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Sample records for inas nanowires controlled

  1. Quality of epitaxial InAs nanowires controlled by catalyst size in molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Liao, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Sui-Xing; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the structural quality of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Through detailed electron microscopy characterizations and analysis of binary Au-In phase diagram, it is found that defect-free InAs nanowires can be induced by smaller catalysts with a high In concentration, while comparatively larger catalysts containing less In induce defected InAs nanowires. This study indicates that the structural quality of InAs nanowires can be controlled by the size of Au catalysts when other growth conditions remain as constants.

  2. Control of the crystal structure of InAs nanowires by tuning contributions of adatom diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui; Ren, Xiaomin; Ye, Xian; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei; Huang, Yongqing

    2010-11-01

    The dependence of crystal structure on contributions of adatom diffusion (ADD) and precursor direct impingement (DIM) was investigated for vapor-liquid-solid growth of InAs nanowires (NWs). The ADD contributions from the sidewalls and substrate surface can be changed by using GaAs NWs of different length as the basis for growing InAs NWs. We found that pure zinc-blende structure is favored when DIM contributions dominate. Moreover, without changing the NW diameter or growth parameters (such as temperature or V/III ratio), a transition from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure can be realized by increasing the ADD contributions. A nucleation model is proposed in which ADD and DIM contributions play different roles in determining the location and phase of the nucleus.

  3. Negative photoconductivity of InAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuxiang; Zheng, Xiao; Fu, Mengqi; Pan, Dong; Li, Xing; Guo, Yao; Zhao, Jianhua; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-14

    Negative photoconductivity is observed in InAs nanowires (NWs) without a surface defective layer. The negative photoconductivity is strongly dependent on the wavelength and intensity of the light, and is also sensitive to the environmental atmosphere. Two kinds of mechanisms are discerned to work together. One is related to gas adsorption, which is photodesorption of water molecules and photo-assisted chemisorption of O2 molecules. The other one can be attributed to the photogating effect introduced by the native oxide layer outside the NWs.

  4. Growth direction control of InAs nanowires on (0 0 1) Si substrate with SiO2/Si nano-trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Li-Hsing; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    We report on direction control of InAs nanowire (NW) grown on (0 0 1) Si substrate with SiO2/Si nanotrench. A two-step method was used to enhance the direction control. In the first step, we aligned the In beam with the longitudinal axis of the trench utilizing shadowing effect to nucleate InAs on only one trench end. In the second step, the growth proceeded with substrate rotation. Comparing with NW growths using only one step, either the first one or the second one, two-step growth demonstrates highly directional NWs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and one dimensional Fourier image analyses show that InAs NW can be easily grown from the (1 bar 1 1) Si residue, which was left at trench ends by fabrication process, due to the tiny residue volume and low V/III ratio. In contrast, InAs nucleus, located at the center of the trench, developed into island and cluster because of the high V/III ratio and large lattice mismatch.

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation of catalyst-free InAs nanowires on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, U. P.; Ercolani, D.; Zannier, V.; Battiato, S.; Ubyivovk, E.; Mikhailovskii, V.; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Beltram, F.; Sorba, L.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the heterogeneous nucleation of catalyst-free InAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. We show that nanowire nucleation is enhanced by sputtering the silicon substrate with energetic particles. We argue that particle bombardment introduces lattice defects on the silicon surface that serve as preferential nucleation sites. The formation of these nucleation sites can be controlled by the sputtering parameters, allowing the control of nanowire density in a wide range. Nanowire nucleation is accompanied by unwanted parasitic islands, but careful choice of annealing and growth temperature allows us to strongly reduce the relative density of these islands and to realize samples with high nanowire yield.

  6. Size self-scaling effect in stacked InAs /InAlAs nanowire multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z. Z.; Yoon, S. F.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z. G.

    2004-11-01

    Size self-scaling effect in stacked InAs /In0.52Al0.48As nanowires on InP substrates is revealed, i.e., the base width and height of the InAs nanowires have clear proportional dependence on thickness of the InAlAs spacer layer used in different samples. The photoluminescence wavelength from different samples, which varies between 1.3 and 1.9μm, is also found closely correlated to the size self-scaling effect. This phenomenon can be well explained in the context of formation mechanism and growth features of the InAs /InAlAs nanowire arrays. The finding illustrates a degree of freedom to control the structural and optical properties of strained self-organized nanostructures.

  7. Catalyst-free growth of InAs nanowires on Si (111) by CBE.

    PubMed

    Gomes, U P; Ercolani, D; Sibirev, N V; Gemmi, M; Dubrovskii, V G; Beltram, F; Sorba, L

    2015-10-16

    We investigate a growth mechanism which allows for the fabrication of catalyst-free InAs nanowires on Si (111) substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. Our growth protocol consists of successive low-temperature (LT) nucleation and high-temperature growth steps. This method produces non-tapered InAs nanowires with controllable length and diameter. We show that InAs nanowires evolve from the islands formed during the LT nucleation step and grow truly catalyst-free, without any indium droplets at the tip. The impact of different growth parameters on the nanowire morphology is presented. In particular, good control over nanowire aspect ratio is demonstrated. A better understanding of the growth process is obtained through the development of a theoretical model combining the diffusion-induced growth scenario with some specific features of the catalyst-free growth mechanism, along with the analysis of the V/III flow ratio influencing material incorporation. As a result, we perform a full mapping of the nanowire morphology versus growth parameters which provides useful general guidelines on the self-induced formation of III-V nanowires on silicon.

  8. Understanding self-aligned planar growth of InAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Jung, Kyooho; Zakharov, Dmitri; Yang, Chen

    2013-06-12

    Semiconducting nanowires have attracted lots of attention because of their potential applications. Compared with free-standing nanowires, self-aligned planar nanowires grown epitaxially on the substrate have shown advantageous properties such as being twin defect free and ready for device fabrication, opening potentials for the large-scale device applications. Understanding of planar nanowire growth, which is essential for selective growth of planar vs free-standing wires, is still limited. In this paper, we reported different growth behaviors for self-aligned planar and free-standing InAs nanowires under identical growth conditions. We present a new model based on a revised Gibbs–Thomson equation for the planar nanowires. Using this model, we predicted and successfully confirmed through experiments that higher arsenic vapor partial pressure promoted free-standing InAs nanowire growth. A smaller critical diameter for planar nanowire growth was predicted and achieved experimentally. Successful control and understanding of planar and free-standing nanowire growth established in our work opens up the potential of large-scale integration of self-aligned nanowires for practical device applications.

  9. Hall effect measurements on InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemers, Ch.; Grap, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.; Lueth, H.; Trellenkamp, St.; Schaepers, Th.

    2012-10-08

    We have processed Hall contacts on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy using an electron beam lithography process with an extremely high alignment accuracy. The carrier concentrations determined from the Hall effect measurements on these nanowires are lower by a factor of about 4 in comparison with those measured by the common field-effect technique. The results are used to evaluate quantitatively the charging effect of the interface and surface states.

  10. Hall effect measurements on InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blömers, Ch.; Grap, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Moers, J.; Trellenkamp, St.; Grützmacher, D.; Lüth, H.; Schäpers, Th.

    2012-10-01

    We have processed Hall contacts on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy using an electron beam lithography process with an extremely high alignment accuracy. The carrier concentrations determined from the Hall effect measurements on these nanowires are lower by a factor of about 4 in comparison with those measured by the common field-effect technique. The results are used to evaluate quantitatively the charging effect of the interface and surface states.

  11. Single electron pumping in InAs nanowire double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrer, A.; Fasth, C.; Samuelson, L.

    2007-07-01

    Closely spaced local gate electrodes are used to electrically define a double quantum dot along an InAs nanowire crystal. By applying a periodic pulse sequence to two plunger gate electrodes controlling the double quantum dot charge configuration, the device is operated as a single electron pump. The authors find that within measurement accuracy, the pumping current equals one electron per cycle for frequencies up to 2MHz, demonstrating the suitability of nanowire based quantum dots for pumping applications.

  12. Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertenberger, S.; Rudolph, D.; Bichler, M.; Finley, J. J.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the interwire distance dependence on the growth kinetics of vertical, high-yield InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by catalyst-free selective area molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Utilizing lithographically defined SiO2 nanomasks on Si(111) with regular hole patterns, catalyst-free and site-selective growth of vertically (111)-oriented InAs nanowires was achieved with very high yields of ˜90 percent. Interestingly, the yield of vertically ordered nanowires was independent of the interwire distance and the initial growth stages. Significant size variation in the nanowires was found to depend critically on the interwire distance and growth time. Two growth regimes were identified—(i) a competitive growth regime with shorter and thinner nanowires for narrow interwire distances and (ii) a diffusion-limited growth regime for wider distances, providing good estimates for the surface diffusion lengths. Surprisingly, despite these size-dependent effects the nanowire geometries remained unaltered with uniform, almost nontapered morphologies even over large variation in nanowire density (˜mid-106-109 cm-2 range). X-ray diffraction further confirmed the vertical (111) directionality with low crystal tilt by rocking curve widths (ω scans) as low as ˜0.6°. These findings demonstrate the capability to precisely tailor the position and size of well-oriented III-V semiconductor nanowires through noncatalytic MBE selective area growth and provide an important step toward fully integrated, uniform vertical III-V nanowire array-on-Si devices.

  13. Selective-Area Growth of InAs Nanowires on Ge and Vertical Transistor Application.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Izhizaka, Fumiya; Fukui, Takashi

    2015-11-11

    III-V compound semiconductor and Ge are promising channel materials for future low-power and high-performance integrated circuits. A heterogeneous integration of these materials on the same platform, however, raises serious problem owing to a huge mismatch of carrier mobility. We proposed direct integration of perfectly vertically aligned InAs nanowires on Ge as a method for new alternative integrated circuits and demonstrated a high-performance InAs nanowire-vertical surrounding-gate transistor. Virtually 100% yield of vertically aligned InAs nanowires was achieved by controlling the initial surface of Ge and high-quality InAs nanowires were obtained regardless of lattice mismatch (6.7%). The transistor performance showed significantly higher conductivity with good gate control compared to Si-based conventional field-effect transistors: the drain current was 0.65 mA/μm, and the transconductance was 2.2 mS/μm at drain-source voltage of 0.50 V. These demonstrations are a first step for building alternative integrated circuits using vertical III-V/multigate planar Ge FETs.

  14. Correlating the nanostructure and electronic properties of InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, M. D.; Petta, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    III-V nanowires have many attractive electrical properties, but only recently has control over the planar defect density been achieved. We correlate the nanowire defect structure with electronic properties by growing InAs nanowires with a growth temperature tunable defect density in a home-built MOVPE reactor^1. Multiple field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated along the length of these nanowires to allow the measurement of field-effect mobility as a function of defect density^2. Nominally defect-free segments have a 4.2 K mobility up to ˜4x higher than defect-rich segments on the same nanowire and approach μ=16,000-18,000 cm^2/V s, comparable to values reported for InAs/InP core shell FETs^3. At low temperatures, the presence of these defects leads to the accidental formation of quantum dots along the length of the wire. These results suggest that control of the rotational twinning defect density in InAs nanowires will be of crucial importance in order to allow the fabrication of locally gated nanowire quantum dots.References:^1 M. D. Schroer, S. Y. Xu, A. Bergman and J. R. Petta, arXiv:0911.0845v1^2 M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta, (in preparation)^3 X. Jiang, Q. Xiong, S. Nam, F. Qian, Y. Li and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 7, 3214 (2007)

  15. Optimization of self-catalyzed InAs Nanowires on flexible graphite for photovoltaic infrared photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Anyebe, Ezekiel A.; Sandall, I.; Jin, Z. M.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Veal, Timothy D.; Cao, Y. C.; Li, H. D.; Harvey, R.; Zhuang, Q. D.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of flexible graphene monolayers has triggered extensive research interest for the development of III-V/graphene functional hybrid heterostructures. In order to fully exploit their enormous potential in device applications, it is essential to optimize epitaxial growth for the precise control of nanowire geometry and density. Herein, we present a comprehensive growth study of InAs nanowires on graphitic substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Vertically well-aligned and thin InAs nanowires with high yield were obtained in a narrow growth temperature window of 420–450 °C within a restricted domain of growth rate and V/III flux ratio. The graphitic substrates enable high nanowire growth rates, which is favourable for cost-effective device fabrication. A relatively low density of defects was observed. We have also demonstrated InAs-NWs/graphite heterojunction devices exhibiting rectifying behaviour. Room temperature photovoltaic response with a cut-off wavelength of 3.4 μm was demonstrated. This elucidates a promising route towards the monolithic integration of InAs nanowires with graphite for flexible and functional hybrid devices. PMID:28393845

  16. Optimization of self-catalyzed InAs Nanowires on flexible graphite for photovoltaic infrared photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Anyebe, Ezekiel A; Sandall, I; Jin, Z M; Sanchez, Ana M; Rajpalke, Mohana K; Veal, Timothy D; Cao, Y C; Li, H D; Harvey, R; Zhuang, Q D

    2017-04-10

    The recent discovery of flexible graphene monolayers has triggered extensive research interest for the development of III-V/graphene functional hybrid heterostructures. In order to fully exploit their enormous potential in device applications, it is essential to optimize epitaxial growth for the precise control of nanowire geometry and density. Herein, we present a comprehensive growth study of InAs nanowires on graphitic substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Vertically well-aligned and thin InAs nanowires with high yield were obtained in a narrow growth temperature window of 420-450 °C within a restricted domain of growth rate and V/III flux ratio. The graphitic substrates enable high nanowire growth rates, which is favourable for cost-effective device fabrication. A relatively low density of defects was observed. We have also demonstrated InAs-NWs/graphite heterojunction devices exhibiting rectifying behaviour. Room temperature photovoltaic response with a cut-off wavelength of 3.4 μm was demonstrated. This elucidates a promising route towards the monolithic integration of InAs nanowires with graphite for flexible and functional hybrid devices.

  17. Crystal Phase- and Orientation-Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengqi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Ning, Zhiyuan; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Wei, Xianlong; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-13

    We report a systematic study on the correlation of the electrical transport properties with the crystal phase and orientation of single-crystal InAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. A new method is developed to allow the same InAs NW to be used for both the electrical measurements and transmission electron microscopy characterization. We find both the crystal phase, wurtzite (WZ) or zinc-blende (ZB), and the orientation of the InAs NWs remarkably affect the electronic properties of the field-effect transistors based on these NWs, such as the threshold voltage (VT), ON-OFF ratio, subthreshold swing (SS) and effective barrier height at the off-state (ΦOFF). The SS increases while VT, ON-OFF ratio, and ΦOFF decrease one by one in the sequence of WZ ⟨0001⟩, ZB ⟨131⟩, ZB ⟨332⟩, ZB ⟨121⟩, and ZB ⟨011⟩. The WZ InAs NWs have obvious smaller field-effect mobility, conductivities, and electron concentration at VBG = 0 V than the ZB InAs NWs, while these parameters are not sensitive to the orientation of the ZB InAs NWs. We also find the diameter ranging from 12 to 33 nm shows much less effect than the crystal phase and orientation on the electrical transport properties of the InAs NWs. The good ohmic contact between InAs NWs and metal remains regardless of the variation of the crystal phase and orientation through temperature-dependent measurements. Our work deepens the understanding of the structure-dependent electrical transport properties of InAs NWs and provides a potential way to tailor the device properties by controlling the crystal phase and orientation of the NWs.

  18. Modulating Electrical Properties of InAs Nanowires via Molecular Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ho-Yuen; Yip, SenPo; Han, Ning; Dong, Goufa; Fang, Ming; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Lin, Hao; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-07-28

    In recent years, InAs nanowires have been demonstrated with the excellent electron mobility as well as highly efficient near-infrared and visible photoresponse at room temperature. However, due to the presence of a large amount of surface states that originate from the unstable native oxide, the fabricated nanowire transistors are always operated in the depletion mode with degraded electron mobility, which is not energy-efficient. In this work, instead of the conventional inorganic sulfur or alkanethiol surface passivation, we employ aromatic thiolate (ArS(-))-based molecular monolayers with controllable molecular design and electron density for the surface modification of InAs nanowires (i.e., device channels) by simple wet chemistry. More importantly, besides reliably improving the device performances by enhancing the electron mobility and the current on-off ratio through surface state passivation, the device threshold voltage (VTh) can also be modulated by varying the para-substituent of the monolayers such that the molecule bearing electron-withdrawing groups would significantly shift the VTh towards the positive region for the enhancement mode device operation, in which the effect has been quantified by density functional theory calculations. These findings reveal explicitly the efficient modulation of the InAs nanowires' electronic transport properties via ArS(-)-based molecular monolayers, which further elucidates the technological potency of this ArS(-) surface treatment for future nanoelectronic device fabrication and circuit integration.

  19. Metal free growth and characterization of InAs1-xPx nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mandl, Bernhard; Stangl, Julian; Brehm, Moritz; Fromherz, Thomas; Bauer, Guenther; Maartensson, Thomas; Samuelson, Lars; Seifert, Werner

    2007-04-10

    InAs nanowires have been grown without the use of Au or other metal particles as catalyst by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires growth is initiated by a thin layer of SiOx. The wires exhibit a non-tapered shape with a hexagonal cross section. In addition to InAs also InAs1-xPx wires are grown and the incorporation of P is studied by photoluminescence.

  20. Metal free growth and characterization of InAs1-xPx nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, Bernhard; Stangl, Julian; Mârtensson, Thomas; Brehm, Moritz; Fromherz, Thomas; Bauer, Günther; Samuelson, Lars; Seifert, Werner

    2007-04-01

    InAs nanowires have been grown without the use of Au or other metal particles as catalyst by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires growth is initiated by a thin layer of SiOx. The wires exhibit a non-tapered shape with a hexagonal cross section. In addition to InAs also InAs1-xPx wires are grown and the incorporation of P is studied by photoluminescence.

  1. Defect-free thin InAs nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we designed a simple method to achieve the growth of defect-free thin InAs nanowires with a lateral dimension well below their Bohr radius on different substrate orientations. By depositing and annealing a thin layer of Au thin film on a (100) substrate surface, we have achieved the growth of defect-free uniform-sized thin InAs nanowires. This study provides a strategy to achieve the growth of pure defect-free thin nanowires.

  2. Switching from Negative to Positive Photoconductivity toward Intrinsic Photoelectric Response in InAs Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuxiang; Fu, Mengqi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xiao; Ji, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaoye; Lin, Weijian; Yang, Tao; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-25

    Negative photoconductivity (NPC) and positive photoconductivity (PPC) are observed in the same individual InAs nanowires grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. NPC displays under weak light illumination due to photoexcitation scattering centers charged with hot carrier in the native oxide layer. PPC is observed under high light intensity. Through removing the native oxide layer and passivating the nanowire with HfO2, we eliminate the NPC effect and realize intrinsic photoelectric response in InAs nanowire.

  3. Single-electron transport in InAs nanowire quantum dots formed by crystal phase engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes

    2016-05-01

    We report electrical characterization of quantum dots formed by introducing pairs of thin wurtzite (WZ) segments in zinc blende (ZB) InAs nanowires. Regular Coulomb oscillations are observed over a wide gate voltage span, indicating that WZ segments create significant barriers for electron transport. We find a direct correlation of transport properties with quantum dot length and corresponding growth time of the enclosed ZB segment. The correlation is made possible by using a method to extract lengths of nanowire crystal phase segments directly from scanning electron microscopy images, and with support from transmission electron microscope images of typical nanowires. From experiments on controlled filling of nearly empty dots with electrons, up to the point where Coulomb oscillations can no longer be resolved, we estimate a lower bound for the ZB-WZ conduction-band offset of 95 meV.

  4. Surface diffusion and substrate-nanowire adatom exchange in InAs nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Shadi A; Yu, Edward T; Wang, Deli

    2009-05-01

    We report new fundamental insights into InAs nanowire (NW) nucleation and evolution on InAs (111)B surfaces using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and present the first experimental demonstration of two distinct NW growth regimes, defined by the direction of substrate-NW adatom exchange, that lead to nonlinear growth rates. We show that the NW elongation rate and morphology in these two growth regimes are governed by the relative difference between the In adatom diffusion lengths on the growth substrate surface and on the NW sidewalls, resulting in strong growth rate dependence on the NW length. These results indicate that surface solid-phase diffusion of In adatoms is a key process in InAs NW growth, which is also supported by diameter-dependent growth rates. These developments enable rational growth of axial and radial NW heterostructures.

  5. Ballistic one-dimensional transport in InAs nanowires monolithically integrated on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooth, J.; Schaller, V.; Wirths, S.; Schmid, H.; Borg, M.; Bologna, N.; Karg, S.; Riel, H.

    2017-02-01

    We present the monolithic integration and electrical characterization of InAs nanowires (NWs) with the well-defined geometries and positions on Si as a platform for quantum transport studies. Hereby, one-dimensional (1D) ballistic transport with step-like 1D conductance quantization in units of 2e2/h is demonstrated for NWs with the widths between 28 nm and 58 nm and a height of 40 nm. The electric field control of up to four individual modes is achieved. Furthermore, the sub-band structure of the nanowires is investigated using bias spectroscopy. The splitting between the first and the second sub-band increases as the width of the NWs is reduced, whereas the degeneracy of the second sub-band can be tuned by the symmetry of the NW cross section, in accordance with a "particle in a box" model. The length-dependent studies reveal ballistic transport for up to 300 nm and quasi-ballistic transport with a mean free path of 470 nm for longer InAs NW channels at 30 K. We anticipate that the ballistic 1D transport in monolithically integrated InAs NWs presented here will form the basis for sophisticated quantum wire devices for the future integrated circuits with additional functionalities.

  6. InAs nanowire formation on InP(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, H. J.; Ashwin, M. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of InAs on InP(001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy has been studied for a range of different growth temperatures and annealing procedures. Atomic force microscopy images show that nanowires are formed for deposition in the temperature range of 400-480 deg. C, and also following high temperature annealing (480 deg. C) after deposition at 400 deg. C. The wires show preferential orientation along <110> and often exhibit pronounced serpentine behavior due to the presence of kinks, an effect that is reduced at increasing growth temperature. The results suggest that the serpentine behavior is related to the degree of initial surface order. Kinks in the wires appear to act as nucleation centers for In adatoms migrating along the wires during annealing, leading to the coexistence of large three-dimensional islands.

  7. Growth of Catalyst-Free Epitaxial InAs Nanowires on Si Wafers Using Metallic Masks.

    PubMed

    Soo, M Teng; Zheng, Kun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Zou, Jin

    2016-07-13

    Development of heteroepitaxy growth of catalyst-free vertical III-V nanowires on Si wafers is highly desirable for future nanoscale Si-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, a proof-of-concept approach is developed for catalyst-free heteroepitaxy growth of InAs nanowires on Si wafers. Before the growth of InAs nanowires, a Si-compatible metallic film with a thickness of several tens of nanometers was predeposited on a Si wafer and then annealed to form nanosize openings so as to obtain a metallic mask. These nano-openings exposed the surface of the Si wafer, which allowed subsequent nucleation and growth of epitaxial InAs nanowires directly on the surface of the Si wafer. The small size of the nano-openings limits the lateral growth of the nanostructures but promotes their axial growth. Through this approach, catalyst-free InAs nanowires were grown on both Si (111) and (001) wafers successfully at different growth temperatures. In particular, ultralong defect-free InAs nanowires with the wurtzite structure were grown the Si (111) wafers at 550 °C using the Ni mask. This study offers a simple, cost-effective, and scalable method to grow catalyst-free III-V nanowires on Si wafers. The simplicity of the approach opens a new avenue for the growth and integration of catalyst-free high-quality heteroepitaxial III-V nanowires on Si wafers.

  8. Ag-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown on transferable graphite flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob; Kanne, Thomas; Sestoft, Joachim E.; Gejl, Aske; Zeng, Lunjie; Johnson, Erik; Olsson, Eva; Nygård, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Semiconducting nanowires grown by quasi-van-der-Waals epitaxy on graphite flakes are a new class of hybrid materials that hold promise for scalable nanostructured devices within opto-electronics. Here we report on high aspect ratio and stacking fault free Ag-seeded InAs nanowires grown on exfoliated graphite flakes by molecular beam epitaxy. Ag catalyzes the InAs nanowire growth selectively on the graphite flakes and not on the underlying InAs substrates. This allows for easy transfer of the flexible graphite flakes with as-grown nanowire ensembles to arbitrary substrates by a micro-needle manipulator. Besides the possibilities for fabricating novel nanostructure device designs, we show how this method is used to study the parasitic growth and bicrystal match between the graphite flake and the nanowires by transmission electron microscopy.

  9. g-factor anisotropy in nanowire-based InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    D'Hollosy, Samuel; Fábián, Gábor; Baumgartner, Andreas; Schönenberger, Christian; Nygård, Jesper

    2013-12-04

    The determination and control of the electron g-factor in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fundamental prerequisites in modern concepts of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. We study the dependence of the g-factor on the orientation of an external magnetic field in quantum dots (QDs) formed between two metallic contacts on stacking fault free InAs nanowires. We extract the g-factor from the splitting of Kondo resonances and find that it varies continuously in the range between |g*| = 5 and 15.

  10. Electrical properties of InAs1-xSbx and InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, Claes; Caroff, Philippe; Plissard, Sébastien; Dick, Kimberly A.

    2012-06-01

    Results of electrical characterization of Au nucleated InAs1-xSbx nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. An almost doubling of the extracted field effect mobility compared to reference InAs nanowires is observed for a Sb content of x = 0.13. Pure InSb nanowires on the other hand show considerably lower, and strongly diameter dependent, mobility values. Finally, InAs of wurtzite crystal phase overgrown with an InAs1-xSbx shell is found to have a substantial positive shift in threshold voltage compared to reference nanowires.

  11. MBE growth of self-assisted InAs nanowires on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Hyun; Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Convertino, Domenica; Rossi, Antonio; Coletti, Camilla; Heun, Stefan; Sorba, Lucia; Kacman, Perla; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-11-01

    Self-assisted growth of InAs nanowires on graphene by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Nanowires with diameter of ∼50 nm and aspect ratio of up to 100 were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the nanowires were carefully studied by changing the substrate from bilayer graphene through buffer layer to quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene. The positional relation of the InAs NWs with the graphene substrate was determined. A 30° orientation configuration of some of the InAs NWs is shown to be related to the surface corrugation of the graphene substrate. InAs NW-based devices for transport measurements were fabricated, and the conductance measurements showed a semi-ballistic behavior. In Josephson junction measurements in the non-linear regime, multiple Andreev reflections were observed, and an inelastic scattering length of about 900 nm was derived.

  12. Defect-free zinc-blende structured InAs nanowires realized by in situ two V/III ratio growth in molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we devised a two-V/III-ratio procedure to control the Au-assisted growth of defect-free InAs nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy. The demonstrated two V/III ratio procedure consists of a first high V/III ratio growth step to prepare the nanowire foundation on the substrate surface, followed by a low V/III ratio step to induce the nanowire growth. By manipulating the V/III ratios in different steps, we have achieved the controlled growth of pure defect-free zinc-blende structured InAs nanowires on the GaAs {1̄1̄1̄} substrates. This study provides an approach to control not only the crystal structure of semiconductor nanowires, but also their structural qualities.

  13. Design issue analysis for InAs nanowire tunnel FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Somaia S.; Khayer, M. Abul; Alam, Khairul; Lake, Roger K.

    2011-10-01

    InAs nanowire-tunnel eld eect transistors (NW-TFETs) are being considered for future, beyond-Si electronics. They oer the possibility of beating the ideal thermal limit to the inverse subthreshold slope of 60 mV/dec and thus promise reduced power operation. However, whether the tunneling can provide sucient on-current for high-speed operation is an open question. In this work, for a p-i-n device, we investigate the source doping level necessary to achieve a target on-current (1 A) while maintaining a high ION=IOFF ratio (1106) for a range of NW diameters (2 -8 nm). With a xed drain bias voltage and a maximum gate overdrive, we compare the performance in terms of the inverse subthreshold slope (SS) and ION=IOFF ratio as a function of NW- diameter and source doping. As expected, increasing the source doping level increases the current as a result of the reduced screening length and increased electric eld at source which narrows the tunnel barrier. However, since the degeneracy is also increasing, it moves the eective energy window for tunneling away from the barrier where it is the narrowest. This, in turn, tends to decrease the current for a given voltage which, along with the consideration of inverse SS and ION=IOFF ratio leads to an optimum choice of source doping.

  14. Harmonic Generation in InAs Nanowire Double Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.

    2012-02-01

    InAs nanowires provide a useful platform for investigating the physics of confined electrons subjected to strong spin-orbit coupling. Using tunable, bottom-gated double quantum dots, we demonstrate electrical driving of single spin resonance.ootnotetextS. Nadj-Perge et al., Nature 468, 1084 (2010)^,ootnotetextM.D. Schroer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176811 (2011) We observe a standard spin response when the applied microwave frequency equals the Larmour frequency f0. However, we also observe an anomalous signal at frequencies fn= f0/ n for integer n up to n ˜5. This is equivalent to generation of harmonics of the spin resonance field. While a f0/2 signal has observed,ootnotetextE.A. Laird et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (2007) we believe this is the first observation of higher harmonics in spin resonance. Possible mechanisms will be discussed.ootnotetextE.I. Rashba, arXiv:1110.6569 (2011) Acknowledgements: Research supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and Army Research Office.

