with lower specificity for POTS diagnosis) than STAND at 10 and 30 min. The 30 bpm ΔHR criterion is not suitable for 30 min TILT. Diagnosis of POTS should consider orthostatic intolerance criteria and not be based solely on orthostatic tachycardia regardless of test used. PMID:22931296
Anderson, Davina M; White, Richard A S
To describe the clinical and morphologic characteristics of nasal dermoid sinus cysts in the dog. Retrospective clinical study. Six client-owned dogs. Medical records (1995 to 1999) of 6 dogs that had a discharging sinus in the midline of the nose removed surgically were reviewed for signalment, physical examination, surgical and histopathologic findings, and outcome. Three golden retrievers, 1 springer spaniel, 1 cocker spaniel, and 1 Brittany spaniel with a history of intermittent discharge from a small opening in the midline on the bridge of the nose at the junction between the nasal planum and the skin were identified. The condition was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy, and previous surgical excision had been unsuccessful in 3 dogs. None of the dogs had any other congenital defects, and all dogs responded to complete surgical excision of the tract and cyst. On histopathologic examination of excised tissue, there were adnexal structures along a tract lined with stratified squamous epithelium, consistent with a developmental abnormality of ectodermal tissue. The lesions were diagnosed as nasal dermoid sinus cysts, similar to the congenital condition described in humans. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts are rare developmental defects related to abnormal development of the pre-nasal space and may extend into the cranial vault causing cerebral abscesses or recurrent meningitis. Complete surgical excision has a good prognosis. This is a new condition that should be added to the surgical differential diagnosis for a discharging sinus over the external nares in dogs. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons
Cosway, Ben; Tomkinson, Alun; Owens, David
Rhinosinusitis is a common condition with adults experiencing 2-5 episodes per year. The European Positional Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) published in 2005 and updated in 2007 provided evidence-based guidelines on the management of sinus disease promoting a conservative approach to treatment. This study examines the effect of EP3OS on sinus surgery uptake and acute admissions for sinusitis in England and Wales. A retrospective study using the national electronic health databases of England (Hospital Episodes Statistics, HES online) and Wales (Patient Episodes Database of Wales, PEDW) was undertaken from 2000 to 2010 using the OPCS-4 codes E12-E17 (sinus surgery) and ICD10 code J01 (acute admission for sinusitis). Data were analysed for effect following the introduction of the EP3OS in 2005 using linear regression and Chi squared analysis. 116,370 sinus procedures and 10,916 acute admissions for sinusitis were made during the study period. No significant decrease in sinus surgery procedures occurred following the introduction of the EP3OS as may have been expected (p > 0.05), although subgroup analysis suggested a significant increase in Wales (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increases in acute admissions for sinusitis were observed following the introduction of EP3OS (p < 0.05). However, subgroup analysis suggested this was not the case in Wales (p > 0.05). The EP3OS appears to have had little impact on the rates of sinus surgery but more conservative approaches to managing of sinus disease may have led to an increase in acute admissions. Further research is required to investigate whether changes in practice were adopted.
Sigmund, Alana E; Fang, Yixin; Chin, Matthew; Reynolds, Harmony R; Horwitz, Leora I; Dweck, Ezra; Iturrate, Eduardo
To determine the clinical significance of tachycardia in the postoperative period. Individuals 18 years or older undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty were included in the study. Two data sets were collected from different time periods: development data set from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011, and validation data set from December 1, 2012, through September 1, 2014. We used the development data set to identify the optimal definition of tachycardia with the strongest association with the vascular composite outcome (pulmonary embolism and myocardial necrosis and infarction). The predictive value of this definition was assessed in the validation data set for each outcome of interest, pulmonary embolism, myocardial necrosis and infarction, and infection using multiple logistic regression to control for known risk factors. In 1755 patients in the development data set, a maximum heart rate (HR) greater than 110 beats/min was found to be the best cutoff as a correlate of the composite vascular outcome. Of the 4621 patients who underwent arthroplasty in the validation data set, 40 (0.9%) had pulmonary embolism. The maximum HR greater than 110 beats/min had an odds ratio (OR) of 9.39 (95% CI, 4.67-18.87; sensitivity, 72.5%; specificity, 78.0%; positive predictive value, 2.8%; negative predictive value, 99.7%) for pulmonary embolism. Ninety-seven patients (2.1%) had myocardial necrosis (elevated troponin). The maximum HR greater than 110 beats/min had an OR of 4.71 (95% CI, 3.06-7.24; sensitivity, 47.4%; specificity, 78.1%; positive predictive value, 4.4%; negative predictive value, 98.6%) for this outcome. Thirteen (.3%) patients had myocardial infarction according to our predetermined definition, and the maximum HR greater than 110 beats/min had an OR of 1.72 (95% CI, 0.47-6.27). Postoperative tachycardia within the first 4 days of surgery should not be dismissed as a postoperative variation in HR, but may precede clinically significant adverse outcomes
Anconina, Reut; Zur, Dinah; Kesler, Anat; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Toledano, Ronen; Novack, Victor; Benkobich, Elya; Novoa, Rosa; Novic, Evelyne Farkash; Shelef, Ilan
Dural sinuses vary in size and shape in many pathological conditions with abnormal intracranial pressure. Size and shape normograms of dural brain sinuses are not available. The creation of such normograms may enable computer-assisted comparison to pathologic exams and facilitate diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate normal magnetic resonance venography (MRV) studies in order to create normograms of dural sinuses using a computerized algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. This was a retrospective analysis of MRV studies of 30 healthy persons. Data were analyzed using a specially developed Matlab algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated to create normograms. Mean cross-sectional size was 53.27±13.31 for the right transverse sinus (TS), 46.87+12.57 for the left TS (p=0.089) and 36.65+12.38 for the superior sagittal sinus. Normograms were created. The distribution of cross-sectional areas along the vessels showed distinct patterns and a parallel course for the median, 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles. In conclusion, using a novel computerized method for vessel cross-sectional analysis we were able to quantitatively characterize dural sinuses of healthy persons and create normograms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keskin, Ibrahim Gürkan; Ila, Kadri
Angiofibromas are histologically benign, but unencapsulated and highly vascular tumors with a potential of local destructive effect. Angiofibromas predominantly originate from the posterolateral wall of the nasopharynx. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas are extremely rare and mostly seen in maxillary sinus and ethmoid sinus. In this article, we report a 21-year-old male case who was admitted with headache and diagnosed with an angiofibroma originating from the sphenoid sinus.
Cohenca, Nestor; Karni, Sunil; Rotstein, Ilan
The extraoral sinus tract may occur as a result of an inflammatory process associated with a necrotic pulp. However, several non-odontogenic disorders may also produce an extraoral sinus tract. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this clinical finding is of paramount importance in providing appropriate clinical care because misdiagnosis of this condition may result in healing failure or unnecessary treatment. This case report of a 19-yr-old male patient describes an extraoral cutaneous sinus tract misdiagnosed as an endodontic lesion. Consequently, the patient underwent unnecessary exploratory procedures and antibiotic therapy. Identification of the inflammatory source of the lesion and removal of the affected tissue led to tissue healing.
Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R
A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital
Giacomini, Guilherme; Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Altemani, João Mauricio Carrasco; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda
Volume measurements of maxillary sinus may be useful to identify diseases affecting paranasal sinuses. However, literature shows a lack of consensus in studies measuring the volume. This may be attributable to different computed tomography data acquisition techniques, segmentation methods, focuses of investigation, among other reasons. Furthermore, methods for volumetrically quantifying the maxillary sinus are commonly manual or semiautomated, which require substantial user expertise and are time-consuming. The purpose of the present study was to develop an automated tool for quantifying the total and air-free volume of the maxillary sinus based on computed tomography images. The quantification tool seeks to standardize maxillary sinus volume measurements, thus allowing better comparisons and determinations of factors that influence maxillary sinus size. The automated tool utilized image processing techniques (watershed, threshold, and morphological operators). The maxillary sinus volume was quantified in 30 patients. To evaluate the accuracy of the automated tool, the results were compared with manual segmentation that was performed by an experienced radiologist using a standard procedure. The mean percent differences between the automated and manual methods were 7.19% ± 5.83% and 6.93% ± 4.29% for total and air-free maxillary sinus volume, respectively. Linear regression and Bland-Altman statistics showed good agreement and low dispersion between both methods. The present automated tool for maxillary sinus volume assessment was rapid, reliable, robust, accurate, and reproducible and may be applied in clinical practice. The tool may be used to standardize measurements of maxillary volume. Such standardization is extremely important for allowing comparisons between studies, providing a better understanding of the role of the maxillary sinus, and determining the factors that influence maxillary sinus size under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:29304130
... such as thickened nasal drainage, nasal congestion and facial pain or pressure . Because sinusitis is often preceded by, ... drainage that is thick and discolored, or purulent Facial pain, pressure, or fullness, that often affects the cheeks, ...
Smetnev, A S; Islam, M N; Sokolov, S F; Golitsyn, S P; Bankuzov, V A; Malakhov, V I
27 patients underwent serial electrophysiological studies by using transesophageal atrial stimulation. A-V nodal reciprocal tachycardia was documented by intracardiac electrophysiological examinations. Sustained tachycardia was induced in all the patients before drug administration. On day 4 after oral verapamil, 320 mg/day, ethmosine, 800 mg/day, and ethacizine, 150 mg/day, the patients were subjected to transesophageal atrial stimulation. An antiarrhythmic effect was regarded to be reached if the authors failed to induced sustained tachycardias again. Verapamil, ethmosine, and ethacizine were found to be beneficial in 21 (78%), 13 (48%) and 21 (78%) patients, respectively. A comparative analysis demonstrated that ethacisine was not inferior to verapamil, but ethmosine produced less effects than verapamil and ethacizine. The crossover and individual efficacy shown by each drug suggests that it is necessary to use the technique of serial testing and to choose beneficial drugs from a possibly wide range of medicaments for each patient.
Mauka, Wilhellmuss I; Mtuy, Tara B; Mahande, Michael J; Msuya, Sia E; Mboya, Innocent B; Juma, Abdul; Philemon, Rune N
Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests. P-value <0.05 (2-tails) was considered statistically significant. Inappropriate requisition was 28.8%. Factors significantly associated with inappropriate requisition were; reporting pulse rate and capillary refill decrease the risk (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.64, 0.84) and (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63, 0.85) respectively and the following increased the risk; having surgery during hospital stay (RR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06, 1.4); being in general surgical ward (RR 3.3; 95% CI 2.7, 4.2), paediatric ward (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2, 2.7), obstetric ward (RR 2.5; 95% CI 2.0, 3.1), gynaecological ward (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5, 2.9), orthopaedics ward (RR 3.8; 95% CI 2.2, 6.7). Age of the patient, pallor and confirmation of pre-transfusion haemoglobin level were also significantly associated with inappropriate requisition. Majority of appropriate requisitions within the wards were marked in internal medicine (91.7%) and gynaecological wards (77.8%). The proportion of inappropriate blood requests was high. Blood requisition was determined by clinical and laboratory findings and the ward patients were admitted to. Adherence to transfusion guidelines is recommended to assure the best use of limited blood supply.
Grayson, Jessica W; Jeyarajan, Hari; Illing, Elisa A; Cho, Do-Yeon; Riley, Kristen O; Woodworth, Bradford A
Management of frontal sinus trauma includes coronal or direct open approaches through skin incisions to either ablate or obliterate the frontal sinus for posterior table fractures and openly reduce/internally fixate fractured anterior tables. The objective of this prospective case-series study was to evaluate outcomes of frontal sinus anterior and posterior table trauma using endoscopic techniques. Prospective evaluation of patients undergoing surgery for frontal sinus fractures was performed. Data were collected regarding demographics, etiology, technique, operative site, length involving the posterior table, size of skull base defects, complications, and clinical follow-up. Forty-six patients (average age, 42 years) with frontal sinus fractures were treated using endoscopic techniques from 2008 to 2016. Mean follow-up was 26 (range, 0.5 to 79) months. Patients were treated primarily with a Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies. Draf III was used in 8 patients. Average fracture defect (length vs width) was 17.1 × 9.1 mm, and the average length involving the posterior table was 13.1 mm. Skull base defects were covered with either nasoseptal flaps or free tissue grafts. One individual required Draf IIb revision, but all sinuses were patent on final examination and all closed reductions of anterior table defects resulted in cosmetically acceptable outcomes. Frontal sinus trauma has traditionally been treated using open approaches. Our findings show that endoscopic management should become part of the management algorithm for frontal sinus trauma, which challenges current surgical dogma regarding mandatory open approaches. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Roberts, Charlotte A
Maxillary sinusitis was studied as an indicator of poor air quality. Seven skeletal samples were examined from North America, England, and Nubia, and selected to represent different geographic locations, environments, and subsistence economies. Frequency rates varied from 17.2 to 51.5% of individuals affected with one or both sinuses preserved. Hardin Village had the highest frequency (51.5%), followed by the Aleuts (42.9%), "Illinois" (38.6%), Indian Knoll (38.5%), Kulubnarti (21.8%), Christchurch, Spitalfields (18.0%), and "South Dakota" (17.2%). Male frequencies ranged from 16.7 to 36.7%, but the female frequency ranged more widely from 18.0 to 76.5%. At most sites female rates exceeded male. The effect of urban and rural environment on sinusitis occurrence, and also subsistence economy, biological sex, and social status were explored, and comparative sites also considered; urban agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 48.5%, rural agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 45.0%, and hunter-gatherer sites had a mean frequency of 40.0%. In the urban sites male and female frequencies were near equal, but in the rural agricultural and hunter-gatherer sites female frequencies exceeded male frequencies. Dental disease was not found to have much impact on sinusitis frequency. The importance of the link between poor air quality and respiratory health is highlighted in clinical studies in both developed and developing countries, but also in bioarcheological studies.
... any unused antibiotic pills you may have at home. Watch for common side effects of antibiotics, including: Skin rashes Diarrhea For women, yeast infection of the vagina (vaginitis) Stay Healthy to Avoid Sinus Infections Reduce stress and ...
Alhmoud, Eman; Khalifa, Sabah; Bahi, Asma Abdulaziz
Older patients receiving home health care are particularly at risk of receiving potentially inappropriate medications compared to community-dwelling population. Data on appropriateness of prescribing in these patients is limited. To investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of potentially inappropriate medications among elderly patients receiving Home Health Care Services in Qatar. Home Health Care Services department in Hamad Medical Corporation-Qatar. A cross-sectional study, conducted over a 3 months period. Patients 65 years and older, taking at least one medication and receiving home care services were included. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified and classified in accordance with the American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications using updated Beers criteria. A total of 191 patients (38.2%) had at least one potentially inappropriate medication. As per Beers criteria, 35% of medications were classified as medications to be avoided in older adults regardless of conditions and 9% as potentially inappropriate medications when used with certain diseases or syndromes. The majority of potentially inappropriate medications (56%) were classified as medications to be used with caution. The two leading classes of potentially inappropriate medications were antipsychotics (27.4%) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (16%). Significant predictors of inappropriate prescribing were hypertension [adjusted OR 1.7; 95% CI (1.0, 2.8)], dementia [adjusted OR 2.0; 95% CI (1.2, 3.1)], depression [adjusted OR 21.6; 95% CI (2.8, 168.4)], and taking more than ten prescribed medications [adjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)]. Prescribing potentially inappropriate medications is common among older adults receiving home health care services in Qatar, a finding that warrants further attention. Polypharmacy, hypertension, depression and dementia were significantly associated with potentially
Thomas, Robert D; Graham, Scott M; Carter, Keith D; Nerad, Jeffrey A
Enophthalmos in a patient with an opacified hypoplastic maxillary sinus, without sinus symptomatology, describes the silent sinus syndrome. A current trend is to perform endoscopic maxillary antrostomy and orbital floor reconstruction as a single-staged operation. A two-staged approach is performed at our institution to avoid placement of an orbital floor implant in the midst of potential infection and allow for the possibility that enophthalmos and global ptosis may resolve with endoscopic antrostomy alone, obviating the need for orbital floor reconstruction. A retrospective review identified four patients with silent sinus syndrome evaluated between June 1999 and August 2001. Patients presented to our ophthalmology department with ocular asymmetry, and computerized tomography (CT) scanning confirmed the diagnosis in each case. There were three men and one woman, with ages ranging from 27 to 40 years. All patients underwent endoscopic maxillary antrostomy. Preoperative enophthalmos determined by Hertel's measurements ranged from 3 to 4 mm. After endoscopic maxillary antrostomy, the range of reduction in enophthalmos was 1-2 mm. Case 2 had a preoperative CT scan and a CT scan 9 months after left endoscopic maxillary antrostomy. Volumetric analysis of the left maxillary sinus revealed a preoperative volume of 16.85 +/- 0.06 cm3 and a postoperative volume of 19.56 +/- 0.07 cm3. This represented a 16% increase in maxillary sinus volume postoperatively. Orbital floor augmentation was avoided in two patients because of satisfactory improvement in enophthalmos. In the other two patients, orbital reconstruction was performed as a second-stage procedure. There were no complications. Orbital floor augmentation can be offered as a second-stage procedure for patients with silent sinus syndrome. Some patients' enophthalmos may improve with endoscopic antrostomy alone.