  15. Self-catalyzed Growth of InAs Nanowires on InP Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bang; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    We report on the self-catalyzed growth of InAs nanowires on InP substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. At a moderate V/III ratio, tapered nanowires are obtained, suggesting a strong surface diffusion effect. Dense twin faults are observed perpendicular to the nanowire growth direction due to the fluctuation of In atoms in the droplet originating from the surface diffusion effect. At a lower V/III ratio, the nanowires exhibit kinking, which is associated with a high adhesion due to a large sticking coefficient of TMIn. The twin faults are dramatically suppressed and even completely eliminated in the NW branch after kinking, which is attributed to a stable In supply with a negligible diffusion effect. This work provides a method for the fabrication of defect-free InAs nanowires.

  16. Monitoring structural influences on quantum transport in InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frielinghaus, Robert; Flöhr, Kilian; Sladek, Kamil; Weirich, Thomas E.; Trellenkamp, Stefan; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Schäpers, Thomas; Schneider, Claus M.; Meyer, Carola

    2012-08-01

    A sample design that allows for quantum transport and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on individual suspended nanostructures is used to investigate moderately n-type doped InAs nanowires (NWs). The nanowires were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowires are investigated at temperatures down to 0.35 K. These fluctuations show two different temperature dependences. The very same nanowire segments investigated in transport are subsequently analyzed by TEM revealing crystal phase mixing. However, we find no correspondence between the atomic structure of the wires and the temperature dependences of the conductance fluctuations.

  17. Role of liquid indium in the structural purity of wurtzite InAs nanowires that grow on Si(111).

    PubMed

    Biermanns, Andreas; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Davydok, Anton; Sasaki, Takuo; Geelhaar, Lutz; Takahasi, Masamitu; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2014-12-10

    InAs nanowires that grow catalyst-free along the [111] crystallographic orientation are prone to wurtzite-zincblende polytypism, making the control of the crystal phase highly challenging. In this work, we explore the dynamic relation between the growth conditions and the structural composition of the nanowires using time-resolved X-ray scattering and diffraction measurements during the growth by molecular beam epitaxy. A spontaneous buildup of liquid indium is directly observed in the beginning of the growth process and associated with the simultaneous nucleation of InAs nanowires predominantly in the wurtzite phase. The highly arsenic-rich growth conditions that we used limited the existence of the liquid indium to a short time interval, which is defined as the nucleation phase. After their nucleation, the nanowires grow in the absence of liquid indium, and with a highly defective wurtzite structure. Complementary ex-situ diffuse X-ray scattering measurements and modeling revealed that this structural degradation is due to the formation of densely spaced stacking faults. Thus, high wurtzite phase purity is associated with the presence of liquid indium. This finding implies that pure wurtzite nanowires may be obtained only if the growth is performed under the continuous presence of liquid indium at the growth interface, that is, in the vapor-liquid-solid mode.

  18. Schottky barrier heights at the interfaces between pure-phase InAs nanowires and metal contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Boyong; Huang, Shaoyun E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Jiyin; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianghua; Xu, H. Q. E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn

    2016-02-07

    Understanding of the Schottky barriers formed at metal contact-InAs nanowire interfaces is of great importance for the development of high-performance InAs nanowire nanoelectronic and quantum devices. Here, we report a systematical study of InAs nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the Schottky barrier heights formed at the contact-nanowire interfaces. The InAs nanowires employed are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are high material quality single crystals, and the devices are made by directly contacting the nanowires with a series of metals of different work functions. The fabricated InAs nanowire FET devices are characterized by electrical measurements at different temperatures and the Schottky barrier heights are extracted from the measured temperature and gate-voltage dependences of the channel current. We show that although the work functions of the contact metals are widely spread, the Schottky barrier heights are determined to be distributed over 35–55 meV, showing a weak but not negligible dependence on the metals. The deduced Fermi level in the InAs nanowire channels is found to be in the band gap and very close to the conduction band. The physical origin of the results is discussed in terms of Fermi level pinning by the surface states of the InAs nanowires and a shift in pinned Fermi level induced by the metal-related interface states.

  19. Designed Quasi-1D Potential Structures Realized in Compositionally Graded InAs1-xPx Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Lehmann, Sebastian; Capasso, Federico; Samuelson, Lars

    2016-02-10

    III-V semiconductor heterostructures are important components of many solid-state optoelectronic devices, but the ability to control and tune the electrical and optical properties of these structures in conventional device geometries is fundamentally limited by the bulk dimensionality and the inability to accommodate lattice-mismatched material combinations. Here we demonstrate how semiconductor nanowires may enable the creation of arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional potential structures for new types of designed device functionality. We describe the controlled growth of stepwise compositionally graded InAs1-xPx heterostructures defined along the axes of InAs nanowires, and we show that nanowires with sawtooth-shaped composition profiles behave as near-ideal unipolar diodes with ratchet-like rectification of the electron transport through the nanowires, in excellent agreement with simulations. This new type of designed quasi-1D potential structure represents a significant advance in band gap engineering and may enable fundamental studies of low-dimensional hot-carrier dynamics, in addition to constituting a platform for implementing novel electronic and optoelectronic device concepts.

  20. InAs nanowire growth modes on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, M. T.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    InAs nanowires (NWs) were grown on silicon substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using five different growth modes: (1) Au-assisted growth, (2) positioned (patterned) Au-assisted growth, (3) Au-free growth, (4) positioned Au-assisted growth using a patterned oxide mask, and (5) Au-free selective-area epitaxy (SAE) using a patterned oxide mask. Optimal growth conditions (temperature, V/III flux ratio) were identified for each growth mode for control of NW morphology and vertical NW yield. The highest yield (72%) was achieved with the SAE method at a growth temperature of 440 °C and a V/III flux ratio of 4. Growth mechanisms are discussed for each of the growth modes.

  1. Time evolution studies of laser induced chemical changes in InAs nanowire using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Suparna; Aggarwal, R.; Kumari Gupta, Vandna; Ingale, Alka

    2014-07-07

    We report the study of time evolution of chemical changes on the surface of an InAs nanowire (NW) on laser irradiation in different power density regime, using Raman spectroscopy for a time span of 8–16 min. Mixture of metastable oxides like InAsO{sub 4,} As{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed upon oxidation, which are reflected as sharp Raman peaks at ∼240–254 and 180–200 cm{sup −1}. Evidence of removal of arsenic layer by layer is also observed at higher power density. Position controlled laser induced chemical modification on a nanometer scale, without changing the core of the NW, can be useful for NW based device fabrication.

  2. Carrier transport in high mobility InAs nanowire junctionless transistors.

    PubMed

    Konar, Aniruddha; Mathew, John; Nayak, Kaushik; Bajaj, Mohit; Pandey, Rajan K; Dhara, Sajal; Murali, K V R M; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2015-03-11

    The ability to understand and model the performance limits of nanowire transistors is the key to the design of next generation devices. Here, we report studies on high-mobility junctionless gate-all-around nanowire field effect transistor with carrier mobility reaching 2000 cm(2)/V·s at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport measurements reveal activated transport at low temperatures due to surface donors, while at room temperature the transport shows a diffusive behavior. From the conductivity data, the extracted value of sound velocity in InAs nanowires is found to be an order less than the bulk. This low sound velocity is attributed to the extended crystal defects that ubiquitously appear in these nanowires. Analyzing the temperature-dependent mobility data, we identify the key scattering mechanisms limiting the carrier transport in these nanowires. Finally, using these scattering models, we perform drift-diffusion based transport simulations of a nanowire field-effect transistor and compare the device performances with experimental measurements. Our device modeling provides insight into performance limits of InAs nanowire transistors and can be used as a predictive methodology for nanowire-based integrated circuits.

  3. Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowires: Growth and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernycheva, Maria; Travers, Laurent; Patriarche, Gilles; Glas, Frank; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Cirlin, George E.; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2007-11-01

    The Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of InAs nanowires is discussed. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations of phase transitions of the catalyst particles indicate that they can be liquid below the eutectic point of the Au-In alloy. The temperature range where the catalyst can be liquid covers the range where we observed nanowire formation (380-430 °C). The variation of nanowire growth rate with temperature is investigated. Pure axial nanowire growth is observed at high temperature while mixed axial/lateral growth occurs at low temperature. The change of the InAs nanowire shape with growth duration is studied. It is shown that significant lateral growth of the lower part of the nanowire starts when its length exceeds a critical value, so that their shape presents a steplike profile along their axis. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the nanowire morphology as a result of the axial and lateral contributions of the nanowire growth.

  4. Improvement of Terahertz Wave Radiation for InAs Nanowires by Simple Dipping into Tap Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Woo; Bin Ji, Young; Hwang, Jehwan; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Jun Oh; Noh, Sam Kyu; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Tae-In; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-10-01

    We report improvement of terahertz (THz) wave radiation for Si-based catalyst-free InAs nanowires (NWs) by simple dipping into tap water (DTW). In addition, the possibility of using InAs NWs as a cost-effective method for biomedical applications is discussed by comparison to bulk InAs. The peak-to-peak current signals (PPCSs) of InAs NWs measured from THz time-domain spectroscopy increased with increasing NW height. For example, the PPCS of 10 μm-long InAs NWs was 2.86 times stronger than that of 2.1 μm-long NWs. The THz spectra of the InAs NWs obtained by applying a fast Fourier transformation to the current signals showed a main frequency of 0.5 THz, which can be applied to a variety of medical imaging systems. After the DTW process, structural variation was not observed for 2.1 μm-long InAs NWs. However, the top region of several InAs NWs with heights of 4.6 and 5.8 μm merged into a conical structure. InAs NWs with a height of 10 μm resulted in a bundle feature forming above the conical shape, where the length of bundle region was 4 μm. After the DTW process, the PPCS for 10 μm-long InAs NWs increased by 15 percent compared to that of the as-grown case.

  5. Improvement of Terahertz Wave Radiation for InAs Nanowires by Simple Dipping into Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Woo; Bin Ji, Young; Hwang, Jehwan; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Jun Oh; Noh, Sam Kyu; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Tae-In; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    We report improvement of terahertz (THz) wave radiation for Si-based catalyst-free InAs nanowires (NWs) by simple dipping into tap water (DTW). In addition, the possibility of using InAs NWs as a cost-effective method for biomedical applications is discussed by comparison to bulk InAs. The peak-to-peak current signals (PPCSs) of InAs NWs measured from THz time-domain spectroscopy increased with increasing NW height. For example, the PPCS of 10 μm-long InAs NWs was 2.86 times stronger than that of 2.1 μm-long NWs. The THz spectra of the InAs NWs obtained by applying a fast Fourier transformation to the current signals showed a main frequency of 0.5 THz, which can be applied to a variety of medical imaging systems. After the DTW process, structural variation was not observed for 2.1 μm-long InAs NWs. However, the top region of several InAs NWs with heights of 4.6 and 5.8 μm merged into a conical structure. InAs NWs with a height of 10 μm resulted in a bundle feature forming above the conical shape, where the length of bundle region was 4 μm. After the DTW process, the PPCS for 10 μm-long InAs NWs increased by 15 percent compared to that of the as-grown case. PMID:27782220

  6. Effects of crystal phase mixing on the electrical properties of InAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Thelander, Claes; Caroff, Philippe; Plissard, Sébastien; Dey, Anil W; Dick, Kimberly A

    2011-06-08

    We report a systematic study of the relationship between crystal quality and electrical properties of InAs nanowires grown by MOVPE and MBE, with crystal structure varying from wurtzite to zinc blende. We find that mixtures of these phases can exhibit up to 2 orders of magnitude higher resistivity than single-phase nanowires, with a temperature-activated transport mechanism. However, it is also found that defects in the form of stacking faults and twin planes do not significantly affect the resistivity. These findings are important for nanowire-based devices, where uncontrolled formation of particular polytype mixtures may lead to unacceptable device variability.

  7. A transmission line method for evaluation of vertical InAs nanowire contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M.; Svensson, J.; Lind, E.; Wernersson, L.-E.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method for metal contact characterization to vertical semiconductor nanowires using the transmission line method (TLM) on a cylindrical geometry. InAs nanowire resistors are fabricated on Si substrates using a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) spacer between the bottom and top contact. The thickness of the HSQ is defined by the dose of an electron beam lithography step, and by varying the separation thickness for a group of resistors, a TLM series is fabricated. Using this method, the resistivity and specific contact resistance are determined for InAs nanowires with different doping and annealing conditions. The contacts are shown to improve with annealing at temperatures up to 300 °C for 1 min, with specific contact resistance values reaching down to below 1 Ω µm2.

  8. A transmission line method for evaluation of vertical InAs nanowire contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Svensson, J. Lind, E. Wernersson, L.-E.

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a method for metal contact characterization to vertical semiconductor nanowires using the transmission line method (TLM) on a cylindrical geometry. InAs nanowire resistors are fabricated on Si substrates using a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) spacer between the bottom and top contact. The thickness of the HSQ is defined by the dose of an electron beam lithography step, and by varying the separation thickness for a group of resistors, a TLM series is fabricated. Using this method, the resistivity and specific contact resistance are determined for InAs nanowires with different doping and annealing conditions. The contacts are shown to improve with annealing at temperatures up to 300 °C for 1 min, with specific contact resistance values reaching down to below 1 Ω µm{sup 2}.

  9. Effect of nanohole size on selective area growth of InAs nanowire arrays on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoye; Yang, Wenyuan; Wang, Baojun; Ji, Xianghai; Xu, Shengyong; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing; Yang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the influence of nanohole size on selective-area growth (SAG) of InAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si(111) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth of well-defined and position-controlled InAs NW arrays with united vertical orientation can be achieved on the patterned substrates with a certain range of nanohole size, which paves the way for the fabrication of high-electron-mobility and surrounding-gate transistor arrays using NWs as channels. Moreover, it is found that more than one NW are increasingly likely grown per nanohole as the nanohole size increases, and the NWs become increasingly thin and short. This is considered to be due to the supersaturation of adsorbed species in the nanohole and the intense competition for adatoms among multiple NWs per nanohole.

  10. InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires grown by catalyst-free molecular-beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Isakov, I; Panfilova, M; Sourribes, M J L; Tileli, V; Porter, A E; Warburton, P A

    2013-03-01

    We report on the self-catalysed growth of vertical InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires on Si(111) substrates by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the mixed wurtzite and zincblende structure of the nanowires. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements were used to study the phosphorus content x in the InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires, which was shown to be in the range 0-10 %. The dependence of phosphorus incorporation in the nanowires on the phosphorus flux in the growth chamber was investigated. The incorporation rate coefficients of As and P in InAs(1x)P(x) nanowires were found to be in the ratio 10 ± 5 to 1.

  11. Observation of coherent electron transport in self-catalysed InAs and InAs1-xSbx nanowires grown on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourribes, M. J. L.; Isakov, I.; Panfilova, M.; Warburton, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the observation of phase coherent transport in catalyst-free InAs and InAs1-xSbx nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon (111) substrates. We investigate three different methods to gain information on the phase coherence length of the nanowires: first through the study of universal conductance fluctuations as a function of both magnetic field and gate voltage and then through localisation effects. The analysis of these different quantum effects gave consistent results and a phase-coherence length in the hundred nanometre range was extracted for all nanowires below 10 K. This demonstrates the potential of catalyst-free nanowires as building blocks for future quantum electronics devices directly integrated with silicon circuits.

  12. The Kondo effect and coherent transport in stacking-faults-free wurtzite InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretinin, Andrey V.; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Mahalu, Diana; Oreg, Yuval; Heiblum, Moty; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2011-12-01

    The crystalline perfection of wurtzite InAs nanowires grown by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique in combination with careful fabrication of nanowire-based FET devices allowed us to observe a variety of phenomena associated with mesoscopic coherent transport. When the single nanowire channel is nearly pinched-off the Coulomb blockade conductance oscillations exhibit well-pronounced Kondo effect approaching the conductance unitary limit. At some gate voltages the breaking of odd-even parity of the Kondo effect related to the formation of the triplet ground state is observed. At higher gate voltages when the channel is open we observe the Fabry-Pérot type conductance oscillations. The length of the Fabry-Pérot electron resonator deduced from the period of the oscillations is in agreement with the physical length of the nanowire device.

  13. Sharp exciton emission from single InAs quantum dots in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panev, Nikolay; Persson, Ann I.; Sköld, Niklas; Samuelson, Lars

    2003-09-01

    We have performed photoluminescence spectroscopy on single GaAs nanowires with InAs quantum dots in the form of thin slices of InAs, possibly alloyed with Ga as InGaAs, incorporated into the GaAs. The nanowires were grown by chemical beam epitaxy using gold nanoparticles as catalysts. The photoluminescence measurements showed rich spectra consisting of sharp lines with energies and excitation power dependency behavior very similar to that observed for Stranski-Krastanow-grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots. By reducing the excitation power density we were able to obtain a quantum dot spectrum consisting of only one single sharp line—the exciton line.

  14. Encapsulated gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Satoshi Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Suominen, Henri; Harada, Yuichi; Saito, Shiro; Fujiwara, Akira; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Muraki, Koji

    2013-11-18

    We report the fabrication of lateral gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors whose gate overlaps the source and drain electrodes and thus fully encapsulates the nanowire channel. They feature large drive current and transconductance that surpass those of conventional non-gate-overlap devices. The improved device characteristics can be attributed to the elimination of access resistance associated with ungated segments between the gate and source/drain electrodes. Our data also reveal a correlation between the normalized transconductance and the threshold voltage, which points to a beneficial effect of our wet-etching procedure performed prior to the atomic-layer-deposition of the gate dielectric.

  15. Tunable double quantum dots in InAs nanowires defined by local gate electrodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasth, Carina; Fuhrer, Andreas; Samuelson, Lars

    2006-03-01

    We present low-temperature transport measurements on quantum dots induced in homogeneous InAs quantum wires 50 nm in diameter. Quantum dots are induced by electrical depletion of the wire using local gate electrodes with down to 30 nm electrode spacing. This scheme has permitted the realization of fully gate-defined multiple quantum dots along the nanowire [1]. Tunability in double quantum dots is a prerequisite for the system to be operated as a quantum gate. We demonstrate control over the lead tunnel barrier transparencies and, in the case of double quantum dots, the interdot coupling. Using the local gate electrodes also as plunger gates we measure double dot honeycomb stability diagrams which show the transition from a single large dot to two weakly coupled dots at 4.2K. The induced quantum dots can be tuned into the few-electron regime which is shown from Coulomb blockade measurements. We extract values of orbital energy-level spacings, capacitances and capacitive and tunnel interdot coupling for this system. [1] C. Fasth et al., NanoLett 5, 1487 (2005).

  16. Graphitic platform for self-catalysed InAs nanowires growth by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qian D; Anyebe, Ezekiel A; Sanchez, Ana M; Rajpalke, Mohana K; Veal, Tim D; Zhukov, Alexander; Robinson, Benjamin J; Anderson, Frazer; Kolosov, Oleg; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We report the self-catalysed growth of InAs nanowires (NWs) on graphite thin films using molecular beam epitaxy via a droplet-assisted technique. Through optimising metal droplets, we obtained vertically aligned InAs NWs with highly uniform diameter along their entire length. In comparison with conventional InAs NWs grown on Si (111), the graphite surface led to significant effects on the NWs geometry grown on it, i.e. larger diameter, shorter length with lower number density, which were ascribed to the absence of dangling bonds on the graphite surface. The axial growth rate of the NWs has a strong dependence on growth time, which increases quickly in the beginning then slows down after the NWs reach a length of approximately 0.8 μm. This is attributed to the combined axial growth contributions from the surface impingement and sidewall impingement together with the desorption of adatoms during the diffusion. The growth of InAs NWs on graphite was proposed following a vapour-solid mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the NW has a mixture of pure zinc-blende and wurtzite insertions.

  17. Graphitic platform for self-catalysed InAs nanowires growth by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the self-catalysed growth of InAs nanowires (NWs) on graphite thin films using molecular beam epitaxy via a droplet-assisted technique. Through optimising metal droplets, we obtained vertically aligned InAs NWs with highly uniform diameter along their entire length. In comparison with conventional InAs NWs grown on Si (111), the graphite surface led to significant effects on the NWs geometry grown on it, i.e. larger diameter, shorter length with lower number density, which were ascribed to the absence of dangling bonds on the graphite surface. The axial growth rate of the NWs has a strong dependence on growth time, which increases quickly in the beginning then slows down after the NWs reach a length of approximately 0.8 μm. This is attributed to the combined axial growth contributions from the surface impingement and sidewall impingement together with the desorption of adatoms during the diffusion. The growth of InAs NWs on graphite was proposed following a vapour-solid mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the NW has a mixture of pure zinc-blende and wurtzite insertions. PMID:25024683

  18. X-ray diffraction strain analysis of a single axial InAs 1-x Px nanowire segment.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Mario; Mandl, Bernhard; Kriegner, Dominik; Holý, Václav; Samuelsson, Lars; Bauer, Günther; Deppert, Knut; Stangl, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The spatial strain distribution in and around a single axial InAs 1-x Px hetero-segment in an InAs nanowire was analyzed using nano-focused X-ray diffraction. In connection with finite-element-method simulations a detailed quantitative picture of the nanowire's inhomogeneous strain state was achieved. This allows for a detailed understanding of how the variation of the nanowire's and hetero-segment's dimensions affect the strain in its core region and in the region close to the nanowire's side facets. Moreover, ensemble-averaging high-resolution diffraction experiments were used to determine statistical information on the distribution of wurtzite and zinc-blende crystal polytypes in the nanowires.

  19. Efficient Terahertz Emission from InAs Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-16

    are specific to high aspect ratio geometries. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.115421 PACS number(s): 73.21.−b, 81.07.Gf I . MOTIVATION Manipulation of...43 The symmetric nature of the I -V curve in Fig. 4(b) afforded by the two ohmic41,42 contacts despite their geometrically asymmetric nature, is...consistent with SCLC (a bulk-limited regime). This is in marked contrast to rectifying I -V characteristics observed for Au catalyst/Ge nanowire contacts

  20. Electrical characterization of chemical and dielectric passivation of InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Gregory W.; Haapamaki, Chris M.; Kuyanov, Paul; LaPierre, Ray R.; Baugh, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The native oxide at the surface of III-V nanowires, such as InAs, can be a major source of charge noise and scattering in nanowire-based electronics, particularly for quantum devices operated at low temperatures. Surface passivation provides a means to remove the native oxide and prevent its regrowth. Here, we study the effects of surface passivation and conformal dielectric deposition by measuring electrical conductance through nanowire field effect transistors treated with a variety of surface preparations. By extracting field effect mobility, subthreshold swing, threshold shift with temperature, and the gate hysteresis for each device, we infer the relative effects of the different treatments on the factors influencing transport. It is found that a combination of chemical passivation followed by deposition of an aluminum oxide dielectric shell yields the best results compared to the other treatments, and comparable to untreated nanowires. Finally, it is shown that an entrenched, top-gated device using an optimally treated nanowire can successfully form a stable double quantum dot at low temperatures. The device has excellent electrostatic tunability owing to the conformal dielectric layer and the combination of local top gates and a global back gate.

  1. Inhomogeneous Si-doping of gold-seeded InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Chloé; Caroff, Philippe; Coinon, Christophe; Wallart, Xavier; Leturcq, Renaud

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated in situ Si doping of InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy from gold seeds. The effectiveness of n-type doping is confirmed by electrical measurements showing an increase of the electron density with the Si flux. We also observe an increase of the electron density along the nanowires from the tip to the base, attributed to the dopant incorporation on the nanowire facets whereas no detectable incorporation occurs through the seed. Furthermore, the Si incorporation strongly influences the lateral growth of the nanowires without giving rise to significant tapering, revealing the complex interplay between axial and lateral growth.

  2. Phase diagrams for understanding gold-seeded growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Masoomeh; Johansson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Phase diagrams are useful tools to study the phase equilibria of nanowire materials systems because the growth of nanowires is accompanied by phase formation and phase transition. We have modeled the phase equilibria of the As–Au–Ga ternary system by means of the CALPHAD method. This method is a well-established semi-empirical technique for thermodynamic modeling in which Gibbs energy functions with free parameters are defined for all phases in a system followed by adjusting these parameters to the experimental data. Using the resulting As–Au–Ga thermodynamic database, four vertical cuts of this ternary system are calculated and all show good agreement with experiments. This ternary system is particularly useful for predicting the state of the Au seed alloys when growing GaAs nanowires and we discuss such predictions. Similar calculations are performed for Au-seeded InAs nanowires. We show that the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth fails for InAs nanowires, while GaAs nanowires can grow from a liquid particle. Our calculations are in agreement with experimental data on the growth of Au-seeded GaAs and InAs nanowires.

  3. Quantum dots in InAs nanowires induced by surface potential fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Weis, Karl; Wirths, Stephan; Winden, Andreas; Sladek, Kamil; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Lüth, Hans; Grützmacher, Detlev; Schäpers, Thomas

    2014-04-04

    Back-gated InAs nanowire field-effect transistors are studied focusing on the formation of intrinsic quantum dots, i.e. dots not intentionally defined by electrodes. Such dots have been studied before, but the suggested explanations for their origin leave some open questions, which are addressed here. Stability diagrams of samples with different doping levels are recorded at electron temperatures below 200 mK, allowing us to estimate the number and size of the dots as well as the type of connection, i.e. in series or in parallel. We discuss several potential physical origins of the dots and conclude that they are most probably induced by potential fluctuations at the nanowire surface. Additionally, we show that via gate voltage and doping, the samples can be tuned to different regimes of Coulomb blockade.

  4. Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hannah J; Docherty, Callum J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2013-05-31

    We have performed a comparative study of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in a range of III-V nanowires using optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. This versatile technique allows measurement of important parameters for device applications, including carrier lifetimes, surface recombination velocities, carrier mobilities and donor doping levels. GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires of varying diameters were measured. For all samples, the electronic response was dominated by a pronounced surface plasmon mode. Of the three nanowire materials, InAs nanowires exhibited the highest electron mobilities of 6000 cm² V⁻¹ s⁻¹, which highlights their potential for high mobility applications, such as field effect transistors. InP nanowires exhibited the longest carrier lifetimes and the lowest surface recombination velocity of 170 cm s⁻¹. This very low surface recombination velocity makes InP nanowires suitable for applications where carrier lifetime is crucial, such as in photovoltaics. In contrast, the carrier lifetimes in GaAs nanowires were extremely short, of the order of picoseconds, due to the high surface recombination velocity, which was measured as 5.4 × 10⁵  cm s⁻¹. These findings will assist in the choice of nanowires for different applications, and identify the challenges in producing nanowires suitable for future electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Fabrication and optical properties of multishell InAs quantum dots on GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia Li, Junshuai; Cui, Jiangong; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-02-07

    Hybrid nanostructures combining nanowires with quantum dots promote the development of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices with integrated functionalities. In this work, we present a complex nanostructure with multishell quantum dots grown on nanowires. 1–4 shells of Stranski-Krastanov InAs quantum dots are grown on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Different dot shells are separated by 8 nm GaAs spacer shells. With increasing the number of shells, the quantum dots become sparser and tend to align in one array, which is caused by the shrinkage of facets on which dots prefer to grow as well as the strain fields produced by the lower set of dots which influences the migration of In adatoms. The size of quantum dots increases with the increase of shell number due to enhanced strain fields coupling. The spectra of multishell dots exhibit multiwavelength emission, and each peak corresponds to a dot shell. This hybrid structure may serve as a promising element in nanowire intermediate band solar cells, infrared nanolasers, and photodetectors.

  6. The electrical and structural properties of n-type InAs nanowires grown from metal-organic precursors.

    PubMed

    Thelander, C; Dick, K A; Borgström, M T; Fröberg, L E; Caroff, P; Nilsson, H A; Samuelson, L

    2010-05-21

    The electrical and structural properties of 111B-oriented InAs nanowires grown using metal-organic precursors have been studied. On the basis of electrical measurements it was found that the trends in carbon incorporation are similar to those observed in the layer growth, where an increased As/In precursor ratio and growth temperature result in a decrease in carbon-related impurities. Our results also show that the effect of non-intentional carbon doping is weaker in InAs nanowires compared to bulk, which may be explained by lower carbon incorporation in the nanowire core. We determine that differences in crystal quality, here quantified as the stacking fault density, are not the primary cause for variations in resistivity of the material studied. The effects of some n-dopant precursors (S, Se, Si, Sn) on InAs nanowire morphology, crystal structure and resistivity were also investigated. All precursors result in n-doped nanowires, but high precursor flows of Si and Sn also lead to enhanced radial overgrowth. Use of the Se precursor increases the stacking fault density in wurtzite nanowires, ultimately at high flows leading to a zinc blende crystal structure with strong overgrowth and very low resistivity.

  7. Conduction Band Offset and Polarization Effects in InAs Nanowire Polytype Junctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ju; Lehmann, Sebastian; Nilsson, Malin; Kivisaari, Pyry; Linke, Heiner; Dick, Kimberly A; Thelander, Claes

    2017-02-08

    Although zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) structures differ only in the atomic stacking sequence, mixing of crystal phases can strongly affect the electronic properties, a problem particularly common to bottom up-grown nanostructures. A lack of understanding of the nature of electronic transport at crystal phase junctions thus severely limits our ability to develop functional nanowire devices. In this work we investigated electron transport in InAs nanowires with designed mixing of crystal structures, ZB/WZ/ZB, by temperature-dependent electrical measurements. The WZ inclusion gives rise to an energy barrier in the conduction band. Interpreting the experimental result in terms of thermionic emission and using a drift-diffusion model, we extracted values for the WZ/ZB band offset, 135 ± 10 meV, and interface sheet polarization charge density on the order of 10(-3) C/m(2). The extracted polarization charge density is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than previous experimental results, but in good agreement with first principle calculation of spontaneous polarization in WZ InAs. When the WZ length is reduced below 20 nm, an effective barrier lowering is observed, indicating the increasing importance of tunneling transport. Finally, we found that band-bending at ZB/WZ junctions can lead to bound electron states within an enclosed WZ segment of sufficient length, evidenced by our observation of Coulomb blockade at low temperature. These findings provide critical input for modeling and designing the electronic properties of novel functional devices, such as nanowire transistors, where crystal polytypes are commonly found.

  8. The effective excitonic g factors of Mn-doped InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wen

    2017-04-01

    Based on the derived eight-band k · p Hamiltonian, the electronic structures of Mn-doped InAs nanowires in the magnetic field are calculated. We find the lowest optical transition will be split to four individual transitions when the magnetic field is applied along z axis, and two of them are σ polarized light. Furthermore, the Zeeman splitting energy at the Γ point of two σ polarized light will increase nonlinearly as the increase of the magnetic field. Additionally, an effective excitonic g factor at the Γ point is defined, and the effective excitonic g factors will decrease greatly with the increase of the radius of nanowires and the decrease of the concentration of manganese ions, while the effective excitonic g factors decrease slightly when the magnetic field increases. Interestingly, the effective excitonic g factors can experience a substantial decrease when the temperature increases from 10 K to 100 K and is almost not affected when the temperature varies from 100 K to 300 K. Therefore, we can infer that large effective excitonic g factors can be obtained when small radius of nanowires, high concentration of manganese ions and low temperature are satisfied.

  9. Magnetically-driven colossal supercurrent enhancement in InAs nanowire Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Tiira, J; Strambini, E; Amado, M; Roddaro, S; San-Jose, P; Aguado, R; Bergeret, F S; Ercolani, D; Sorba, L; Giazotto, F

    2017-04-12

    The Josephson effect is a fundamental quantum phenomenon where a dissipationless supercurrent is introduced in a weak link between two superconducting electrodes by Andreev reflections. The physical details and topology of the junction drastically modify the properties of the supercurrent and a strong enhancement of the critical supercurrent is expected to occur when the topology of the junction allows an emergence of Majorana bound states. Here we report charge transport measurements in mesoscopic Josephson junctions formed by InAs nanowires and Ti/Al superconducting leads. Our main observation is a colossal enhancement of the critical supercurrent induced by an external magnetic field applied perpendicular to the substrate. This striking and anomalous supercurrent enhancement cannot be described by any known conventional phenomenon of Josephson junctions. We consider these results in the context of topological superconductivity, and show that the observed critical supercurrent enhancement is compatible with a magnetic field-induced topological transition.

  10. Full thermoelectric characterization of InAs nanowires using MEMS heater/sensors.

    PubMed

    Karg, S F; Troncale, V; Drechsler, U; Mensch, P; Das Kanungo, P; Schmid, H; Schmidt, V; Gignac, L; Riel, H; Gotsmann, B

    2014-08-01

    Precise measurements of a complete set of thermoelectric parameters on a single indium-arsenide nanowire (NW) have been performed using highly sensitive, micro-fabricated sensing devices based on the heater/sensor principle. The devices were fabricated as micro electro-mechanical systems consisting of silicon nitride membranes structured with resistive gold heaters/sensors. Preparation, operation and characterization of the devices are described in detail. Thermal decoupling of the heater/sensor platforms has been optimized reaching thermal conductances as low as 20 nW K(-1) with a measurements sensitivity below 20 nW K(-1). The InAs NWs were characterized in terms of thermal conductance, four-probe electrical conductance and thermopower (Seebeck coefficient), all measured on a single NW. The temperature dependence of the parameters determining the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of an InAs NW was acquired in the range 200-350 K featuring a minor decrease of the thermal conductivity from 2.7 W (m K)(-1) to 2.3 W (m K)(-1).

  11. Structural and electrical properties of catalyst-free Si-doped InAs nanowires formed on Si(111)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Woo; Jeon, Seong Gi; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Lee, Sang Jun; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Jun Oh; Noh, Sam Kyu; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report structural and electrical properties of catalyst-free Si-doped InAs nanowires (NWs) formed on Si(111) substrates. The average diameter of Si-doped InAs NWs was almost similar to that of undoped NWs with a slight increase in height. In the previous works, the shape and size of InAs NWs formed on metallic catalysts or patterned structures were significantly changed by introducing dopants. Even though the external shape and size of the Si-doped NWs in this work were not changed, crystal structures inside the NWs were significantly changed. For the undoped InAs NWs, both zincblende (ZB) and wurzite (WZ) structures were observed in transmission-electron microscope images, where the portion of WZ structure was estimated to be more than 30%. However, only ZB was observed with an increase in stacking fault (SF) for the Si-doped NWs. The undoped and Si-doped InAs NWs were used as channels of four-point electrical measurements with Al/Ni electrodes to investigate electrical properties. The resistivity calculated from the current-voltage curve of a Si-doped InAs NW showed 1.32 × 10−3 Ωcm, which was dramatically decreased from 10.14 × 10−3 Ωcm for the undoped InAs NW. A relatively low resistivity of catalyst-free Si-doped InAs NWs was achieved without significant change in structural dimensions. PMID:26581781

  12. InAs Nanowire with Epitaxial Aluminum as a Single-Electron Transistor with Fixed Tunnel Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupin, M.; Mannila, E.; Krogstrup, P.; Maisi, V. F.; Nguyen, H.; Albrecht, S. M.; Nygârd, J.; Marcus, C. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of single-electron transistors using InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminum with fixed tunnel barriers made of aluminum oxide. The devices exhibit a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximized aluminum cover shell, and they behave as metallic single-electron transistors. In contrast to the typical few-channel contacts in semiconducting devices, our approach forms opaque multichannel contacts to a semiconducting wire and, thus, provides a complementary way to study them. In addition, we confirm that unwanted extra quantum dots can appear at the surface of the nanowire. Their presence is prevented in our devices and also by inserting a protective layer of GaAs between the InAs and Al, the latter being suitable for standard measurement methods.

  13. Controlling the Electrical Transport Properties of Nanocontacts to Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lord, Alex M; Maffeis, Thierry G; Kryvchenkova, Olga; Cobley, Richard J; Kalna, Karol; Kepaptsoglou, Despoina M; Ramasse, Quentin M; Walton, Alex S; Ward, Michael B; Köble, Jürgen; Wilks, Steve P

    2015-07-08

    The ability to control the properties of electrical contacts to nanostructures is essential to realize operational nanodevices. Here, we show that the electrical behavior of the nanocontacts between free-standing ZnO nanowires and the catalytic Au particle used for their growth can switch from Schottky to Ohmic depending on the size of the Au particles in relation to the cross-sectional width of the ZnO nanowires. We observe a distinct Schottky to Ohmic transition in transport behavior at an Au to nanowire diameter ratio of 0.6. The current-voltage electrical measurements performed with a multiprobe instrument are explained using 3-D self-consistent electrostatic and transport simulations revealing that tunneling at the contact edge is the dominant carrier transport mechanism for these nanoscale contacts. The results are applicable to other nanowire materials such as Si, GaAs, and InAs when the effects of surface charge and contact size are considered.

  14. Structural characterization of GaAs and InAs nanowires by means of Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, N.; Piccin, M.; Jabeen, F.; Bais, G.; Rubini, S.; Martelli, F.; Bhatti, A. S.

    2008-11-01

    We report Raman studies of GaAs and InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on SiO2 and GaAs surfaces by means of catalyst-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have investigated several tens of NWs grown using either Mn or Au as a catalyst. The LO and TO phonon lines of the NWs showed an energy downshift and a broadening as compared to the lines usually observed in the corresponding bulk materials. A doublet is sometimes observed in the LO region due to the observation of a signal attributed to the surface optical (SO) phonon. The energy position of the SO phonon agrees with the values expected considering the section diameter of the NWs. LO and TO downshifts are due to the presence of structural defects within the NWs. The larger the energy downshift, the smaller the dimension of the defect-free regions. The results demonstrate that different catalysts provide wires with comparable crystal quality. The measurements also point out that differences in defect density can be found in wires coming from the same batch indicating that a substantial effort will be needed to obtain high homogeneities of the NW quality.

  15. Ballistic One-Dimensional InAs Nanowire Cross-Junction Interconnects.

    PubMed

    Gooth, Johannes; Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Schaller, Vanessa; Wirths, Stephan; Moselund, Kirsten; Luisier, Mathieu; Karg, Siegfried; Riel, Heike

    2017-04-12

    Coherent interconnection of quantum bits remains an ongoing challenge in quantum information technology. Envisioned hardware to achieve this goal is based on semiconductor nanowire (NW) circuits, comprising individual NW devices that are linked through ballistic interconnects. However, maintaining the sensitive ballistic conduction and confinement conditions across NW intersections is a nontrivial problem. Here, we go beyond the characterization of a single NW device and demonstrate ballistic one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport in InAs NW cross-junctions, monolithically integrated on Si. Characteristic 1D conductance plateaus are resolved in field-effect measurements across up to four NW-junctions in series. The 1D ballistic transport and sub-band splitting is preserved for both crossing-directions. We show that the 1D modes of a single injection terminal can be distributed into multiple NW branches. We believe that NW cross-junctions are well-suited as cross-directional communication links for the reliable transfer of quantum information as required for quantum computational systems.

  16. Electronic structures of [1 1 1]-oriented free-standing InAs and InP nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liao, Gaohua; Luo, Ning; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Xu, H Q

    2016-04-06

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic structures of the [1 1 1]-oriented, free-standing, zincblende InAs and InP nanowires with hexagonal cross sections by means of an atomistic sp(3)s*, spin-orbit interaction included, nearest-neighbor, tight-binding method. The band structures and the band state wave functions of these nanowires are calculated and the symmetry properties of the bands and band states are analyzed based on the C(3v) double point group. It is shown that all bands of these nanowires are doubly degenerate at the Γ-point and some of these bands will split into non-degenerate bands when the wave vector k moves away from the Γ-point as a manifestation of spin-splitting due to spin-orbit interaction. It is also shown that the lower conduction bands of these nanowires all show simple parabolic dispersion relations, while the top valence bands show complex dispersion relations and band crossings. The band state wave functions are presented by the spatial probability distributions and it is found that all the band states show 2π/3-rotation symmetric probability distributions. The effects of quantum confinement on the band structures of the [1 1 1]-oriented InAs and InP nanowires are also examined and an empirical formula for the description of quantization energies of the lowest conduction band and the highest valence band is presented. The formula can simply be used to estimate the enhancement of the band gaps of the nanowires at different sizes as a result of quantum confinement.

  17. Magnetoresistance engineering and singlet/triplet switching in InAs nanowire quantum dots with ferromagnetic sidegates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fábián, G.; Makk, P.; Madsen, M. H.; Nygârd, J.; Schönenberger, C.; Baumgartner, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present magnetoresistance (MR) experiments on an InAs nanowire quantum dot device with two ferromagnetic sidegates (FSGs) in a split-gate geometry. The wire segment can be electrically tuned to a single dot or to a double dot regime using the FSGs and a backgate. In both regimes we find a strong MR and a sharp MR switching of up to 25% at the field at which the magnetizations of the FSGs are inverted by the external field. The sign and amplitude of the MR and the MR switching can both be tuned electrically by the FSGs. In a double dot regime close to pinch-off we find two sharp transitions in the conductance, reminiscent of tunneling MR (TMR) between two ferromagnetic contacts, with one transition near zero and one at the FSG switching fields. These surprisingly rich characteristics we explain in several simple resonant tunneling models. For example, the TMR-like MR can be understood as a stray-field controlled transitions between singlet and triplet double dot states. Such local magnetic fields are the key elements in various proposals to engineer novel states of matter and may be used for testing electron spin based Bell inequalities.

  18. Midinfrared Photoluminescence up to 290 K Reveals Radiative Mechanisms and Substrate Doping-Type Effects of InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiren; Zhuang, Qiandong; Alradhi, H; Jin, Zh M; Zhu, Liangqing; Chen, Xin; Shao, Jun

    2017-03-08

    Photoluminescence (PL) as a conventional yet powerful optical spectroscopy may provide crucial insight into the mechanism of carrier recombination and bandedge structure in semiconductors. In this study, mid-infrared PL measurements on vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) are realized for the first time in a wide temperature range of up to 290 K, by which the radiative recombinations are clarified in the NWs grown on n- and p-type Si substrates, respectively. A dominant PL feature is identified to be from the type-II optical transition across the interfaces between the zinc-blend (ZB) and the wurtzite (WZ) InAs, a lower-energy feature at low temperatures is ascribed to impurity-related transition, and a higher-energy feature at high temperatures originates in the interband transition of the WZ InAs being activated by thermal-induced electron transfer. The optical properties of the ZB-on-WZ and WZ-on-ZB interfaces are asymmetric, and stronger nonradiative recombination and weaker carrier-phonon interaction show up in the NWs on p-type substrate in which built-in electric field forms and leads to carrier assembling around the WZ-on-ZB interface. The results indicate that wide temperature-range infrared PL analysis can serve as efficient vehicle for clarifying optical properties and bandedge processes of the crystal-phase interfaces in vertically aligned InAs NWs.

  19. InAs nanowire MOSFETs in three-transistor configurations: single balanced RF down-conversion mixers.

    PubMed

    Berg, Martin; Persson, Karl-Magnus; Wu, Jun; Lind, Erik; Sjöland, Henrik; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2014-12-05

    Integration of III-V semiconductors on Si substrates allows for the realization of high-performance, low power III-V electronics on the Si-platform. In this work, we demonstrate the implementation of single balanced down-conversion mixer circuits, fabricated using vertically aligned InAs nanowire devices on Si. A thin, highly doped InAs buffer layer has been introduced to reduce the access resistance and serve as a bottom electrode. Low-frequency voltage conversion gain is measured up to 7 dB for a supply voltage of 1.5V. Operation of these mixers extends into the GHz regime with a -3 dB cut-off frequency of 2 GHz, limited by the optical lithography system used. The circuit dc power consumption is measured at 3.9 mW.

  20. Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wook Shin, Hyun; Jun Lee, Sang; Gun Kim, Doo; Bae, Myung-Ho; Heo, Jaeyeong; Jin Choi, Kyoung; Jun Choi, Won; Choe, Jeong-woo; Cheol Shin, Jae

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional crystal growth enables the epitaxial integration of III-V compound semiconductors onto a silicon (Si) substrate despite significant lattice mismatch. Here, we report a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1.4–3 μm) photodetector that employs InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on Si. The wafer-scale epitaxial InAs NWs form on the Si substrate without a metal catalyst or pattern assistance; thus, the growth is free of metal-atom-induced contaminations, and is also cost-effective. InAs NW arrays with an average height of 50 μm provide excellent anti-reflective and light trapping properties over a wide wavelength range. The photodetector exhibits a peak detectivity of 1.9 × 108  cm·Hz1/2/W for the SWIR band at 77 K and operates at temperatures as high as 220 K. The SWIR photodetector on the Si platform demonstrated in this study is promising for future low-cost optical sensors and Si photonics. PMID:26035286

  1. Visible Light-Assisted High-Performance Mid-Infrared Photodetectors Based on Single InAs Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hehai; Hu, Weida; Wang, Peng; Guo, Nan; Luo, Wenjin; Zheng, Dingshan; Gong, Fan; Luo, Man; Tian, Hongzheng; Zhang, Xutao; Luo, Chen; Wu, Xing; Chen, Pingping; Liao, Lei; Pan, Anlian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-10-12

    One-dimensional InAs nanowires (NWs) have been widely researched in recent years. Features of high mobility and narrow bandgap reveal its great potential of optoelectronic applications. However, most reported work about InAs NW-based photodetectors is limited to the visible waveband. Although some work shows certain response for near-infrared light, the problems of large dark current and small light on/off ratio are unsolved, thus significantly restricting the detectivity. Here in this work, a novel "visible light-assisted dark-current suppressing method" is proposed for the first time to reduce the dark current and enhance the infrared photodetection of single InAs NW photodetectors. This method effectively increases the barrier height of the metal-semiconductor contact, thus significantly making the device a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiode. These MSM photodiodes demonstrate broadband detection from less than 1 μm to more than 3 μm and a fast response of tens of microseconds. A high detectivity of ∼10(12) Jones has been achieved for the wavelength of 2000 nm at a low bias voltage of 0.1 V with corresponding responsivity of as much as 40 A/W. Even for the incident wavelength of 3113 nm, a detectivity of ∼10(10) Jones and a responsivity of 0.6 A/W have been obtained. Our work has achieved an extended detection waveband for single InAs NW photodetector from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared. The excellent performance for infrared detection demonstrated the great potential of narrow bandgap NWs for future infrared optoelectronic applications.

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires and fabrication of InAs nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Luysberg, Martina; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2012-11-14

    We present results about the growth of GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) using molecular beam epitaxy. The core is grown via the Ga droplet-assisted growth mechanism. For a homogeneous growth of the InAs shell, the As(4) flux and substrate temperature are critical. The shell growth starts with InAs islands along the NW core, which increase in time and merge giving finally a continuous and smooth layer. At the top of the NWs, a small part of the core is free of InAs indicating a crystal phase selective growth. This allows a precise measurement of the shell thickness and the fabrication of InAs nanotubes by selective etching. The strain relaxation in the shell occurs mainly via the formation of misfit dislocations and saturates at ~80%. Additionally, other types of defects are observed, namely stacking faults transferred from the core or formed in the shell, and threading dislocations.

  3. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-09-30

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm{sup −1} were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  4. Alloy formation during molecular beam epitaxy growth of Si-doped InAs nanowires on GaAs[111]B.

    PubMed

    Davydok, Anton; Rieger, Torsten; Biermanns, Andreas; Saqib, Muhammad; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-08-01

    Vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) doped with Si were grown self-assisted by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs[111]B substrates covered with a thin SiO x layer. Using out-of-plane X-ray diffraction, the influence of Si supply on the growth process and nanostructure formation was studied. It was found that the number of parasitic crystallites grown between the NWs increases with increasing Si flux. In addition, the formation of a Ga0.2In0.8As alloy was observed if the growth was performed on samples covered by a defective oxide layer. This alloy formation is observed within the crystallites and not within the nanowires. The Ga concentration is determined from the lattice mismatch of the crystallites relative to the InAs nanowires. No alloy formation is found for samples with faultless oxide layers.

  5. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2013-09-01

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm-1 were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  6. Alloy formation during molecular beam epitaxy growth of Si-doped InAs nanowires on GaAs[111]B

    PubMed Central

    Davydok, Anton; Rieger, Torsten; Biermanns, Andreas; Saqib, Muhammad; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) doped with Si were grown self-assisted by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs[111]B substrates covered with a thin SiOx layer. Using out-of-plane X-ray diffraction, the influence of Si supply on the growth process and nanostructure formation was studied. It was found that the number of parasitic crystallites grown between the NWs increases with increasing Si flux. In addition, the formation of a Ga0.2In0.8As alloy was observed if the growth was performed on samples covered by a defective oxide layer. This alloy formation is observed within the crystallites and not within the nanowires. The Ga concentration is determined from the lattice mismatch of the crystallites relative to the InAs nanowires. No alloy formation is found for samples with faultless oxide layers. PMID:24046494

  7. Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the transport properties of lateral gate field effect transistors (FET) that have been realized by employing, as active elements, (111) B-oriented InAs nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy with different Se-doping concentrations. On the basis of electrical measurements, it was found that the carrier mobility increases from 103 to 104 cm2/(V × sec) by varying the ditertiarybutyl selenide (DtBSe) precursor line pressure from 0 to 0.4 Torr, leading to an increase of the carrier density in the transistor channel of more than two orders of magnitude. By keeping the DtBSe line pressure at 0.1 Torr, the carrier density in the nanowire channel measures ≈ 5 × 1017 cm-3 ensuring the best peak transconductances (> 100 mS/m) together with very low resistivity values (70 Ω × μm) and capacitances in the attofarad range. These results are particularly relevant for further optimization of the nanowire-FET terahertz detectors recently demonstrated. PACS: 73.63.-b, 81.07.Gf, 85.35.-p PMID:22373361

  8. Atomic Scale Surface Structure and Morphology of InAs Nanowire Crystal Superlattices: The Effect of Epitaxial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While shell growth engineering to the atomic scale is important for tailoring semiconductor nanowires with superior properties, a precise knowledge of the surface structure and morphology at different stages of this type of overgrowth has been lacking. We present a systematic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of homoepitaxial shell growth of twinned superlattices in zinc blende InAs nanowires that transforms {111}A/B-type facets to the nonpolar {110}-type. STM imaging along the nanowires provides information on different stages of the shell growth revealing distinct differences in growth dynamics of the crystal facets and surface structures not found in the bulk. While growth of a new surface layer is initiated simultaneously (at the twin plane interface) on the {111}A and {111}B nanofacets, the step flow growth proceeds much faster on {111}A compared to {111}B leading to significant differences in roughness. Further, we observe that the atomic scale structures on the {111}B facet is different from its bulk counterpart and that shell growth on this facet occurs via steps perpendicular to the ⟨112⟩B-type directions. PMID:25710727

  9. Electronic and Structural Differences between Wurtzite and Zinc Blende InAs Nanowire Surfaces: Experiment and Theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We determine the detailed differences in geometry and band structure between wurtzite (Wz) and zinc blende (Zb) InAs nanowire (NW) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy. By establishing unreconstructed and defect-free surface facets for both Wz and Zb, we can reliably measure differences between valence and conduction band edges, the local vacuum levels, and geometric relaxations to the few-millielectronvolt and few-picometer levels, respectively. Surface and bulk density functional theory calculations agree well with the experimental findings and are used to interpret the results, allowing us to obtain information on both surface and bulk electronic structure. We can thus exclude several previously proposed explanations for the observed differences in conductivity of Wz-Zb NW devices. Instead, fundamental structural differences at the atomic scale and nanoscale that we observed between NW surface facets can explain the device behavior. PMID:25406069

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowires in SiO2 nanotube templates: challenges and prospects for integration of III-Vs on Si.

    PubMed

    Vukajlovic-Plestina, Jelena; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Tütüncuoǧlu, Gözde; Potts, Heidi; Ricca, Ruben; Meyer, Frank; Matteini, Federico; Leran, Jean-Baptiste; I Morral, Anna Fontcuberta

    2016-11-11

    Guided growth of semiconductor nanowires in nanotube templates has been considered as a potential platform for reproducible integration of III-Vs on silicon or other mismatched substrates. Herein, we report on the challenges and prospects of molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowires in SiO2/Si nanotube templates. We show how and under which conditions the nanowire growth is initiated by In-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth enabled by the local conditions inside the nanotube template. The conditions for high yield of vertical nanowires are investigated in terms of the nanotube depth, diameter and V/III flux ratios. We present a model that further substantiates our findings. This work opens new perspectives for monolithic integration of III-Vs on the silicon platform enabling new applications in the electronics, optoelectronics and energy harvesting arena.

  11. Effect of Si-doping on InAs nanowire transport and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirths, S.; Weis, K.; Winden, A.; Sladek, K.; Volk, C.; Alagha, S.; Weirich, T. E.; von der Ahe, M.; Hardtdegen, H.; Lüth, H.; Demarina, N.; Grützmacher, D.; Schäpers, Th.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of Si-doping on the morphology, structure, and transport properties of nanowires was investigated. The nanowires were deposited by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in an N2 ambient. It is observed that doping systematically affects the nanowire morphology but not the structure of the nanowires. However, the transport properties of the wires are greatly affected. Room-temperature four-terminal measurements show that with an increasing dopant supply the conductivity monotonously increases. For the highest doping level the conductivity is higher by a factor of 25 compared to only intrinsically doped reference nanowires. By means of back-gate field-effect transistor measurements it was confirmed that the doping results in an increased carrier concentration. Temperature dependent resistance measurements reveal, for lower doping concentrations, a thermally activated semiconductor-type increase of the conductivity. In contrast, the nanowires with the highest doping concentration show a metal-type decrease of the resistivity with decreasing temperature.

  12. Understanding Self-Catalyzed Epitaxial Growth of III-V Nanowires toward Controlled Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Suslov, Sergey; Yang, Chen

    2017-02-08

    The self-catalyzed growth of III-V nanowires has drawn plenty of attention due to the potential of integration in current Si-based technologies. The homoparticle-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism has been demonstrated for self-catalyzed III-V nanowire growth. However, the understandings of the preferred growth sites of these nanowires are still limited, which obstructs the controlled synthesis and the applications of self-catalyzed nanowire arrays. Here, we experimentally demonstrated that thermally created pits could serve as the preferred sites for self-catalyzed InAs nanowire growth. On that basis, we performed a pregrowth annealing strategy to promote the nanowire density by enhancing the pits formation on the substrate surface and enable the nanowire growth on the substrate that was not capable to facilitate the growth. The discovery of the preferred self-catalyzed nanowire growth sites and the pregrowth annealing strategy have shown great potentials for controlled self-catalyzed III-V nanowire array growth with preferred locations and density.

  13. First-principles study of quantum confinement and surface effects on the electronic properties of InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Feng; Tang, Li-Ming Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-12-14

    We have used first principles methods to systematically investigate the quantum confinement effect on the electronic properties of zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) InAs nanowires (NWs) with different orientations and diameters, and compared their electronic properties before and after pseudo-hydrogen passivation. The results show that the calculated carrier effective masses are dependent on the NW diameter, except for [110] ZB NWs, and the hole effective masses of [111] ZB NWs are larger than the electron effective masses when the NW diameter is ≥26 Å. The band alignments of [111] ZB and [0001] WZ NWs reveal that the effect of quantum confinement on the conduction bands is greater than on the valence bands, and the position of the valence band maximum level changes little with increasing NW diameter. The pseudo-hydrogen passivated NWs have larger band gaps than the corresponding unpassivated NWs. The carrier effective masses and mobilities can be adjusted by passivating the surface dangling bonds.

  14. Sb-induced phase control of InAsSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Q D; Anyebe, Ezekiel A; Chen, R; Liu, H; Sanchez, Ana M; Rajpalke, Mohana K; Veal, Tim D; Wang, Z M; Huang, Y Z; Sun, H D

    2015-02-11

    For the first time, we report a complete control of crystal structure in InAs(1-x)Sb(x) NWs by tuning the antimony (Sb) composition. This claim is substantiated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with photoluminescence spectroscopy. The pure InAs nanowires generally show a mixture of wurtzite (WZ) and zinc-blende (ZB) phases, where addition of a small amount of Sb (∼2-4%) led to quasi-pure WZ InAsSb NWs, while further increase of Sb (∼10%) resulted in quasi-pure ZB InAsSb NWs. This phase transition is further evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) studies, where a dominant emission associated with the coexistence of WZ and ZB phases is present in the pure InAs NWs but absent in the PL spectrum of InAs0.96Sb0.04 NWs that instead shows a band-to-band emission. We also demonstrate that the Sb addition significantly reduces the stacking fault density in the NWs. This study provides new insights on the role of Sb addition for effective control of nanowire crystal structure.

  15. Low temperature transport in p-doped InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, S.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.

    2013-10-14

    We present low temperature electrical measurements of p-type Indium Arsenide nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy using Beryllium as a dopant. Growth of p-type wires without stacking faults is demonstrated. Devices in field-effect geometries exhibit ambipolar behavior, and the temperature dependence of electron and hole field effect mobilities are extracted. At low temperatures, we observe reproducible conductance fluctuations as a result of quantum interference, and magnetoconductance data show weak antilocalization.

  16. Low temperature transport in p-doped InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, S.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygârd, J.

    2013-10-01

    We present low temperature electrical measurements of p-type Indium Arsenide nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy using Beryllium as a dopant. Growth of p-type wires without stacking faults is demonstrated. Devices in field-effect geometries exhibit ambipolar behavior, and the temperature dependence of electron and hole field effect mobilities are extracted. At low temperatures, we observe reproducible conductance fluctuations as a result of quantum interference, and magnetoconductance data show weak antilocalization.

  17. Prediction of phonon thermal transport in thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires by molecular dynamics simulations: influence of the interatomic potential.

    PubMed

    Carrete, J; Longo, R C; Gallego, L J

    2011-05-06

    A number of different potentials are currently being used in molecular dynamics simulations of semiconductor nanostructures. Confusion can arise if an inappropriate potential is used. To illustrate this point, we performed direct molecular dynamics simulations to predict the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity λ of thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires. In each case, simulations performed using the classical Harrison potential afforded values of λ about an order of magnitude smaller than those obtained using more elaborate potentials (an Abell-Tersoff, as parameterized by Hammerschmidt et al for GaAs and InAs, and a potential of Vashishta type for InP). These results will be a warning to those wishing to use computer simulations to orient the development of quasi-one-dimensional systems as heat sinks or thermoelectric devices.

  18. Absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth during molecular beam epitaxy of self-induced InAs nanowires on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertenberger, S.; Rudolph, D.; Bolte, S.; Döblinger, M.; Bichler, M.; Spirkoska, D.; Finley, J. J.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G.

    2011-03-01

    The growth mechanism of self-induced InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and ex situ scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Abrupt morphology transition and in-plane strain relaxation revealed that InAs NWs nucleate without any significant delay and under the absence of indium (In) droplets. These findings are independent of the As/In-flux ratio, revealing entirely linear vertical growth rate and nontapered NWs. No evidence of In droplets nor associated change in the NW apex morphology was observed for various growth termination procedures. These results highlight the absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth, providing substantial benefits for realization of atomically abrupt doping and composition profiles in future axial InAs-based NW heterostructures on Si.