Shi, Jian-bo; Chen, Feng-hong; Xu, Rui; Zuo, Ke-jun; Deng, Jie; Xu, Geng
To explore the feasibility of endoscopic modified agger nasi approach for the surgical treatment of frontal sinus diseases. The data of patients undergoing modified agger nasi approach for frontal diseases were prospectively collected since January 2009, including demographic data, findings at surgery, presence of postoperative symptoms, endoscopic appearance of the frontal recess and sinus, and complications. Nineteen patients were enrolled from January 2009 to August 2010. Seventeen patients had chronic rhinosinusitis, in which 13 patients (76.5%) completely healed, 3 patients (17.6%) improved and 1 patient (5.9%) failed. Two patients had frontal sinus and anterior ethmoid sinus inverted papilloma, with no recurrence. The patients were followed up from 6 to 24 months, medium 16 months. No severe complication occurred. No frontal recess adhesion was found. Four sides of frontal recess showed stenosis caused by tissue hypertrophy. The modified agger nasi approach provides excellent access to frontal recess and frontal sinus, with good effect for preventing re-stenosis after surgery.
Fu, Weilun; Duan, Lian; Geng, Sumin
The type of pituitary adenoma with a manifestation that includes cavernous sinus syndrome is rare. Based on the clinical data of 70 patients, this study investigated the pathogenesis, imaging characteristics, and prognostic factors of pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of patients with pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome who received surgical treatment. The patients were classified into different prognosis groups according to the time required for them to recover from the cavernous sinus syndrome. Univariate analyses were conducted for the correlations between the prognosis and factors. Of the 3598 cases of pituitary adenomas, 70 (1.95%) presented cavernous sinus syndrome. Of the patients, 55.7% recovered within 2 weeks of surgery, 24.3% recovered from 2 weeks to 1 year after surgery, and 20% had not returned to normal after more than 1 year after surgery. Univariate analyses showed that shorter disease duration (P < 0.001), lower Knosp grade (P = 0.045), a transsphenoidal approach (P < 0.001), and associated pituitary apoplexy (P = 0.012) were predictive factors of early postoperative recovery. The prognosis of cavernous sinus syndrome differs depending on the mechanism of the syndrome. There was no significant difference in the prognosis between patients with total pituitary adenoma resection and subtotal resection. Timely surgery within 100 days of symptom occurrence, Knosp grade 0-2, and associated pituitary apoplexy are predictive factors of good prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maxillary sinus lift for dental implant installation is a well-known and versatile technique; new techniques are presented based on the physiology of intrasinus bone repair. The aim of this review was to determine the status of graftless maxillary sinus lift and analyze its foundations and results. A search was conducted of the literature between 1995 and 2015 in the Medline, ScienceDirect, and SciELO databases using the keywords “maxillary sinus lift,” “blood clot,” “graftless maxillary sinus augmentation,” and “dental implant placement.” Ten articles were selected for our analysis of this technique and its results. Despite the limited information, cases that were followed for at least six months and up to four years had a 90% success rate. Published techniques included a lateral window, elevation of the sinus membrane, drilling and dental implant installation, descent of the membrane with variations in the installation of the lateral wall access and suturing. The physiology behind this new bone formation response and the results of the present research were also discussed. We concluded that this is a promising and viable technique under certain inclusion criteria. PMID:28875135
Oster, Matthew E; Yang, Zhou; Stewart-Huey, Kay; Glanville, Michelle; Porter, Arlene; Campbell, Robert; Webb, Brad; Strieper, Margaret
It is unclear whether cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation offers better value for treating atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children. We aimed to compare the value of these procedures for treating atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children, with value being outcomes relative to costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia ablations for children (age⩽18 years) from July, 2009 to June, 2011 at our institution. Costs included fixed costs, miscellaneous hospital costs, and labour costs, and key outcomes were acute and long-term success (6 months) of the ablations. We conducted T-tests and regression analyses to investigate the associations between the ablation procedure type and the cost and success of the ablations. Of 96 unique cases performed by three paediatric electrophysiologists, 48 were cryoablation only, 42 radiofrequency ablation only, and six were a combination. Acute success was 100% for the cryoablation only and radiofrequency ablation only cases and 83% for the combination cases. There were no notable adverse events. The average total cost was $9636 for cryoablation cases, $9708 for radiofrequency ablation cases, and $10,967 for combination cases (p=0.51 for cryoablation only versus radiofrequency ablation only). The long-term success rate was 79.1% for cryoablation only, 92.8% for radiofrequency ablation only, and 66.7% for the combination (p=0.01 for cryoablation only versus radiofrequency ablation only), but long-term success varied notably by provider. Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation offer similar value in the short term for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children. Differences in long-term success may vary substantially by physician, and thus may lead to differences in long-term value.
Belhassen, B; Viskin, S
Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.
Rubanick, Jean V; Fries, Ryan C; Waugh, Carly E; Pashmakova, Medora B
To describe a case of hyperkalemia coinciding with wide-complex tachycardia (WCT) in a dog with acute kidney injury secondary to leptospirosis infection. An 11-week-old Golden Retriever-Standard Poodle cross puppy was referred for acute kidney injury and hepatopathy. WCT coinciding with marked hyperkalemia was identified on presentation. Tachycardia persisted until resolution of hyperkalemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of severe hyperkalemia presenting with WCT in a dog. Hyperkalemia should be considered a differential for WCT in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.
Shapshay, S M; Rebeiz, E E; Bohigian, R K; Hybels, R L; Aretz, H T; Pankratov, M M
Endoscopic sinus surgery has gained wide acceptance since its introduction into the United States. Complex sinus anatomy and troublesome bleeding have been associated with complications, which vary in severity from synechia to blindness and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Endoscopic sinus surgery using a holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet pulsed solid-state laser oscillating at 2.1 microns with fiberoptic delivery was performed in the laboratory, and the results were compared with those of conventional endoscopic sinus surgery. Three beagle dogs, six human cadaver heads, and one calf head were used in the in vivo and in vitro studies to evaluate the bone ablation, tissue coagulation, and hemostatic properties of the holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Modified endoscopic telescopes for sinus surgery, a newly developed handpiece for fiberoptic delivery, and other surgical instruments were used. The results indicate that the holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser and new delivery instrumentation provide good hemostasis and controlled soft-tissue ablation and bone removal. The access to all sinuses in the human cadaver model was very good. The canine in vivo study showed delayed but complete healing on the laser-treated side. Clinical evaluation of the holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser is warranted to increase the precision and safety of endoscopic sinus surgery.
Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Ymeri, Halit; Hundozi, Hajrije; Vranica, Sylen; Hasani, Antigona; Shala, Nexhmedin
Thrombosis of the sinuses is a distinct cerebrovascular disorder that, unlike arterial stroke, most often affects young adults and children. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. During the past decade, increased awareness of the diagnosis, improved neuro-imaging techniques, and more effective treatment have improved the prognosis. More than 80% of all patients now have a good neurologic outcome. This review summarizes recent insights into the pathogenesis of sinus thrombosis, risk factors, and clinical and radiological diagnosis and discusses the current evidence and controversies about the best treatment.
Nguyen, Hoang H.; Van Hare, George F.; Rudokas, Michael; Bowman, Tammy; Silva, Jennifer N. A.
Objectives Smartphone-enabled ECG devices have the potential to improve patient care by enabling remote ECG assessment of patients with potential and diagnosed arrhythmias. This prospective study aimed to assess the usefulness of pediatric ECG tracings generated by the AliveCor device (Oklahoma City, OK) and to assess user satisfaction. Study Design Enrolled pediatric patients with documented paroxysmal arrhythmia used the AliveCor device over a yearlong study period. Pediatric electrophysiologists reviewed all transmitted ECG tracings. Patient completed surveys were analyzed to assess user satisfaction. Results 35 patients were enrolled with the following diagnoses: supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, 57%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 11%), ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT, 6%), atrial tachycardia (AT, 3%), and ventricular tachycardia (VT, 23%). A total of 238 tracings were received from 20 patients, 96% of which were of diagnostic quality for sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, SVT, and AF. 126 patient satisfaction surveys (64% from parents) were completed. 98% of the survey responses indicated that it was easy to obtain tracings, 93% found it easy to transmit the tracings, 98% showed added comfort in managing arrhythmia by having the device, and 93% showed interest in continued use of the device after the study period ended. Conclusions Smartphone-enabled ECG devices can generate tracings of diagnostic quality in children. User satisfaction was extremely positive. Use of the device to manage certain patients with AF and SVT showcases the future role of remote ECGs in the successful outpatient management of arrhythmias in children by potentially reducing Emergency Department visits and healthcare costs. PMID:26295569
Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique
The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.
Lerman, Bruce B; Ip, James E; Shah, Bindi K; Thomas, George; Liu, Christopher F; Ciaccio, Edward J; Wit, Andrew L; Cheung, Jim W; Markowitz, Steven M
There is no universally accepted method by which to diagnose clinical ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to cAMP-mediated triggered activity. Based on cellular and clinical data, adenosine termination of VT is thought to be consistent with a diagnosis of triggered activity. However, a major gap in evidence mitigates the validity of this proposal, namely, defining the specificity of adenosine response in well-delineated reentrant VT circuits. To this end, we systematically studied the effects of adenosine in a model of canine reentrant VT and in human reentrant VT, confirmed by 3-dimensional, pace- and substrate mapping. Adenosine (12 mg [IQR 12-24]) failed to terminate VT in 31 of 31 patients with reentrant VT due to structural heart disease, and had no effect on VT cycle length (age, 67 years [IQR 53-74]); ejection fraction, 35% [IQR 20-55]). In contrast, adenosine terminated VT in 45 of 50 (90%) patients with sustained focal right or left outflow tract tachycardia. The sensitivity of adenosine for identifying VT due to triggered activity was 90% (95% CI, 0.78-0.97) and its specificity was 100% (95% CI, 0.89-1.0). Additionally, reentrant circuits were mapped in the epicardial border zone of 4-day-old infarcts in mongrel dogs. Adenosine (300-400 μg/kg) did not terminate sustained VT or have any effect on VT cycle length. These data support the concept that adenosine's effects on ventricular myocardium are mechanism specific, such that termination of VT in response to adenosine is diagnostic of cAMP-mediated triggered activity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jütte, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Hell, K; Salzberger, B
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a typical late-stage complication of AIDS. Only six cases of CMV sinusitis have been reported in the literature. This is the first case of CMV sinusitis leading to the diagnosis of HIV and CMV retinitis. Diseases of the sinonasal tract may represent an initial manifestation of HIV or AIDS.
Holton, Nathan; Yokley, Todd; Butaric, Lauren
To understand how variation in nasal architecture accommodates the need for effective conditioning of respired air, it is necessary to assess the morphological interaction between the nasal cavity and other aspects of the nasofacial skeleton. Previous studies indicate that the maxillary sinuses may play a key role in accommodating climatically induced nasal variation such that a decrease in nasal cavity volume is associated with a concomitant increase in maxillary sinus volume. However, due to conflicting results in previous studies, the precise interaction of the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses, in humans, is unclear. This is likely due to the prior emphasis on nasal cavity size, whereas arguably, nasal cavity shape is more important with regard to the interaction with the maxillary sinuses. Using computed tomography scans of living human subjects (N=40), the goal of this study is to assess the interaction between nasal cavity form and maxillary sinus volume in European- and African-derived individuals with differences in nasal cavity morphology. First, we assessed whether there is an inverse relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volumes. Next, we examined the relationship between maxillary sinus volume and nasal cavity shape using multivariate regression. Our results show that there is a positive relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volume, indicating that the maxillary sinuses do not accommodate variation in nasal cavity size. However, maxillary sinus volume is significantly correlated with variation in relative internal nasal breadth. Thus, the maxillary sinuses appear to be important for accommodating nasal cavity shape rather than size. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ozkurt, Fazil Emre; Ozkurt, Zeynep Gursel; Gul, Aylin; Akdag, Mehmet; Sengul, Engin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Yuksel, Harun; Meric, Faruk
Purpose: We reported on the clinical approaches of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology departments in the treatment of the orbital complications of sinusitis. We also included an in-depth literature review. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 51 patients from January 2008 to January 2014. The records were evaluated for age, gender, type of orbital complications, symptoms, predisposing factors, imaging studies, medical and surgical management, culture results, and follow-up information. SPSS version 15.0 software (Statistical Analysis, The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one patients met the criteria, with available medical records, for the study (29 male, 22 female). Thirty-two (62.7%) were diagnosed with preseptal cellulitis and 19 (37.3%) with postseptal cellulitis. After a detailed evaluation, 15 were diagnosed with a subperiosteal abscess (SPA), and 4 were diagnosed with orbital cellulitis. The age and gender was similar for the two groups. Five patients with medial SPA were treated with endoscopic sinus surgery, one patient with inferior SPA was treated with external surgery, and six patients with other localizations were treated with a combination of endoscopic sinus surgery and external surgery. All patients presented with periorbital erythema and edema. The length of hospitalization and duration of symptoms were similar in both groups. Visual acuity was between 1/10 to 10/10 (mean 7/10) and statistically significant for preseptal and postseptal cellulitis groups (p<0.001). All patients received intravenous antibiotics upon the first day of admission. Conclusion: Orbital complications of acute sinusitis required intensive follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. A contrast-enhanced paranasal sinus computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect the extent of the infection. An initial trial of intravenosus (IV) antibiotics may be appropriate when close
Tahiri, Zejdush; Kellici, Suela; Mone, Iris; Shabani, Driton; Qazimi, Musa; Burazeri, Genc
In post-war Kosovo, the magnitude of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines is unknown to date. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of continuation of intake of benzodiazepines beyond prescription (referred to as "inappropriate use") in the adult population of Gjilan region in Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gjilan region in 2015 including a representative sample of 780 individuals attending different pharmacies and reporting use of benzodiazepines (385 men and 395 women; age range 18-87 years; response rate: 90%). A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants inquiring about the use of benzodiazepines and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, the prevalence of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was 58%. In multivariable-adjusted models, inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), middle education (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), daily use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and addiction awareness (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8). Furthermore, there was evidence of a borderline relationship with rural residence (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7). Our study provides novel evidence about the prevalence and selected correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Gjilan region of Kosovo. Health professionals and policymakers in Kosovo should be aware of the magnitude and determinants of drug misuse in this transitional society.
Moore, Brian A.; Wine, Todd; Burkey, Brian B.; Amedee, Ronald G.; Butcher, R. Brent
Objectives: We present the first known case in the English-language literature of a myxoma arising in the sphenoid sinus. By describing the patient's clinical course and the salient features of this rare neoplasm, we seek to increase the awareness of the presentation, histological features, and treatment considerations for myxomas of the head and neck. In the process, we intend to describe the work-up of isolated sphenoid sinus lesions and focus on the varying and evolving techniques for surgical access to the sphenoid sinus. Study Design and Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: We describe the clinical course of a patient with a myxoma of the sphenoid sinus. The patient underwent an external sphenoethmoidectomy through a lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy under MRI-guidance. He remains without evidence of recurrent disease after 8 months. Conclusions: Myxomas of the head and neck are rare neoplasms. Their infiltrative nature and tendency to recur demand an aggressive surgical approach that may be accomplished with minimal morbidity using currently available image-guided techniques. PMID:21603497
Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C
Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.
Weaver, R G; Gates, G A
Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinuses are uncommon; 60 cases have been reported in the world literature to date. Signs and symptoms are caused by local expansion of the mucocele and include headache (the most common symptom), ocular field deficits, external ophthalmoplegia (particularly the sixth cranial nerve), and proptosis. Radiologic correlation in the form of plain films and polytomorgraphy is the most reliable guide in the diagnosis of sphenoid sinus disease. Therapy of these lesions is surgical, and drainage can be achieved via the external ethmoid or sublabial transseptal route. Three cases are presented: two had classical findings and the third was conspicuous by the presence of aseptic meningitis in the absence of local findings.