  19. Hot Carrier Trapping Induced Negative Photoconductance in InAs Nanowires toward Novel Nonvolatile Memory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Taeho; Jeon, Sanghun; Kang, Hang Kyu; Choi, Wonjun; Song, Jindong; Doh, Yong-Joo; Yu, Dong

    2015-09-09

    We report a novel negative photoconductivity (NPC) mechanism in n-type indium arsenide nanowires (NWs). Photoexcitation significantly suppresses the conductivity with a gain up to 10(5). The origin of NPC is attributed to the depletion of conduction channels by light assisted hot electron trapping, supported by gate voltage threshold shift and wavelength-dependent photoconductance measurements. Scanning photocurrent microscopy excludes the possibility that NPC originates from the NW/metal contacts and reveals a competing positive photoconductivity. The conductivity recovery after illumination substantially slows down at low temperature, indicating a thermally activated detrapping mechanism. At 78 K, the spontaneous recovery of the conductance is completely quenched, resulting in a reversible memory device, which can be switched by light and gate voltage pulses. The novel NPC based optoelectronics may find exciting applications in photodetection and nonvolatile memory with low power consumption.

  20. Selective-Area Growth of InAs Nanowires with Metal/Dielectric Composite Mask and Their Application to Vertical Surrounding-Gate Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuta; Kohashi, Yoshinori; Hara, Shinjiro; Motohisa, Junichi

    2013-04-01

    We attempted the selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxial (SA-MOVPE) growth of InAs nanowires (NWs) using a tungsten/dielectric composite mask and fabricated nanowire vertical surrounding-gate field-effect transistors (NW-VSG-FETs), where tungsten served as both the mask in SA-MOVPE growth and the bottom electrode of the FET. The growth of NWs with diameters as low as 100 nm was demonstrated using the composite mask. The fabricated NW-VSG-FET exhibited improved drain current density as compared with our previously reported NW-VSG-FETs, and a larger on/off ratio as compared with previously reported NW-VSG-FETs having similar electrodes at the bottoms of NWs.

  1. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  2. Optically controllable nanobreaking of metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lina; Lu, Jinsheng; Yang, Hangbo; Luo, Si; Wang, Wei; Lv, Jun; Qiu, Min; Li, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Nanobreaking of nanowires has shown its necessity for manufacturing integrated nanodevices as nanojoining does. In this letter, we develop a method for breaking gold pentagonal nanowires by taking advantage of the photothermal effect with a 532 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser. The critical power required for nanobreaking is much lower for perpendicular polarization than that for parallel polarization. By controlling the polarization and the power of the irradiation light for nanobreaking, the nanowires can be cut into segments with gap widths ranging from dozens of nanometers to several micrometers. This CW light-induced single point nanobreaking of metallic nanowires provides a highly useful and promising method in constructing nanosystems.

  3. Controlled formation of epitaxial III-V nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martensson, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    For the realization of devices with dimensions on the 10 nm scale, there is today a great interest in the possible use of self-assembly as a tool. In this talk will be described the state-of-the-art in growth of epitaxially nucleated, vertically standing semiconductor nanowires made from III-V semiconductors, with high level of control of dimensions, position and structural properties. Such wires hold great promise for use in future electronics and photonics applications. Three key aspects will be specifically addressed, namely: (1) The combination of top-down and bottom-up processes in lithographically aided formation of nanowires. A concern from industry is that bottom up techniques should suffer from ``fundamental placement problem[s], i.e. there is no practical and reliable way to precisely align and position them.'' (Chau R., et al. Opportunities and challenges of III-V nanoelectronics for future high-speed, low-power logic applications. (2005)). One way to resolve this issue is lithography where individual nanowire site control with high precision can be achieved. Electron beam lithography has the advantage of being a flexible high-resolution method, whereas nanoimprint lithography offers great opportunities for up-scaling and high-throughput processing. (2) The successful growth of III-V nanowires on silicon, including designed heterostructures. The special nanowire geometry with tens of nanometer radius and very small nanowire / substrate interface, enables monolithic integration of high-performance III-V materials on Silicon substrates. As an example, GaAsP heterostructure nanowires for photonic applications are discussed. Also the formation of InAs nanowires for high-speed and low-power-electronics directly on Si will be described. In the latter process, the use of foreign metal particles for wire growth is completely avoided, greatly reducing compatibility concerns between CMOS and nanowire technology. (3) Nanowire devices, such as field

  4. Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanta, R.; Madsen, M. H.; Liao, Z.; Krogstrup, P.; Vosch, T.; Nygârd, J.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal gradients along indium arsenide nanowires were engineered by a combination of fabricated micro-trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local spatial control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found to be consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.

  5. Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanta, R.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Liao, Z.; Vosch, T.

    2015-12-14

    The thermal gradients along indium arsenide nanowires were engineered by a combination of fabricated micro-trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local spatial control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found to be consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.

  6. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun; Lei, Zijin; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO2 substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of ΔST ˜ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of ΔSO ˜ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ˜12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  7. Controlling plasmonic wave packets in silver nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L.; Nome, R.; Montgomery, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Scherer, N. F.

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations were performed to explore the excitation of surface plasmon resonances in long silver (Ag) nanowires. In particular, we show that it is possible to generate plasmonic wave packets that can propagate along the nanowire by exciting superpositions of surface plasmon resonances. By using an appropriately chirped pulse, it is possible to transiently achieve localization of the excitation at the distal end of the nanowire. Such designed coherent superpositions will allow realizing spatiotemporal control of plasmonic excitations for enhancing nonlinear responses in plasmonic 'circuits'.

  8. Controlled fabrication of nanowire sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Francois

    2007-10-01

    We present a simple top down approach based on nanoimprint lithography to create dense arrays of silicon nanowires over large areas. Metallic contacts to the nanowires and a bottom gate allow the operation of the array as a field-effect transistor with very large on/off ratios. When exposed to ammonia gas or cyclohexane solutions containing nitrobenzene or phenol, the threshold voltage of the field-effect transistor is shifted, a signature of charge transfer between the analytes and the nanowires. The threshold voltage shift is proportional to the Hammett parameter and the concentration of the nitrobenzene and phenol analytes. For the liquid analytes considered, we find binding energies of 400 meV, indicating strong physisorption. Such values of the binding energies are ideal for stable and reusable sensors.

  9. Selective area heteroepitaxy of GaSb on GaAs (001) for in-plane InAs nanowire achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahed, M.; Desplanque, L.; Troadec, D.; Patriarche, G.; Wallart, X.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of in-plane GaSb nanotemplates on a GaAs (001) substrate is demonstrated combining nanoscale patterning of the substrate and selective area heteroepitaxy. The selective growth of GaSb inside nano-stripe openings in a SiO2 mask layer is achieved at low temperature thanks to the use of an atomic hydrogen flux during the molecular beam epitaxy. These growth conditions promote the spreading of GaSb inside the apertures and lattice mismatch accommodation via the formation of a regular array of misfit dislocations at the interface between GaSb and GaAs. We highlight the impact of the nano-stripe orientation as well as the role of the Sb/Ga flux ratio on the strain relaxation of GaSb along the [110] direction and on the nanowire length along the [1-10] one. Finally we demonstrate how these GaSb nanotemplates can be used as pedestals for subsequent growth of in-plane InAs nanowires.

  10. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  11. Optical Control of Electrons in Au Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eric; Basnet, Gobind; Huang, Wayne; Flanders, Bret; Batelaan, Herman

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanowires, with diameters less than 100 nm, are novel sources for electron field emission. Their geometry confines the propagation of conduction electrons, giving rise to effects not seen in the bulk, such as ballistic currents and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Dynamics within the wire are probed with laser-induced field emission from the nanowire tip. A balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to split and delay pulses up to 170 ps from a Ti:Saph oscillator (800 nm, 50 fs) in a pump-probe scheme. The output beamsplitter of the interferometer is mounted on a translation stage to control the separation of the pump and probe beams with sub-micron precision. The beams are focused to 3 μm spots on the tip and shaft of a nanowire, mounted under vacuum at 2 × 10-7 mTorr, by an off-axis parabolic mirror. Field-emitted electrons are counted by a channel electron multiplier. We discuss experimental results of our pump-probe experiments taken at different pump positions. Optical control of electron dynamics within these nanowires may lead to a truly on-demand source of single and multiple electron pulses. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF awards 1306565 and 1430519.

  12. E{sub 1} Gap of Wurtzite InAs Single Nanowires Measured by Means of Resonant Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cantarero, A.; Dacal, L. C. O.; Iikawa, F.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.

    2011-12-23

    Indium arsenide nanowires were synthesized with an intermixing of wurtzite and zincblende structure by chemical beam epitaxy with the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of the transverse optical phonon mode at 215 cm{sup -1} reveals an E{sub 1} gap of 2.47 eV which is assigned to the electronic band gap at the A point in the indium arsenide wurtzite phase.

  13. Effect of As preadsorption on InAs nanowire heteroepitaxy on Si(111): A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Hiroaki

    2009-12-01

    Arsenic preadsorption has recently been found to be crucial for selective-area epitaxial growth of oriented III-V semiconductor nanowires on Si(111). To understand the effect of preadsorption on the heteroepitaxy, this first-principles study examines the structure of As-adsorbed Si(111) surfaces. Reconstruction models such as adatom, trimer, and dimer-adatom-stacking fault structures are found to be metastable. The stability of unreconstructed arsenide structure (1×1-As) is confirmed but the faulted and unfaulted domains of 1×1-As are found to be practically degenerate in energy. These domains can therefore coexist on a Si(111)-As surface, and then epitaxial growth will be disrupted at domain boundaries where translational symmetry is broken. Indium adsorption on the Si(111)-As surface, however, destabilizes unfaulted domains, thus assisting its transformation into a coherent surface that allows epitaxy. This effect is attributed to the interlayer covalent interactions induced by In p electrons.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy assisted in-situ joule heat dissipation study of individual InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T. T.; Wei, X. L. E-mail: qingchen@pku.edu.cn; Shu, J. P.; Chen, Q. E-mail: qingchen@pku.edu.cn

    2013-11-04

    Managing heat transport at nanoscale is an important and challenging task for nanodevice applications and nanostructure engineering. Herein, through in-situ engineering nanowire (NW)-electrode contacts with electron beam induced carbon deposition in a transmission electron microscope, Joule heat dissipation along individual suspended Indium Arsenide NWs is well managed to obtain pre-designed temperature profiles along NWs. The temperature profiles are experimentally determined by the breakdown site of NWs under Joule heating and breakdown temperature measurement. A model with NW-electrode contacts being well considered is proposed to describe heat transport along a NW. By fitting temperature profiles with the model, thermal conductance at NW-electrode contacts is obtained. It is found that, the temperature profile along a specific NW is mainly governed by the relative thermal conductance at the two NW-electrode contacts, which is engineered in experiments.

  15. How Copper Nanowires Grow and How To Control Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengrong; Stewart, Ian E; Chen, Zuofeng; Li, Bo; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2016-03-15

    Scalable, solution-phase nanostructure synthesis has the promise to produce a wide variety of nanomaterials with novel properties at a cost that is low enough for these materials to be used to solve problems. For example, solution-synthesized metal nanowires are now being used to make low cost, flexible transparent electrodes in touch screens, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and solar cells. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of solution-phase syntheses that enable control over the assembly of atoms into nanowires in the last 15 years, but proposed mechanisms for nanowire formation are usually qualitative, and for many syntheses there is little consensus as to how nanowires form. It is often not clear what species is adding to a nanowire growing in solution or what mechanistic step limits its rate of growth. A deeper understanding of nanowire growth is important for efficiently directing the development of nanowire synthesis toward producing a wide variety of nanostructure morphologies for structure-property studies or producing precisely defined nanostructures for a specific application. This Account reviews our progress over the last five years toward understanding how copper nanowires form in solution, how to direct their growth into nanowires with dimensions ideally suited for use in transparent conducting films, and how to use copper nanowires as a template to grow core-shell nanowires. The key advance enabling a better understanding of copper nanowire growth is the first real-time visualization of nanowire growth in solution, enabling the acquisition of nanowire growth kinetics. By measuring the growth rate of individual nanowires as a function of concentration of the reactants and temperature, we show that a growing copper nanowire can be thought of as a microelectrode that is charged with electrons by hydrazine and grows through the diffusion-limited addition of Cu(OH)2(-). This deeper mechanistic understanding, coupled to an

  16. Selective-Area MOCVD Growth and Carrier-Transport-Type Control of InAs(Sb)/GaSb Core-Shell Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xianghai; Yang, Xiaoguang; Du, Wenna; Pan, Huayong; Yang, Tao

    2016-12-14

    We report the first selective-area growth of high quality InAs(Sb)/GaSb core-shell nanowires on Si substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without foreign catalysts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that the overgrowth of the GaSb shell is highly uniform and coherent with the InAs(Sb) core without any misfit dislocations. To control the structural properties and reduce the planar defect density in the self-catalyzed InAs core nanowires, a trace amount of Sb was introduced during their growth. As the Sb content increases from 0 to 9.4%, the crystal structure of the nanowires changes from a mixed wurtzite (WZ)/zinc-blende (ZB) structure to a perfect ZB phase. Electrical measurements reveal that both the n-type InAsSb core and p-type GaSb shell can work as active carrier transport channels, and the transport type of core-shell nanowires can be tuned by the GaSb shell thickness and back-gate voltage. This study furthers our understanding of the Sb-induced crystal-phase control of nanowires. Furthermore, the high quality InAs(Sb)/GaSb core-shell nanowire arrays obtained here pave the foundation for the fabrication of the vertical nanowire-based devices on a large scale and for the study of fundamental quantum physics.

  17. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  18. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.

  19. Electronic Transport Control of Bi Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-07

    TERMS night vision coolers, thermoelectrics, nanowires, bismuth, Aharonov Bohm , quantum, confinement Tito E. Huber Howard University Office Of...journals or in conference proceedings (N/A for none) Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires probed by the Aharonov - Bohm Oscillation of...indications that this in indeed the case because the nanowires exhibit Aharonov - Bohm oscillations that are generally observed in tubes or rings. 6

  20. Fabrication of reliable semiconductor nanowires by controlling crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangdan; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun

    2011-07-29

    One-dimensional SnO(2) nanomaterials with wide bandgap characteristics are attractive for flexible and/or transparent displays and high-performance nano-electronics. In this study, the crystallinity of SnO(2) nanowires was regulated by controlling their growth temperatures. Moreover, the correlation of the crystallinity of nanowires with optical and electrical characteristics was analyzed. When SnO(2) nanowires were grown at temperatures below 900 °C, they showed various growth directions and abnormal discontinuity in their crystal structures. On the other hand, most nanowires grown at 950 °C exhibited a regular growth trend in the direction of [100]. In addition, the low temperature photoluminescence measurement revealed that the higher growth temperatures of nanowires gradually decreased the 500 nm peak rather than the 620 nm peak. The former peak is derived from the surface defect related to the shallow energy level and affects nanowire surface states. Owing to crystallinity and defects, the threshold voltage range (maximum-minimum) of SnO(2) nanowire transistors was 1.5 V at 850 °C, 1.1 V at 900 °C, and 0.5 V at 950 °C, with dispersion characteristics dramatically decreased. This study successfully demonstrated the effects of nanowire crystallinity on optical and electrical characteristics. It also suggested that the optical and electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors could be regulated by controlling their growth temperatures in the course of producing SnO(2) nanowires.

  1. A review of the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires: insights gained from terahertz conductivity spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Hannah J.; Boland, Jessica L.; Davies, Christopher L.; Baig, Sarwat A.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Accurately measuring and controlling the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires is of paramount importance in the development of novel nanowire-based devices. In light of this, terahertz (THz) conductivity spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal non-contact technique for probing nanowire electrical conductivity and is showing tremendous value in the targeted development of nanowire devices. THz spectroscopic measurements of nanowires enable charge carrier lifetimes, mobilities, dopant concentrations and surface recombination velocities to be measured with high accuracy and high throughput in a contact-free fashion. This review spans seminal and recent studies of the electronic properties of nanowires using THz spectroscopy. A didactic description of THz time-domain spectroscopy, optical pump–THz probe spectroscopy, and their application to nanowires is included. We review a variety of technologically important nanowire materials, including GaAs, InAs, InP, GaN and InN nanowires, Si and Ge nanowires, ZnO nanowires, nanowire heterostructures, doped nanowires and modulation-doped nanowires. Finally, we discuss how THz measurements are guiding the development of nanowire-based devices, with the example of single-nanowire photoconductive THz receivers.

  2. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  3. Spatially controlled, nanoparticle-free growth of InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. J.; Lefebvre, J.; Fraser, J.

    2003-09-01

    A technique for the growth of InP nanowires, which does not rely on the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism, is demonstrated using selective-area chemical beam epitaxy. The nanowires are precisely positioned on an InP wafer and are always aligned along the available substrate <111>A directions. They have diameters as small as 40 nm, and typical lengths of 600 nm. They are found to be optically active, with thin embedded InAs layers showing quantum-dot-like behavior with well-defined excited states.

  4. The electronic transport of top subband and disordered sea in an InAs nanowire in the presence of a mobile gate.

    PubMed

    Zhukov, A A; Volk, C; Winden, A; Hardtdegen, H; Schäpers, T

    2014-04-23

    We performed measurements at helium temperatures of the electronic transport in an InAs quantum wire (R(wire) ∼ 30 kΩ) in the presence of a charged tip of an atomic force microscope serving as a mobile gate. The period and the amplitude of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are investigated in detail as a function of electron concentration in the linear and non-linear regime. We demonstrate the influence of the tip-to-sample distance on the ability to locally affect the top subband electrons as well as the electrons in the disordered sea. Furthermore, we introduce a new method of detection of the subband occupation in an InAs wire, which allows us to evaluate the number of electrons in the conductive band of the wire.

  5. Morphology Controlled Fabrication of InN Nanowires on Brass Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huijie; Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Growth of semiconductor nanowires on cheap metal substrates could pave the way to the large-scale manufacture of low-cost nanowire-based devices. In this work, we demonstrated that high density InN nanowires can be directly grown on brass substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that Zn from the brass substrates is the key factor in the formation of nanowires by restricting the lateral growth of InN. The nanowire morphology is highly dependent on the growth temperature. While at a lower growth temperature, the nanowires and the In droplets have large diameters. At the elevated growth temperature, the lateral sizes of the nanowires and the In droplets are much smaller. Moreover, the nanowire diameter can be controlled in situ by varying the temperature in the growth process. This method is very instructive to the diameter-controlled growth of nanowires of other materials. PMID:28335323

  6. Controlling the Sensing Properties of Silicon Nanowires via the Bonds Nearest to the Silicon Nanowire Surface.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey Mark; Wang, Bin; Haick, Hossam

    2015-06-03

    Controlling the sensing properties of a silicon nanowire field effect transistor is dependent on the surface chemistry of the silicon nanowire. A standard silicon nanowire has a passive oxide layer (native oxide), which has trap states that cause sensing inaccuracies and desensitize the surface to nonpolar molecules. In this paper, we successfully modified the silicon nanowire surface with different nonoxide C3 alkyl groups, specifically, propyl (Si-CH2-CH2-CH3), propenyl (Si-CH═CH-CH3), and propynyl (Si-C≡C-CH3) modifications. The effect of the near surface bond on the sensor sensitivity and stability was explored by comparing three C3 surface modifications. A reduction of trap-states led to greater sensor stability and accuracy. The propenyl-modified sensor was consistently the most stable and sensitive sensor, among the applied sensors. The propenyl- and propynyl-modified sensors consistently performed with the best accuracy in identifying specific analytes with similar polarity or similar molecular weights. A combination of features from different sensing surfaces led to the best rubric for specific analytes identification. These results indicate that nonoxide sensor surfaces are useful in identifying specific analytes and that a combination of sensors with different surfaces in a cross-reactive array can lead to specific analytes detection.

  7. Controlled growth mechanism of poly (3-hexylthiophene) nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiymaz, D.; Yagmurcukardes, M.; Tomak, A.; Sahin, H.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.; Zareie, H. M.; Zafer, C.

    2016-11-01

    Synthesis of 1D-polymer nanowires by a self-assembly method using marginal solvents is an attractive technique. While the formation mechanism is poorly understood, this method is essential in order to control the growth of nanowires. Here we visualized the time-dependent assembly of poly (3-hexyl-thiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) nanowires by atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The assembly of P3HT nanowires was carried out at room temperature by mixing cyclohexanone (CHN), as a poor solvent, with polymer solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Both π-π stacking and planarization, obtained at the mix volume ratio of P3HT (in DCB):CHN (10:7), were considered during the investigation. We find that the length of nanowires was determined by the ordering of polymers in the polymer repetition direction. Additionally, our density functional theory calculations revealed that the presence of DCB and CHN molecules that stabilize the structural distortions due to tail group of polymers was essential for the core-wire formation.

  8. Control of photon transport properties in nanocomposite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa, M.; Fasano, V.; Camposeo, A.; Persano, L.; Pisignano, D.

    2016-02-01

    Active nanowires and nanofibers can be realized by the electric-field induced stretching of polymer solutions with sufficient molecular entanglements. The resulting nanomaterials are attracting an increasing attention in view of their application in a wide variety of fields, including optoelectronics, photonics, energy harvesting, nanoelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems. Realizing nanocomposite nanofibers is especially interesting in this respect. In particular, methods suitable for embedding inorganic nanocrystals in electrified jets and then in active fiber systems allow for controlling light-scattering and refractive index properties in the realized fibrous materials. We here report on the design, realization, and morphological and spectroscopic characterization of new species of active, composite nanowires and nanofibers for nanophotonics. We focus on the properties of light-confinement and photon transport along the nanowire longitudinal axis, and on how these depend on nanoparticle incorporation. Optical losses mechanisms and their influence on device design and performances are also presented and discussed.

  9. Synthesis of bundled tungsten oxide nanowires with controllable morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shibin Zou Zengda; Min Guanghui

    2009-05-15

    Bundled tungsten oxide nanowires with controllable morphology were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride (WCl{sub 6}) as precursor and cyclohexanol as solvent. The as-synthesized products were systematically characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller gas-sorption measurements were also employed. Accompanied by an apparent drop of specific surface area from 151 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for the longer nanowires synthesized using a lower concentration of WCl{sub 6} to 106 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for the shorter nanowires synthesized using a higher concentration of WCl{sub 6}, a dramatically morphological evolution was also observed. With increasing concentration of tungsten hexachloride (WCl{sub 6}) in cyclohexanol, the nanostructured bundles became larger, shorter and straighter, and finally a block-shape product occurred.

  10. Enhanced density control of Al:ZnO nanowires via one-by-one coupling of nanowires and pyramids.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Lin; Liang, Yu-Han; Huang, Jun-Hang; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Huang, Jow-Lay; Chang, Hong-Ren; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2010-02-01

    Al doped ZnO nanowire arrays with controlled growth densities were fabricated on silicon without using catalysts via sputtering followed by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results show that the Al:ZnO single-crystalline nanowires synthesized by CVD prefer growing epitaxially on the tips of the ZnO pyramids pre-synthesized by sputtering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Consequently, the densities of the as-grown Al:ZnO nanowires were controllable by changing the particle densities of the pre-grown ZnO seed layers. The Al concentration of the Al:ZnO nanowires were measured to be around 2.63 at.% by electron energy loss spectrum. Field-emission measurements show the turn-on fields of the Al:ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable area densities are tunable. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of the Al:ZnO nanowires show relatively strong and sharp ultraviolet emissions centered at 383 nm and broad green emissions at around 497 nm. This work provides a simple method to control the field emission and luminescence densities of Al doped ZnO nanowire arrays, which also shows good potential for developing nano-pixel optical devices.

  11. ``Hot spots'' growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    ``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials.``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a

  12. Planar Gallium arsenide nanowire arrays for nanoelectronics: Controlled growth, doping, characterization, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Ryan Stewart

    The Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism is a bottom-up approach to produce onedimensional semiconductor structures, or nanowires. VLS nanowires are formed via a chemical or physical deposition process, where a metallic nanoparticle (seed) facilitates the growth. Nanowire growth diameter is strongly correlated to seed size, therefore top-down patterning can control site location and diameter of nanowire growth. Nanowires are sought after for their potential use as a manageable way produce small dimensioned semiconductor features without the need of expensive lithographic techniques. VLS nanowires commonly grow out-of-plane with respect to their growth substrate, resulting in difficulty with integrating VLS nanowires into existing device processing which is intended for planar geometries. Nanowires are typically removed from the substrate, which requires painstaking and uneconomical methods to pattern and align the nanowires. Planar nanowires are a potential solution to this issue; they grow in-plane on the substrate surface, epitaxially attached along its entire axis. Planar nanowires, as is, can be integrated into any preexisting planar semiconductor process, combining the advantages of nanowires with increased manufacturability. In this dissertation, planar GaAs nanowires are grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Au nanoparticles as the liquid metal seed. Growth occurs across multiple substrates to elucidate the mechanism behind planar nanowire growth direction. Knowledge gained by observing planar nanowire growth is used to precisely control nanowire growth direction. Subsequently the doping of planar nanowires is explored and unique phenomena related to the p-type doping of planar nanowires are investigated and discussed. The advantages of using planar nanowires are demonstrated through the controlled growth and doping of planar nanowires, and ultimately fabrication of electronic devices using conventional planar process techniques

  13. Superconducting qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, K. D.; Larsen, T. W.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting transmon qubits are a promising basis for a scalable quantum information processor. The recent development of semiconducting InAs nanowires with in situ molecular beam epitaxy-grown Al contacts presents new possibilities for building hybrid superconductor/semiconductor devices using precise bottom up fabrication techniques. Here, we take advantage of these high quality materials to develop superconducting qubits with superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junctions (JJs) where the normal element is an InAs semiconductor nanowire. We have fabricated transmon qubits in which the conventional Al-Al2O3-Al JJs are replaced by a single gate-tunable nanowire JJ. Using spectroscopy to probe the qubit we observe fluctuations in its level splitting with gate voltage that are consistent with universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowire's normal state conductance. Our gate-tunable nanowire transmons may enable new means of control for large scale qubit architectures and hybrid topological quantum computing schemes. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation and the European Commission.

  14. Controllable positioning and alignment of silver nanowires by tunable hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Chen, Ying; Guo, Qiuquan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Jun

    2011-03-25

    Assembly and alignment of nanowires or nanotubes are critical steps for integrating functional nanodevices by the bottom-up strategy. However, it is still challenging to manipulate either an array of nanowires or individual nanowires in a controllable manner. Here we present a simple but versatile method of positioning and aligning nanowires by hydrodynamic focusing that functions as 'hydro-tweezers'. By adjusting the flow duration and flow rates of the sheath flows and sample flow, the density, width and position of the nanowire arrays, as building blocks of nanodevices, can be readily tuned in the hydrodynamic focusing process. This approach exhibits great potentials in the assembly of an array of functional nanodevices. With this method, multiple nanowire arrays can be positioned and aligned on predefined locations. Further focusing the sample flow, nanowires flow in single file. Thus single nanowires can also be lined up and located to desired positions.

  15. Controlling electronic and magnetic properties of ultra narrow multilayered nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Puspamitra

    Interest in the study of magnetic/non-magnetic multilayered structures took a giant leap since Grunberg and his group established that the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) is a function of the non-magnetic spacer width. This interest was further fuelled by the discovery of the phenomenal Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. In fact, in 2007 Albert Fert and Peter Grunberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their contribution to the discovery of GMR. GMR is the key property that is being used in the read-head of the present day computer hard drive as it requires a high sensitivity in the detection of magnetic field. The recent increase in demand for device miniaturization encouraged researchers to look for GMR in nanoscale multilayered structures. In this context, one dimensional (1-D) multilayered nanowire structure has shown tremendous promise as a viable candidate for ultra sensitive read head sensors. In fact, the phenomenal giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which is the novel feature of the currently used multilayered thin film, has already been observed in multilayered nanowire systems at ambient temperature. Geometrical confinement of the supper lattice along the 2-dimensions (2-D) to construct the 1-D multilayered nanowire prohibits the minimization of magnetic interaction-offering a rich variety of magnetic properties in nanowire that can be exploited for novel functionality. In addition, introduction of non-magnetic spacer between the magnetic layers presents additional advantage in controlling magnetic properties via tuning the interlayer magnetic interaction. Despite of a large volume of theoretical works devoted towards the understanding of GMR and IEC in super lattice structures, limited theoretical calculations are reported in 1-D multilayered systems. Thus to gauge their potential application in new generation magneto-electronic devices, in this thesis, I have discussed the usage of first principles density functional theory (DFT) in

  16. Controlling the Geometries of Si Nanowires through Tunable Nanosphere Lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Luping; Fang, Yin; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Kedi; Limburg, Connor; Jiang, Peng; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2017-03-01

    A tunable nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique is combined with metal-assisted etching of silicon (Si) to fabricate ordered, high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires. Non-close-packed structures are directly prepared via shear-induced ordering of the nanospheres. The spacing between the nanospheres is independent of their diameters and tuned by changing the loading of nanospheres. Nanowires with spacings between 110 and 850 nm are easily achieved with diameters between 100 and 550 nm. By eliminating plasma or heat treatment of the nanospheres, the diameter of the nanowires fabricated is nearly identical to the nanosphere diameter in the suspension. The elimination of this step helps avoid common drawbacks of traditional NSL approaches, leading to the high-fidelity, large-scale fabrication of highly crystalline, nonporous Si nanowires in ordered hexagonal patterns. The ability to simultaneously control the diameter and spacing makes the NSL technique more versatile and expands the range of geometries that can be fabricated by top-down approaches.