Beretta, Mario; Cicciù, Marco; Bramanti, Ennio; Maiorana, Carlo
Maxillary sinus floor elevation via a lateral approach is a predictable technique to increase bone volume of the edentulous posterior maxilla and consequently for dental implants placement. The sinus floor is elevated and it can be augmented with either autologous or xenogeneic bone grafts following an opening bone window created on the facial buccal wall. Maxillary septa are walls of cortical bone within the maxillary sinus. The septa shape has been described as an inverted gothic arch arising from the inferior or lateral walls of the sinus and may even divide the sinus into two or more cavities. Some authors have reported a higher prevalence of septa in atrophic edentulous areas than in nonatrophic ones. Radiographic identification of these structures is important in order to perform the right design of the lateral window during sinus lift. Aim of this investigation is to highlight the correct steps for doing sinus lift surgery in presence of those anatomic variations. Clinicians should always perform clinical and radiographic diagnosis in order to avoid complications related to the sinus lift surgery. PMID:22848223
Strek, Pawel; Zagólski, Olaf; Składzień, Jacek; Oleś, Krzysztof; Konior, Marcin; Hydzik-Sobocińska, Karolina; Głowacki, Roman
Cases of isolated lesions of the sphenoid sinus are rare. For descriptive purposes, clinicians divide them into inflammatory and non-inflammatory with prevalence of the former. Symptoms of the sphenoid sinus disease are difficult to characterise, the most common of them being vague headache and visual disturbances. Thorough preoperative evaluation of the lesion is essential - nasal endoscopy must be performed and computerised tomography or magnetic resonance imaging results analysed. The purpose of the study is to present the assessment of endoscopic surgery outcome in the own group of patients with isolated sphenoid disease. Clinical data of 22 subjects were analysed retrospectively. There were 5 patients with bacterial sinusitis, 6 with fungal sinusitis, 4 with allergic thickening of the mucous membrane with no evidence of bacterial or fungal infection, 2 with mucocele, 1 with sphenoid osteoma, 1 with inverted papilloma, 1 with a foreign body and 2 with cerebral fluid fistula. Each patient had preoperative nasal endoscopy and CT/MRI imaging performed. Then they underwent endoscopic transnasal sphenoethmoidectomy with removal of the lesion or closure of the fistula. The sphenoid sinus was approached through its front wall. The patients' postoperative course was uneventful. They noted improvement in all preoperative symptoms, except for bilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis in one individual, and were asymptomatic to ophthalmological examination. Isolated lesions of the sphenoid sinus, even very rare tumours like those presented here, can be in most cases safely approached and removed endoscopically. All risks of the method must be considered prior to the operation. High frequency of fungal sinusitis should be noted.
Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.
Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.
Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.
We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…
McFadden, E A; Woodson, B T; Massaro, B M; Toohill, R J
Orbital complications are uncommon in adult sinusitis. In contrast, the sinusitis of the aspirin triad syndrome is often fulminate, expansive, and recurrent, and complications may be more frequent. Of 81 patients with aspirin triad who were treated surgically, 7 patients (8.6%) had orbital complications, including sinus mucoceles in 3 patients, lacrimal gland extension in 2 patients, inflammatory orbital mass in 1 patient, and proptosis from expansile sinonasal polyposis in 1 patient. All complications manifested within 2 years of prior surgery. Two patients suffered blindness. In a group of 120 consecutively treated sinus surgery patients without aspirin triad syndrome (51 of whom were followed for more than 2 years), no patient manifested nonoperative orbital complications. The results of this study suggest that aspirin triad patients are at significant risk for orbital complications and therefore should have long-term follow-up with aggressive treatment of persistent disease.
Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho
Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.
Cho, Do-Yeon; Mackey, Calvin; Van Der Pol, William J.; Skinner, Daniel; Morrow, Casey D.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Rowe, Steven M.; Swords, William E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.
Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC) defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9) for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis. Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9), which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4). Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02). Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL) depth (p < 0.0001) and mucus transport (p = 0.0044) compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001). The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales) dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia) by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway-surface liquid
Kim, Seong-Beom; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Young-Kyun
Mucous retention cyst refers to a cyst made by expansion due to the blockage of the salivary gland near the maxillary sinus, and it is surrounded by epithelial cells. Most of them are small; therefore, they cannot be found well and are frequently with antral polyp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical prognosis of sinus bone graft in patients with mucous retention cyst. This study was performed retrospectively on 23 patients who had sinus bone graft. Group 1 was 8 patients (10 sinuses) who had a mucous retention cyst, and group 2 was 15 patients (17 sinuses) who had no pathologic history about the maxillary sinus. For these patients, sinus bone graft was performed using the lateral approach technique. The total 51 implants were placed 6.22 weeks on the average after sinus bone graft. Sinus membrane perforation during operation, postoperative complications, marginal bone loss after restorative function, implant success rate, and survival rate were analyzed. There was no complication in group 1, and there were three complications in group 2. In group 2, two cases of implants failed. The types of postoperative complications consisted of two minor infections and one wound dehiscence. Two implants of total 51 implants were removed, and the survival rate of implants was 96.08 % (group 1 100 %, group 2 93.5 %). The total success rate of implants was 92.2 % (group 1 95 %, group 2 90.3 %). The clinical prognosis was not affected by the presence of mucous retention cyst.
Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Kamath P, Shrinath D
To study the etiological role of concha bollosa in deviated nasal septum (DNS) and sinusitis. In this retrospective study 419 consecutive CT scans of paranasal sinuses done between October 2005 and September 2007 were serially evaluated for the presence of concha, DNS and sinusitis. Out of 419 CT scans evaluated, concha bullosa was present in 40.3% of patients. Among these, concha co-existent DNS was found in 87.5%, air column between DNS and concha was found in 88.5% and sinus disease was present in 69.2% of patients. Presence of air column between DNS and concha excludes the etiological role of concha in DNS. Concha bullosa may predispose to sinusitis.
Brown, P; Demaerel, P; McNaught, A; Revesz, T; Graham, E; Kendall, B E; Plant, G
Two cases of non-invasive aspergillosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses are described. The first presented with left proptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Imaging and histology showed a maxillary sinus aspergilloma. The second case presented as a compressive optic neuropathy and histology showed allergic aspergillus sinusitis. The pathological distinction between invasive and non-invasive forms of aspergillus sinusitis is important as in invasive aspergillosis surgical treatment is most effectively combined with systemic antifungal treatment, whereas in aspergilloma of the paranasal sinuses surgical drainage of the sinuses alone is usually sufficient, and in allergic aspergillus sinusitis surgery is best combined with systemic or topical steroids. The distinction between invasive and non-invasive forms is particularly important as both may present with cranial neuropathies. Images PMID:8126516
Fournet, Maxime; Behaghel, Albin; Pavy, Carine; Flecher, Erwan; Thebault, Christophe
A 38-year-old farmer was hospitalized for fever, chills, cough, and chest pain lasting for 7 days. Due to persistent symptoms, patient was referred to hospital. Blood cultures identified oxacillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (OSSA). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed large pericardial effusion, a mobile heterogeneous mass originating from the coronary sinus ostium, no sign of valvular endocarditis. Pericardiocentesis was done carrying out purulent fluid, microbiological culture isolating an OSSA. Parenteral penicillin M was administered for 6 weeks. At the end of this antibiotherapy regimen, TTE showed no coronary sinus mass with complete vacuity of the coronary sinus vein and no pericardial effusion.
Waizel-Haiat, Salomón; Solano-Mendoza, María del Carmen; Vargas-Aguayo, Alejandro Martin
Maxillary sinus surgery has been evolving and, due to advances in technology, endoscopic surgery is widely used in the maxillary sinus for multiple pathologies that 15 years ago were treated through open approaches. For this reason, we conducted an observational descriptive study. We reviewed the clinical records of patients with pathology involving the maxillary sinus and who were surgically treated from January 2008 to December 2009, type of disease, surgical approach used, presence of complications, pre- and postoperative score according to the Lund-Mackay scale, and resolution (or not) of symptoms. We compared these results with a previous study carried out in 1994 in our hospital. We found a total of 177 patients with maxillary sinus-related pathology, of whom 46 patients were excluded. In 131 patients we found a clear predominance of chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps as a pre-surgical diagnosis. We used four different approaches: endoscopic (88.5%), combined approach (5.5%), sublabial expanded (4.5%) and Caldwell Luc (1.5%); 41% of the patients received 0 points on the postoperative Lund-Mackay scale. Surgery of the maxillary sinus in our hospital has evolved considerably; the endoscopic approach was used as a surgical treatment in >90% of patients with a low percentage of complications.
Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Orive, Gorka
A lateral approach for sinus elevation using plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology is described. The long-term survival of dental implants installed following a two-stage procedure after sinus elevation using this procedure is reported, using implant loss as the outcome variable. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Eighteen patients received 43 implants (BTI implants, Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain) with sinus floor elevation. All patients presented a residual bone height of class D (1-3 mm). Implants were installed using a low-speed drilling procedure (50 rpm) without irrigation. Finally, the histological and histomorphometric evaluation of eight samples from PRGF grafted sinus involved in the study was carried out 5-6 months posttreatment. The overall survival rate of dental implants was 100%. The mean follow-up period for all implants was 33 +/- 7 months ranging from 24 to 44 months. In addition, the histomorphometrical evaluation of the samples evidenced a 25.24 +/- 4.62% of vital newly formed bone, 50.31 +/- 15.56% of soft connective tissue, and the remaining 24.46 +/- 12.79% of bovine anorganic bone. Based on these results, this new approach for sinus elevation and implant installation using PRGF technology can be considered safe, simple, effective, and predictable.
Jesus, Vinicius Menezes; Buriti, Francisco; Lessa, Rodrigo; Toralles, Maria Betânia; Oliveira, Luciana Barros; Barroso, Ubirajara
Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has become incorporated by most surgeons. However, the proximity of the urethral sphincter prompts concern over urinary incontinence, especially for full mobilization of the urogenital sinus. To retrospectively evaluate the short-term surgical results of feminizing genitoplasty with total mobilization of the urogenital sinus in patients with DSD. Review of medical records of all patients undergoing feminizing genitoplasty with mobilization of the urogenital sinus. We evaluated the rates of complications from surgery and of urinary incontinence, as well as cosmetic results, according to the opinion of the surgeon and the family. A total of 8 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 51months. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was diagnosed in six patients, and gonadal dysgenesis in the other two. The vagina was separated from the urethra, with suitable distance in all cases. No patient had urinary incontinence after surgery. The mean follow-up of patients was. 20months (3-56months). In all cases, surgeons recorded being satisfied with the aesthetic result of post-surgical genitalia. The family was recorded as satisfied with the aesthetic result of the genitalia after surgery. In every case, there was no need for a second surgical procedure. The total mobilization of the urogenital sinus is a feasible and safe technique. The technique permits good cosmetic results, and urinary incontinence is absent. Therapeutic study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flam, Juliette O; Platt, Michael P; Sobel, Rachel; Devaiah, Anand K; Brook, Christopher D
Acute and chronic sinusitis in children and adults can spread to the orbit. Oral flora has been seen in orbital infections, but the extent of synergy between pathogens in such infections remains unknown. A retrospective case series of patients with complicated sinusitis that involved the orbit from acute sinusitis who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital from January 2000 to December 2014 and who had surgical cultures obtained. Patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for periorbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, or orbital abscess. Sixteen patients underwent surgical drainage via external drainage or endoscopic sinus surgery of an orbital infection associated with sinusitis and had cultures obtained. Nine patients (56%) grew organisms that exist in oral flora, whereas seven patients (44%) grew common respiratory pathogens. The most common organisms recovered were viridans group streptococcus (VGS) (50%), Staphylococcus aureus (31%), Eikenella corrodens (25%), and Prevotella species (19%). Oral flora anaerobes were cultured alongside a VGS species in seven of eight patients (88%) as opposed to the respiratory pathogens, which were less frequently associated with concomitant VGS infection (29%) (p = 0.04). There are two main sources for infectious orbital complications from acute sinusitis: respiratory pathogens and oral flora. The high prevalence of concurrent anaerobic oral flora and VGS infection supports a suspected synergy between VGS and other oral organisms.
Cho, Seung Hyun; Yi, Jin Woong; Kwack, Yoon Ho; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Rhee, Yong Girl
We routinely have performed arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia in the beach chair position using epinephrine (0.33 mg/L) saline irrigation. At a 2-week interval, two patients, a 19-year-old man scheduled to undergo an arthroscopic Bankart repair for left traumatic anterior instability and a 49-year-old woman scheduled for an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for a left rotator cuff tear, were resuscitated by chest compression and defibrillation due to a sudden developed cardiogenic shock following ventricular tachycardia at the time of arthroscopic shoulder surgery. They were transferred to the intensive care unit because their emergent echocardiogram showed significantly decreased cardiac functions. They were fully recovered and then discharged. Epinephrine was considered to be the cause of ventricular tachycardia because the two patients showed no anaphylactic reaction to drugs or symptoms of air embolism related to the beach chair position. In addition, according to our observation of epinephrine flow patterns, it was more likely that highly concentrated epinephrine was rapidly infused into the body. This complication is very rare. However, thorough understanding of the side effects and their development of epinephrine during arthroscopic shoulder surgery should neither be overemphasized nor disregarded.
Hsu, Yao-Wen; Ho, Ching-Yin; Yen, Yu-Shu
Sphenoid sinusitis is a complication associated with endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Studies that address the relationship between methods of sellar defect reconstruction and postoperative sinusitis are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, the possible risk factors, and the causative pathogens of sphenoid sinusitis after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Prospective cohort study. We performed a prospective analysis of 182 patients with benign pituitary tumor who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and sellar defect reconstruction with bone chip, from July 2008 through July 2011. All patients were followed up with nasal endoscopy for at least 6 weeks. Fifty-seven (31.3%) patients developed postoperative sphenoid sinusitis. Comparing the sinusitis and nonsinusitis groups, we found that bone chip detachment was a significant risk factor for postoperative sinusitis, with a relative risk of 2.86 (64.1% vs. 22.4%). The most common pathogens present in cases of postoperative sinusitis were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Regular follow-up with nasal endoscopy can prevent delayed diagnosis of postoperative sphenoid sinusitis. Culture-directed antibiotics with aggressive endoscopic debridement are an effective treatment for these patients. An optimal reconstruction strategy should be further developed to reduce bone chip detachment and secondary sinusitis. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Öztürk, Semi; Aktemur, Tuğba; Kalyoncuoğlu, Muhsin; Durmuş, Gündüz; Can, Mehmet
A 52-year-old man complaining of persistent recurring chest pain at night underwent coronary angiogram at another institution. Normal coronaries were observed and he was discharged with muscle spasmolytic prescription. Since symptoms had continued, 24-hour Holter monitoring was ordered at our facility and results revealed huge ST elevation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Cold pressor test performed in catheterization laboratory also resulted in ventricular tachycardia. Nifedipine was prescribed and follow-up Holter monitoring revealed no further vasospastic episodes. Utility of 24-hour Holter rhythm monitoring and cold pressor test in patients with recurrent chest pain at night is demonstrated in this report.
Plash, Walker B; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Garland, Emily M; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Dupont, William D; Raj, Satish R
POTS (postural tachycardia syndrome) is characterized by an increased heart rate (ΔHR) of ≥30 bpm (beats/min) with symptoms related to upright posture. Active stand (STAND) and passive head-up tilt (TILT) produce different physiological responses. We hypothesized these different responses would affect the ability of individuals to achieve the POTS HR increase criterion. Patients with POTS (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) underwent 30 min of tilt and stand testing. ΔHR values were analysed at 5 min intervals. ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was performed to determine optimal cut point values of ΔHR for both tilt and stand. Tilt produced larger ΔHR than stand for all 5 min intervals from 5 min (38±3 bpm compared with 33±3 bpm; P=0.03) to 30 min (51±3 bpm compared with 38±3 bpm; P<0.001). Sn (sensitivity) of the 30 bpm criterion was similar for all tests (TILT10=93%, STAND10=87%, TILT30=100%, and STAND30=93%). Sp (specificity) of the 30 bpm criterion was less at both 10 and 30 min for tilt (TILT10=40%, TILT30=20%) than stand (STAND10=67%, STAND30=53%). The optimal ΔHR to discriminate POTS at 10 min were 38 bpm (TILT) and 29 bpm (STAND), and at 30 min were 47 bpm (TILT) and 34 bpm (STAND). Orthostatic tachycardia was greater for tilt (with lower Sp for POTS diagnosis) than stand at 10 and 30 min. The 30 bpm ΔHR criterion is not suitable for 30 min tilt. Diagnosis of POTS should consider orthostatic intolerance criteria and not be based solely on orthostatic tachycardia regardless of test used.
Düllmann, Jochen; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Ziesenitz, Maike; Schumacher, Udo
The lectin Chelidonium majus agglutinin (CMA) was previously shown to visualise endothelia of all blood vessels and those lining sinuses of red pulp, stromal reticular meshwok (RM) and dendritic cells of lymphatic follicles in white pulp of the spleen in rats. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CMA and some other lectins in labelling RM, vascular structures and macrophages in lymph nodes of rats. It appeared that CMA stained the entire RM, dendritic cells, lining cells of sinuses and all types of blood vessels. Sinus-lining cells of lymph nodes were labelled with CMA and mannose-, GalNac-, and sialic acid-specific lectins. Moreover, lymph node macrophages were labelled above all by mannose specific lectins. The broad lectin-binding pattern of sinuses--not observed in rat spleen- and CMA-reactivity of both sinus-lining and dendritic cells corroborates the hypothesis that lymph node sinus-lining endothelia are precursors or a special type of immune accessory cells.