  17. Simultaneous integration of different nanowires on single textured Si (100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Rosenbach, Daniel; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2015-03-11

    By applying a texturing process to silicon substrates, we demonstrate the possibility to integrate III-V nanowires on (100) oriented silicon substrates. Nanowires are found to grow perpendicular to the {111}-oriented facets of pyramids formed by KOH etching. Having control of the substrate orientation relative to the incoming fluxes enables not only the growth of nanowires on selected facets of the pyramids but also studying the influence of the fluxes on the nanowire nucleation and growth. Making use of these findings, we show that nanowires with different dimensions can be grown on the same sample and, additionally, it is even possible to integrate nanowires of different semiconductor materials, for example, GaAs and InAs, on the very same sample.

  18. Metal catalyst for low-temperature growth of controlled zinc oxide nanowires on arbitrary substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W

    2014-03-14

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires.

  19. Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires. PMID:24625584

  20. Increased Photoconductivity Lifetime in GaAs Nanowires by Controlled n-Type and p-Type Doping.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jessica L; Casadei, Alberto; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Davies, Christopher L; Jabeen, Fauzia; Joyce, Hannah J; Herz, Laura M; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-04-26

    Controlled doping of GaAs nanowires is crucial for the development of nanowire-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a noncontact method based on time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity for assessing n- and p-type doping efficiency in nanowires. Using this technique, we measure extrinsic electron and hole concentrations in excess of 10(18) cm(-3) for GaAs nanowires with n-type and p-type doped shells. Furthermore, we show that controlled doping can significantly increase the photoconductivity lifetime of GaAs nanowires by over an order of magnitude: from 0.13 ns in undoped nanowires to 3.8 and 2.5 ns in n-doped and p-doped nanowires, respectively. Thus, controlled doping can be used to reduce the effects of parasitic surface recombination in optoelectronic nanowire devices, which is promising for nanowire devices, such as solar cells and nanowire lasers.

  1. III-Nitride nanowire lasers: fabrication and control of optical properties (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, George T.

    2016-09-01

    III-nitride nanowires have attracted increasing interest as potential ultracompact and low-power nanoscale lasers in the UV-visible wavelengths. In order to maximize the potential of nanowire lasers, a greater understanding and control over their properties, including mode control, polarization control, wavelength tuning, and beam shaping, is necessary. Here, we discuss the fabrication of III-nitride based single nanowire and nanowire photonic crystal lasers using a top-down approach, and present multiple methods for controlling their optical properties. The nanowires were fabricated by a two-step process composed of a lithographic dry etch followed by a selective, wet chemical etch of the nanowire sidewalls. This technique allows for high quality nanowires with straight and smooth nonpolar m-plane sidewalls and with controllable height, pitch and diameter. Precisely engineered axial nanowire heterostructures can be formed from planar heterostructures, while radial nanowire heterostructures can be formed via regrowth on the etched nanowires. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8–133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  3. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8–133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared. PMID:26976527

  4. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices.

  5. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M.; Alam, Sardar B.; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour-liquid-solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth.

  6. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet.

    PubMed

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M; Alam, Sardar B; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M

    2016-07-29

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour-liquid-solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth.

  7. Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, Federico; Norton, Michael M.; Alam, Sardar B.; Hofmann, Stephan; Mølhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires with precisely controlled structure, and hence well-defined electronic and optical properties, can be grown by self-assembly using the vapour–liquid–solid process. The structure and chemical composition of the growing nanowire is typically determined by global parameters such as source gas pressure, gas composition and growth temperature. Here we describe a more local approach to the control of nanowire structure. We apply an electric field during growth to control nanowire diameter and growth direction. Growth experiments carried out while imaging within an in situ transmission electron microscope show that the electric field modifies growth by changing the shape, position and contact angle of the catalytic droplet. This droplet engineering can be used to modify nanowires into three dimensional structures, relevant to a range of applications, and also to measure the droplet surface tension, important for quantitative development of strategies to control nanowire growth. PMID:27470536

  8. Site-controlled VLS growth of planar nanowires: yield and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Miao, Xin; Mohseni, Parsian K; Choi, Wonsik; Li, Xiuling

    2014-12-10

    The recently emerged selective lateral epitaxy of semiconductor planar nanowires (NWs) via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism has redefined the long-standing symbolic image of VLS NW growth. The in-plane geometry and self-aligned nature make these planar NWs completely compatible with large scale manufacturing of NW-based integrated nanoelectronics. Here, we report on the realization of perfectly site-controlled growth of GaAs planar NW arrays with unity yield using lithographically defined gold (Au) seed dots. The growth rate of the planar NWs is found to decrease with the NW width at fixed spacing, which is consistent with the conventional VLS model based on the Gibbs-Thomson effect. It is found that in general, the planar and out-of-plane NW growth modes are both present. The yield of planar NWs decreases as their lateral dimension shrinks, and 100% yield of planar NWs can be achieved at moderate V/III ratios. Based on a study of the shape of seed particles, it is proposed that the adhesion between the liquid-phase seed particle and the substrate surface is important in determining the choice of growth mode. These studies represent advances in the fundamental understanding of the VLS planar NW growth mechanism and in the precise control of the planar NW site, density, width, and length for practical applications. In addition, high quality planar InAs NWs on GaAs (100) substrates is realized, verifying that the planar VLS growth mode can be extended to heteroepitaxy.

  9. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III-V semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T.

    2013-12-01

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425-454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5-1 μm and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3-0.7μm. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  10. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T.

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 μm and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7μm. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  11. Direct Conversion of Perovskite Thin Films into Nanowires with Kinetic Control for Flexible Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengchen; Gu, Shuai; Shen, Xinpeng; Xu, Ning; Tan, Yingling; Zhuang, Shendong; Deng, Yu; Lu, Zhenda; Wang, Zhenlin; Zhu, Jia

    2016-02-10

    With significant progress in the past decade, semiconductor nanowires have demonstrated unique features compared to their thin film counterparts, such as enhanced light absorption, mechanical integrity and reduced therma conductivity, etc. However, technologies of semiconductor thin film still serve as foundations of several major industries, such as electronics, displays, energy, etc. A direct path to convert thin film to nanowires can build a bridge between these two and therefore facilitate the large-scale applications of nanowires. Here, we demonstrate that methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) nanowires can be synthesized directly from perovskite film by a scalable conversion process. In addition, with fine kinetic control, morphologies, and diameters of these nanowires can be well-controlled. Based on these perovskite nanowires with excellent optical trapping and mechanical properties, flexible photodetectors with good sensitivity are demonstrated.

  12. Extensive duplication events account for multiple control regions and pseudo-genes in the mitochondrial genome of the velvet worm Metaperipatus inae (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Cameron, Stephen L; Daniels, Savel; Mayer, Georg

    2010-10-01

    The phylogeny of Onychophora (velvet worms) is unresolved and even the monophyly of the two major onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, is uncertain. Previous studies of complete mitochondrial genomes from two onychophoran species revealed two strikingly different gene arrangement patterns from highly conserved in a representative of Peripatopsidae to highly derived in a species of Peripatidae, suggesting that these data might be informative for clarifying the onychophoran phylogeny. In order to assess the diversity of mitochondrial genomes among onychophorans, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of Metaperipatus inae, a second representative of Peripatopsidae from Chile. Compared to the proposed ancestral gene order in Onychophora, the mitochondrial genome of M. inae shows dramatic rearrangements, although all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes are encoded on the same strands as in the ancestral peripatopsid genome. The retained strand affiliation of all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes and the occurrence of three control regions and several pseudo-genes suggest that the derived mitochondrial gene arrangement pattern in M. inae evolved by partial genome duplications, followed by a subsequent loss of redundant genes. Our findings, thus, confirm the diversity of the mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns among onychophorans and support their utility for clarifying the phylogeography of Onychophora, in particular of the Peripatopsidae species from South Africa and Chile.

  13. Controllable growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia Li, Junshuai; Cui, Jiangong; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-12-07

    The growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on GaAs nanowires are investigated. InP quantum well and quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires successively with increasing the deposition time of InP. The GaAs/InP nanowire heterostructure exhibits a type-II band alignment. The wavelength of the InP quantum well is in the range of 857–892 nm at 77 K, which means that the quantum well is nearly fully strained. The InP quantum dot, which has a bow-shaped cross section, exhibits dislocation-free pure zinc blende structure. Stranski-Krastanow InAs quantum dots are subsequently formed on the GaAs/InP nanowire core-shell structure. The InAs quantum dots are distributed over the middle part of the nanowire, indicating that the In atoms contributing to the quantum dots mainly come from the vapor rather than the substrate. The longest emission wavelength obtained from the InAs QDs is 1039 nm at 77 K. The linewidth is as narrow as 46.3 meV, which is much narrower than those on planar InP substrates and wurtzite InP nanowires, suggesting high-crystal-quality, phase-purity, and size-uniformity of quantum dots.

  14. Position-controlled [100] InP nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Plissard, Sébastien; Hocevar, Moïra; Vu, Thuy T. T.; Zehender, Tilman; Immink, George G. W.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Haverkort, Jos; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the growth of vertically standing [100] zincblende InP nanowire (NW) arrays on InP (100) substrates in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode using low-pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Precise positioning of these NWs is demonstrated by electron beam lithography. The vertical NW yield can be controlled by different parameters. A maximum yield of 56% is obtained and the tapering caused by lateral growth can be prevented by in situ HCl etching. Scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence have been used to investigate the NW properties.

  15. Voltage-controlled domain wall traps in ferromagnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Uwe; Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2013-06-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has the potential to bring about revolutionary new spintronic devices, many of which rely on efficient manipulation of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires. Recently, it has been shown that voltage-induced charge accumulation at a metal-oxide interface can influence domain wall motion in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets, but the effects have been relatively modest and limited to the slow, thermally activated regime. Here we show that a voltage can generate non-volatile switching of magnetic properties at the nanoscale by modulating interfacial chemistry rather than charge density. Using a solid-state ionic conductor as a gate dielectric, we generate unprecedentedly strong voltage-controlled domain wall traps that function as non-volatile, electrically programmable and switchable pinning sites. Pinning strengths of at least 650 Oe can be readily achieved, enough to bring to a standstill domain walls travelling at speeds of at least ~20 m s-1. We exploit this new magneto-ionic effect to demonstrate a prototype non-volatile memory device in which voltage-controlled domain wall traps facilitate electrical bit selection in a magnetic nanowire register.

  16. Voltage-controlled domain wall traps in ferromagnetic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Uwe; Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S D

    2013-06-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has the potential to bring about revolutionary new spintronic devices, many of which rely on efficient manipulation of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires. Recently, it has been shown that voltage-induced charge accumulation at a metal-oxide interface can influence domain wall motion in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets, but the effects have been relatively modest and limited to the slow, thermally activated regime. Here we show that a voltage can generate non-volatile switching of magnetic properties at the nanoscale by modulating interfacial chemistry rather than charge density. Using a solid-state ionic conductor as a gate dielectric, we generate unprecedentedly strong voltage-controlled domain wall traps that function as non-volatile, electrically programmable and switchable pinning sites. Pinning strengths of at least 650 Oe can be readily achieved, enough to bring to a standstill domain walls travelling at speeds of at least ~20 m s(-1). We exploit this new magneto-ionic effect to demonstrate a prototype non-volatile memory device in which voltage-controlled domain wall traps facilitate electrical bit selection in a magnetic nanowire register.

  17. Surface dislocation nucleation controlled deformation of Au nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, B.; Kapelle, B.; Volkert, C. A.; Richter, G.

    2014-11-17

    We investigate deformation in high quality Au nanowires under both tension and bending using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Defect evolution is investigated during: (1) tensile deformation of 〈110〉 oriented, initially defect-free, single crystal nanowires with cross-sectional widths between 30 and 300 nm, (2) bending deformation of the same wires, and (3) tensile deformation of wires containing coherent twin boundaries along their lengths. We observe the formation of twins and stacking faults in the single crystal wires under tension, and storage of full dislocations after bending of single crystal wires and after tension of twinned wires. The stress state dependence of the deformation morphology and the formation of stacking faults and twins are not features of bulk Au, where deformation is controlled by dislocation interactions. Instead, we attribute the deformation morphologies to the surface nucleation of either leading or trailing partial dislocations, depending on the Schmid factors, which move through and exit the wires producing stacking faults or full dislocation slip. The presence of obstacles such as neutral planes or twin boundaries hinder the egress of the freshly nucleated dislocations and allow trailing and leading partial dislocations to combine and to be stored as full dislocations in the wires. We infer that the twins and stacking faults often observed in nanoscale Au specimens are not a direct size effect but the result of a size and obstacle dependent transition from dislocation interaction controlled to dislocation nucleation controlled deformation.

  18. Gate-controlled terahertz single electron photovoltaic effect in self-assembled InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Nagai, N.; Shibata, K.; Hirakawa, K.; Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Bastard, G.

    2015-09-07

    We have observed a terahertz (THz) induced single electron photovoltaic effect in self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs). We used a single electron transistor (SET) geometry that consists of a single InAs QD and nanogap electrodes coupled with a bowtie antenna. Under a weak, broadband THz radiation, a photocurrent induced by THz intersublevel transitions in the QD is generated even when no bias voltage is applied to the SET. The observed single electron photovoltaic effect is due to an energy-dependent tunneling asymmetry in the QD-SET. Moreover, the tunneling asymmetry changes not only with the shell but also with the electron number in the QD, suggesting the manybody nature of the electron wavefunctions. The THz photovoltaic effect observed in the present QD-SET system may have potential applications to nanoscale energy harvesting.

  19. Controlled Living Nanowire Growth: Precise Control over the Morphology and Optical Properties of AgAuAg Bimetallic Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Martin; Scarabelli, Leonardo; March, Katia; Altantzis, Thomas; Tebbe, Moritz; Kociak, Mathieu; Bals, Sara; García de Abajo, F Javier; Fery, Andreas; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-08-12

    Inspired by the concept of living polymerization reaction, we are able to produce silver-gold-silver nanowires with a precise control over their total length and plasmonic properties by establishing a constant silver deposition rate on the tips of penta-twinned gold nanorods used as seed cores. Consequently, the length of the wires increases linearly in time. Starting with ∼210 nm × 32 nm gold cores, we produce nanowire lengths up to several microns in a highly controlled manner, with a small self-limited increase in thickness of ∼4 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios above 100, whereas the low polydispersity of the product allows us to detect up to nine distinguishable plasmonic resonances in a single colloidal solution. We analyze the spatial distribution and the nature of the plasmons by electron energy loss spectroscopy and obtain excellent agreement between measurements and electromagnetic simulations, clearly demonstrating that the presence of the gold core plays a marginal role, except for relatively short wires or high-energy modes.

  20. Controlled Living Nanowire Growth: Precise Control over the Morphology and Optical Properties of AgAuAg Bimetallic Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the concept of living polymerization reaction, we are able to produce silver–gold–silver nanowires with a precise control over their total length and plasmonic properties by establishing a constant silver deposition rate on the tips of penta-twinned gold nanorods used as seed cores. Consequently, the length of the wires increases linearly in time. Starting with ∼210 nm × 32 nm gold cores, we produce nanowire lengths up to several microns in a highly controlled manner, with a small self-limited increase in thickness of ∼4 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios above 100, whereas the low polydispersity of the product allows us to detect up to nine distinguishable plasmonic resonances in a single colloidal solution. We analyze the spatial distribution and the nature of the plasmons by electron energy loss spectroscopy and obtain excellent agreement between measurements and electromagnetic simulations, clearly demonstrating that the presence of the gold core plays a marginal role, except for relatively short wires or high-energy modes. PMID:26134470

  1. From Twinning to Pure Zincblende Catalyst-Free InAs(Sb) Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Potts, Heidi; Friedl, Martin; Amaduzzi, Francesca; Tang, Kechao; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Alarcon Lladó, Esther; McIntyre, Paul C; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2016-01-13

    III-V nanowires are candidate building blocks for next generation electronic and optoelectronic platforms. Low bandgap semiconductors such as InAs and InSb are interesting because of their high electron mobility. Fine control of the structure, morphology, and composition are key to the control of their physical properties. In this work, we present how to grow catalyst-free InAs1-xSbx nanowires, which are stacking fault and twin defect-free over several hundreds of nanometers. We evaluate the impact of their crystal phase purity by probing their electrical properties in a transistor-like configuration and by measuring the phonon-plasmon interaction by Raman spectroscopy. We also highlight the importance of high-quality dielectric coating for the reduction of hysteresis in the electrical characteristics of the nanowire transistors. High channel carrier mobilities and reduced hysteresis open the path for high-frequency devices fabricated using InAs1-xSbx nanowires.

  2. Large array of single, site-controlled InAs quantum dots fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Schramm, A; Tommila, J; Strelow, C; Hakkarainen, T V; Tukiainen, A; Dumitrescu, M; Mews, A; Kipp, T; Guina, M

    2012-05-04

    We present the growth of single, site-controlled InAs quantum dots on GaAs templates using UV-nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy. A large quantum dot array with a period of 1.5 µm was achieved. Single quantum dots were studied by steady-state and time-resolved micro-photoluminescence experiments. We obtained single exciton emission with a linewidth of 45 µeV. In time-resolved experiments, we observed decay times of about 670 ps. Our results underline the potential of nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy to create large-scale, single quantum dot arrays.

  3. Size-controllable Ni5TiO7 nanowires as promising catalysts for CO oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Lini; Yang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Lusheng; Weimer, Christian; jiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ni5TiO7 nanowires with controllable sizes are synthesized using PEO method combined with impregnation and annealing at 1050oC in air, with adjustment of different concentrations of impregnating solution to control the dimension of nanowires. The resulting nanowires are characterized in details using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In addition, the CO catalytic oxidation performance of the Ni5TiO7 nanowires is investigated using a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor and an on-line gas chromatography system, indicating that the activity of this catalytic system for CO oxidation is a strong dependency upon the nanocrystal size.When the size of the Ni5TiO7 nanowires is induced from 4 μm to 50 nm, the corresponding maximum conversion temperature is lowered by ~100 oC. PMID:26395314

  4. Engineering the electronic properties of nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, Claes

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have recently been recognized as a possible add-on technology to silicon CMOS. Successful integration of nanowires may push the miniaturization of components further and could also bring improved, and completely new, device functions to a chip. In particular, nanowires composed of III-V materials are of interest for applications as they benefit from a small and/or direct bandgap. We will present results from electrical measurements on InAs/InP nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy. Changes in the precursors fed to the growth chamber can be made to control the electronic properties of the grown material. In this way it is possible to create atomically sharp heterostructure interfaces, as well as to change the carrier concentration along the wire. The latter can be achieved by controlling the carbon incorporation from the In precursor. It will be shown that heterostructure nanowires can be used in memory cells, and also as single-electron transistors for electrostatic read-out of such cells. Finally, we will discuss the design and application of InAs nanowire-based field-effect transistors, where issues related to lateral and vertical processing of nanowires will be addressed.

  5. Fabrication of enzyme-degradable and size-controlled protein nanowires using single particle nano-fabrication technique

    PubMed Central

    Omichi, Masaaki; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takano, Katsuyoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Onoda, Akira; Hayashi, Takashi; Seki, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Protein nanowires exhibiting specific biological activities hold promise for interacting with living cells and controlling and predicting biological responses such as apoptosis, endocytosis and cell adhesion. Here we report the result of the interaction of a single high-energy charged particle with protein molecules, giving size-controlled protein nanowires with an ultra-high aspect ratio of over 1,000. Degradation of the human serum albumin nanowires was examined using trypsin. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires bound avidin, demonstrating the high affinity of the nanowires. Human serum albumin–avidin hybrid nanowires were also fabricated from a solid state mixture and exhibited good mechanical strength in phosphate-buffered saline. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires can be transformed into nanowires exhibiting a biological function such as avidin–biotinyl interactions and peroxidase activity. The present technique is a versatile platform for functionalizing the surface of any protein molecule with an extremely large surface area. PMID:24770668

  6. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    DOE PAGES

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; ...

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of themore » precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.« less

  7. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    SciTech Connect

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.

  8. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-11

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001)GaN∥(0001)sapphire and (101[combining macron]0)GaN∥(112[combining macron]0)sapphire. Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  9. Controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of monodispersive lanthanum vanadate nanowires with monoclinic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li; Sun, Qiliang; Xu, Xijun; Li, Yaolin; Long, Yunfei; Zhu, Guangshan

    2013-04-15

    Monodisperse LaVO{sub 4} nanowires with relatively high aspect ratio larger than 50 have been prepared by a one-step solvothermal synthesis. This method provides a simple, inexpensive, controllable and reproducible process to produce LaVO{sub 4} nanowires with an average diameter of 15 nm and a high aspect ratio. The as-synthesized products have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fast Fourier transform spectroscopy (FFT), indicative of a well-crystalline monoclinic structure and ascendant nanowire-morphology. The formation mechanism is suggested that oriented attachment plays a vital role in the growth of LaVO{sub 4} nanowires, which recommends a favorable route to fabricate similar morphological and structural nanometer materials. - Graphical abstract: The formation of LaVO{sub 4} nanowires is attributed to oriented attachment, a combination of nanocrystallites through their suitable surface planes, that is, with the same crystallographic orientations of [−120]. Highlights: ► Monodisperse LaVO{sub 4} nanowires with high aspect ratio have been prepared solvothermally without any templates. ► The morphology and structure of LaVO{sub 4} nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM techniques. ► The formation mechanism of LaVO{sub 4} nanowires is suggested that oriented attachment plays a vital role.

  10. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M w  ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  11. Controlled fabrication of photoactive copper oxide-cobalt oxide nanowire heterostructures for efficient phenol photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenwu; Chopra, Nitin

    2012-10-24

    Fabrication of oxide nanowire heterostructures with controlled morphology, interface, and phase purity is critical for high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysis. Here, we have studied the formation of copper oxide-cobalt nanowire heterostructures by sputtering and subsequent air annealing to result in cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4))-coated CuO nanowires. This approach allowed fabrication of standing nanowire heterostructures with tunable compositions and morphologies. The vertically standing CuO nanowires were synthesized in a thermal growth method. The shell growth kinetics of Co and Co(3)O(4) on CuO nanowires, morphological evolution of the shell, and nanowire self-shadowing effects were found to be strongly dependent on sputtering duration, air-annealing conditions, and alignment of CuO nanowires. Finite element method (FEM) analysis indicated that alignment and stiffness of CuO-Co nanowire heterostructures greatly influenced the nanomechanical aspects such as von Mises equivalent stress distribution and bending of nanowire heterostructures during the Co deposition process. This fundamental knowledge was critical for the morphological control of Co and Co(3)O(4) on CuO nanowires with desired interfaces and a uniform coating. Band gap energies and phenol photodegradation capability of CuO-Co(3)O(4) nanowire heterostructures were studied as a function of Co(3)O(4) morphology. Multiple absorption edges and band gap tailings were observed for these heterostructures, indicating photoactivity from visible to UV range. A polycrystalline Co(3)O(4) shell on CuO nanowires showed the best photodegradation performance (efficiency ~50-90%) in a low-powered UV or visible light illumination with a sacrificial agent (H(2)O(2)). An anomalously high efficiency (~67.5%) observed under visible light without sacrificial agent for CuO nanowires coated with thin (∼5.6 nm) Co(3)O(4) shell and nanoparticles was especially interesting. Such photoactive heterostructures demonstrate unique

  12. Control of Crystal Orientation and Diameter of Silicon Nanowire Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Inoue, Fumihiro; Wang, Chonge; Otsuka, Shintaro; Tada, Yoshihiro; Koto, Makoto; Shingubara, Shoso

    2013-06-01

    The control of the crystal orientation and diameter of vertically grown epitaxial Si nanowires was demonstrated using a combination of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique and the use of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template on a single-crystal Si substrate. The [100], [110], and [111] nanowires were selectively obtained by choosing the Si substrate with appropriate crystal orientation. The diameter of a Si nanowire in the AAO template could be controlled by the modification of the pore size of the AAO template with anodic voltage during anodization.

  13. Surface diffusion effects on growth of nanowires by chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A. I.; Fröberg, L. E.; Jeppesen, S.; Björk, M. T.; Samuelson, L.

    2007-02-01

    Surface processes play a large role in the growth of semiconductor nanowires by chemical beam epitaxy. In particular, for III-V nanowires the surface diffusion of group-III species is important to understand in order to control the nanowire growth. In this paper, we have grown InAs-based nanowires positioned by electron beam lithography and have investigated the dependence of the diffusion of In species on temperature, group-III and -V source pressure and group-V source combinations by measuring nanowire growth rate for different nanowire spacings. We present a model which relates the nanowire growth rate to the migration length of In species. The model is fitted to the experimental data for different growth conditions, using the migration length as fitting parameter. The results show that the migration length increases with decreasing temperature and increasing group-V/group-III source pressure ratio. This will most often lead to an increase in growth rate, but deviations will occur due to incomplete decomposition and changes in sticking coefficient for group-III species. The results also show that the introduction of phosphorous precursor for growth of InAs1-xPx nanowires decreases the migration length of the In species followed by a decrease in nanowire growth rate.

  14. Selective area growth of well-ordered ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable polarity.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Vincent; Sarigiannidou, Eirini; Appert, Estelle; Bocheux, Amandine; Guillemin, Sophie; Donatini, Fabrice; Robin, Ivan-Christophe; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Robaut, Florence

    2014-05-27

    Controlling the polarity of ZnO nanowires in addition to the uniformity of their structural morphology in terms of position, vertical alignment, length, diameter, and period is still a technological and fundamental challenge for real-world device integration. In order to tackle this issue, we specifically combine the selective area growth on prepatterned polar c-plane ZnO single crystals using electron-beam lithography, with the chemical bath deposition. The formation of ZnO nanowires with a highly controlled structural morphology and a high optical quality is demonstrated over large surface areas on both polar c-plane ZnO single crystals. Importantly, the polarity of ZnO nanowires can be switched from O- to Zn-polar, depending on the polarity of prepatterned ZnO single crystals. This indicates that no fundamental limitations prevent ZnO nanowires from being O- or Zn-polar. In contrast to their catalyst-free growth by vapor-phase deposition techniques, the possibility to control the polarity of ZnO nanowires grown in solution is remarkable, further showing the strong interest in the chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal techniques. The single O- and Zn-polar ZnO nanowires additionally exhibit distinctive cathodoluminescence spectra. To a broader extent, these findings open the way to the ultimate fabrication of well-organized heterostructures made from ZnO nanowires, which can act as building blocks in a large number of electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic devices.

  15. Speedy fabrication of diameter-controlled Ag nanowires using glycerolunder microwave irradiation conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diameter-controlled Ag nanowires were rapidly fabricated (1 min) using inexpensive, abundant, and environmentally-friendly glycerol as both reductant and solvent under non-stirred microwave irradiation conditions; no Ag particles were formed using conventional heating methods. Th...

  16. Stable and metastable nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2014-11-18

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  17. Diameter-Controlled and Surface-Modified Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Their Photodetector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Donghyeuk; Jang, Yamujin; Lee, Jeehee; Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Whang, Dongmok; Hwang, Sung Woo; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2014-10-01

    Due to its direct and narrow band gap, high chemical stability, and high Seebeck coefficient (1800 μVK-1), antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) has many potential applications, such as in photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices, and solar cells. However, research on the Sb2Se3 materials has been limited by its low electrical conductivity in bulk state. To overcome this challenge, we suggest two kinds of nano-structured materials, namely, the diameter-controlled Sb2Se3 nanowires and Ag2Se-decorated Sb2Se3 nanowires. The photocurrent response of diameter-controlled Sb2Se3, which depends on electrical conductivity of the material, increases non-linearly with the diameter of the nanowire. The photosensitivity factor (K = Ilight/Idark) of the intrinsic Sb2Se3 nanowire with diameter of 80-100 nm is highly improved (K = 75). Additionally, the measurement was conducted using a single nanowire under low source-drain voltage. The dark- and photocurrent of the Ag2Se-decorated Sb2Se3 nanowire further increased, as compared to that of the intrinsic Sb2Se3 nanowire, to approximately 50 and 7 times, respectively.

  18. Propagation of light in serially coupled plasmonic nanowire dimer: Geometry dependence and polarization control

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Danveer; Raghuwanshi, Mohit; Pavan Kumar, G. V.

    2012-09-10

    We experimentally studied plasmon-polariton-assisted light propagation in serially coupled silver nanowire (Ag-NW) dimers and probed their dependence on bending-angle between the nanowires and polarization of incident light. From the angle-dependence study, we observed that obtuse angles between the nanowires resulted in better transmission than acute angles. From the polarization studies, we inferred that light emission from junction and distal ends of Ag-NW dimers can be systematically controlled. Further, we applied this property to show light routing and polarization beam splitting in obtuse-angled Ag-NW dimer. The studied geometry can be an excellent test-bed for plasmonic circuitry.

  19. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    been obtained by growth of ZnO ,10-13 Ga2O3, 14 SnO2 , 15 and GaAs16 nanorod branches symmetrically around the nanowire (NW) cores composed of materials...Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO -Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3

  20. Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2013-03-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes.

  1. Germanium nanowire growth controlled by surface diffusion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtbauer, Jan; Bansen, Roman; Heimburger, Robert; Teubner, Thomas; Boeck, Torsten; Fornari, Roberto

    2012-07-23

    Germanium nanowires (NWs) were grown onto Ge(111) substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid process using gold droplets. The growth was carried out in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber at substrate temperatures between 370 Degree-Sign C and 510 Degree-Sign C. The resulting nanowire growth rate turns out to be highly dependent on the substrate temperature exhibiting the maximum at T = 430 Degree-Sign C. The temperature dependence of growth rate can be attributed to surface diffusion both along the substrate and nanowire sidewalls. Analyzing the diffusive material transport yields a diffusion length of 126 nm at a substrate temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C.

  2. A controllable interface performance through varying ZnO nanowires dimensions on the carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben; Duan, Yugang; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-12-01

    The fiber/matrix interface was reinforced by introducing nanostructure on the fiber surface, which enlarged the interphase area for stress transfer across the interface. To study the relationship between the interphase area and the interface performance, a low-temperature method for varying the dimensions of ZnO nanowires grown on the carbon fiber surface was proposed. The surface area with ZnO nanowires introduced was controlled by the conditions for growth: ultrasonic dispersion time, reaction time and Polyethylene glycol concentration. The effects of that varying ZnO the nanowires dimensions on interface performance was evaluated using wettability test and interfacial shear strength (IFSS). ZnO nanowires affect the liquid-motion on the fiber surface, and a shift to hydrophobicity was observed with decreasing the surface coverage of ZnO nanowires. A nonlinear relationship between IFSS and the ratio of the area of the introduced ZnO nanowires suggested unfavorable wettability impeded resin infiltration into ZnO nanowires.

  3. Exploring the Potential of Turbulent Flow Control Using Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sean; Calhoun, John; Guskey, Christopher; Seigler, Michael; Koka, Aneesh; Sodano, Henry

    2012-11-01

    We present evidence that turbulent flow can be influenced by oscillating nanowires. A substrate coated with vertically aligned nanowires was installed in the boundary wall of fully-developed turbulent channel flow, and the substrate was excited by a piezoceramic actuator to oscillate the nanowires. Because the nanowires are immersed in the viscous sublayer, it was previously unclear whether the small scale flow oscillations imparted into the bulk flow by the nanowires would influence the turbulent flow or be dissipated by the effects of viscosity. Our experiments demonstrated that the nanowires produced perturbations in the flow and contributed energy throughout the depth of the turbulent layer. A parallel investigation using a dynamically scaled surface of vertically aligned wires in laminar flow found that, even at low Reynolds numbers, significant momentum transport can be produced in the flow by the introduction of a travelling wave motion into the surface. These findings reflect the potential for using oscillating nanowires as a novel method of near-wall turbulent flow control. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under FA9550-11-1-0140.

  4. Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted laser ablation deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Guo, R.; Nishimura, J.; Matsumoto, M.; Higashihata, M.; Nakamura, D.

    2008-02-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been successfully synthesized on c-cut sapphire substrates by a catalyst-free nanoparticle-assisted pulsed-laser ablation deposition (NAPLD) in Ar and N II background gases. In NAPLD, the nanoparticles formed in a background gas by laser ablation are used as a starting material for the growth of the nanowires. The surface density of the nanowires can be controlled by varying the density of nanoparticles, which are accomplished by changing the energy of the ablation laser, the repetition rate of the laser and so on. When single ZnO nanowire synthesized in a N II background gas was excited by 355 nm laser-pulse with a pulse-width of 8 ns, stimulated emission was clearly observed, indicating high quality of the nanowire. These nanowires were used as building blocks for an ultraviolet light emitting diode with a structure of n-ZnO/ZnO nanowire/p-GaN.

  5. Wafer-scale fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays with controllable dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Dan; Tian, Miao; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2012-09-01

    A novel and facile method was successfully developed to fabricate wafer-scale Si nanowire arrays with well-controlled sizes through the in-situ porous anodic alumina (PAA) template-assisted wet-etching process. The diameter and filling ratio (inter-wire spacing) of the as-prepared Si nanowires are determined by the size and density of pores in the in-situ PAA templates, which can be tailored independently by adjusting the anodization voltages and the immersion time of PAA templates in phosphoric acid. The length of Si nanowires can be more than one hundred micrometers long, which is controlled by adjusting the wet-etching time. Moreover, this method is compatible with complex Si surface topology for creating desirable 3-dimensional hybrid micro/nano-structures. Such Si nanowire arrays exhibit ultralow reflectance and interesting wettability that are of great importance to photovoltaics and thermal management applications.

  6. Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system.

    PubMed

    Deng, M T; Vaitiekėnas, S; Hansen, E B; Danon, J; Leijnse, M; Flensberg, K; Nygård, J; Krogstrup, P; Marcus, C M

    2016-12-23

    Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.

  7. Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M. T.; Vaitiekėnas, S.; Hansen, E. B.; Danon, J.; Leijnse, M.; Flensberg, K.; Nygård, J.; Krogstrup, P.; Marcus, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.

  8. Facile morphological control of single-crystalline silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-long; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Rui-ting; Cheng, Guo-an

    2012-10-01

    To realize wider potentials of silicon nanowires (SiNWs), the morphological controllability is desirable. In this paper, we synthesized well vertically- and slantingly-aligned SiNWs with ultra-high aspect ratio in metal-assisted chemical etching method, and wafer-scale zigzag SiNWs with three types of turning angle were also obtained. The formation of the curved SiNWs is a result of the alternation of moving direction of Ag nanoparticles between the preferred <1 0 0> and other directions in Si substrates. The as-prepared SiNWs are single-crystalline and their orientations are mostly along the <1 0 0> or <1 1 1> directions. The surface of the resulting SiNWs can be controlled to be smooth or rough, with or without mesopores, by adjusting the etching conditions and using various Si substrates with different crystal orientations and doping levels. Moreover, the effects of the etching conditions (etching time, oxidant concentration, deposition time of Ag nanoparticles and etching temperature) and substrate properties (crystal orientation and doping level) on the as-prepared SiNWs have been discussed.

  9. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Feser, JP; Sadhu, JS; Azeredo, BP; Hsu, KH; Ma, J; Kim, J; Seong, M; Fang, NX; Li, XL; Ferreira, PM; Sinha, S; Cahill, DG

    2012-12-01

    A two-step metal assisted chemical etching technique is used to systematically vary the sidewall roughness of Si nanowires in vertically aligned arrays. The thermal conductivities of nanowire arrays are studied using time domain thermoreflectance and compared to their high-resolution transmission electron microscopy determined roughness. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with small roughness is close to a theoretical prediction based on an upper limit of the mean-free-paths of phonons given by the nanowire diameter. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with large roughness is found to be significantly below this prediction. Raman spectroscopy reveals that nanowires with large roughness also display significant broadening of the one-phonon peak; the broadening correlates well with the reduction in thermal conductivity. The origin of this broadening is not yet understood, as it is inconsistent with phonon confinement models, but could derive from microstructural changes that affect both the optical phonons observed in Raman scattering and the acoustic phonons that are important for heat conduction. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767456

  10. Controlled Segmentation of Metal Nanowire Array by Block Copolymer Lithography and Reversible Ion Loading.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jeong Ho; Cha, Seung Keun; Kim, Ye Chan; Yun, Taeyeong; Choi, Young Joo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Jae Eun; Jeon, Hyun Uk; Kim, So Youn; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2017-02-20

    Spatial arrangement of 1D nanomaterials may offer enormous opportunities for advanced electronics and photonics. Moreover, morphological complexity and chemical diversity in the nanoscale components may lead to unique properties that are hardly anticipated in randomly distributed homogeneous nanostructures. Here, controlled chemical segmentation of metal nanowire arrays using block copolymer lithography and subsequent reversible metal ion loading are demonstrated. To impose chemical heterogeneity in the nanowires generated by block copolymer lithography, reversible ion loading method highly specific for one particular polymer block is introduced. Reversibility of the metal ion loading enables area-selective localized replacement of metal ions in the self-assembled patterns and creates segmented metal nanowire arrays with different metallic components. Further integration of this method with shear aligning process produces high aligned segmented metal nanowire array with desired local chemical compositions.

  11. Growth and Characterization of Chalcogenide Alloy Nanowires with Controlled Spatial Composition Variation for Optoelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Patricia

    The energy band gap of a semiconductor material critically influences the operating wavelength of an optoelectronic device. Realization of any desired band gap, or even spatially graded band gaps, is important for applications such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and detectors. Compared to thin films, nanowires offer greater flexibility for achieving a variety of alloy compositions. Furthermore, the nanowire geometry permits simultaneous incorporation of a wide range of compositions on a single substrate. Such controllable alloy composition variation can be realized either within an individual nanowire or between distinct nanowires across a substrate. This dissertation explores the control of spatial composition variation in ternary alloy nanowires. Nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The gas-phase supersaturation was considered in order to optimize the deposition morphology. Composition and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical properties were investigated through photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The chalcogenides selected as alloy endpoints were lead sulfide (PbS), cadmium sulfide (CdS), and cadmium selenide (CdSe). Three growth modes of PbS were identified, which included contributions from spontaneously generated catalyst. The resulting wires were found capable of lasing with wavelengths over 4000 nm, representing the longest known wavelength from a sub-wavelength wire. For CdxPb1-xS nanowires, it was established that the cooling process significantly affects the alloy composition and structure. Quenching was critical to retain metastable alloys with x up to 0.14, representing a new composition in nanowire form. Alternatively, gradual cooling caused phase segregation, which created heterostructures with light emission in

  12. Revealing controllable nanowire transformation through cationic exchange for RRAM application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-05-14

    One dimensional metal oxide nanostructures have attracted much attention owing to their fascinating functional properties. Among them, piezoelectricity and photocatalysts along with their related materials have stirred significant interests and widespread studies in recent years. In this work, we successfully transformed piezoelectric ZnO into photocatalytic TiO2 and formed TiO2/ZnO axial heterostructure nanowires with flat interfaces by solid to solid cationic exchange reactions in high vacuum (approximately 10(-8) Torr) transmission electron microscope (TEM). Kinetic behavior of the single crystalline TiO2 was systematically analyzed. The nanoscale growth rate of TiO2 has been measured using in situ TEM videos. On the basis of the rate, we can control the dimensions of the axial-nanoheterostructure. In addition, the unique Pt/ ZnO / TiO2/ ZnO /Pt heterostructures with complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics were designed to solve the important issue of sneak-peak current. The resistive switching behavior was attributed to the migration of oxygen and TiO2 layer served as reservoir, which was confirmed by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis. This study not only supplied a distinct method to explore the transformation mechanisms but also exhibited the potential application of ZnO/TiO2 heterostructure in nanoscale crossbar array resistive random-access memory (RRAM).

  13. Multisegmented FeCo/Cu nanowires: electrosynthesis, characterization, and magnetic control of biomolecule desorption.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Berna; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Hoop, Marcus; Gramm, Fabian; Chen, Xiangzhong; Martí, Xavi; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva; Pané, Salvador

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of FeCo/Cu multisegmented nanowires by means of pulse electrodeposition in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide arrays supported on silicon chips. By adjustment of the electrodeposition conditions, such as the pulse scheme and the electrolyte, alternating segments of Cu and ferromagnetic FeCo alloy can be fabricated. The segments can be built with a wide range of lengths (15-150 nm) and exhibit a close-to-pure composition (Cu or FeCo alloy) as suggested by energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results. The morphology and the crystallographic structure of different nanowire configurations have been assessed thoroughly, concluding that Fe, Co, and Cu form solid solution. Magnetic characterization using vibrating sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy reveals that by introduction of nonmagnetic Cu segments within the nanowire architecture, the magnetic easy axis can be modified and the reduced remanence can be tuned to the desired values. The experimental results are in agreement with the provided simulations. Furthermore, the influence of nanowire magnetic architecture on the magnetically triggered protein desorption is evaluated for three types of nanowires: Cu, FeCo, and multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm. The application of an external magnetic field can be used to enhance the release of proteins on demand. For fully magnetic FeCo nanowires the applied oscillating field increased protein release by 83%, whereas this was found to be 45% for multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm nanowires. Our work suggests that a combination of arrays of nanowires with different magnetic configurations could be used to generate complex substance concentration gradients or control delivery of multiple drugs and macromolecules.

  14. Controlling the length and location of in situ formed nanowires by means of microfluidic tools.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Phillip; Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel; Dittrich, Petra S

    2011-02-21

    Progress in microelectronics, sensors and optics is strongly dependent on the miniaturization of components, and the integration of nanoscale structures into applicable systems. In this regard, conventional top-down technologies such as lithography have limits concerning the dimensions and the choice of material. Therefore, several bottom-up approaches have been investigated to satisfy the need for structures with large aspect ratios in the nanometre regime. For further implementation, however, it is crucial to find methods to define position, orientation and length of the nanowires. In this study, we present a microchip to trap in situ formed bundles of nanowires in microsized cages and clamps, thereby enabling immobilisation, positioning and cutting-out of desired lengths. The microchip consists of two layers, one of which enables the formation of metal-organic nanowires at the interface of two co-flowing laminar streams. The other layer, separated by a thin and deflectable PDMS membrane, serves as the pneumatic control layer to impress microsized features ("donuts") onto the nanowires. In this way, a piece of the nanowire bundle with a prescribed length is immobilised inside the donut. Furthermore, partly open ring-shaped structures enabled trapping of hybrid wires and subsequent functionalisation with fluorescent beads. We believe that the method is a versatile approach to form and modify nanoscale structures via microscale tools, thereby enabling the construction of fully functional nanowire-based systems.

  15. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  16. Light-controlled resistive switching memory of multiferroic BiMnO3 nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-03-14

    A multiferroic BiMnO3 nanowire array was prepared using a hydrothermal process and its resistive switching memory behaviors were further investigated. The prominent ferroelectricity can be well controlled by white-light illumination, thus offering an excellent light-controlled resistive switching memory device using a Ag/BiMnO3/Ti structure at room temperature.

  17. Tuning the local temperature during feedback controlled electromigration in gold nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, An; Hou, Shimin Liao, Jianhui

    2014-06-02

    Feedback controlled electromigration (FCE) in metallic nanowires has been widely used for various purposes. However, the control of the local temperature during FCE remains a challenge. Here, we report that the environment temperature can be used as a knob to tune the local temperature during FCE in gold nanowires. FCE was performed in gold nanowires at various environment temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 300 K. We find that the dissipated power normalized by the cross section area of the nano constriction is linearly proportional to the environment temperature. Interestingly, the estimated local maximum temperature parabolically depends on the environment temperature. A minimum in the local temperature can be reached if an appropriate environment temperature is chosen. Our findings are well supported by the finite element simulation. Moreover, the data indicates the coupling between FCE triggering current density and local temperature.

  18. Electrical and Surface Properties of InAs/InSb Nanowires Cleaned by Atomic Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Webb, James L; Knutsson, Johan; Hjort, Martin; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Dick, Kimberly A; Timm, Rainer; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-08-12

    We present a study of InAs/InSb heterostructured nanowires by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and in-vacuum electrical measurements. Starting with pristine nanowires covered only by the native oxide formed through exposure to ambient air, we investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen cleaning on the surface chemistry and electrical performance. We find that clean and unreconstructed nanowire surfaces can be obtained simultaneously for both InSb and InAs by heating to 380 ± 20 °C under an H2 pressure 2 × 10(-6) mbar. Through electrical measurement of individual nanowires, we observe an increase in conductivity of 2 orders of magnitude by atomic hydrogen cleaning, which we relate through theoretical simulation to the contact-nanowire junction and nanowire surface Fermi level pinning. Our study demonstrates the significant potential of atomic hydrogen cleaning regarding device fabrication when high quality contacts or complete control of the surface structure is required. As hydrogen cleaning has recently been shown to work for many different types of III-V nanowires, our findings should be applicable far beyond the present materials system.

  19. Predicting the optoelectronic properties of nanowire films based on control of length polydispersity

    PubMed Central

    Large, Matthew J.; Burn, Jake; King, Alice A.; Ogilvie, Sean P.; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the optoelectronic properties of percolating thin films of silver nanowires (AgNWs) are predominantly dependent upon the length distribution of the constituent AgNWs. A generalized expression is derived to describe the dependence of both sheet resistance and optical transmission on this distribution. We experimentally validate the relationship using ultrasonication to controllably vary the length distribution. These results have major implications where nanowire-based films are a desirable material for transparent conductor applications; in particular when application-specific performance criteria must be met. It is of particular interest to have a simple method to generalize the properties of bulk films from an understanding of the base material, as this will speed up the optimisation process. It is anticipated that these results may aid in the adoption of nanowire films in industry, for applications such as touch sensors or photovoltaic electrode structures. PMID:27158132

  20. Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Fu, L.; Wang, X. B.; Zhu, D. B.

    2005-01-01

    ZnO nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers are fabricated by evaporation of ZnS in the presence of trace oxygen under controlled conditions. The nanosheet has an irregular structure, and nanowires sprout from the flange of the nanosheet. The nanocartridge has one row of prismatic nanorods grown on the (0001) surface of the ZnO nanobelts. The hexagonal nanotower, which grows along the c axis, shows an interesting layer structure and seems to form by piling up hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals layer on layer. These nanomaterials might have potential applications in optoelectronics.

  1. Fabrication of sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays with sub-1 nm critical dimension control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Lin, Peng; Xia, Qiangfei

    2016-11-01

    Sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays are important electrodes for building high density emerging ‘beyond CMOS’ devices. We made Pt nanowire arrays with sub-10 nm feature size using nanoimprint lithography on silicon substrates with 100 nm thick thermal oxide. We further studied the critical dimension (CD) evolution in the fabrication procedure and achieved 0.4 nm CD control, providing a viable solution to the imprint lithography CD challenge as specified by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors. Finally, we fabricated Pt/TiO2/Pt memristor crossbar arrays with the 8 nm electrodes, demonstrating great potential in dimension scaling of this emerging device.

  2. Controlled synthesis of ultra-long AlN nanowires in different densities and in situ investigation of the physical properties of an individual AlN nanowire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Su, Z J; Mo, F Y; Li, Li; Chen, Z S; Liu, Q R; Chen, J; Deng, S Z; Xu, N S

    2011-02-01

    The controlled synthesis of different growth densities of ultra-long AlN nanowires has been successfully realized by nitridation of Al powders for the first time. These AlN nanowires have an average diameter of about 100 nm and their mean length is over 50 μm. All the synthesized ultra-long nanowires are pure single crystalline h-AlN structures with a growth orientation of [0001]. We preferred the self-catalyzing vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism to illustrate their growth process. Although the sample with the middle growth density (3.2×10(7) per cm2) of AlN nanowire performs the best field emission (FE) properties, the emission uniformity is not good enough for field emission display applications, which may be attributed to their low intrinsic conductivity. Moreover, the electrical transport and FE properties of an individual ultra-long AlN nanowire are further investigated in situ to find the decisive factor responsible for their FE behaviors. An individual AlN nanowire is observed to have a mean 1 nA field of 440 V μm(-1) and 1 μA field of 480 V μm(-1) as well as an average electrical conductivity of about 2.7×10(-4)Ω(-1) cm(-1), which is lower than that of some cathode materials with excellent FE properties. Therefore we come to the conclusion that the electrical conductivity of the AlN nanowire must be improved to a higher level by some effective ways in order to realize their practical FE device applications.

  3. Plasmon-controlled excitonic emission from vertically-tapered organic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Patra, Partha Pratim; Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Kumar, G. V. Pavan

    2016-08-01

    Organic molecular nanophotonics has emerged as an important avenue to harness molecular aggregation and crystallization on various functional platforms to obtain nano-optical devices. To this end, there is growing interest to combine organic molecular nanostructures with plasmonic surfaces and interfaces. Motivated by this, herein we introduce a unique geometry: vertically-tapered organic nanowires grown on a plasmonic thin film. A polarization-sensitive plasmon-polariton on a gold thin-film was harnessed to control the exciton-polariton propagation and subsequent photoluminescence from an organic nanowire made of diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) molecules. We show that the exciton-polariton emission from individual DAAQ nanowires can be modulated up to a factor of 6 by varying the excitation polarization state of surface plasmons. Our observations were corroborated with full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations performed on vertically-tapered nanowire geometry. Our work introduces a new optical platform to study coupling between propagating plasmons and propagating excitons, and may have implications in emerging fields such as hybrid-polariton based light emitting devices and vertical-cavity nano-optomechanics.Organic molecular nanophotonics has emerged as an important avenue to harness molecular aggregation and crystallization on various functional platforms to obtain nano-optical devices. To this end, there is growing interest to combine organic molecular nanostructures with plasmonic surfaces and interfaces. Motivated by this, herein we introduce a unique geometry: vertically-tapered organic nanowires grown on a plasmonic thin film. A polarization-sensitive plasmon-polariton on a gold thin-film was harnessed to control the exciton-polariton propagation and subsequent photoluminescence from an organic nanowire made of diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) molecules. We show that the exciton-polariton emission from individual DAAQ nanowires can be

  4. Initialization of a spin qubit in a site-controlled nanowire quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Fischer, Kevin A.; Puri, Shruti; Müller, Kai; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Reimer, Michael E.; Zwiller, Val; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-05-01

    A fault-tolerant quantum repeater or quantum computer using solid-state spin-based quantum bits will likely require a physical implementation with many spins arranged in a grid. Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) have been established as attractive candidates for building spin-based quantum information processing devices, but such QDs are randomly positioned, which makes them unsuitable for constructing large-scale processors. Recent efforts have shown that QDs embedded in nanowires can be deterministically positioned in regular arrays, can store single charges, and have excellent optical properties, but so far there have been no demonstrations of spin qubit operations using nanowire QDs. Here we demonstrate optical pumping of individual spins trapped in site-controlled nanowire QDs, resulting in high-fidelity spin-qubit initialization. This represents the next step towards establishing spins in nanowire QDs as quantum memories suitable for use in a large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum computer or repeater based on all-optical control of the spin qubits.

  5. Controlled Synthesis of Pt Nanowires with Ordered Large Mesopores for Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengwei; Xu, Lianbin; Yan, Yushan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are at the heart of key green-energy fuel cell technology. Nanostructured Pt materials are the most popular and effective catalysts for MOR. Controlling the morphology and structure of Pt nanomaterials can provide opportunities to greatly increase their activity and stability. Ordered nanoporous Pt nanowires with controlled large mesopores (15, 30 and 45 nm) are facilely fabricated by chemical reduction deposition from dual templates using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with silica nanospheres self-assembled in the channels. The prepared mesoporous Pt nanowires are highly active and stable electrocatalysts for MOR. The mesoporous Pt nanowires with 15 nm mesopores exhibit a large electrochemically active surface area (ECSA, 40.5 m2 g-1), a high mass activity (398 mA mg-1) and specific activity (0.98 mA cm-2), and a good If/Ib ratio (1.15), better than the other mesoporous Pt nanowires and the commercial Pt black catalyst.

  6. Controlled Growth of Copper Oxide Nano-Wires through Direct Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilman, Joann; Neupane, Ravi; Yost, Andrew J.; Chien, Teyu

    Copper oxides, both Cu2O and CuO, have many applications in solar cells, sensors, and nano-electronics. The properties of the copper oxides are further influenced by the dimension of the materials, especially when made in nanoscale. In particular, the properties of the copper oxide nanowires could be tuned by their structures, lengths, and widths. While several methods have been reported to grow nanowires, direct oxidation is arguably the most economical one. This research examines the effects of oxidization duration and temperature in dry air environment on the development of copper oxide nanowires in order to achieve cost effective controllable growth. Using the direct oxidation method in dry air we have demonstrated growth of CuO nano-wires at temperatures as low as 300 °C and as short as 1hr. Furthermore we have observed that the lengths and diameters of the CuO NWs can be controlled by the duration and temperature of the oxidation process. WY NASA Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Pt Nanowires with Ordered Large Mesopores for Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengwei; Xu, Lianbin; Yan, Yushan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are at the heart of key green-energy fuel cell technology. Nanostructured Pt materials are the most popular and effective catalysts for MOR. Controlling the morphology and structure of Pt nanomaterials can provide opportunities to greatly increase their activity and stability. Ordered nanoporous Pt nanowires with controlled large mesopores (15, 30 and 45 nm) are facilely fabricated by chemical reduction deposition from dual templates using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with silica nanospheres self-assembled in the channels. The prepared mesoporous Pt nanowires are highly active and stable electrocatalysts for MOR. The mesoporous Pt nanowires with 15 nm mesopores exhibit a large electrochemically active surface area (ECSA, 40.5 m2 g−1), a high mass activity (398 mA mg−1) and specific activity (0.98 mA cm−2), and a good If/Ib ratio (1.15), better than the other mesoporous Pt nanowires and the commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:27550737

  8. Selective growth of vertical ZnO nanowires with the control of hydrothermal synthesis and nano-imprint technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaejin; Baek, Seonghoon; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sangwoo

    2009-06-01

    Nano-imprint technology is one of the most advanced technologies for the fabrication of nano-size patterning. In this study, nano-imprint technology was used for the selective growth of ZnO nanowires on the Si wafer. When the poly methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was first patterned by a nano-imprint process and ZnO seed layer was deposited and patterned by lift-off, ZnO nanowires were not vertically grown on the whole area of the patterned seed layer. Synthesis in zinc sulfate solution exhibited well-structured ZnO nanowires compared to the zinc nitrate solution, but uniformly aligned vertical growth of ZnO nanowires was not observed in either cases. On the other hand, when the PMMA was patterned using a nano-imprint process in the presence of seed layer, and ZnO nanowires were synthesized in zinc sulfate solution, selective growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on 0.5 microm pattern sizes was achieved. The observation in this study suggests that the selective growth of ZnO nanowires on a defined pattern size can be obtained with the modification of pattering sequence and the control of low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires.

  9. Single-photon emission from InAsP quantum dots embedded in density-controlled InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Shougo; Sasakura, Hirotaka; Hara, Shinjiro; Motohisa, Junichi

    2017-04-01

    We attempted to control the density and size of InP-based nanowires (NWs) and nanowire quantum dots (NW-QDs) during selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InP nanowire arrays with a 5 µm pitch and an average NW diameter d of 67 nm were successfully grown by optimization of growth conditions. InAsP quantum dots were embedded in these density-controlled InP NW arrays, and clear single-photon emission and exciton-biexciton cascaded emission were confirmed by excitation-dependent photoluminescence and photon correlation measurements.

  10. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-01-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties. PMID:26940294

  11. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  12. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Periwal, P.; Baron, T. Salem, B.; Bassani, F.; Gentile, P.

    2014-04-01

    We report the effect of PH{sub 3} on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs). Ge NWs were grown on Si (111) substrate at 400 °C in the presence of PH{sub 3}, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH{sub 3}/GeH{sub 4} ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH{sub 3} concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH{sub 3} flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH{sub 3}-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  13. InAs-mediated growth of vertical InSb nanowires on Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, InSb nanowires are grown vertically on Si (111) with metal organic chemical vapor deposition using InAs as seed layer, instead of external metal catalyst. Two groups of InSb nanowires are fabricated and characterized: one group presents Indium droplets at the nanowire's free end, while the other, in contrast, ends without Indium droplet but with pyramid-shaped InSb. The indium-droplet-ended nanowires are longer than the other group of nanowires. For both groups of InSb nanowires, InAs layers play an important role in their formation by serving as a template for growing InSb nanowires. The results presented in this work suggest a useful approach to grow catalyst-free InSb nanowires on Si substrates, which is significant for their device applications. PMID:23883403

  14. Control of domain wall pinning in ferromagnetic nanowires by magnetic stray fields.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung-Min; Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Cho, Cheong-Gu; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2011-02-25

    We have found that the depinning field of domain walls (DWs) in permalloy (Ni(81)Fe(19)) nanowires can be experimentally controlled by interactions between magnetic stray fields and artificial constrictions. A pinning geometry that consists of a notch and a nanobar is considered, where a DW traveling in the nanowire is pinned by the notch with a nanobar vertical to it. We have found that the direction of magnetization of the nanobar affects the shape and local energy minimum of the potential landscape experienced by the DW; therefore, the pinning strength strongly depends on the interaction of the magnetic stray field from the nanobar with the external pinning force of the notch. The mechanism of this pinning behavior is applied for the instant and flexible control of the pinning strength with respect to various DW motions in DW-mediated magnetic memory devices.

  15. Controllable fabrication of ultrafine oblique organic nanowire arrays and their application in energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Li; Bai, Suo; Su, Chen; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine organic nanowire arrays (ONWAs) with a controlled direction were successfully fabricated by a novel one-step Faraday cage assisted plasma etching method. The mechanism of formation of nanowire arrays is proposed; the obliquity and aspect ratio can be accurately controlled from approximately 0° to 90° via adjusting the angle of the sample and the etching time, respectively. In addition, the ONWAs were further utilized to improve the output of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the output of TENG composed of vertical ONWAs, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%, respectively. This research provides a convenient and practical method to fabricate ONWAs with various obliquities on different materials, which can be used for energy harvesting.

  16. Controllable fabrication of ultrafine oblique organic nanowire arrays and their application in energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Li; Bai, Suo; Su, Chen; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-01-28

    Ultrafine organic nanowire arrays (ONWAs) with a controlled direction were successfully fabricated by a novel one-step Faraday cage assisted plasma etching method. The mechanism of formation of nanowire arrays is proposed; the obliquity and aspect ratio can be accurately controlled from approximately 0° to 90° via adjusting the angle of the sample and the etching time, respectively. In addition, the ONWAs were further utilized to improve the output of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the output of TENG composed of vertical ONWAs, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%, respectively. This research provides a convenient and practical method to fabricate ONWAs with various obliquities on different materials, which can be used for energy harvesting.