Pek, Elisabeth Anna; Remfry, Andrew; Pendrith, Ciara; Fan-Lun, Chris; Bhatia, R Sacha; Soong, Christine
Benzodiazepines and sedative hypnotics are commonly used to treat insomnia and agitation in older adults despite significant risk. A clear understanding of the extent of the problem and its contributors is required to implement effective interventions. To determine the proportion of hospitalized older adults who are inappropriately prescribed benzodiazepines or sedative hypnotics, and to identify patient and prescriber factors associated with increased prescriptions. Single-center retrospective observational study. Urban academic medical center. Medical-surgical inpatients aged 65 or older who were newly prescribed a benzodiazepine or zopiclone. Our primary outcome was the proportion of patients who were prescribed a potentially inappropriate benzodiazepine or sedative hypnotic. Potentially inappropriate indications included new prescriptions for insomnia or agitation/anxiety. We used a multivariable random-intercept logistic regression model to identify patient- and prescriber-level variables that were associated with potentially inappropriate prescriptions. Of 1308 patients, 208 (15.9%) received a potentially inappropriate prescription. The majority of prescriptions, 254 (77.4%), were potentially inappropriate. Of these, most were prescribed for insomnia (222; 87.4%) and during overnight hours (159; 62.3%). Admission to a surgical or specialty service was associated with significantly increased odds of potentially inappropriate prescription compared to the general internal medicine service (odds ratio [OR], 6.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.70-16.17). Prescription by an attending physician or fellow was associated with significantly fewer prescriptions compared to first-year trainees (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.93). Nighttime prescriptions did not reach significance in initial bivariate analyses but were associated with increased odds of potentially inappropriate prescription in our regression model (OR, 4.48; 95% CI, 2.21-9.06). The majority of newly
Fusco, Marco; Buja, Alessandra; Piergentili, Paolo; Golfetto, Maria Teresa; Serafin, Gianni; Gallo, Silvia; Dalla Barba, Livio; Baldo, Vincenzo
The appropriate use of health care is an important issue in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent of potentially inappropriate hospital admissions and their individual, clinical and hospital-related determinants. Medical records were analyzed for the year 2014 held by the Local Heath Unit n. 13 in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (19,000 records). The outcomes calculated were: admissions for conditions amenable to day hospital care; brief medical admissions; outlier lengths of stay for elderly patients' medical admissions; and medical admissions to surgical wards. Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to test associations with demographic, clinical and hospital ward covariates, including organizational indicators. Inappropriate reliance on acute care beds ranged from 6% to 28%, depending on the type of quality indicator analyzed. Some individual features, and wards' specific characteristics were associated with at least one of the phenomena of inappropriate hospital resource usage. In particular, male gender, younger age and transferals seemed to affect inappropriate admissions to surgical wards. Potentially avoidable admissions featuring inpatients amenable to day hospital care were associated with subjects with fewer comorbidities and lower case-mix wards, while inappropriately short medical stays were influenced by patients' higher functional status and local residency and by lower bed occupancy rates. In conclusion, inappropriately long hospital stays for elderly cases were associated with patients with multiple pathologies in wards with a low bed-occupancy. Education level and citizenship did not seem to influence inappropriate admissions. Some individual, clinical ad structural characteristics of patients and wards emerging from administrative records could be associated with inappropriate reliance on acute hospital beds. Analyzing the indicators considered in this study could generate
... are more likely to suffer sinus problems. Your source for more information or to find an allergist/immunologist. To the Point Knowing whether your symptoms are caused by a cold, allergies or sinusitis is the first step to- ward choosing the proper treatment. 03/2012 AAAAI -0312 -484
The knowledge of the presence of the paranasal sinuses dates back to early mankind as well as attempts to treat their diseases. Apart from the sensory function of smell, however, little has been known about the function and especially the anatomy of the system till the end of the last century. Until the late middle ages sometimes obscure functions were attributed to the sinuses, like holding the "grease" for the movement of the eyeballs, or allowing the brain to "drain its bad spirits" to the outer world, bringing about names like "la cloaca del cerebro" by Sansovino in the 16th century. The old French expression of "rhume de cerveau" demonstrates these ideas having passed on into modern man's vocabulary. During the 17th and 18th century discussion was mainly about the function or purpose of the sinuses, and the rare anatomical studies were meant to support or prove one or the other "philosophies". Today's knowledge of the anatomy to a great deal goes back to the basic work of Emil Zuckerkandl of Austria, who starting from the 1870s described in subtile studies the anatomical and development details of the nose and the sinuses, opening an entire new field for scientific and surgical approach to the area. The decades around the turn of the century boost with studies on sectional and surgical anatomy, creating the specialty of rhinology and leading into our modern concepts of diagnosis and therapy of nasal and paranasal sinus diseases. Names like Grünwald, Onodi, Hajek and many others are closely linked with this creative period. Radiology, especially the development of conventional and computed tomography during the last two decades helped to "rediscover" the fascinating details and complex connections of the paranasal sinus system. Together with the development of the operating microscope and the endoscope this helped to open new ways for functional approaches and less radical microsurgery.
Takahashi, Yukiko; Shoji, Fumi; Katori, Yukio; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Naoya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kakuta, Risako Kakuta; Suzuki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ohta, Nobuo; Kakehata, Seiji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka
Sinonasal inverted papilloma has been traditionally managed with external surgical approaches. Advances in imaging guidance systems, surgical instrumentation, and intraoperative multi-visualization have led to a gradual shift from external approaches to endoscopic surgery. However, for anatomical and technical reasons, endoscopic surgery of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to the frontal sinuses is still challenging. Here, we present our experience in endoscopic surgical management of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to one or both frontal sinuses. We present 10 cases of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to the frontal sinuses and successfully removed by endoscopic median drainage (Draf III procedure) under endoscopic guidance without any additional external approach. The whole cavity of the frontal sinuses was easily inspected at the end of the surgical procedure. No early or late complications were observed. No recurrence was identified after an average follow-up period of 39.5 months. Use of an endoscopic median drainage approach to manage sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to one or both frontal sinuses is feasible and seems effective.
Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P
Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.
Nazeri, Alireza; Elayda, MacArthur A; Segura, Ana Maria; Stainback, Raymond F; Nathan, Joanna; Lee, Vei-Vei; Bove, Christina; Sampaio, Luiz; Grace, Brian; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi
Chronic tachycardia is a well-known cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that nebivolol, a β-blocker with nitric oxide activity, would be superior to a pure β-blocker in preventing tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in a porcine model. Fifteen healthy Yucatan pigs were randomly assigned to receive nebivolol, metoprolol, or placebo once a day. All pigs underwent dual-chamber pacemaker implantation. The medication was started the day after the pacemaker implantation. On day 7 after implantation, each pacemaker was set at atrioventricular pace (rate, 170 beats/min), and the pigs were observed for another 7 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiograms, serum catecholamine levels, and blood chemistry data were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. At the end of week 8, the pigs were euthanized, and complete histopathologic studies were performed. All the pigs developed left ventricular cardiomyopathy but remained hemodynamically stable and survived to the end of the study. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction decreased from baseline by 34%, 20%, and 20% in the nebivolol, metoprolol, and placebo groups, respectively. These changes did not differ significantly among the 3 groups ( P =0.51). Histopathologic analysis revealed mild left ventricular perivascular fibrosis with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in 14 of the 15 pigs. Both nebivolol and metoprolol failed to prevent cardiomyopathy in our animal model of persistent tachycardia and a high catecholamine state.
Ford, Rebecca L; Barsam, Alon; Velusami, Prabhu; Ellis, Harold
The maxillary sinuses are the most frequently infected paranasal sinuses in humans. It has been suggested that infection occurs relatively commonly in the maxillary sinuses owing to the position of their ostia high on their superomedial walls, which may be suboptimal for natural drainage. This may represent evolutionary lag, whereby the ostia remained in a quadrupedal position as bipedal humans evolved from their primate ancestors. This study examined the hypothesis that drainage of the maxillary sinus is optimal in the quadrupedal position. The drainage of the human maxillary sinus and an analogous quadruped, the goat, was examined and compared in the upright, quadrupedal, and intermediate positions. Department of Anatomy, King's College London. Cadaveric human and goat maxillary sinuses were filled with saline in each position and the volume at which saline overflowed through the ostia was noted. Volume at which spontaneous drainage occurred through ostia. The volume of saline instilled before drainage was maximal in the upright position and reduced with each increase in anterior tilt, with drainage occurring most easily at 90° for both human and goat sinuses. Drainage was significantly better in the quadrupedal head position than upright in both species (p < .01). This study demonstrated that human maxillary sinuses exhibit better passive drainage through their ostia when tilted anteriorly to mimic a quadrupedal head position. This may be an example of an evolutionary lag phenomenon and could be one etiologic factor in the prevalence of maxillary sinusitis in humans.
Miri, Shima Sadat; Atashbar, Omid; Atashbar, Fardin
Sinus tract is one of the manifestations of chronic dental infections, which is a path for the drainage of the infection and pus. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of sinus tract with dental origin analyze the correlation between sinus tract and related factors. This study was conducted on 1527 patients, visiting Kermanshah school of dentistry, in 2014.The related teeth were examined in terms of vitality test and exact location of sinus tract. Moreover, the causes of this lesion and the needs for root canal treatment were assessed in these teeth. Having obtained the data from the patients, analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Chi-square tests. The frequency of sinus tract was 9.89% patients. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of sinus tract and factors such as age, general health status, location of sinus tract and history of root canal treatment. The prevalence of sinus tract in maxilla was higher than the mandible (p=0.087). The prevalence of sinus tract in the posterior teeth (69.54%) was significantly higher than that of anterior teeth (30.46%) (p=0.000). From 724 teeth with periapical inflammation and radiolucency, 9.89% teeth had odontogenic sinus tract, and 23.42% teeth with history of root canal treatment had sinus tract. The most common cause of sinus tract incidence was previous root canal treatment. Therefore, clinicians need to pay a more attention to examining the posterior teeth referred for endodontic treatment.
James, Andrew I W; Young, Andrew W
To explore the relationships between verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury. Multivariate statistical modelling of observed verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour utilizing demographic, pre-morbid, injury-related and neurocognitive predictors. Clinical records of 152 participants with acquired brain injury were reviewed, providing an important data set as disordered behaviours had been recorded at the time of occurrence with the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) Aggression Rating Scale and complementary measures of inappropriate sexual behaviour. Three behavioural components (verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour) were identified and subjected to separate logistical regression modelling in a sub-set of 77 participants. Successful modelling was achieved for both verbal and physical aggression (correctly classifying 74% and 65% of participants, respectively), with use of psychotropic medication and poorer verbal function increasing the odds of aggression occurring. Pre-morbid history of aggression predicted verbal but not physical aggression. No variables predicted inappropriate sexual behaviour. Verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury appear to reflect separate clinical phenomena rather than general behavioural dysregulation. Clinical markers that indicate an increased risk of post-injury aggression were not related to inappropriate sexual behaviour.
Kamel, Reda H; Abdel Fattah, Ahmed F; Awad, Ayman G
Maxillary sinus inverted papilloma entails medial maxillectomy and is associated with high incidence of recurrence. To study the impact of prior surgery on recurrence rate after transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Eighteen patients with primary and 33 with recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma underwent transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Caldwell-Luc operation was the primary surgery in 12 patients, transnasal endoscopic resection in 20, and midfacial degloving technique in one. The follow-up period ranged between 2 to 19.5 years with an average of 8.8 years. Recurrence was detected in 8/51 maxillary sinus inverted papilloma patients (15.7 %), 1/18 of primary cases (5.5 %), 7/33 of recurrent cases (21.2 %); 3/20 of the transnasal endoscopic resection group (15%) and 4/12 of the Caldwell-Luc group (33.3%). Redo transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was followed by a single recurrence in the Caldwell-Luc group (25%), and no recurrence in the other groups. Recurrence is more common in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma than primary lesions. Recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma after Caldwell-Luc operation has higher incidence of recurrence than after transnasal endoscopic resection.
Daimee, Usama A; Vermilye, Katherine; Rosero, Spencer; Schuger, Claudio D; Daubert, James P; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina
The effects of heart failure (HF) severity on risk of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to study the association between HF severity and inappropriate ICD therapy in MADIT-RIT. MADIT-RIT randomized 1,500 patients to three ICD programming arms: conventional (Arm A), high-rate cut-off (Arm B: ≥200 beats/min), and delayed therapy (Arm C: 60-second delay for ≥170 beats/min). We evaluated the association between New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III (n = 256) versus class I-II (n = 251) and inappropriate ICD therapy in Arm A patients with ICD-only and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D). We additionally assessed benefit of novel ICD programming in Arms B and C versus Arm A by NYHA classification. In Arm A, the risk of inappropriate therapy was significantly higher in those with NYHA III versus NYHA I-II for both ICD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.55, confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-4.30, P < 0.001) and CRT-D patients (HR = 3.73, CI: 1.14-12.23, P = 0.030). This was consistent for inappropriate ATP and inappropriate ICD therapy < 200 beats/min, but not for inappropriate shocks. Novel ICD programming significantly reduced inappropriate therapy in patients with both NYHA III (Arm B vs Arm A: HR = 0.08, P < 0.001; Arm C vs Arm A: HR = 0.17, P < 0.001) and NYHA I-II (Arm B vs Arm A: HR = 0.25, P < 0.001; Arm C vs Arm A: HR = 0.28, P < 0.001). Patients with more severe HF are at increased risk for inappropriate ICD therapy, particularly ATP due to arrhythmias < 200 beats/min. Novel programming with high-rate cut-off or delayed detection reduces inappropriate ICD therapies in both mild and moderate HF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carter, B.L.; Bankoff, M.S.; Fisk, J.D.
Computed tomography (CT) is now used extensively for the evaluation of orbital, facial, and intracranial infections. Nine patients are presented to illustrate the importance of detecting underlying and unsuspected sinusitis. Prompt treatment of the sinusitis is essential to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with complications such as brain abscess, meningitis, orbital cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. A review of the literature documents the persistence of these complications despite the widespread use of antibiotic therapy. Recognition of the underlying sinusitis is now possible with CT if the region of the sinuses is included and bone-window settings are used during the examination ofmore » patients with orbital and intracranial infection.« less
Shinde, Pradeep; Toshikhane, Hemant
Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work for thousands of young people (mostly men) annually. The incidence of the disease is calculated to be 26 per 100,000 people. It occurs 2.2 times more often in men than in women. Age at presentation is 21 years for men and 19 years for women this case report describes a 22-year-old man with pilonidal sinus who was treated with ksharasutra.
Durr, Megan L; Goldberg, Andrew N
To describe a technique of endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap for postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles and to present a case series of subjects who underwent this procedure. This case series includes four subjects with postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles who underwent resection via endoscopic partial medial maxillectomy with a mucosal flap. We will discuss the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, operative details, and outcomes. Four subjects are included in this study. The average age at the time of medial maxillectomy was 52 years (range 35-65 years). Three subjects (75%) were female. One subject (25%) had bilateral postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles. Two subjects (50%) had unilateral right sided mucoceles, and the remaining subject had a unilateral left sided mucocele. All subjects had a history of multiple sinus procedures for chronic sinusitis including Caldwell-Luc procedures ipsilateral to the postoperative mucocele. All subjects underwent endoscopic medial maxillectomy without complication and were symptom free at the last follow up appointment, average 24 months (range 3-71 months) after medial maxillectomy. For postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles in locations that are difficult to access via the middle meatus antrostomy, we recommend endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap. Our preliminary experience with four subjects demonstrates complete resolution of symptoms after this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... your back or over your lap. This head. Radiography of the paranasal sinuses apron will protect your ... face, especially when lowering his or her head. Radiography of sitting and others while you are standing. ...
Lanspa, Michael J; Shahul, Sajid; Hersh, Andrew; Wilson, Emily L; Olsen, Troy D; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Grissom, Colin K; Brown, Samuel M
In sepsis, tachycardia may indicate low preload, adrenergic stimulation, or both. Adrenergic overstimulation is associated with septic cardiomyopathy. We sought to determine whether tachycardia was associated with left ventricular longitudinal strain, a measure of cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized an association would primarily exist in patients with high preload. We prospectively observed septic patients admitted to three study ICUs, who underwent early transthoracic echocardiography. We measured longitudinal strain using speckle tracking echocardiography and estimated preload status with an echocardiographic surrogate (E/e'). We assessed correlation between strain and heart rate in patients with low preload (E/e' < 8), intermediate preload (E/e' 8-14), and high preload (E/e' > 14), adjusting for disease severity and vasopressor dependence. We studied 452 patients, of whom 298 had both measurable strain and preload. Abnormal strain (defined as >-17%) was present in 54%. Patients with abnormal strain had higher heart rates (100 vs. 93 beat/min, p = 0.001). After adjusting for vasopressor dependence, disease severity, and cardiac preload, we observed an association between heart rate and longitudinal strain (β = 0.05, p = 0.003). This association persisted among patients with high preload (β = 0.07, p = 0.016) and in patients with shock (β = 0.07, p = 0.01), but was absent in patients with low or intermediate preload and those not in shock. Tachycardia is associated with abnormal left ventricular strain in septic patients with high preload. This association was not apparent in patients with low or intermediate preload.
Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ikushima, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Daiki; Shimizu, Yuichi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio; Ohyama, Kenji
Sinus fungal ball is defined as noninvasive chronic rhino-sinusitis with a clump of mold in the paranasal sinuses, typically affecting the maxillary sinus. Fairly good outcomes of endoscopic surgery have been reported where the ball is removed through the antrostomy. However, the affected sinus tends to have a smaller cavity and thicker bony walls. As such, it is often challenging to maintain a window size that is sufficient to control possible recurrence. The endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy procedure was applied to a 61-year old and a 70-year old female patient with maxillary sinus fungal ball. Using this method, we created a much larger inferior meatal antrostomy without difficulty. The window provided us with an endoscopic view of the whole sinus and complete eradication of the lesion. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is useful as a surgical procedure for maxillary sinus fungal ball and should be considered for better outcomes.
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Kumar, Narasimhan Pradeep; Thomas, Alan; Mudd, Paul; Morris, Robert O; Masud, Tahir
to determine the positive yield of carotid sinus massage in different patient groups: unexplained syncope, falls, dizziness and controls. observational study. teaching hospital. we studied consecutive patients over the age of 60 years referred to the 'falls clinic' with a history of unexplained syncope, unexplained falls and unexplained dizziness. We also studied asymptomatic control subjects recruited from a general practice register aged 60 years and over. All patients and control subjects underwent a full clinical assessment (comprehensive history and detailed clinical examination including supine and erect blood pressure measurements) and 12-lead electrocardiography. We performed carotid sinus massage in the supine position for 5 seconds separately on both sides followed by repeating the procedure in the upright positions using a motorised tilt table. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded using a cardiac monitor and digital plethysmography respectively. The test was considered positive if carotid sinus massage produced asystole with more than a 3 second pause (cardioinhibitory type of carotid sinus syndrome), or a fall in systolic blood pressure of more than 50 mmHg in the absence of significant cardioinhibition (vasodepressor type of carotid sinus syndrome) or where there was evidence of both vasodepressor and cardio-inhibition as above (mixed type). we studied 44 asymptomatic control subjects and 221 symptomatic patients (130 with unexplained syncope, 41 with unexplained falls and 50 with unexplained dizziness). In the overall symptomatic patient group, the positive yield (any type of carotid sinus syndrome) was 17.6% (95% CI = 12.7-22.5). The positive yield in men (26.3% (95% CI = 16.4-36.2)) was twice that in women (13.1% (95% CI = 7.6-18.6)) (P = 0.014). Overall any type of carotid sinus syndrome was present in 22.3% (n = 29) of the syncope group, 17.1% (n = 7) in the unexplained fallers group and 6% (n = 3) in the dizziness group. We also found that
Patil, Vijay M.; Noronh, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Karpe, Ashay; Talreja, Vikas; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Dhumal, Sachin; Prabhash, Kumar
Background: Metronomic chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate and celecoxib recently has shown promising results in multiple studies in head and neck cancers. However, these studies have not included patients with maxillary sinus primaries. Hence, the role of palliative metronomic chemotherapy in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma that is not amenable to radical therapy is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of carcinoma maxillary sinus patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between August 2011 and August 2014. The demographic details, symptomatology, previous treatment details, indication for palliative chemotherapy, response to therapy, and overall survival (OS) details were extracted. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics have been performed. Survival analysis was done by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Five patients had received metronomic chemotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range 37–64 years). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months were 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. The estimated median OS was 126 days (95% confidence interval 0–299.9 days). The estimated median survival in patients with an event-free period after the last therapy of <6 months was 45 days, whereas it was 409 days in patients with an event-free period postlast therapy above 6 months (P = 0.063). Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy in carcinoma maxillary sinus holds promise. It has activity similar to that seen in head and neck cancers and needs to be evaluated further in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:27275447
Miri, Shima Sadat; Atashbar, Omid; Atashbar, Fardin
Introduction: Sinus tract is one of the manifestations of chronic dental infections, which is a path for the drainage of the infection and pus. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of sinus tract with dental origin analyze the correlation between sinus tract and related factors. Methods: This study was conducted on 1527 patients, visiting Kermanshah school of dentistry, in 2014.The related teeth were examined in terms of vitality test and exact location of sinus tract. Moreover, the causes of this lesion and the needs for root canal treatment were assessed in these teeth. Having obtained the data from the patients, analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Chi-square tests. Results: The frequency of sinus tract was 9.89% patients. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of sinus tract and factors such as age, general health status, location of sinus tract and history of root canal treatment. The prevalence of sinus tract in maxilla was higher than the mandible (p=0.087). The prevalence of sinus tract in the posterior teeth (69.54%) was significantly higher than that of anterior teeth (30.46%) (p=0.000). From 724 teeth with periapical inflammation and radiolucency, 9.89% teeth had odontogenic sinus tract, and 23.42% teeth with history of root canal treatment had sinus tract. Conclusions: The most common cause of sinus tract incidence was previous root canal treatment. Therefore, clinicians need to pay a more attention to examining the posterior teeth referred for endodontic treatment. PMID:26153170
Sönnerstam, Eva; Sjölander, Maria; Gustafsson, Maria
Older people are more sensitive to drugs and adverse drug reactions than younger people because of age-related physiological changes such as impaired renal function. As people with dementia are particularly vulnerable to the effects of drugs, it is especially important to evaluate the dosages of renally cleared medications in this group. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired renal function and inappropriate prescriptions on the basis of renal function among older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. The medical records of 428 patients aged ≥65 years who were admitted to two hospitals in northern Sweden were reviewed and renally cleared medications were identified. The Cockcroft-Gault equation was used to evaluate renal function. Doses were evaluated according to the Geriatric Dosage Handbook. Renal function was impaired (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min) in 65.4 % of the study population. Impaired renal function was associated with increasing age. Among 547 prescriptions identified as renally cleared medications, 9.1 % were inappropriate based on the patient's renal function; 13.5 % of the 326 patients prescribed renally cleared medications had inappropriate prescriptions. Inappropriate prescriptions were more common among patients living in nursing homes. Impaired renal function is common and inappropriate prescription is prevalent among old people with cognitive impairment in northern Sweden. Continuous consideration of renal function is important when prescribing medications to this group.
Szilágyi, Judit; Marcus, Gregory M; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Vedantham, Vasanth; Tseng, Zian H; Walters, Tomos; Scheinman, Melvin; Olgin, Jeffrey; Gerstenfeld, Edward P
The cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is isolation of the pulmonary veins (PVs). Patients with recurrent AF undergoing repeat ablation usually have PV reconnection (PVr). The ablation strategy and outcome of patients undergoing repeat ablation who have persistent isolation of all PVs (PVi) at the time of repeat ablation is unknown. We studied consecutive patients with recurrent AF undergoing repeat ablation and compared patients with PVi to those with PVr. One hundred fifty-two patients underwent repeat ablation, and of these, 25 patients (16.4%) had PVi. Patients with PVi underwent ablation targeting any isoproterenol induced AF triggers, atrial substrate, or inducible atrial tachycardias or flutters. Patients with PVi compared to PVr were more likely to have a history of persistent AF (64% vs. 26%; P < 0.0001), obesity (BMI 30.4 vs. 28.2; P = 0.05), and prior use of contact force sensing catheters (28% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.0001). After a mean follow-up of 19 ± 15 months, 56% of PVi patients remained in sinus rhythm compared to 76.3% of PVr patients (P = 0.036). In a multivariable model, PVi patients and those with cardiomyopathy had a higher risk of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias (HR = 3.6 95%, CI 1.6-8.3, P = 0.002 and HR = 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.3, P < 0.0001, respectively). In patients who have all PVs isolated at the time of the redo AF ablation, a strategy of targeting non-PV AF triggers and inducible flutters can still lead to AF freedom in more than half of patients. Patients with PVr, however, have a better long-term outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peeraully, R; Henderson, K; Davies, B
Introduction In England, emergency readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge after an elective admission are not reimbursed if they do not meet Payment by Results (PbR) exclusion criteria. However, coding errors could inappropriately penalise hospitals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of coding for emergency readmissions. Methods Emergency readmissions attributed to paediatric surgery and urology between September 2012 and August 2014 to our tertiary referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Payment by Results (PbR) coding data were obtained from the hospital’s Family Health Directorate. Clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. All readmissions were categorised as appropriately coded (postoperative or nonoperative) or inappropriately coded (planned surgical readmission, unrelated surgical admission, unrelated medical admission or coding error). Results Over the 24-month period, 241 patients were coded as 30-day readmissions, with 143 (59%) meeting the PbR exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 98 (41%) patients, 24 (25%) were inappropriately coded as emergency readmissions. These readmissions resulted in 352 extra bed days, of which 117 (33%) were attributable to inappropriately coded cases. Conclusions One-quarter of non-excluded emergency readmissions were inappropriately coded, accounting for one-third of additional bed days. As a stay on a paediatric ward costs up to £500 a day, the potential cost to our institution due to inappropriate readmission coding was over £50,000. Diagnoses and the reason for admission for each care episode should be accurately documented and coded, and readmission data should be reviewed at a senior clinician level. PMID:26924486
Peeraully, R; Henderson, K; Davies, B
Introduction In England, emergency readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge after an elective admission are not reimbursed if they do not meet Payment by Results (PbR) exclusion criteria. However, coding errors could inappropriately penalise hospitals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of coding for emergency readmissions. Methods Emergency readmissions attributed to paediatric surgery and urology between September 2012 and August 2014 to our tertiary referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Payment by Results (PbR) coding data were obtained from the hospital's Family Health Directorate. Clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. All readmissions were categorised as appropriately coded (postoperative or nonoperative) or inappropriately coded (planned surgical readmission, unrelated surgical admission, unrelated medical admission or coding error). Results Over the 24-month period, 241 patients were coded as 30-day readmissions, with 143 (59%) meeting the PbR exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 98 (41%) patients, 24 (25%) were inappropriately coded as emergency readmissions. These readmissions resulted in 352 extra bed days, of which 117 (33%) were attributable to inappropriately coded cases. Conclusions One-quarter of non-excluded emergency readmissions were inappropriately coded, accounting for one-third of additional bed days. As a stay on a paediatric ward costs up to £500 a day, the potential cost to our institution due to inappropriate readmission coding was over £50,000. Diagnoses and the reason for admission for each care episode should be accurately documented and coded, and readmission data should be reviewed at a senior clinician level.
Suetomi, Takeshi; Yano, Masafumi; Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Masakazu; Hino, Akihiro; Ono, Makoto; Xu, Xiaojuan; Tateishi, Hiroki; Okuda, Shinichi; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Masunori
The molecular mechanism by which catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is induced by single amino acid mutations within the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated mutation-induced conformational defects of RyR2 using a knockin mouse model expressing the human catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-associated RyR2 mutant (S2246L; serine to leucine mutation at the residue 2246). All knockin mice we examined produced ventricular tachycardia after exercise on a treadmill. cAMP-dependent increase in the frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks was more pronounced in saponin-permeabilized knockin cardiomyocytes than in wild-type cardiomyocytes. Site-directed fluorescent labeling and quartz microbalance assays of the specific binding of DP2246 (a peptide corresponding to the 2232 to 2266 region: the 2246 domain) showed that DP2246 binds with the K201-binding sequence of RyR2 (1741 to 2270). Introduction of S2246L mutation into the DP2246 increased the affinity of peptide binding. Fluorescence quench assays of interdomain interactions within RyR2 showed that tight interaction of the 2246 domain/K201-binding domain is coupled with domain unzipping of the N-terminal (1 to 600)/central (2000 to 2500) domain pair in an allosteric manner. Dantrolene corrected the mutation-caused domain unzipping of the domain switch and stopped the exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia. The catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-linked mutation of RyR2, S2246L, causes an abnormally tight local subdomain-subdomain interaction within the central domain involving the mutation site, which induces defective interaction between the N-terminal and central domains. This results in an erroneous activation of Ca²⁺ channel in a diastolic state reflecting on the increased Ca²⁺ spark frequency, which then leads to lethal arrhythmia.
... leave them with the sensation of being overly dry or even cause chronic pain; a very rare but severe form of this is referred to as “ empty nose syndrome .” COMPLICATIONS OF SINUS SURGERY Intraorbital complications (damage to the eye or surrounding tissue): The eye is situated directly ...
Tucker, R; Windley, Z E; Abernethy, A D; Witte, T H; Fiske-Jackson, A R; Turner, S; Smith, L J; Perkins, J D
Knowledge of imaging anatomy, surgical anatomy and disorders affecting the sphenopalatine sinus are currently lacking. To describe the computed tomographic (CT) and surgical anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus and diagnosis, treatment and outcome in clinical cases with sphenopalatine sinus disease. Cadaver observational study and retrospective case series. The sphenopalatine sinuses of 10 normal cadaver heads were examined with digital radiography, CT and sinoscopic examination prior to anatomical sectioning. Sphenopalatine sinus anatomy was described and compared between cadaver specimens across the imaging modalities. Medical records (January 2004-2014) of cases diagnosed with sphenopalatine sinus disease were reviewed. The anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus was variable. The borders of the sphenopalatine sinus were not identifiable on plain radiographs, whereas CT provided useful anatomical information. The palatine portion of the sphenopalatine sinus was consistently accessible sinoscopically and the sphenoidal portion was accessible in 6/10 cadaver heads. Fourteen cases of sphenopalatine sinus disease were identified, presenting with one or more clinical signs of exophthalmos, blindness, unilateral epistaxis or unilateral nasal discharge. Diagnoses included neoplasia (7), progressive ethmoidal haematoma (4), sinus cyst (2) and empyema (1). Computed tomography provided diagnostic information but could not differentiate the nature of soft tissue masses. Standing sinoscopic access to the palatine portion of the sphenopalatine sinus was possible for evaluation, biopsy and resection of abnormal soft tissues. Surgical access to the sphenoidal portion was limited. Eight horses were alive at 1 year after diagnosis, with a worse outcome associated with CT evidence of bone loss and a diagnosis of neoplasia. Sphenopalatine sinus disease should be considered a rare cause of the clinical signs described. Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the sphenopalatine sinus is
Herron, Meghan E
Feline inappropriate elimination is the number one behavioral reason for relinquishment of cats to shelters and has historically been the most commonly reported feline problem addressed by behavior professionals. Veterinarians are hence challenged to uncover the underlying motivation for this behavior so that an accurate diagnosis can be made and an effective treatment plan implemented. Before a behavioral diagnosis can be made, underlying medical disease must be addressed, making a comprehensive physical evaluation imperative. After all medical issues have been addressed, a behavior diagnoses list is made based on detailed historical information obtained from the cat owner. A distinction is first established between marking and inappropriate toileting, according to elimination postures described by the owner and the social relevance of the sites of inappropriate eliminations. Next, inadequacies of the litter box management are identified and subsequent aversions and preferences, including litter box aversion, substrate aversion, location aversion, substrate preference, and location preference, can be diagnosed. The practitioner should be cognizant of the fact that anxiety from the environment and social conflict may play a major role in both marking and inappropriate toileting behaviors. Once both the medical and behavioral diagnoses are established, a treatment plan catered to the individual cat, owner, and household environment can be formulated. This should include acceptable forms of marking when indicated, appropriate litter box management and hygiene, reduction of environmental stressors, including resolution of social conflict in multicat households, proper treatment and restricted access to soiled areas, pheromone application, and, when indicated, anxiolytic drug therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Svider, Peter F; Darlin, Spencer; Bobian, Michael; Sekhsaria, Vibhav; Harvey, Richard J; Gray, Stacey T; Baredes, Soly; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Balloon dilation (BD) represents a minimally invasive alternative to endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Although BD was introduced in 2006, distinct Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were not available until 2011, making prior analysis of population-based trends difficult. Our objectives were to evaluate these trends and compare any changes to the use of traditional ESS techniques. Geographic trends also were evaluated. Medicare Part B national datasets encompassing procedures from 2011 to 2015 were obtained. ESS CPT codes (frontal sinusotomy, maxillary antrostomy with/without tissue removal, sphenoidotomy) and BD codes were searched to determine temporal trends in their use. Additionally, state carriers were individually evaluated for geographic trends. National use of BD increased greater than five-fold (39,193 from 7,496 among Medicare patients), whereas the use of ESS increased by only 5.9%. This increase in BD was observed across all sites, including the sphenoid (7.0x), maxillary (5.1x), and frontal (4.7x) sinuses. In the most recent year for which data was available (2015), a significantly greater portion of sinus procedures in these sites utilized BD in the South (42.1%) compared to the Northeast (30.6%), West (29.5%), and Midwest (25.3%) regions (P < 0.0001). The performance of BD has increased markedly in recent years. Because the use of ESS codes remain stable, observed BD trends are unlikely to be due simply to greater familiarity with newer CPT coding. The reasons for the striking increase in BD popularity are speculative and beyond the scope of this analysis, but further study may be needed. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:1299-1303, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Bansal, Reema; Takkar, Aastha; Lal, Vivek; Bal, Amanjit; Bansal, Sandeep
A young male with acute blurring of vision (6/9) complained of an inferior altitudinal field defect in right eye. Clinical ophthalmological examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed the expansion and mucosal thickening of right posterior ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and opacified right maxillary sinus. Surgical intervention (transethmoidal sphenoidotomy) and histopathological examination revealed chronic invasive granulomatous fungal sinusitis. Anti-fungal therapy led to resolution of visual complaints and restoration of visual field defects.
Yap, S K; Aung, T; Yap, E Y
Paranasal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances. We describe two patients with frontal sinus mucoceles presenting with non-axial proptosis, and give details of their presentation, investigations and treatment. Possible ocular manifestations of mucoceles and the diagnostic imaging techniques used are discussed. The treatment of mucoceles is reviewed. It is stressed that a team approach involving the ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist and radiologist is essential for accurate diagnosis and management.
Ding, Xiaojun; Wang, Qing; Guo, Xuehua; Yu, Youcheng
Dental implant placement in the posterior maxilla may be complicated by implant migration into the maxillary sinus. To report the clinical and radiological characteristics of a patient who experienced dental implant displacement into the maxillary sinus following sinus floor elevation, and to compare our findings with those of other published reports of the displacement of dental implants. Implant placement and maxillary sinus elevation were performed simultaneously. The location of the displaced implant was monitored for 8 years, until the ectopic implant was surgically removed using the lateral window approach. The contributing factors, treatment modality, and clinical outcome for our patient were compared with those of patients reported in the literature. The clinical characteristics of our case were similar to those of patients with displaced implants who were also asymptomatic for long periods. The clinical outcome of our case was consistent with that of patients who underwent similar surgeries. Transnasal endoscopic removal of an ectopic implant may be suitable in cases in which the ectopic implant is accessible. Transoral direct approaches are adequate in most cases in which endoscopic approaches may be confounded. The bony-window transoral technique may allow the removal of large implants.
Bala, P; Ferdinandusse, S; Olpin, S E; Chetcuti, P; Morris, A A M
We report a baby with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency who presented on day 2 with poor feeding and lethargy. She was floppy with hypoglycaemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hyperammonaemia (182 μmol/l). Despite correction of these and a continuous intravenous infusion of glucose at 4.5-6.2 mg/kg/min, she developed generalised tonic clonic seizures on day 3. She also suffered two episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia, from which she was resuscitated successfully. Unfortunately, she died on day 5, following a third episode of pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Arrhythmias are generally thought to be rarer in MCAD deficiency than in disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. This is, however, the sixth report of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in MCAD deficiency. Five of these involved neonates and it may be that patients with MCAD deficiency are particularly prone to ventricular arrhythmias in the newborn period. Three of the patients (including ours) had normal blood glucose concentrations at the time of the arrhythmias and had been receiving intravenous glucose for many hours. These cases suggest that arrhythmias can be induced by medium-chain acylcarnitines or other metabolites accumulating in MCAD deficiency. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias can occur in MCAD deficiency, especially in neonates.
Yin, Wenfeng; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Tiantian; Zhang, Junjian; Zhang, Chunyou; Li, Dapeng; An, Baijing
The present paper is to analyze the trend of sinus heart rate RR interphase sequence after a single ventricular premature beat and to compare it with the two parameters, turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS). Based on the acquisition of sinus rhythm concussion sample, we in this paper use a piecewise linearization method to extract its linear characteristics, following which we describe shock form with natural language through cloud model. In the process of acquisition, we use the exponential smoothing method to forecast the position where QRS wave may appear to assist QRS wave detection, and use template to judge whether current cardiac is sinus rhythm. And we choose some signals from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database to detect whether the algorithm is effective in Matlab. The results show that our method can correctly detect the changing trend of sinus heart rate. The proposed method can achieve real-time detection of sinus rhythm shocks, which is simple and easily implemented, so that it is effective as a supplementary method.
Twarużek, Magdalena; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species.
Grayson, Jessica; Tipirneni, Kiranya E; Skinner, Daniel F; Fort, Matthew; Cho, Do-Yeon; Zhang, Shaoyan; Prince, Andrew C; Lim, Dong-Jin; Mackey, Calvin; Woodworth, Bradford A
Sinus hypoplasia is a hallmark characteristic in cystic fibrosis (CF). Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is nearly universal from a young age, impaired sinus development could be secondary to loss of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or consequences of chronic infection during maturation. The objective of this study was to assess sinus development relative to overall growth in a novel CF animal model. Sinus development was evaluated in CFTR -/- and CFTR +/+ rats at 3 stages of development: newborn; 3 weeks; and 16 weeks. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning, cultures, and histology were performed. Three-dimensional sinus and skull volumes were quantified. At birth, sinus volumes were decreased in CFTR -/- rats compared with wild-type rats (mean ± SEM: 11.3 ± 0.85 mm 3 vs 14.5 ± 0.73 mm 3 ; p < 0.05), despite similar weights (8.4 ± 0.46 gm vs 8.3 ± 0.51 gm; p = 0.86). CF rat weights declined by 16 weeks (378.4 ± 10.6 gm vs 447.4 ± 15.9 gm; p < 0.05), sinus volume increased similar to wild-type rats (201.1 ± 3.77 gm vs 203.4 ± 7.13 gm; p = 0.8). The ratio of sinus volume to body weight indicates hypoplasia present at birth (1.37 ± 0.12 vs 1.78 ± 0.11; p < 0.05) and showed an increase compared with CFTR +/+ animals by 16 weeks (0.53 ± 0.02 vs 0.46 ± 0.02; p < 0.05). Rats did not develop histologic evidence of chronic infection. CF rat sinuses are smaller at birth, but develop volumes similar to wild-type rats with maturation. This suggests that loss of CFTR may confer sinus hypoplasia at birth, but normal development ensues without chronic sinus infection. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Hachiya, H; Aonuma, K; Yamauchi, Y; Harada, T; Igawa, M; Nogami, A; Iesaka, Y; Hiroe, M; Marumo, F
Catheter ablation of idiopathic left ventricular outflow tract tachycardia (LVOT-VT) is rare because a safe ablation technique at this site has not been described, and serious complications may occur. This study compared the QRS morphology of LVOT-VT with that of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. A comparison was made between the electrocardiographic characteristics of LVOT-VT originating from the supravalvular region of a coronary cusp (Supra-Ao group) with those of LVOT-VT originating from the infravalvular endocardial region of a coronary cusp of the aortic valve within the LV (Infra-Ao group). After precise mapping of the right ventricle, left ventricle, pulmonary artery, coronary cusps, and proximal portion of the anterior interventricular vein, there were 17 patients in whom VT was thought to be located at the LVOT by both activation and pace mapping. They were divided between a Supra-Ao group (n = 8), and an Infra-Ao group (n = 9). Analysis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed an S wave in lead I in all 17 patients. A precordial R wave transition was also observed at V1 or V2 in 16 patients (94%). In 7 of 8 patients (88%) with Supra-Ao LVOT-VT, no S wave was observed in either V5 or V6. In contrast, an Rs pattern was observed in both V5 and V6, or in V6 only, in 100% of the patients with Infra-Ao LVOT-VT. A LVOT-VT should be suspected when the ECG shows an S wave in lead I and an R/S ratio greater than 1 in lead V1 or V2, versus a coronary cusp location if there is no S wave in either lead V5 or V6.
Brooks, C.; Mutter, M.
A 48-year-old white man with a multiprogrammable Intramedics 259-01 pacemaker was treated for inoperable lung cancer with a course of cobalt-60 radiotherapy (total 3500 rad). Several weeks subsequent to his last radiation treatment, the patient presented to the emergency department with chest and abdominal pain, shortness of breath, hypotension, and tachycardia. A paced tachycardia was noted, and application of a magnet over the pacemaker completely inhibited its function, allowing a normal sinus rhythm to ensue and the patient's symptoms to be relieved. Pacemaker failure probably was a complication of radiotherapy.
He, Jing; Lei, Yiling; Wang, Liqiong
This study aims to summarize the nursing experience in the internal sinus floor elevation surgery with piezosurgery. The medical records of 48 patients who underwent sinus floor elevation surgery with piezosurgery in the Department of Implantation, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, were reviewed. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative nursing methods were summarized. All 48 patients underwent smooth surgeries and did not encounter complications. Careful preoperative preparation, careful and meticulous intraoperative nursing cooperation, and provision of sufficient health education after surgery to the patients are the key factors that ensure the success of internal sinus floor elevation surgery with piezosurgery.
Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida
The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524
Mladina, Ranko; Antunović, Romano; Cingi, Cemal; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Skitarelić, Neven
The aim of this study was to perform a pioneering investigation into the incidence of pneumatization in human skulls. A total of 93 human skulls (≥20 years of age, 69 males, 24 females) were included in the study. The skulls were scanned in a fixed position using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The pneumatized space parameters within the nasal septum-width, length, and height-were measured. Two types of finding were identified: (a) Pneumatization, named "sinus septi nasi" (SSN), and (b) "spongy bone" (SB). The results showed SSN in 32 of the 93 skulls (34.4%). The SSN formations were from 0.5 to 4.2 mm wide, 3.5 to 18.8 mm long, and 3.8 to 17.7 mm high. Tumefactions filled with SB were found in 61 of the 93 skulls (65.59%). These were not suitable for precise measurements since the outer borders were not strictly and well defined on CT scans (perhaps because of the preparation process). In conclusion, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoidal bone is not always compact bone; in 34.4% of cases, it shows a degree of pneumatization. In contrast, an enlarged formation filled with SB is present in 65.59% of cases. The possible sources of pneumatization of this little-investigated region are discussed: sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, and vomeronasal organ. Clin. Anat. 30:312-317, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage I Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage I Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage II Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IIA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IIB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVB Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVC Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVC Paranasal Sinus Cancer
Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Huang, Weng-Foung; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Chen, Pei-Fen
To examine the potentially inappropriate prescription of thiazolidinediones (TZD). Data on TZD prescriptions were collected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance dataset from 2001 to 2006. TZDs were considered inappropriately prescribed when they were prescribed to patients who were (1) under 18 years old, (2) pregnant, who had (3) type 1 diabetes, (4) severe heart failure, (5) hepatic insufficiency, or (6) renal insufficiency and taking TZD + metformin in combination. We aggregated potentially inappropriate prescriptions of TZD for each health-care institution in each month starting from March 2001, when TZD was introduced to Taiwan's market. The potentially inappropriate prescription of TZD increased from 9.41% in 2001 to 12.50% in 2006. Prior inappropriate prescription led to a 0.06% (95%CI: 0.04-0.08) further increase in its later inappropriate prescription. Accumulated months of experience prescribing TZD was found associated with higher proportion of inappropriate prescription of TZD (0.03%, 95%CI: 0.01-0.05). However, it was negatively associated with new incidence of inappropriate prescription of TZD (-0.20, 95%CI: -0.22 to -0.18). The greater the volume of prior TZD prescription (-0.87%, 95%CI: -0.93 to -0.81) and the greater the number of accumulated months since adoption (-0.14%, 95%CI: -0.16 to -0.12), the greater the decrease in rates of new inappropriate prescriptions. Along with the quick penetration of the new DM drug came an increased possibility that it would be prescribed inappropriately, a trend that persisted over time. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tehranchi, Azita; Motamedian, Saeed Reza; Saedi, Sara; Kabiri, Sattar; Shidfar, Shireen
Objective: Growth prediction plays a significant role in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontics patients. It was hypothesized that the unique pattern of pneumatization of the frontal sinus as a component of craniofacial structure would influence the skeletal growth pattern and may be used as a growth predictor. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 subjects (78 females and 66 males) with a mean age of 19.26 ± 4.66 years were included in this retrospective study. Posterior-anterior and lateral cephalograms (LCs) were used to measure the frontal sinus dimensions. The skeletal growth pattern and relations of craniofacial structures were analyzed on LC using variables for sagittal and vertical analyses. Correlation between the frontal sinus dimensions and cephalometric indices was assessed by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The SN-FH and SNA angles had significant associations with frontal sinus dimensions in all enrolled subjects (P < 0.05). In males, the SN-FH, sum of posterior angles, Pal-SN, and Jarabak index were significantly associated with the size of frontal sinus (P < 0.05). In females, the associations of SN-FH and gonial angles with frontal sinus dimensions were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results show that larger size of frontal sinus was associated with reduced inclination of the anterior cranial base, increased anterior facial height (in males), and increased gonial angle (in females) in the study population. PMID:28435368
Möller, Winfried; Schuschnig, Uwe; Celik, Gülnaz; Münzing, Wolfgang; Bartenstein, Peter; Häussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Knoch, Martin
Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common chronic disease of the upper airways and has considerable impact on quality of life. Topical delivery of drugs to the paranasal sinuses is challenging, therefore the rate of surgery is high. This study investigates the delivery efficiency of a pulsating aerosol in comparison to a nasal pump spray to the sinuses and the nose in healthy volunteers and in CRS patients before and after sinus surgery. Methods 99mTc-DTPA pulsating aerosols were applied in eleven CRSsNP patients without nasal polyps before and after sinus surgery. In addition, pulsating aerosols were studied in comparison to nasal pump sprays in eleven healthy volunteers. Total nasal and frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus aerosol deposition and lung penetration were assessed by anterior and lateral planar gamma camera imaging. Results In healthy volunteers nasal pump sprays resulted in 100% nasal, non-significant sinus and lung deposition, while pulsating aerosols resulted 61.3+/-8.6% nasal deposition and 38.7% exit the other nostril. 9.7+/-2.0 % of the nasal dose penetrated into maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. In CRS patients, total nasal deposition was 56.7+/-13.3% and 46.7+/-12.7% before and after sinus surgery, respectively (p<0.01). Accordingly, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus deposition was 4.8+/-2.2% and 8.2+/-3.8% of the nasal dose (p<0.01). Neither in healthy volunteers nor in CRS patients there was significant dose in the frontal sinuses. Conclusion In contrast to nasal pump sprays, pulsating aerosols can deliver significant doses into posterior nasal spaces and paranasal sinuses, providing alternative therapy options before and after sinus surgery. Patients with chronic lung diseases based on clearance dysfunction may also benefit from pulsating aerosols, since these diseases also manifest in the upper airways. PMID:24040372
Zang, Hongrui; Liu, Yingxi; Han, Demin; Zhang, Luo; Wang, Tong; Sun, Xiuzhen; Li, Lifeng
The airflow velocity and flux in maxillary sinuses were much lower than those in the nasal cavity, and the temperature in maxillary sinuses was much higher than the temperature in the middle meatus. With the increase of maximum diameter of the ostium, the above indices changed little. The purpose of the paper was to investigate, first, the flow and temperature distribution inside normal maxillary sinus in inspiration, and second, flow and temperature alteration with the increase of maximum ostium diameter. Three-dimensional models with nasal cavities and bilateral maxillary sinuses were constructed for computational fluid dynamics analysis. Virtual surgeries were implemented for the maxillary ostium, the maximum diameters of which were 8, 10, 12, and 15 mm, respectively. The finite volume method was used for numerical simulation. The indices of velocity, pressure, vector, and temperature were processed and compared between models. The airflow velocity in maxillary sinuses (average velocity 0.062 m/s) was much lower than that in the middle meatus (average velocity 3.26 m/s). With the increase of ostium diameter, airflow characteristics distributed in the maxillary sinuses changed little. The normal temperature in the maxillary sinus remained almost constant at 34°C and changed little with the increase of ostium diameter.
Basu, Saikat; Farzal, Zainab; Kimbell, Julia S.
Topical delivery methods like nasal sprays are an important therapeutic component for sinusitis (inflammation and clogging of the paranasal sinuses). The sinuses are air-filled sacs, identified as: maxillaries (under the eyes and deep to cheeks bilaterally; largest in volume), frontals (above and medial to the eyes, behind forehead area), ethmoids (between the eyes, inferior to the frontal sinuses), and sphenoids (superior and posterior to ethmoids). We develop anatomic CT-based 3D reconstructions of the human nasal cavity for multiple subjects. Through CFD simulations on Fluent for measured breathing rates, we track inspiratory airflow in all the models and the corresponding sprayed drug transport (for a commercially available sprayer, with experimentally tested particle size distributions). The protocol is implemented for a wide array of spray release points. We make the striking observation that the same release points in each subject provide better particle deposition in all the sinuses, despite the sinuses being located at different portions of the nasal cavity. This leads to the conjecture that the complicated anatomy-based flow physics artifacts in the nasal canal generate certain ``magical'' streamlines, providing passage for improved drug transport to all sinus targets. Supported by NIH Grant R01 HL122154.