  17. Growth control, structure, chemical state, and photoresponse of CuO-CdS core-shell heterostructure nanowires.

    PubMed

    El Mel, A A; Buffière, M; Bouts, N; Gautron, E; Tessier, P Y; Henzler, K; Guttmann, P; Konstantinidis, S; Bittencourt, C; Snyders, R

    2013-07-05

    The growth of single-crystal CuO nanowires by thermal annealing of copper thin films in air is studied. We show that the density, length, and diameter of the nanowires can be controlled by tuning the morphology and structure of the copper thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. After identifying the optimal conditions for the growth of CuO nanowires, chemical bath deposition is employed to coat the CuO nanowires with CdS in order to form p-n nanojunction arrays. As revealed by high-resolution TEM analysis, the thickness of the polycrystalline CdS shell increases when decreasing the diameter of the CuO core for a given time of CdS deposition. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy combined with transmission x-ray microscopy allows the chemical analysis of isolated nanowires. The absence of modification in the spectra at the Cu L and O K edges after the deposition of CdS on the CuO nanowires indicates that neither Cd nor S diffuse into the CuO phase. We further demonstrate that the core-shell nanowires exhibit the I-V characteristic of a resistor instead of a diode. The electrical behavior of the device was found to be photosensitive, since increasing the incident light intensity induces an increase in the collected electrical current.

  18. Evidence of space charge regions within semiconductor nanowires from Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Angela C; Chiaramonte, Thalita; Vicaro, Klaus O; Clerici, João H; Cotta, Mônica A

    2009-11-18

    We have studied the equilibrium electrostatic profile of III-V semiconductor nanowires using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Qualitative agreement of the measured surface potential levels and expected Fermi level variation for pure InP and InAs nanowires is obtained from electrical images with spatial resolution as low as 10 nm. Surface potential mapping for pure and heterostructured nanowires suggests the existence of charge transfer mechanisms and the formation of a metal-semiconductor electrical contact at the nanowire apex.

  19. Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanowire Arrays on Sulfur Doped Graphene as High Performance Electrocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongyue; Higgins, Drew C.; Hoque, Md Ariful; Lee, DongUn; Hassan, Fathy; Chen, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Graphene supported Pt nanostructures have great potential to be used as catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies; however the simultaneous control of Pt morphology and dispersion, along with ideally tailoring the physical properties of the catalyst support properties has proven very challenging. Using sulfur doped graphene (SG) as a support material, the heterogeneous dopant atoms could serve as nucleation sites allowing for the preparation of SG supported Pt nanowire arrays with ultra-thin diameters (2–5 nm) and dense surface coverage. Detailed investigation of the preparation technique reveals that the structure of the resulting composite could be readily controlled by fine tuning the Pt nanowire nucleation and growth reaction kinetics and the Pt-support interactions, whereby a mechanistic platinum nanowire array growth model is proposed. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the composite materials have 2–3 times higher catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst. PMID:23942256

  20. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    SciTech Connect

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-05-21

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650 nm and lengths from 8 to 18 μm. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670 nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at ∼670 nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength ∼660 nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  1. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures.

  2. Improved control over spontaneously formed GaN nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy using a two-step growth process.

    PubMed

    Zettler, J K; Corfdir, P; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H; Brandt, O; Fernández-Garrido, S

    2015-11-06

    We investigate the influence of modified growth conditions during the spontaneous formation of GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We find that a two-step growth approach, where the substrate temperature is increased during the nucleation stage, is an efficient method to gain control over the area coverage, average diameter, and coalescence degree of GaN NW ensembles. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the growth conditions employed during the incubation time that precedes nanowire nucleation do not influence the properties of the final nanowire ensemble. Therefore, when growing GaN NWs at elevated temperatures or with low Ga/N ratios, the total growth time can be reduced significantly by using more favorable growth conditions for nanowire nucleation during the incubation time.

  3. Fabrication of controllable and stable In2O3 nanowire transistors using an octadecylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Taekyung; Han, Junebeom; Seo, Keumyoung; Joo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Wung-Yeon; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    The controllability and stability of nanowire transistor characteristics are essential for the development of low-noise and fast-switching nano-electronic devices. In this study, the positive shift of threshold voltage and the improvement of interface quality on In2O3 nanowire transistors were simultaneously achieved by using octadecylphosphonic acid (OD-PA) self-assembly. Following the chemical bond of OD-PA molecules on the surface of In2O3 nanowires, the threshold voltage was positively shifted to 2.95 V, and the noise amplitude decreased to approximately 87.5%. The results suggest that an OD-PA self-assembled monolayer can be used to manipulate and stabilize the transistor characteristics of nanowire-based memory and display devices that require high-sensitivity, low-noise, and fast-response.

  4. Electric conductivity-tunable transparent flexible nanowire-filled polymer composites: orientation control of nanowires in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takayuki; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Ochiai, Yuichi; Hoshino, Katsuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Cobalt compound nanowires were dispersed in a transparent nonconductive polymer film by merely stirring, and the film's transparency and electrical conductivity were examined. This composite film is a unique system in which the average length of the nanowires exceeds the film's thickness. Even in such a system, a percolation threshold existed for the electric conductivity in the direction of the film thickness, and the value was 0.18 vol%. The electric conductivity value changed from ∼1 × 10(-12) S/cm to ∼1 × 10(-3) S/cm when the volume fraction exceeded the threshold. The electric conductivity apparently followed the percolation model until the volume fraction of the nanowires was about 0.45 vol %. The visible light transmission and electric conductivity of the composite film of about 1 vol % nanowires were 92% and 5 × 10(-3) S/cm, respectively. Moreover, the electric conductivity in the direction parallel to the film surface did not depend on the amount of the dispersed nanowires, and its value was about 1 × 10(-14) S/cm. Even in a weak magnetic field of about 100 mT, the nanowires were aligned in a vertical and parallel direction to the film surface, and the electric conductivity of each aligned composite film was 2.0 × 10(-2) S/cm and 2.1 × 10(-12) S/cm. The relation between the average wire length and the electric conductivity was examined, and the effect of the magnetic alignment on that relation was also examined.

  5. Morphology-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays for tailored hybrid composites with high damping.

    PubMed

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-14

    Hybrid fiber reinforced composites using a nanoscale reinforcement of the interface have not reached their optimal performance in practical applications due to their complex design and the challenging assembly of their multiscale components. One promising approach to the fabrication of hybrid composites is the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on the surface of carbon fibers to provide improved interfacial strength and out of plane reinforcement. However, this approach has been demonstrated mainly on fibers and thus still requires complex processing conditions. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to the fabrication of such composites through the growth of the nanowires on the fabric. The fabricated composites with nanostructured graded interphase not only exhibit remarkable damping enhancement but also stiffness improvement. It is demonstrated that these two extremely important properties of the composite can be controlled by tuning the morphology of the ZnO nanowires at the interface. Higher damping and flexural rigidity of these composites over traditional ones offer practical high-performance composites.

  6. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B.; Schötz, J.; Kang, M.; Okell, W. A.; Mitra, S.; Förg, B.; Zherebtsov, S.; Süßmann, F.; Burger, C.; Kübel, M.; Liu, C.; Wirth, A.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Yanagisawa, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, B.; Kling, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanotip photoemitters have proven to be versatile in fundamental nanoplasmonics research and applications, including, e.g., the generation of ultrafast electron pulses, the adiabatic focusing of plasmons, and as light-triggered electron sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent photoemission from the nanowire tips allows us to identify rescattering contributions and also permits us to determine the high-energy cutoff of the electron spectra as a function of laser intensity. So far these types of experiments from metal nanotips have been limited to an emission regime with less than one electron per pulse. We detect up to 13 e/shot and given the limited detection efficiency, we expect up to a few ten times more electrons being emitted from the nanowire. Within the investigated intensity range, we find linear scaling of cutoff energies. The nonlinear scaling of electron count rates is consistent with tunneling photoemission occurring in the absence of significant charge interaction. The high electron energy gain is attributed to field-induced rescattering in the enhanced nanolocalized fields at the wires apex, where a strong CEP-modulation is indicative of the attosecond control of photoemission.

  7. Controlling the lithiation-induced strain and charging rate in nanowire electrodes by coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Qiang; Liu, Xiao Hua; Liu, Yang; Huang, Shan; Zhu, Ting; Gui, Liangjin; Mao, Scott X; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Wang, Chong Min; Sullivan, John P; Huang, Jian Yu

    2011-06-28

    The advanced battery system is critically important for a wide range of applications, from portable electronics to electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are presently the best performing ones, but they cannot meet requirements for more demanding applications due to limitations in capacity, charging rate, and cyclability. One leading cause of those limitations is the lithiation-induced strain (LIS) in electrodes that can result in high stress, fracture, and capacity loss. Here we report that, by utilizing the coating strategy, both the charging rate and LIS of SnO(2) nanowire electrodes can be altered dramatically. The SnO(2) nanowires coated with carbon, aluminum, or copper can be charged about 10 times faster than the noncoated ones. Intriguingly, the radial expansion of the coated nanowires was completely suppressed, resulting in enormously reduced tensile stress at the reaction front, as evidenced by the lack of formation of dislocations. These improvements are attributed to the effective electronic conduction and mechanical confinement of the coatings. Our work demonstrates that nanoengineering the coating enables the simultaneous control of electrical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes, pointing to a promising route for building better LIBs.

  8. Inorganic Nanowires-Assembled Layered Paper as the Valve for Controlling Water Transportation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Shen, Yue-Qin; Yang, Ri-Long

    2017-03-29

    Layered materials with open interlayer channels enable various applications such as tissue engineering, ionic and molecular sieving, and electrochemical devices. However, most reports focus on the two-dimensional nanosheets-assembled layered materials, whose interlayer spacing is limited at the nanometer scale. Herein, we demonstrate that one-dimensional inorganic nanowires are the ideal building blocks for the construction of layered materials with open interlayer channels as well, which has not aroused much attention before. It is found that the relatively long inorganic nanowires are capable of assembling into free-standing layered paper with open interlayer channels during the filtration process. The spacings of interlayer channels between adjacent layers are up to tens of micrometers, which are much larger than those of the two-dimensional nanosheets-assembled layered materials. But the closed interlayer channels are observed when the relatively short inorganic nanowires are used as building blocks. The mechanism based on the relationship between the structural variation and the nanowires used is proposed, including the surface charge amplified effect, surface charge superimposed effect, and pillarlike supporting effect. According to the proposed mechanism, we have successfully fabricated a series of layered paper sheets whose architectures (including interlayer channels of cross section and pores on the surface) show gradient changes. The as-prepared layered paper sheets are employed as the valves for controlling water transportation. Tunable water transportation is achieved by the synergistic effect between in-plane interlayer channels (horizontal transportation) from the open to the closed states, and through-layer pores (vertical transportation) without surface modification or intercalation of any guest species.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of morphology-controlled segmented CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shpaisman, Nava; Givan, Uri; Patolsky, Fernando

    2010-04-27

    Morphology, that is, the study of form comprising shape, size, and structure, is important for materials research in general. For nanostructured materials, popularly known as nanomaterials, morphology has a special significance since form, in this case, dictates physical and chemical properties. Unlike bulk materials, properties of nanomaterials are strongly correlated to form. Here, we present a novel strategy for the synthesis of morphology-controlled segmented CdSe semiconductor nanowires based on a straightforward sweep voltammetry approach of preprogrammed characteristics. It was found here that, by simply and simultaneously modulating the basic parameters of each cyclic voltammetry cycle during the nanowire growth process, scan rate, and cycle potential range, we can achieve a precise control over the morphology of the semiconductor material segment, density, and dimensions, obtained after each voltammetric cycle. The morphology of CdSe segments was found to be controlled by the extent of co-deposition of metal cadmium together with the deposition of CdSe. Thus "dense" CdSe segments and "nondense" segments can be achieved in the absence and presence of cadmium metal co-deposition, respectively. Accompanied by the density modulation achieved by the potential range applied, it was also observed that a fine control over each segment's length, varying between few tenths to few hundred nanometers, can be achieved by simple altering the scan rate of each cycle along the wire. Also, we propose a simple mechanism that accounts for the formation of segments of controlled morphology. This is the first report on the synthesis of "segmented" CdSe nanowires of controlled morphology, density, and length of each segment, by simple single-step cycle voltammetry preprogrammed sequences from a single electrodeposition solution. In addition, this novel strategy may be applied for the synthesis of additional analogue semiconductor materials of importance (e.g., CdS, CdTe, etc

  10. Controlling Kink Geometry in Nanowires Fabricated by Alternating Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Li, Liyi; Zhang, Cheng; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jian; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-02-08

    Kinked silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) have many special properties that make them attractive for a number of applications, such as microfluidics devices, microelectronic devices, and biosensors. However, fabricating NWs with controlled three-dimensional (3D) geometry has been challenging. In this work, a novel method called alternating metal-assisted chemical etching is reported for the fabrication of kinked Si NWs with controlled 3D geometry. By the use of multiple etchants with carefully selected composition, one can control the number of kinks, their locations, and their angles by controlling the number of etchant alternations and the time in each etchant. The resulting number of kinks equals the number times the etchant is alternated, the length of each segment separated by kinks has a linear relationship with the etching time, and the kinking angle is related to the surface tension and viscosity of the etchants. This facile method may provide a feasible and economical way to fabricate novel silicon nanowires, nanostructures, and devices for broad applications.

  11. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong; Shang, Yanli; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong

    2015-07-01

    By using an electron donor-acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH2Cl2. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices.

  12. Electrical detection of dengue virus (DENV) DNA oligomer using silicon nanowire biosensor with novel molecular gate control.

    PubMed

    Nuzaihan M N, M; Hashim, U; Md Arshad, M K; Kasjoo, S R; Rahman, S F A; Ruslinda, A R; Fathil, M F M; Adzhri, R; Shahimin, M M

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, a silicon nanowire biosensor with novel molecular gate control has been demonstrated for Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection related to dengue virus (DENV). The silicon nanowire was fabricated using the top-down nanolithography approach, through nanostructuring of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layers achieved by combination of the electron-beam lithography (EBL), plasma dry etching and size reduction processes. The surface of the fabricated silicon nanowire was functionalized by means of a three-step procedure involving surface modification, DNA immobilization and hybridization. This procedure acts as a molecular gate control to establish the electrical detection for 27-mers base targets DENV DNA oligomer. The electrical detection is based on the changes in current, resistance and conductance of the sensor due to accumulation of negative charges added by the immobilized probe DNA and hybridized target DNA. The sensitivity of the silicon nanowire biosensors attained was 45.0µAM(-1), which shows a wide-range detection capability of the sensor with respect to DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved was approximately 2.0fM. The demonstrated results show that the silicon nanowire has excellent properties for detection of DENV with outstanding repeatability and reproducibility performances.

  13. Controlling Polarization of 1.55-μm Columnar InAs Quantum Dots with Highly Tensile-Strained InGaAsP Barriers on InP(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Yasuoka, Nami; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Ebe, Hiroji; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2006-12-01

    The optical polarization properties of columnar InAs quantum dots (QDs) on InP substrate grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy were investigated. The polarization of photoluminescence was found to strongly depend on the strain in QDs as well as the shape of QDs. We successfully changed the polarization properties from a transverse-electric-dominant to a transverse-magnetic-dominant regime by controlling the height of coupled QDs based on the stacking number and by controlling strain within QDs based on the thickness of 3.7%-tensile-strained barriers. Highly strained side barriers were required to change the polarization of QDs, which is considered to be due to wetting layers acting in maintaining biaxial-compressive strain in QDs. Polarization-insensitive QDs with the 1.55-μm telecom region were obtained, which promises to provide polarization-insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers.

  14. Enabling Energy Efficiency and Polarity Control in Germanium Nanowire Transistors by Individually Gated Nanojunctions.

    PubMed

    Trommer, Jens; Heinzig, André; Mühle, Uwe; Löffler, Markus; Winzer, Annett; Jordan, Paul M; Beister, Jürgen; Baldauf, Tim; Geidel, Marion; Adolphi, Barbara; Zschech, Ehrenfried; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2017-02-28

    Germanium is a promising material for future very large scale integration transistors, due to its superior hole mobility. However, germanium-based devices typically suffer from high reverse junction leakage due to the low band-gap energy of 0.66 eV and therefore are characterized by high static power dissipation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a solution to suppress the off-state leakage in germanium nanowire Schottky barrier transistors. Thereto, a device layout with two independent gates is used to induce an additional energy barrier to the channel that blocks the undesired carrier type. In addition, the polarity of the same doping-free device can be dynamically switched between p- and n-type. The shown germanium nanowire approach is able to outperform previous polarity-controllable device concepts on other material systems in terms of threshold voltages and normalized on-currents. The dielectric and Schottky barrier interface properties of the device are analyzed in detail. Finite-element drift-diffusion simulations reveal that both leakage current suppression and polarity control can also be achieved at highly scaled geometries, providing solutions for future energy-efficient systems.

  15. Plasmon-assisted local temperature control to pattern individual semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Barsic, David N; Guichard, Alex R; Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a new versatile strategy to rapidly heat and cool subdiffraction-limited volumes of material with a focused light beam. The local temperature rise is obtained by exploiting the unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures that facilitate efficient light-to-heat conversion through the excitation of surface plasmons (collective electron oscillations). By locally heating nanoscale metallic catalysts, growth of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be initiated and controlled at arbitrarily prespecified locations and down to the single nanostructure level in a room-temperature chamber. This local heating strategy can be orders of magnitude (>10(5)) more energy efficient than conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools in which an entire chamber/substrate is heated. For these reasons, it has great potential for use in process- and energy-efficient assembly of nanowires into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible device architectures. In general, the high degree of spatial and temporal control over nanoscale thermal environments afforded by this method inspires new pathways for manipulating a range of important thermally stimulated processes and the development of novel photothermal devices.

  16. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ying; An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong; Shang, Yanli; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong

    2015-07-15

    By using an electron donor–acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices. - Graphical abstract: The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed by controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. - Highlights: • An electron donor–acceptor molecule (PDI-Fc) was synthesized. • Well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed. • The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. • Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed.

  17. Tuning growth direction of catalyst-free InAs(Sb) nanowires with indium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Heidi; Morgan, Nicholas P.; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Friedl, Martin; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i.

    2017-02-01

    The need for indium droplets to initiate self-catalyzed growth of InAs nanowires has been highly debated in the last few years. Here, we report on the use of indium droplets to tune the growth direction of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires. The indium droplets are formed in situ on InAs(Sb) stems. Their position is modified to promote growth in the <11-2> or equivalent directions. We also show that indium droplets can be used for the fabrication of InSb insertions in InAsSb nanowires. Our results demonstrate that indium droplets can initiate growth of InAs nanostructures as well as provide added flexibility to nanowire growth, enabling the formation of kinks and heterostructures, and offer a new approach in the growth of defect-free crystals.

  18. Tuning growth direction of catalyst-free InAs(Sb) nanowires with indium droplets.

    PubMed

    Potts, Heidi; Morgan, Nicholas P; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Friedl, Martin; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta I

    2017-02-03

    The need for indium droplets to initiate self-catalyzed growth of InAs nanowires has been highly debated in the last few years. Here, we report on the use of indium droplets to tune the growth direction of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires. The indium droplets are formed in situ on InAs(Sb) stems. Their position is modified to promote growth in the 〈11-2〉 or equivalent directions. We also show that indium droplets can be used for the fabrication of InSb insertions in InAsSb nanowires. Our results demonstrate that indium droplets can initiate growth of InAs nanostructures as well as provide added flexibility to nanowire growth, enabling the formation of kinks and heterostructures, and offer a new approach in the growth of defect-free crystals.

  19. Controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires in arrays of open nanofluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Massimo; Bonvin, Eric; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Forró, László; Horváth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH3NH3PbI3 in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. The presently discovered crystallization leads to the fabrication of mm2-sized surfaces composed of perovskite nanowires having controlled sizes, cross-sectional shapes, aspect ratios and orientation which have not been achieved thus far by other deposition methods. The automation of this general strategy paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films well-suited for various optoelectronic devices, e.g. solar cells, lasers, light-emitting diodes and photodetectors. PMID:26806213

  20. Controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires in arrays of open nanofluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Massimo; Bonvin, Eric; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Forró, László; Horváth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH3NH3PbI3 in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. The presently discovered crystallization leads to the fabrication of mm2-sized surfaces composed of perovskite nanowires having controlled sizes, cross-sectional shapes, aspect ratios and orientation which have not been achieved thus far by other deposition methods. The automation of this general strategy paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films well-suited for various optoelectronic devices, e.g. solar cells, lasers, light-emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  1. Controlling domain wall nucleation and injection through focussed ion beam irradiation in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguivin, A.; Petit, D. C. M. C.; Mansell, R.; Cowburn, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Using Ga+ focussed ion beam irradiation of Ta/Pt/CoFeB/Pt perpendicularly magnetized nanowires, the nucleation and injection fields of domain walls into the nanowires is controlled. The nucleation and injection fields can be varied as a function of dose, however, the range of injection fields is found to be limited by the creation of a step in anisotropy between the irradiated and unirradiated regions. This can be altered by defocussing the beam, which allows the injection fields to be further reduced. The ability to define an arbitrary dose profile allows domain walls to be injected at different fields either side of an asymmetrically irradiated area, which could form the initial stage of a logic device. The effect of the thickness of the magnetic layer and the thickness of a Ta underlayer on the dose required to remove the perpendicular anisotropy is also studied and is seen that for similar Ta underlayers the dose is determined by the thickness of the magnetic layer rather than its anisotropy. This finding is supported by some transport of ions in matter simulations.

  2. Control of magnetization reversal by combining shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in epitaxial Fe planar nanowires.

    PubMed

    Paz, E; Cebollada, F; Palomares, F J; García-Sánchez, F; González, J M

    2010-06-25

    This work presents an analysis of the in-plane magnetization reversal mechanisms of Fe nanowires, with widths from 100 nm to 1 microm, fabricated in epitaxial Au(001)/Fe(001)/MgO(001) thin films by means of focused ion and electron beam lithographies, with either positive or negative resist. The experimental results show that the switching mechanisms and hysteresis are almost exclusively functions of the dimensions of the wires and of the Fe intrinsic properties, with minor influence of the specific fabrication route employed upon optimization of nanostructure parameters in terms of crystallinity and morphology, and well defined and reproducible geometry. The reversal processes evolve from wall pinning at low angles between the applied field and the axis of the wires to basically uniform magnetization rotation at high angles. This behaviour can be described in terms of single spin configurations, thus ruling out the formation of multidomain structures even at high angles. The ability to achieve these high quality and well controlled nanowires allowed us to develop an analytical model, based on uniform magnetization configurations considering just the intrinsic Fe properties and the shape and dimensions of the wires. This simple approach provides a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental results, thus evidencing the relatively small role of other extrinsic factors in the magnetization processes.

  3. Controlled growth of Si-based heterostructure nanowires and their structural and electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guanghan; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Goh, Boon Tong

    2015-12-01

    Ni-catalyzed Si-based heterostructure nanowires grown on crystal Si substrates by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) were studied. The nanowires which included NiSi nanowires, NiSi/Si core-shell nanowires, and NiSi/SiC core-shell nanowires were grown by varying the filament temperature T f from 1150 to 1850 °C. At a T f of 1450 °C, the heterostructure nanowires were formed by crystalline NiSi and crystalline Si that were attributed to the core and shell of the nanowires, respectively. The morphology of the nanowires showed significant changes with the increase in the filament temperature to 1850 °C. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen heat transfer from the filament temperature demonstrated significant phase changes from NiSi to Ni2Si with increase in the filament temperature. The increased filament temperature also enhanced reactions in the gas phase thus generating more SiC clusters and consequently formed the NiSi/SiC heterostructure core-shell nanowires at T f of 1850 °C. This paper discusses the role of filament temperatures on the growth and constituted phase change of the nanowires as well as their electrical characteristics.

  4. Controlled growth of Si-based heterostructure nanowires and their structural and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Guanghan; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Goh, Boon Tong

    2015-06-01

    Ni-catalyzed Si-based heterostructure nanowires grown on crystal Si substrates by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) were studied. The nanowires which included NiSi nanowires, NiSi/Si core-shell nanowires, and NiSi/SiC core-shell nanowires were grown by varying the filament temperature T f from 1150 to 1850 °C. At a T f of 1450 °C, the heterostructure nanowires were formed by crystalline NiSi and crystalline Si that were attributed to the core and shell of the nanowires, respectively. The morphology of the nanowires showed significant changes with the increase in the filament temperature to 1850 °C. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen heat transfer from the filament temperature demonstrated significant phase changes from NiSi to Ni2Si with increase in the filament temperature. The increased filament temperature also enhanced reactions in the gas phase thus generating more SiC clusters and consequently formed the NiSi/SiC heterostructure core-shell nanowires at T f of 1850 °C. This paper discusses the role of filament temperatures on the growth and constituted phase change of the nanowires as well as their electrical characteristics.

  5. Controlling crystal phases in GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Dheeraj, D L; Munshi, A M; Scheffler, M; van Helvoort, A T J; Weman, H; Fimland, B O

    2013-01-11

    Control of the crystal phases of GaAs nanowires (NWs) is essential to eliminate the formation of stacking faults which deteriorate the optical and electronic properties of the NWs. In addition, the ability to control the crystal phase of NWs provides an opportunity to engineer the band gap without changing the crystal material. We show that the crystal phase of GaAs NWs grown on GaAs(111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using the Au-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism can be tuned between wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) by changing the V/III flux ratio. As an example we demonstrate the realization of WZ GaAs NWs with a ZB GaAs insert that has been grown without changing the substrate temperature.

  6. Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, Daniel E.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Devaraj, Arun; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-07-30

    ’s of nanometers when incorporated through pure Au. The apparent lower overall P concentration within the nanowire grown from the AuGa alloy suggests that the solubility of P in the alloy is lower compared to pure Au. The ability to controllably increase nanowire p-n junction abruptness is important for nanowire applications as solar cells and tunneling field effect transistors where an increase in device performance is expected from shaper p-n junction interfaces. [1] T.E. Clark et al., Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 1246. [2] D.E. Perea et al., Nano Lett. 11 (2011) 3117. [3] The research was supported through the user program at both the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Light-controlled resistive switching of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. X.; Sun, B.; Liu, Y. H.; Wei, L. J.; Li, H. W.; Chen, P.

    2014-07-15

    ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array was prepared on the titanium substrate by a facile hydrothermal synthesis, in which the average length of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires is about 2um and the diameter of individual ZnWO{sub 4} nanowire ranges from 50 to 70 nm. The bipolar resistive switching effect of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array was observed. Moreover, the performance of the resistive switching device is greatly improved under white light irradiation compared with that in the dark.

  8. Magnetization in vertical MnAs/InAs heterojunction nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabamoto, Kyohei; Kodaira, Ryutaro; Hara, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The authors report on the magnetic characterization results of ferromagnetic MnAs/semiconducting InAs heterojunction nanowires fabricated by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Single magnetic domains are formed in MnAs nanoclusters. Thin MnAs nanoclusters are magnetized parallel to one of the magnetic easy axes, i.e., a-axes, owing to the shape and magneto-crystalline anisotropies of the nanoclusters. On the other hand, in the case of thick MnAs nanoclusters, which are elongated along the magnetic hard axis, i.e., c-axis, magnetization directions are parallel to the c-axis of the nanoclusters predominantly owing to the shape anisotropy. The shape of MnAs nanoclusters is a key to control the magnetizations and magnetic domains.

  9. Extreme Harmonic Generation in an InAs Spin-Orbit Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, J.; Schroer, M. D.; Maialle, M. Z.; Degani, M. H.; Petta, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    Strong spin-orbit materials have shown great promise in the field of quantum computation. Unlike conventional semiconductor materials, fast all-electrical control is achieved through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). In this work we explore EDSR in an InAs nanowire spin-orbit qubit. We observe signs of harmonic generation where spin flips occur at the resonance condition nhf = gμB B , where f is the applied frequency, B is the magnetic field, g is the g-factor and n is an integer. Near the interdot charge transition we observe harmonics up to n = 8, indicating extreme harmonic generation. At far detuning we only observe the n = 1 resonance. Further, we find odd/even structure in the harmonic response: odd harmonics result in an increase in the leakage current while even harmonics result in its suppression. Finally we observe oscillations in the resonant current as a function of detuning. The striking detuning dependence suggests that the harmonics may be caused by Landau-Zener transitions occurring due to the anti-crossing between the differing charge states. Numerical simulations of the system are qualitatively consistent with this picture. Funded by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and the Army Research Office. M.Z.M. and M.H.D. were funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de São Paulo (Fapesp) and INCT-DISSE/CNPq, Brazil.

  10. Towards Postmodernist Television: INA's Audiovisual Magazine Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Bowman, Susan

    Over the last 10 years, French television's Institute of Audiovisual Communication (INA) has shifted from modernist to post-modernist practice in broadcasting in a series of innovative audiovisual magazine programs about communication, and in a series of longer "compilation" documentaries. The first of INA's audiovisual magazines,…

  11. Control of switching between metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Buh, Jože; Kabanov, Viktor; Baranov, Vladimir; Mrzel, Aleš; Kovič, Andrej; Mihailovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The superconducting state in one-dimensional nanosystems is very delicate. While fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting wave function lead to the spontaneous decay of persistent supercurrents in thin superconducting wires and nanocircuits, discrete phase-slip fluctuations can also lead to more exotic phenomena, such as the appearance of metastable superconducting states in current-bearing wires. Here we show that switching between different metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires can be very effectively manipulated by introducing small amplitude electrical noise. Furthermore, we show that deterministic switching between metastable superconducting states with different numbers of phase-slip centres can be achieved in both directions with small electrical current pulse perturbations of appropriate polarity. The observed current-controlled bi-stability is in remarkable agreement with theoretically predicted trajectories of the system switching between different limit cycle solutions of a model one-dimensional superconductor. PMID:26687762

  12. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries.