McNamara, C; Cullen, P; Rackauskas, M; Kelly, R; O'Sullivan, K E; Galvin, J; Eaton, D
Left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) is a surgical procedure that has been shown to have an antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory effect. Evidence indicating its antiarrhythmic effect has been available for over 100 years. It involves the removal of the lower half of the stellate ganglion and T2-T4 of the sympathetic ganglia and is carried out as either a unilateral or bilateral procedure. With advancements in thoracic surgery, it can be safely performed via a minimally invasive Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) approach resulting in significantly less morbidity and a shortened inpatient stay. LCSD provides a valuable treatment option for patients with life-threatening channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. This case series reports the preliminary paediatric and adult experience in the Republic of Ireland with LCSD and describes five cases recently treated in addition to an outline of the operative procedure employed. Of the five cases included, two were paediatric cases and three were adult cases. One of the paediatric patients had a diagnosis of the rare catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and the other a diagnosis of long-QT syndrome. Both paediatric patients experienced excellent outcomes. Of the three adult patients, two benefitted greatly and remain well at follow-up (one inappropriate sinus tachycardia and one CPVT). One patient with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation unfortunately passed away from intractable VF despite all attempts at resuscitation. In this case series, we highlight that LCSD provides a critical adjunct to existing medical therapies and should be considered for all patients with life-threatening refractory arrhythmias especially those patients on maximal medical therapy.
Kirschke, Malin; Böhme, Jacqueline
In Germany a list was drawn up that included 83 potentially inappropriate drugs. The PRISCUS list published in 2010 was intended to highlight certain problems in the pharmakotherapy of elderly patients and serve as a support for improved medicine safety. Almost a third of the insurance portfolio of the HALLESCHE Krankenversicherung aged over 75 years takes drugs that are on the PRISCUS list. Benzodiazepine and Z-drugs are taken most frequently. The costs per insurant with potentially inappropriate medication are on average higher than for policyholders who do not take drugs on the PRISCUS list. The costs per insurant are rising, with an increase in the number of PRISCUS agents being taken as well. However, there is still no scientific proof that potentially inappropriate drugs lead to adverse drug events.
Thomas, K; Sripathi, V
In a urogenital sinus anomaly, the urethra and vagina are conjoint for a variable distance and the anorectum is usually intact and complete. We report a case of a urogenital sinus with a fistula between the rectum and the sinus. The anomaly was successfully repaired at 2.5 years of age through a midline muscle-splitting incision in the anterior perineum. The anterior wall of the anorectum was divided in the line of the incision in order to deal with the fistula. Repair was done in layers.
This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores the presence and diversity of paranasal sinuses in distinct vertebrate groups. The following topics are addressed in particular: dinosaur physiology; development; physiology; adaptation; imaging; and primate systematics. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize the diversity of paranasal sinus pneumatization in a wide spectrum of vertebrates. These range from dissection to histology, from plain X-rays to computer tomography, from comparative anatomy to natural experimental settings, from mathematical computation to computer model simulation, and 2D to 3D reconstructions. The articles in this issue are a combination of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research that highlights the complexities of paranasal sinus growth and development; ontogenetic and disease processes; physiology; paleontology; primate systematics; and human evolution. The issue incorporates a wide variety of vertebrates, encompassing a period of over 65 million years, in an effort to offer insight into the diversity of the paranasal sinus complexes through time and space, and thereby providing a greater understanding and appreciation of these special spaces within the cranium. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Tabaee, Abtin; Brown, Seth M; Anand, Vijay K
Mitomycin C has been used successfully in various ophthalmologic and, more recently, otolaryngologic procedures. Its modulation of fibroblast activity allows for decreased scarring and fibrosis. Several recent trials have examined the efficacy of mitomycin C in reducing synechia and stenosis following endoscopic sinus surgery. Basic science studies using fibroblast cell lines have demonstrated a dose-dependent suppression of activity with the use of mitomycin C. This is further supported by animal studies that have shown lower rates of maxillary ostial restenosis following application of mitomycin C. No human trial, however, has demonstrated a statistically significant impact of mitomycin C on the incidence of postoperative synechia or stenosis following sinus surgery. The limitations of the literature are discussed. The antiproliferative properties of mitomycin C may theoretically decrease the incidence of synechia and stenosis following endoscopic sinus surgery. Although this is supported by basic science studies and its successful use in other fields, the clinical evidence to date has not shown the application of mitomycin C to be effective in preventing stenosis after endoscopic sinus surgery. Future prospective studies are required before definitive conclusions can be made.
Ruff, M W; Carabenciov, I D; Johnson, D R; Pollock, B E; Parisi, J E; Klaas, J P
Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to idiopathic granulomatous inflammation of the cavernous sinus. The characteristic finding on MRI is an enhancing T1 isointense and T2 hypo- or hyperintense cavernous sinus mass lesion, which may result in focal narrowing of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Although the incidence is quite rare, it is a common diagnostic consideration in cases that present with multiple cranial neuropathies. However, the differential diagnosis for a unilateral cavernous sinus lesion in adults is broad and includes neoplastic, inflammatory (such as sarcoidosis and immunoglobulin G4-related disease [IgG4-RD]), infectious etiologies (such as syphilis and leprosy), as well as vascular lesions. We describe a patient presenting with neurologic symptoms referable to a persistent unilateral cavernous sinus MRI abnormality, initially thought to be consistent with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, that was clinically but not radiographically responsive to steroids. Following reevaluation due to the presence of new symptoms, pathology revealed that the abnormality was most consistent with chordoma, a rare skull based tumor. In patients with a presumed diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, close clinical and radiographic follow-up is imperative, with early consideration for biopsy in patients that fail to respond to treatment both clinically and radiographically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M
Hypergravitational exposures during human centrifugation are known to provoke dysrhythmias, including sinus dysrhythmias/tachycardias, premature atrial/ventricular contractions, and even atrial fibrillations or flutter patterns. However, events are generally short-lived and resolve rapidly after cessation of acceleration. This case report describes a prolonged ectopic ventricular rhythm in response to high G exposure. A previously healthy 30-yr-old man voluntarily participated in centrifuge trials as a part of a larger study, experiencing a total of 7 centrifuge runs over 48 h. Day 1 consisted of two +Gz runs (peak +3.5 Gz, run 2) and two +Gx runs (peak +6.0 Gx, run 4). Day 2 consisted of three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +Gx and +Gz). Hemodynamic data collected included blood pressure, heart rate, and continuous three-lead electrocardiogram. Following the final acceleration exposure of the last Day 2 run (peak +4.5 Gx and +4.0 Gz combined, resultant +6.0 G), during a period of idle resting centrifuge activity (resultant vector +1.4 G), the subject demonstrated a marked change in his three-lead electrocardiogram from normal sinus rhythm to a wide-complex ectopic ventricular rhythm at a rate of 91-95 bpm, consistent with an accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR). This rhythm was sustained for 2 m, 24 s before reversion to normal sinus. The subject reported no adverse symptoms during this time. While prolonged, the dysrhythmia was asymptomatic and self-limited. AIVR is likely a physiological response to acceleration and can be managed conservatively. Vigilance is needed to ensure that AIVR is correctly distinguished from other, malignant rhythms to avoid inappropriate treatment and negative operational impacts.Suresh R, Blue RS, Mathers C, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Sustained accelerated idioventricular rhythm in a centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):789-793.
McCarty, Jennifer L; David, Ryan M; Lensing, Shelly Y; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Van Hemert, Rudy L; Angtuaco, Edgardo J C; Fitzgerald, Ryan T
Dental and periodontal diseases represent important but often overlooked causes of acute sinusitis. Our goal was to examine the prevalence of potential odontogenic sources of acute maxillary sinusitis according to immune status and their associations with sinusitis. A retrospective review of maxillofacial computed tomography studies from 2013 to 2014 was performed. Each maxillary sinus and its ipsilateral dentition were evaluated for findings of acute sinusitis and dental/periodontal disease. Eighty-four patients (24 immunocompetent, 60 immunocompromised) had 171 maxillary sinuses that met inclusion criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. Inspection of dentition revealed oroantral fistula in 1%, periapical lucencies in 16%, and projecting tooth root(s) in 71% of cases. Immunocompromised patients were more likely to have bilateral sinusitis than immunocompetent patients (67% vs 33%, P = 0.005). A paired case-control analysis in a subset of patients with unilateral maxillary sinusitis (n = 39) showed a higher prevalence of periapical lucency in association with sinuses that had an air fluid level-29% of sinuses with a fluid level had periapical lucency compared with 12% without sinus fluid (P = 0.033). Potential odontogenic sources of acute maxillary sinusitis are highly prevalent in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, although the 2 patient populations demonstrate no difference in the prevalence of these potential odontogenic sources. Periapical lucencies were found to be associated with an ipsilateral sinus fluid level. Increased awareness of the importance of dental and periodontal diseases as key components of maxillofacial computed tomography interpretation would facilitate a more appropriate and timely treatment.
Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Li, Qiao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Ren, Xin; Huang, Kai-Sen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Chi; Huang, De-Jia; Chen, Mao
Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction. Consecutive patients diagnosed with angina pectoris whose ejection fraction was normal were recruited from 2008 to 2012. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was determined when the ratio of actual left ventricular mass to the predicted one exceeded 150%. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Clinical outcomes between the inappropriate and appropriate left ventricular mass group were compared before and after propensity matching. Of the total of 1515 participants, 18.3% had inappropriate left ventricular mass. Patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass had a higher composite event rate compared with those with appropriate left ventricular mass (11.2 vs. 6.6%, P=0.010). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that inappropriate left ventricular mass was an independent risk factor for adverse events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.45; P=0.035). The worse outcome in patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass was further validated in a propensity matching cohort and patients with the traditional definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.
Crystal, Matthew A; Al Najashi, Khaled; Williams, William G; Redington, Andrew N; Anderson, Robert H
We sought to define the inferior sinus venosus defect anatomically and document successful surgical approaches. We identified all patients previously given a diagnosis of an inferior sinus venosus defect at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, between 1982 and 2005 by interrogating the cardiology and cardiac surgery databases. We included those having interatrial communications in which 1 or more of the right pulmonary veins drained to the inferior caval vein but retained connection with the left atrium, the rims of the oval fossa, and the walls of the coronary sinus, both being intact. We identified 11 children who had an interatrial communication meeting the criteria for and undergoing surgical repair of an inferior sinus venosus defect. Median age was 1.2 years; 6 (55%) subjects were male, and none were cyanotic. Transthoracic echocardiographic analysis was performed preoperatively in all children, revealing right ventricular dilation in all. Surgical repair was accomplished with a pericardial patch. A complex baffle was needed in 3 children to maintain unobstructed inferior caval and pulmonary venous return. The echocardiographic diagnosis was complete in only 5 patients, but all diagnoses were correct since the year 2000. In all children the observations at surgical intervention showed that the defect was a venoatrial communication involving drainage of the right pulmonary veins to the inferior caval vein while retaining connection to the left atrium. Transthoracic echocardiographic analysis should remain the modality of choice for diagnosis of the inferior sinus venosus defect. We report excellent surgical results with a patch or baffle, correctly redirecting the anomalous venoatrial connections.
Schwan, Gerald R.; Holzworth, William A.
This investigation attempts to determine whether or not elementary school student's inappropriate classroom behavior can be altered through the use of a video self-modeling procedure (VSM). The frequency of inappropriate behavior was observed from videotapes and recorded for twenty six subjects, thirteen of whom were placed in a VSM group and…
Robin, N.; Gill, G.; van Heyningen, C.; Fraser, W.
A patient is described with small cell carcinoma of the lung, associated with profound hypophosphataemia and hyponatraemia. Increased phosphate excretion and inappropriately high urine osmolality were observed. The abnormalities are consistent with tumoral hypophosphataemia and inappropriate antidiuresis. These tumour-related metabolic abnormalities have only been described once before with this malignancy. PMID:7831175
Fenn, Joe; Lam, Richard; Kenny, Patrick J
Variations in intracranial dural venous sinus anatomy have been widely reported in humans, but there have been no studies reporting this in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe variations in magnetic resonance (MR) venographic anatomy of the dorsal dural venous sinus system in a sample population of dogs with structurally normal brains. Medical records were searched for dogs with complete phase contrast, intracranial MR venograms and a diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. Magnetic resonance venograms were retrieved for each dog and characteristics of the dorsal dural sinuses, symmetry of the transverse sinuses and other anatomic variations were recorded. A total of 51 dogs were included. Transverse sinus asymmetry was present in 58.8% of the dogs, with transverse sinus hypoplasia seen in 39.2%, and aplasia in 23.5% of dogs. For 70.6% of dogs, at least one anatomic variation in the dorsal sagittal sinus was observed, including deviation from the midline (33.3%) and collateral branches from either the dorsal sagittal sinus or dorsal cerebral veins (54.9%). In 5 dogs (9.8%) a vessel was also identified running from the proximal transverse sinus to the distal sigmoid sinus, in a similar location to the occipital sinus previously reported in children. Findings from this study indicated that, as in humans, anatomic variations are common in the intracranial dural venous sinus system of dogs. These anatomic variations should be taken into consideration for surgical planning or diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.
... and makes even more mucus. When Good Sinuses Go Bad What about that cold that won't go away? A cold virus can: damage the delicate ... So if you feel well enough, you can go to school or go outside and play. In ...
Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C
Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction. PMID:6805839
Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C
Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction.
Johnson, Jonas; Håkansson, Felicia; Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Manouras, Aristomenis; Norman, Mikael; Sahlén, Anders
Abnormal vascular-ventricular coupling has been suggested to contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in elderly females. Failure to increase stroke volume (SV) during exercise occurs in parallel with dynamic changes in arterial physiology leading to increased afterload. Such adverse vascular reactivity during stress may reflect either sympathoexcitation or be due to tachycardia. We hypothesized that afterload elevation induces SV failure by transiently attenuating left ventricular relaxation, a phenomenon described in animal research. The respective roles of tachycardia and sympathoexcitation were investigated in n = 28 elderly females (70 ± 4 yr) carrying permanent pacemakers. At rest, during atrial tachycardia pacing (ATP; 100 min(-1)) and during cold pressor test (hand immersed in ice water), we performed Doppler echocardiography (maximal untwist rate analyzed by speckle tracking imaging of rotational mechanics) and arterial tonometry (arterial stiffness estimated as augmentation index). Estimation of arterial compliance was based on an exponential relationship between arterial pressure and volume. We found that ATP produced central hypovolemia and a reduction in SV which was larger in patients with stiffer arteries (higher augmentation index). There was an associated adverse response of arterial compliance and vascular resistance during ATP and cold pressor test, causing an overall increase in afterload, but nonetheless enhanced maximal rate of untwist and no evidence of afterload-dependent failure of relaxation. In conclusion, tachycardia and cold provocation in elderly females produces greater vascular reactivity and SV failure in the presence of arterial stiffening, but SV failure does not arise secondary to afterload-dependent attenuation of relaxation.
Walsh, Katie A; Galvin, Joseph; Keaney, John; Keelan, Edward; Szeplaki, Gabor
Zero- and near-zero-fluoroscopic ablation techniques reduce the harmful effects of ionizing radiation during invasive electrophysiology procedures. We aimed to test the feasibility and safety of a zero-fluoroscopic strategy using a novel integrated magnetic and impedance-based electroanatomical mapping system for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs). We retrospectively studied 92 consecutive patients undergoing electrophysiology studies with/without RFA for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) performed by a single operator at a single center. The first 42 (Group 1) underwent a conventional fluoroscopic-guided approach and the second 50 (Group 2) underwent a zero-fluoroscopic approach using the Ensite Precision ™ 3-D magnetic and impedance-based mapping system (Abbott Inc). Group 1 comprised 14 AV-nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT), 12 typical atrial flutter, 4 accessory pathway (AP), 2 atrial tachycardia (AT), and 9 diagnostic EP studies (EPS). Group 2 comprised 16 AVNRT, 17 atrial flutter, 6 AP, 3 AT, 2 AV-nodal ablations, and 7 EPS. A complete zero-fluoroscopic approach was achieved in 94% of Group 2 patients. All procedures were acutely successful, and no complications occurred. There was a significant reduction in fluoroscopy dose, dose area product, and time (p < 0.0001, for all), with no difference in procedure times. Ablation time for typical atrial flutter was shorter in Group 2 (p = 0.006). A zero-fluoroscopic strategy for diagnosis and treatment of SVTs using this novel 3D-electroanatomical mapping system is feasible in majority of patients, is safe, reduces ionizing radiation exposure, and does not compromise procedural times, success rates, or complication rates.
Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna Ewa; Sokolowski, Jacek; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
Sinusitis is a common morbidity in general population, however little is known about its occurrence in severely immunocompromised patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature concerning sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An electronic database search was performed with the objective of identifying all original trials examining sinusitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The search was limited to English-language publications. Twenty five studies, published between 1985 and 2015 were identified, none of them being a randomized clinical trial. They reported on 31-955 patients, discussing different issues i.e. value of pretransplant sinonasal evaluation and its impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality, treatment, risk factors analysis. Results from analyzed studies yielded inconsistent results. Nevertheless, some recommendations for good practice could be made. First, it seems advisable to screen all patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with Computed Tomography (CT) prior to procedure. Second, patients with symptoms of sinusitis should be treated before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preferably with conservative medical approach. Third, patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be monitored closely for sinusitis, especially in the early period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nibber, Anjan; Belhassen, Manon; Van Ganse, Eric; Ryan, Dermot; Langlois, Carole; Appiagyei, Francis; Skinner, Derek; Laforest, Laurent; Soriano, Joan B.; Price, David
Background Inappropriate prescribing and misuse of asthma medication, have been identified as potentially preventable factors linked to asthma exacerbations and deaths. A recent report by the National Review of Asthma Deaths drew attention to the excessive prescribing of reliever medication, and under-prescribing of controlled medication in the United-Kingdom (UK). The inappropriate prescribing of long-acting beta agonist (LABA) bronchodilator inhalers, as either a monotherapy or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) has been highlighted as a major preventable factor of asthma exacerbations and deaths. To determine whether the prevalence of inappropriate LABA therapy use in asthma in the UK and in France has changed over time. Methods Two interval, parallel, population-based cohorts (2007 and 2013), were developed in each country, utilising the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and the French Permanent Beneficiaries Sample database. Following inclusion, patients aged 6–40 years were studied over a 12-month period. The use of LABAs without ICS, and ≥2-fold higher use of LABA compared with ICS were investigated. Analyses were stratified by age groups: children (6–13 years) and adults (14–40 years). Results Overall, 39,743 UK and 4,910 French patients were included in 2007 and 14,036 and 5,657 in 2013. In 2013, LABA use without ICS occurred in 0.1% and 1.5% of UK and French adults respectively. This was a marked reduction from 2007 UK and French figures of 0.4% and 2.6% respectively (P<0.05 for both). Excessive use of LABA relative to ICS occurred in 0.2% of UK adults and in 0.7% of French adults in 2013. These percentages represented a decrease from the 2007 figures of 0.6% and 1.4% for UK (P=0.29) and France (P=0.003), respectively. In 2007, LABA inappropriate use was more frequent in French than UK asthmatic children (P<0.0001), but showed a downward trend by time in both countries (0.1% in 2013 in both countries). Conclusions Our study suggests
Aksoy, Fadlullah; Vural, Omer; Ozturan, Orhan
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is the most common benign tumor of the nasopharynx with complaints of unilateral nasal obstruction and recurrent nosebleeds in the young male population. Despite being a benign tumor, it can be aggressively destructive in surrounding tissues and bones by acting locally. The gold standard treatment method is the surgical excision of the tumor. This case report is a case of angiofibroma, a 32-year-old asymptomatic male patient with no evidence of clinical signs and endoscopic examination, which is recognized as a localized vascular mass lesion in the right sphenoid sinus on the cranial MR imaging. We prepared this case report that may represent an angiofibroma localized only within the sphenoid sinus which is very rare in the literature. PMID:29359061
Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo
A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.
Janev, Edvard; Redzep, Enis
Draining cutaneous sinus tract in chin area may be caused by chronic periapical dental infections. Misdiagnosis of these lesions usually leads to destructive invasive treatment of the sinus tract that is not correct and curative. A 31-year-old male patient referred to us with a chronically draining lesion on his chin. The lesion previously was misdiagnosed by medical doctors and had undergone two times surgery with a focus on the skin lesion and had received antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time. After clinical and radiologic examination the dental origin of the lesion was evident and proper endodontic and surgical treatment was performed. Three months later, after the treatment, the lesion showed total healing and reoccurrence occurred. The key to successful treatment of cutaneous sinus tract of dental origin must be in appropriate communication between the dentist and the physician in order to achieve correct diagnosis and therapy in such cases.
Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun
Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Holzmann, David; Speich, Rudolf; Kaufmann, Thomas; Laube, Irene; Russi, Erich W; Simmen, Daniel; Weder, Walter; Boehler, Annette
Chronic infectious rhinosinusitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in cystic fibrosis and may result in allograft infection after lung transplantation. Sinus surgery followed by nasal care may reduce these adverse effects. Sinus surgery was performed in 37 patients with cystic fibrosis after transplantation. Bacteriology of sinus aspirates (n=771) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (n=256) was correlated with clinical data. Sinus surgery was successful in 54% and partially successful in 27% of patients. A significant correlation between negative sinus aspirates and negative BAL and between positive sinus aspirates and positive BAL (P<0.0001) was found. Successful sinus management led to a lower incidence of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia (P=0.009) and a trend toward a lower incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (P=0.23). Sinus surgery followed by daily nasal douching may control posttransplant lower airway colonization and infection. In the long term, this concept may lead to less bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome by decreasing bronchiolar inflammation.
Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan
Color can strongly affect participants' self-report of an odor's qualities. In Experiment 1, we examined whether color influences a more objective measure of odor quality, discrimination. Odor pairs, presented in their appropriate color (e.g., strawberry and cherry in red water), an inappropriate color (e.g., strawberry and cherry in green water), or uncolored water were presented for discrimination. Participants made significantly more errors when odors were discriminated in an inappropriate color. In Experiment 2, the same design was utilized, but with an articulatory suppression task (AST), to examine whether the effect of color was mediated by identification or by a more direct effect on the percept. Here, the AST significantly improved discrimination for the inappropriate color condition, relative to Experiment 1. Although color does affect a more objective measure of odor quality, this is mediated by conceptual, rather than perceptual, means.
Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka
This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…
Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.
Functional analysis was used to determine the possible function of inappropriate spitting behavior of an adult woman who had been diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Results of an initial descriptive assessment indicated a possible attention function and led to an attention-based intervention, which was deemed ineffective at reducing the…
Platt, Michael P; Cunnane, Mary E; Curtin, Hugh D; Metson, Ralph
Alteration of the bony architecture of the sinus cavities has been observed in chronic sinusitis. Plasticity of the ethmoid sinus framework after endoscopic surgery, however, is a newly described entity. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and extent of changes in ethmoid size after ethmoidectomy. Retrospective review performed at an academic medical center. Computed tomography scans performed from 2006 through 2007 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (n = 5,131) were reviewed to identify 100 consecutive patients who underwent sinus surgery and met inclusion criteria. Seven dimensions were measured for each pre- and postoperative scan (n = 200) using Voxar 3D software. Computed tomography scans performed before and 2 to 37 months after ethmoidectomy demonstrated a decrease of 1.1 +/- 1.6 mm in mean ethmoid cavity width at the level of the cribriform plate and posterior globe after surgery (P < .0001). Twenty-five patients (25%) had >1 mm decrease in mean ethmoid width, and six patients (6%) had a decrease of >2 mm (mean 3.1 +/- 0.9 mm). These findings seemed to be the result of postoperative bowing of the medial ethmoid walls with a corresponding increase in orbital volume. These volumetric changes resulted in a postoperative subclinical retrodisplacement (enophthalmos) of the globes (mean 0.2 +/- 0.8 mm, P = .008). The extent of surgery, including performance of frontal recess dissection (P = .007) and total ethmoidectomy (P = .021) were found to be independent predictors of the observed changes in sinus dimensions. Postsurgical plasticity of the ethmoid cavity is a new concept supported by observed changes in sinus dimensions after ethmoidectomy. These changes may reflect a loss of internal structural support and forces of contracture during the postoperative healing period.
Goldsmith, P; Burn, D; Coulthard, A; Jenkins, A
We report the case of a 70-year-old man reporting with headache and visual disturbances who was being treated for prostate cancer. Investigations showed him to have intracranial hypertension caused by venous sinus obstruction. Patients with metastatic disease and raised intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs should be considered as possible cases of venous outflow obstruction. Keywords: intracranial hypertension; venous sinus thrombosis; malignancy PMID:10616691
Palmer, Orville; Moche, Jason A; Matthews, Stanley
Mucosal preservation is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and surgical management of the sinonasal tract. The endoscope revolutionized the practice of endoscopic nasal surgery. As a result, external sinus surgery is performed less frequently today, and more emphasis is placed on functional endoscopy and preservation of normal anatomy. Endoscopic surgery of the nose and paranasal sinus has provided improved surgical outcomes and has shortened the length of stay in hospital. It has also become a valuable teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bodukam, Vijay; Saigal, Kirit; Bahl, Jaya; Wang, Yvette; Hanlon, Alexandra; Lu, Yinghui; Davis, Michael
Purpose. By examining the prescribing patterns and inappropriate use of acid suppressive therapy (AST) during hospitalization and at discharge we sought to identify the risk factors associated with such practices. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, inpatient records were reviewed from January 2011 to December 2013. Treatment with AST was considered appropriate if the patient had a known specific indication or met criteria for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Results. In 2011, out of 58 patients who were on AST on admission, 32 were newly started on it and 23 (72%) were inappropriate cases. In 2012, out of 97 patients on AST, 61 were newly started on it and 51 (84%) were inappropriate cases. In 2013, 99 patients were on AST, of which 48 were newly started on it and 36 (75%) were inappropriate cases. 19% of the patients inappropriately started on AST were discharged on it in three years. Younger age, female sex, and 1 or more handoffs between services were significantly associated with increased risk of inappropriate AST. Conclusion. Our findings reflect inappropriate prescription of AST which leads to increase in costs of care and unnecessarily puts the patient at risk for potential adverse events. The results of this study emphasize the importance of examining the patient's need for AST at each level of care especially when the identified risk factors are present. PMID:27818680
Lee, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Fong-Ching; Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chi, Hsueh-Yun; Huang, Li-Jung; Yeh, Ming-Kung
While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication. In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%), cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%), analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%), and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%). Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%), using excessive dosages (21.6%), and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy) (30.3%). The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication. Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.
Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.
Transmission characteristics of pneumatic pressure to the carotid sinus were evaluated in 19 subjects at rest and during exercise. Either a percutaneous fluid-filled (n = 12) or balloon-tipped catheter (n = 7) was placed at the carotid bifurcation to record internal transmission of external neck pressure/neck suction (NP/NS). Sustained, 5-s pulses, and rapid ramping pulse protocols (+40 to -80 Torr) were recorded. Transmission of pressure stimuli was less with the fluid-filled catheter compared with that of the balloon-tipped catheter (65% vs. 82% negative pressure, 83% vs. 89% positive pressure; P < 0.05). Anatomical location of the carotid sinus averaged 3.2 cm (left) and 3.6 cm (right) from the gonion of the mandible with a range of 0-7.5 cm. Transmission was not altered by exercise or Valsalva maneuver, but did vary depending on the position of the carotid sinus locus beneath the sealed chamber. These data indicate that transmission of external NP/NS was higher than previously recorded in humans, and anatomical variation of carotid sinus location and equipment design can affect transmission results.
Couldwell, William T; Rosenow, Joshua M; Rovit, Richard L; Benzil, Deborah L
Stereotactic radiosurgery is being used with increased frequency in the treatment of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. The major risk associated with radiosurgical treatment of residual or recurrent pituitary tumor adjacent to normal functional pituitary gland is radiation of the pituitary, which frequently leads to the development of hypopituitarism. The authors describe a technique of pituitary transposition to reduce the radiation dose to the normal pituitary gland in cases of planned radiosurgical treatment of residual pituitary adenoma within the cavernous sinus. A sellar exploration for tumor resection is performed, the pituitary gland is transposed from the region of the cavernous sinus, and a fat and fascia graft is interposed between the normal pituitary gland and the residual tumor in the cavernous sinus. The residual tumor may then be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. The increased distance between the normal pituitary gland and the residual tumor facilitates treatment of the tumor with radiosurgery and reduces the radiation to the normal pituitary gland. An illustrative case of a young female with recurrent acromegaly and a pituitary adenoma invading the cavernous sinus is described.
Swift, A C; Gill, G V
Serious infection in the paranasal sinuses may present with symptoms suggestive of neurological disease and thus lead to delay in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We present three such cases in whom the initial diagnoses had been acute optic neuritis, a posterior communicating aneurysm and an intracranial space occupying lesion. The fourth patient had meningitis but the paranasal sinuses had not initially been considered as a possible source of infection. The current methods of diagnosing sinusitis are discussed.
Khanna, Maneesh; Buddhavarapu, Shanker Rao; Hussain, Sheik Akbar; Amir, Emran
Fibro-osseous lesions of the face and paranasal sinuses are relatively uncommon. These lesions have overlapping clinical, radiologic and pathologic features causing difficulty in diagnosis. Neoplastic fibro-osseous paranasal sinus lesions can be benign or malignant. The benign fibro-osseous lesions described are: ossifying fibroma (and its histologic variants) and fibrous dysplasia. The variants of ossifying fibroma differ in the nature of calcified material (i.e. cementum versus bone), in the location of the lesion (oral versus paranasal sinus or orbital), other morphologic variations (presence of psammomatoid concretions) and biologic behavior (aggressive versus stable). Presence of cementum or bone classifies the lesion as cementifying fibroma or ossifying fibroma respectively while lesions with mixture of both cementum and bone are called cemento-ossifying fibroma. We describe a case of a young adult male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of paranasal sinus presenting acutely as left orbital cellulitis with proptosis.
Khanna, Maneesh; Buddhavarapu, Shanker Rao; Hussain, Sheik Akbar; Amir, Emran
Fibro-osseous lesions of the face and paranasal sinuses are relatively uncommon. These lesions have overlapping clinical, radiologic and pathologic features causing difficulty in diagnosis. Neoplastic fibro-osseous paranasal sinus lesions can be benign or malignant. The benign fibro-osseous lesions described are: ossifying fibroma (and its histologic variants) and fibrous dysplasia. The variants of ossifying fibroma differ in the nature of calcified material (i.e. cementum versus bone), in the location of the lesion (oral versus paranasal sinus or orbital), other morphologic variations (presence of psammomatoid concretions) and biologic behavior (aggressive versus stable). Presence of cementum or bone classifies the lesion as cementifying fibroma or ossifying fibroma respectively while lesions with mixture of both cementum and bone are called cemento-ossifying fibroma. We describe a case of a young adult male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of paranasal sinus presenting acutely as left orbital cellulitis with proptosis. PMID:22470655
Scheinfeld, Noah S; Silverberg, Nanette B; Weinberg, Jeffrey M; Nozad, Valerie
Preauricular sinuses (ear pits) are common congenital abnormalities. Usually asymptomatic, they manifest as small dells adjacent to the external ear near the anterior margin of the ascending limb of the helix, most frequently on the right side. Preauricular sinuses can be either inherited or sporadic. When inherited, they show an incomplete autosomal dominant pattern with reduced penetrance and variable expression. They may be bilateral, increasing the likelihood of being inherited, in 25-50% of cases. Preauricular sinuses are features of other conditions or syndromes in 3-10% of cases, primarily in association with deafness and branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. When other congenital anomalies coexist with these sinuses, auditory testing and renal ultrasound should be considered. Sinuses may become infected, most commonly with gram-positive bacteria, in which case their exudates should be cultured and appropriate antibiotics administered. Recurrent infection is a clear indication for complete excision and provides the only definitive cure. Recurrence rates after surgery range from 9% to 42%. Meticulous excision by an experienced head and neck surgeon minimizes the risk of recurrence.
Deng, Xuefei; Chen, Shijun; Bai, Ya; Song, Wen; Chen, Yongchao; Li, Dongxue; Han, Hui; Liu, Bin
Vascular complications induced by intercavernous sinus injury during dural opening in the transsphenoidal surgery may contribute to incomplete tumour resections. Preoperative neuro-imaging is of crucial importance in planning surgical approach. The aim of this study is to correlate the microanatomy of intercavernous sinuses with its contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (CE-MRV). Eighteen human adult cadavers and 24 patients were examined based on autopsy and CE-MRV. Through dissection of the cadavers and CE-MRV, the location, shape, number, diameter and type of intercavernous sinuses were measured and compared. Different intercavernous sinuses were identified by their location and shape in all the cadavers and CE-MRV. Compared to the cadavers, CE-MRV revealed 37% of the anterior intercavernous sinus, 48% of the inferior intercavernous sinus, 30% of the posterior intercavernous sinus, 30% of the dorsum sellae sinus and 100% of the basilar sinus. The smaller intercavernous sinuses were not seen in the neuro-images. According to the presence of the anterior and inferior intercavernous sinus, four types of the intercavernous sinuses were identified in cadavers and CE-MRV, and the corresponding operative space in the transsphenoidal surgical approach was implemented. The morphology and classification of the cavernous sinus can be identified by CE-MRV, especially for the larger vessels, which cause bleeding more easily. Therefore, CE-MRV provides a reliable measure for individualized preoperative planning during transsphenoidal surgery.
Grieve, Ann M.
This paper focuses on taking a first step in the process of influencing teachers' attitudes by building a description of beliefs about inappropriate behaviour that can be used in staff development work to provoke dissonance-led change. It describes a study, undertaken in two parts, exploring teachers' attitudes to inclusion, and ascertaining their…