  13. Impact of the non-planar morphology of pre-patterned substrates on the structural and electronic properties of embedded site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkarainen, T. V.; Tommila, J.; Schramm, A.; Guina, M.; Luna, E.

    2013-11-07

    We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of the influence of a surface nanopattern on the properties of embedded InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD). In particular, we analyze QDs grown on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) patterned grooves and investigate the influence of the non-planar surface morphology on the size, shape, strain distribution, and electronic structure of the embedded QDs. We show that the height reduction of InAs QDs during GaAs capping is significantly less pronounced for the QDs grown on the pattern than for the self-assembled QDs. Furthermore, the pattern has a strong impact on the strain and composition profile within the QD. The experimentally observed strain distribution was successfully reproduced with a three-dimensional model assuming an inverse-cone type composition gradient. Moreover, we show that the specific morphology of the QDs grown in the grooves gives rise to an increase of the vertically polarized photoluminescence emission which was explained by employing 8-band k.p calculations. Our findings emphasize that the surface curvature of the pattern not only determines the nucleation sites of the QDs but also has a strong impact on their morphological properties including shape, size, composition profile, and strain distribution. These properties are strongly cross-correlated and determine the electronic and optical characteristics of the QDs.

  14. Two-photon interference and coherent control of single InAs quantum dot emissions in an Ag-embedded structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I.; Kuroda, T.

    2014-07-28

    We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.

  15. Development and Applications of Nanowire Nanophotonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    Nanowire Nanophotonics G F49620-03-1-0063 6. AUTHOR(S) Charles. M. Lieber 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Release; distribution is unlimited. 13, ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The controlled and predictable synthesis of nanowires and nanowire heterostrucrures...nitride based nanowire materials, including radial nanowire heterostructures in which the composition and/or doping was modulated perpendicular to the

  16. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of InAs growth kinetics on vicinal GaAs (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Paloma; Díez-Merino, Laura; Beinik, Igor; Teichert, Christian

    2009-09-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy has been used to investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen and step orientation on the growth behavior of InAs on GaAs (110) misoriented substrates. Samples grown by conventional molecular beam epitaxy exhibit higher conductivity on [11¯0]-multiatomic step edges, where preferential nucleation of InAs nanowires takes place by step decoration. On H-terminated substrates with triangular terraces bounded by [11¯5]-type steps, three-dimensional InAs clusters grow selectively at the terrace apices as a result of a kinetically driven enhancement in upward mass transport via AsHx intermediate species and a reduction in the surface free energy.

  17. Inherent control of growth, morphology, and defect formation in germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhajit; Singha, Achintya; Morris, Michael A; Holmes, Justin D

    2012-11-14

    The use of bimetallic alloy seeds for growing one-dimensional nanostructures has recently gained momentum among researchers. The compositional flexibility of alloys provides the opportunity to manipulate the chemical environment, reaction kinetics, and thermodynamic behavior of nanowire growth, in both the eutectic and the subeutectic regimes. This Letter describes for the first time the role of Au(x)Ag(1-x) alloy nanoparticles in defining the growth characteristics and crystal quality of solid-seeded Ge nanowires via a supercritical fluid growth process. The enhanced diffusivity of Ge in the alloy seeds, compared to pure Ag seeds, and slow interparticle diffusion of the alloy nanoparticles allows the realization of high-aspect ratio nanowires with diameters below 10 nm, via a seeded bottom-up approach. Also detailed is the influence the alloyed seeds have on the crystalline features of nanowires synthesized from them, that is, planar defects. The distinctive stacking fault energies, formation enthalpies, and diffusion chemistries of the nanocrystals result in different magnitudes of {111} stacking faults in the seed particles and the subsequent growth of <112>-oriented nanowires with radial twins through a defect transfer mechanism, with the highest number twinned Ge nanowires obtained using Ag(0.75)Au(0.25) growth seeds. Employing alloy nanocrystals for intrinsically dictating the growth behavior and crystallinity of nanowires could open up the possibility of engineering nanowires with tunable structural and physical properties.

  18. Shape controlled flower-like silicon oxide nanowires and their pH response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Que, Rong-hui; Shao, Ming-wang; Zhou, Qing; Ma, Dorothy Duo Duo; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-04-01

    Silicon oxide nanowires were synthesized with high-temperature evaporation using silicon monoxide as starting materials and tin and gallium as catalysts. The products take the shape of flowers with petals composed of silicon oxide nanowires. The pH response of the products reveals excellent linear relation due to their vast surface area.

  19. Morphology- and orientation-controlled gallium arsenide nanowires on silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Song, Jong-In; Kim, Tae-Wook; Leem, Dong-Seok; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sang-Geul; Koh, Eui Kwan; Song, Kyung

    2007-01-01

    GaAs nanowires were epitaxially grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy system. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that almost all the GaAs nanowires were grown along <111> directions on both Si substrates for growth conditions investigated. The GaAs nanowires had a very uniform diameter along the growth direction. X-ray diffraction data and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the GaAs<111> nanowires had a mixed crystal structure of the hexagonal wurtzite and the cubic zinc-blende. Current-voltage characteristics of junctions formed by the epitaxially grown GaAs nanowires and the Si substrate were investigated by using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy.

  20. Control of magnetic domains in Co/Pd multilayered nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Su Jung; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Okuda, Mitsunobu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kim, Young Keun

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic domain wall (DW) motion induced by spin transfer torque in magnetic nanowires is of emerging technological interest for its possible applications in spintronic memory or logic devices. Co/Pd multilayered magnetic nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated on the surfaces of Si wafers by ion-beam sputtering. The nanowires had different sized widths and pinning sites formed by an anodic oxidation method via scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with an MFM tip. The magnetic domain structure was changed by an anodic oxidation method. To discover the current-induced DW motion in the Co/Pd nanowires, we employed micromagnetic modeling based on the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The split DW motions and configurations due to the edge effects of pinning site and nanowire appeared.

  1. A RHEED/MBE-STM investigation of the static and dynamic InAs(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomphrey, J. J.; Ashwin, M. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    We report here the temperature-dependent incorporation kinetics of dimeric arsenic in InAs(001) homoepitaxy, using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Surface reconstructions, in combination with the RHEED investigation have provided insight into the growth of InAs(001), developing an accurate method of controlling the V:III ratio, which has been utilised to probe the low temperature epitaxial growth of indium arsenide epitaxial layers.

  2. Doping controlled roughness and defined mesoporosity in chemically etched silicon nanowires with tunable conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, W.; Lotty, O.; Mogili, N. V. V.; Glynn, C.; Geaney, H.; Tanner, D.; Holmes, J. D.; O'Dwyer, C.

    2013-07-01

    By using Si(100) with different dopant type (n++-type (As) or p-type (B)), we show how metal-assisted chemically etched (MACE) nanowires (NWs) can form with rough outer surfaces around a solid NW core for p-type NWs, and a unique, defined mesoporous structure for highly doped n-type NWs. We used high resolution electron microscopy techniques to define the characteristic roughening and mesoporous structure within the NWs and how such structures can form due to a judicious choice of carrier concentration and dopant type. The n-type NWs have a mesoporosity that is defined by equidistant pores in all directions, and the inter-pore distance is correlated to the effective depletion region width at the reduction potential of the catalyst at the silicon surface in a HF electrolyte. Clumping in n-type MACE Si NWs is also shown to be characteristic of mesoporous NWs when etched as high density NW layers, due to low rigidity (high porosity). Electrical transport investigations show that the etched nanowires exhibit tunable conductance changes, where the largest resistance increase is found for highly mesoporous n-type Si NWs, in spite of their very high electronic carrier concentration. This understanding can be adapted to any low-dimensional semiconducting system capable of selective etching through electroless, and possibly electrochemical, means. The process points to a method of multiscale nanostructuring NWs, from surface roughening of NWs with controllable lengths to defined mesoporosity formation, and may be applicable to applications where high surface area, electrical connectivity, tunable surface structure, and internal porosity are required.

  3. Large-Scale Synthesis of Transition-Metal-Doped TiO2 Nanowires with Controllable Overpotential

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Chong; Andrews, Sean; Han, Chris; Yang, Peidong

    2013-03-13

    Practical implementation of one-dimensional semiconductors into devices capable of exploiting their novel properties is often hindered by low product yields, poor material quality, high production cost, or overall lack of synthetic control. Here, we show that a molten-salt flux scheme can be used to synthesize large quantities of high-quality, single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires with controllable dimensions. Furthermore, in situ dopant incorporation of various transition metals allows for the tuning of optical, electrical, and catalytic properties. With this combination of control, robustness, and scalability, the molten-salt flux scheme can provide high-quality TiO2 nanowires to satisfy a broad range of application needs from photovoltaics to photocatalysis.

  4. Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using SiNx templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzelt, H.; Gottschalch, V.; Bauer, J.; Benndorf, G.; Wagner, G.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the catalyst-free growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires using the selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE). The nanowires were grown from small circular openings defined by electron-beam lithography and wet chemical etching of a thin SiNx layer. This layer was deposited on a (1 1 1)B-oriented GaAs substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We optimized the growth conditions for realizing extremely uniform arrays in a triangular lattice of GaAs and InAs nanowires with diameters down to 100 nm and a length of a few microns. During the growth the nanowires are formed by {1¯ 1 0} side facets and a growth direction perpendicular to the substrate surface. We investigated the growth behavior of GaAs nanowires with different diameters varying from 100 to 500 nm at different growth parameters, changing the temperature and the V/III ratio of TMG and AsH3. With a combination of GaAs and InAs SA-MOVPE growth radial heterostructures were grown. The structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  6. Multipath-switching device utilizing a GaAs-based multiterminal nanowire junction with size-controlled dual Schottky wrap gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Seiya; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shiratori, Yuta

    2007-05-01

    A multipath-switching device using a multiterminal nanowire junction with size-controlled dual gates is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The device switches a number of output terminals according to multiple-valued input voltages for electrons entering from a root terminal. The switching function is implemented by dual gating on multiple nanowires with different threshold voltages Vth. Systematic Vth shift is made by changing gate lengths in nanometer scale. A triple-path-switching device is fabricated using AlGaAs /GaAs etched nanowires and nanometer-scale Schottky wrap gates. Its correct operation is confirmed at room temperature. Obtained results are explained by a simple analytical model.

  7. Au-Seeded Growth of Vertical and in-Plane III–V Nanowires on Graphite Substrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is promising as a transparent, flexible, and possibly cost-effective substrate for nanowire-based devices. We have investigated Au-seeded III–V nanowire growth with graphite as a model substrate. The highest yield of undoped vertical nanowires was found for InAs, but we also observed vertical nanowires for the InP, GaP, and GaAs materials. The yield of vertical nanowires for GaP and GaAs was strongly improved by supplying the p-dopant DEZn before nanowire growth but not by supplying H2S or HCl. In-plane GaAs and GaP nanowire growth exhibited an unexpected behavior, where the seed particles seemingly reflected on the side facets of other nanowires. These results pave the way for vertical and in-plane hybrid graphene- nanowire devices. PMID:24592968

  8. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silanemore » provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.« less

  9. Domain wall pinning controlled by the magnetic field of four nanoparticles in a ferromagnetic nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, O. L.; Skorokhodov, E. V.; Mironov, V. L.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the domain wall pinning in a planar ferromagnetic system consisting of a nanowire and four rectangular uniformly magnetized nanoparticles located at an angle to the nanowire axis. Based on the calculations of the interaction energy of the domain wall with stray fields of nanoparticles and the micromagnetic simulation, it has been demonstrated that, in this system, there are different variants of the domain wall pinning, which are determined by the relative orientation of the magnetic moments of nanoparticles and the magnetization of the nanowire. The possibility of the creation of magnetic logic cells based on the structures under consideration has been discussed.

  10. Characterization and properties of micro- and nanowires of controlled size, composition, and geometry fabricated by electrodeposition and ion-track technology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combination of electrodeposition and polymeric templates created by heavy-ion irradiation followed by chemical track etching provides a large variety of poly- and single-crystalline nanowires of controlled size, geometry, composition, and surface morphology. Recent results obtained by our group on the fabrication, characterization and size-dependent properties of nanowires synthesized by this technique are reviewed, including investigations on electrical resistivity, surface plasmon resonances, and thermal instability. PMID:23365800

  11. Porosity control in metal-assisted chemical etching of degenerately doped silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Karthik; Sadhu, Jyothi S; Shin, Jae Cheol; Azeredo, Bruno; Chanda, Debashis; Malik, Mohammad; Hsu, Keng; Rogers, John A; Ferreira, Placid; Sinha, Sanjiv; Li, Xiuling

    2012-08-03

    We report the fabrication of degenerately doped silicon (Si) nanowires of different aspect ratios using a simple, low-cost and effective technique that involves metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) combined with soft lithography or thermal dewetting metal patterning. We demonstrate sub-micron diameter Si nanowire arrays with aspect ratios as high as 180:1, and present the challenges in producing solid nanowires using MacEtch as the doping level increases in both p- and n-type Si. We report a systematic reduction in the porosity of these nanowires by adjusting the etching solution composition and temperature. We found that the porosity decreases from top to bottom along the axial direction and increases with etching time. With a MacEtch solution that has a high [HF]:[H(2)O(2)] ratio and low temperature, it is possible to form completely solid nanowires with aspect ratios of less than approximately 10:1. However, further etching to produce longer wires renders the top portion of the nanowires porous.

  12. Porosity control in metal-assisted chemical etching of degenerately doped silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasundaram, Karthik; Sadhu, Jyothi S.; Shin, Jae Cheol; Azeredo, Bruno; Chanda, Debashis; Malik, Mohammad; Hsu, Keng; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid; Sinha, Sanjiv; Li, Xiuling

    2012-08-01

    We report the fabrication of degenerately doped silicon (Si) nanowires of different aspect ratios using a simple, low-cost and effective technique that involves metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) combined with soft lithography or thermal dewetting metal patterning. We demonstrate sub-micron diameter Si nanowire arrays with aspect ratios as high as 180:1, and present the challenges in producing solid nanowires using MacEtch as the doping level increases in both p- and n-type Si. We report a systematic reduction in the porosity of these nanowires by adjusting the etching solution composition and temperature. We found that the porosity decreases from top to bottom along the axial direction and increases with etching time. With a MacEtch solution that has a high [HF]:[H2O2] ratio and low temperature, it is possible to form completely solid nanowires with aspect ratios of less than approximately 10:1. However, further etching to produce longer wires renders the top portion of the nanowires porous.

  13. Performance optimization of p-n homojunction nanowire-based piezoelectric nanogenerators through control of doping concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guocheng Ban, Dayan; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab

    2015-09-07

    This paper demonstrates a series of flexible transparent ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) with different p-doping concentrations. The lithium-doped segments are grown directly and consecutively on top of intrinsic nanowires (n-type). When characterized under cyclic compressive strains, the overall NG performance is enhanced by up to eleven-fold if the doping concentration is properly controlled. This improvement is attributable to reduction in the mobile charge screening effect and optimization of the NGs' internal electrical characteristics. Experimental results also show that an interfacial MoO{sub 3} barrier layer, at an optimized thickness of 5–10 nm, reduces leakage current and substantially improves piezoelectric NG performance.

  14. Control on Surface Plasmon Polaritons Propagation Properties by Continuously Moving a Nanoparticle along a Silver Nanowire Waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Hua, Jiaojiao; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs)-based nanowire waveguides possess potential applications for nanophotonic circuits. Precise control on the propagation of SPPs in metal nanowires is thus of significant importance. In this work, we report the control on SPPs propagation properties by moving a silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) along a silver nanowire (Ag NW). The emission intensity at NP can be attenuated to about 25% of the maximum emission value with increasing the distance between excitation end and NP. When NP is gradually moved away from excitation end, the intensity of emission light at Ag NP shows an exponential decay with a superposition of wavy appearance, while the emission at NW end is almost a constant value. It is found that the former is related to the local SPPs field distribution in NW, and the latter is dependent on the distance between excitation end and NW terminal. Moreover, the propagation loss in Ag NP-NW structure has been investigated. Our experiments demonstrate the important role of NP location in NW-based waveguides and provide an effective method of tuning scattering light in NW, which is instructive to design the future specialized function of SPPs-based nanophotonic circuits and devices. PMID:27874049

  15. Control on Surface Plasmon Polaritons Propagation Properties by Continuously Moving a Nanoparticle along a Silver Nanowire Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Hua, Jiaojiao; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2016-11-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs)-based nanowire waveguides possess potential applications for nanophotonic circuits. Precise control on the propagation of SPPs in metal nanowires is thus of significant importance. In this work, we report the control on SPPs propagation properties by moving a silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) along a silver nanowire (Ag NW). The emission intensity at NP can be attenuated to about 25% of the maximum emission value with increasing the distance between excitation end and NP. When NP is gradually moved away from excitation end, the intensity of emission light at Ag NP shows an exponential decay with a superposition of wavy appearance, while the emission at NW end is almost a constant value. It is found that the former is related to the local SPPs field distribution in NW, and the latter is dependent on the distance between excitation end and NW terminal. Moreover, the propagation loss in Ag NP-NW structure has been investigated. Our experiments demonstrate the important role of NP location in NW-based waveguides and provide an effective method of tuning scattering light in NW, which is instructive to design the future specialized function of SPPs-based nanophotonic circuits and devices.

  16. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron

  17. A technique for large-area position-controlled growth of GaAs nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppinen, Christoffer; Haggren, Tuomas; Kravchenko, Aleksandr; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kauppinen, Esko; Dhaka, Veer; Suihkonen, Sami; Kaivola, Matti; Lipsanen, Harri; Sopanen, Markku

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a technique for fabricating position-controlled, large-area arrays of vertical semiconductor nanowires (NWs) with adjustable periods and NW diameters. In our approach, a Au-covered GaAs substrate is first coated with a thin film of photoresponsive azopolymer, which is exposed twice to a laser interference pattern forming a 2D surface relief grating. After dry etching, an array of polymer islands is formed, which is used as a mask to fabricate a matrix of gold particles. The Au particles are then used as seeds in vapour-liquid-solid growth to create arrays of vertical GaAs NWs using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. The presented technique enables producing NWs of uniform size distribution with high throughput and potentially on large wafer sizes without relying on expensive lithography techniques. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by arrays of vertical NWs with periods of 255-1000 nm and diameters of 50-80 nm on a 2 × 2 cm area. The grown NWs exhibit high long range order and good crystalline quality. Although only GaAs NWs were grown in this study, in principle, the presented technique is suitable for any material available for Au seeded NW growth.

  18. Excitation of propagating spin waves in ferromagnetic nanowires by microwave voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Verba, Roman; Carpentieri, Mario; Finocchio, Giovanni; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei

    2016-04-26

    The voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect, which manifests itself as variation of anisotropy of a thin layer of a conductive ferromagnet on a dielectric substrate under the influence of an external electric voltage, can be used for the development of novel information storage and signal processing devices with low power consumption. Here it is demonstrated by micromagnetic simulations that the application of a microwave voltage to a nanosized VCMA gate in an ultrathin ferromagnetic nanowire results in the parametric excitation of a propagating spin wave, which could serve as a carrier of information. The frequency of the excited spin wave is twice smaller than the frequency of the applied voltage while its amplitude is limited by 2 mechanisms: (i) the so-called "phase mechanism" described by the Zakharov-L'vov-Starobinets "S-theory" and (ii) the saturation mechanism associated with the nonlinear frequency shift of the excited spin wave. The developed extension of the "S-theory", which takes into account the second limitation mechanism, allowed us to estimate theoretically the efficiency of the parametric excitation of spin waves by the VCMA effect.

  19. Temperature-controlled transparent-film heater based on silver nanowire-PMMA composite film.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Liu, A'lei; Hu, Xuyang; Song, Mingxia; Duan, Feng; Lan, Qiuming; Xiao, Jundong; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yeqing; Zeng, Qingguang

    2016-11-25

    We fabricated a high-performance film heater based on a silver nanowire and polymethyl methacrylate (Ag NW-PMMA) composite film, which was synthesized with the assistance of mechanical lamination and an in situ transfer method. The films exhibit excellent conductivity, high figure of merit, and strong adhesion of percolation network to substrate. By controlling NW density, we prepared the films with a transmittance of 44.9-85.0% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 0.13-1.40 Ω sq(-1). A stable temperature ranging from 130 °C-40 °C was generated at 3.0 V within 10-30 s, indicating that the resulting film heaters show a rapid thermal response, low driving voltage and stable temperature recoverability. Furthermore, we demonstrated the applications of the film heater in defrosting and a physical therapeutic instrument. A fast defrosting on the composite film with a transmittance of 88% was observed by applying a 9 V driving voltage for 20 s. Meanwhile, we developed a physical therapeutic instrument with two modes of thermotherapy and electronic-pulse massage by using the composite films as two electrodes, greatly decreasing the weight and power consumption compared to a traditional instrument. Therefore, Ag NW-PMMA film can be a promising candidate for diversified heating applications.

  20. Excitation of propagating spin waves in ferromagnetic nanowires by microwave voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Verba, Roman; Carpentieri, Mario; Finocchio, Giovanni; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect, which manifests itself as variation of anisotropy of a thin layer of a conductive ferromagnet on a dielectric substrate under the influence of an external electric voltage, can be used for the development of novel information storage and signal processing devices with low power consumption. Here it is demonstrated by micromagnetic simulations that the application of a microwave voltage to a nanosized VCMA gate in an ultrathin ferromagnetic nanowire results in the parametric excitation of a propagating spin wave, which could serve as a carrier of information. The frequency of the excited spin wave is twice smaller than the frequency of the applied voltage while its amplitude is limited by 2 mechanisms: (i) the so-called “phase mechanism” described by the Zakharov-L’vov-Starobinets “S-theory” and (ii) the saturation mechanism associated with the nonlinear frequency shift of the excited spin wave. The developed extension of the “S-theory”, which takes into account the second limitation mechanism, allowed us to estimate theoretically the efficiency of the parametric excitation of spin waves by the VCMA effect. PMID:27113392

  1. Temperature-controlled transparent-film heater based on silver nanowire-PMMA composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Liu, A.'lei; Hu, Xuyang; Song, Mingxia; Duan, Feng; Lan, Qiuming; Xiao, Jundong; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yeqing; Zeng, Qingguang

    2016-11-01

    We fabricated a high-performance film heater based on a silver nanowire and polymethyl methacrylate (Ag NW-PMMA) composite film, which was synthesized with the assistance of mechanical lamination and an in situ transfer method. The films exhibit excellent conductivity, high figure of merit, and strong adhesion of percolation network to substrate. By controlling NW density, we prepared the films with a transmittance of 44.9-85.0% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 0.13-1.40 Ω sq-1. A stable temperature ranging from 130 °C-40 °C was generated at 3.0 V within 10-30 s, indicating that the resulting film heaters show a rapid thermal response, low driving voltage and stable temperature recoverability. Furthermore, we demonstrated the applications of the film heater in defrosting and a physical therapeutic instrument. A fast defrosting on the composite film with a transmittance of 88% was observed by applying a 9 V driving voltage for 20 s. Meanwhile, we developed a physical therapeutic instrument with two modes of thermotherapy and electronic-pulse massage by using the composite films as two electrodes, greatly decreasing the weight and power consumption compared to a traditional instrument. Therefore, Ag NW-PMMA film can be a promising candidate for diversified heating applications.

  2. Controllable synthesis of branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A rational approach for creating branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure was developed based on a combination of three simple and cost-effective synthesis pathways. The crucial procedure included growth of crystalline Si nanowire arrays as backbones by chemical etching of Si substrates, deposition of ZnO thin film as a seed layer by magnetron sputtering, and fabrication of ZnO nanowire arrays as branches by hydrothermal growth. The successful synthesis of ZnO/Si heterogeneous nanostructures was confirmed by morphologic, structural, and optical characterizations. The roles of key experimental parameters, such as the etchant solution, the substrate direction, and the seed layer on the hierarchical nanostructure formation, were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that an etchant solution with an appropriate redox potential of the oxidant was crucial for a moderate etching speed to achieve a well-aligned Si nanowire array with solid and round surface. Meanwhile, the presence of gravity gradient was a key issue for the growth of branched ZnO nanowire arrays. The substrate should be placed vertically or facedown in contrast to the solution surface during the hydrothermal growth. Otherwise, only the condensation of the ZnO nanoparticles took place in a form of film on the substrate surface. The seed layer played another important role in the growth of ZnO nanowire arrays, as it provided nucleation sites and determined the growing direction and density of the nanowire arrays for reducing the thermodynamic barrier. The results of this study might provide insight on the synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructure materials and offer an approach for the development of complex devices and advanced applications. PMID:25024688

  3. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  4. GaAs nanowires: from manipulation of defect formation to controllable electronic transport properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Hou, Jared J; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Yen, Yu-Ting; Yang, Zai-Xing; Dong, Guofa; Hung, TakFu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Ho, Johnny C

    2013-10-22

    Reliable control in the crystal quality of synthesized III-V nanowires (NWs) is particularly important to manipulate their corresponding electronic transport properties for technological applications. In this report, a "two-step" growth process is adopted to achieve single-crystalline GaAs NWs, where an initial high-temperature nucleation process is employed to ensure the formation of high Ga supersaturated Au7Ga3 and Au2Ga alloy seeds, instead of the low Ga supersaturated Au7Ga2 seeds observed in the conventional "single-step" growth. These two-step NWs are long (>60 μm) and thick (>80 nm) with the minimal defect concentrations and uniform growth orientations. Importantly, these NWs exhibit p-type conductivity as compared to the single-step grown n-type NWs for the same diameter range. This NW conductivity difference (p- versus n-channel) is shown to originate from the donor-like crystal defects, such as As precipitates, induced by the low Ga supersaturated multicrystalline Au7Ga2 alloy seeds. Then the well-controlled crystal quality for desired electronic properties is further explored in the application of large-scale p-type GaAs NW parallel array FETs as well as the integration of both p- and n-type GaAs NWs into CMOS inverters. All these illustrate the successful control of NW crystal defects and corresponding electronic transport properties via the manipulation of Ga supersaturation in the catalytic alloy tips with different preparation methods. The understanding of this relationship between NW crystal quality and electronic transport properties is critical and preferential to the future development of nanoelectronic materials, circuit design, and fabrication.

  5. CdSeS Nanowires: Compositionally Controlled Band Gap and Exciton Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Pil; Christians, Jeffrey A; Choi, Hyunbong; Krishnamurthy, Sachidananda; Kamat, Prashant V

    2014-04-03

    CdS, CdSe, and ternary CdSexS(1-x) are some of the most widely studied II-VI semiconductors due to their broad range of applications and promising performance in numerous systems. One-dimensional semiconductor nanowires offer the ability to conduct charges efficiently along the length of the wire, which has potential charge transport benefits compared to nanoparticles. Herein, we report a simple, inexpensive synthetic procedure for high quality CdSeS nanowires where the composition can be easily modulated from pure CdSe to pure CdS by simply adjusting the Se:S precursor ratio. This allows for tuning of the absorption and emission properties of the nanowires across the visible spectrum. The CdSeS nanowires have a wurtzite crystal structure and grow along the [001] direction. As measured by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, the short component of the excited state lifetime remains relatively constant at ∼10 ps with increasing Se; however, the contribution of this short lifetime component increased dramatically from 8.4% to 57.7% with increasing Se content. These CdSeS nanowires offer facile synthesis and widely adjustable optical properties, characteristics that give them broad potential applications in the fields of optoelectronics, and photovoltaics.

  6. Dynamic control of the optical emission from GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots by surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lazić, S. Chernysheva, E.; Meulen, H. P. van der; Calleja Pardo, J. M.; Gačević, Ž.; Calleja, E.

    2015-09-15

    The optical emission of InGaN quantum dots embedded in GaN nanowires is dynamically controlled by a surface acoustic wave (SAW). The emission energy of both the exciton and biexciton lines is modulated over a 1.5 meV range at ∼330 MHz. A small but systematic difference in the exciton and biexciton spectral modulation reveals a linear change of the biexciton binding energy with the SAW amplitude. The present results are relevant for the dynamic control of individual single photon emitters based on nitride semiconductors.

  7. Unusual Rh nanocrystal morphology control by hetero-epitaxially growing Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with numerous vertical twinning boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyohyun; Khi, Nguyen Tien; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, Hyunkyung; Baik, Hionsuck; Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneously growing multiple nanocrystallites in a crowded space can cause a shortage of precursors, and this can lead to a vertical growth of nanocrystallites on a given substrate. The presence of surfactant-surfactant interactions among adjacent nanocrystals can also place a unique structural constraint on the growing nanocrystallites, resulting in novel nanocrystal facet control. Herein, we report the growth of Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with multiple twinning boundaries, which are found along the entire nanowire length. The Au@Pt nanowires exhibit numerous bead-like structures, resulting from the preferred Pt deposition on the twinning boundaries, which can serve as nucleation sites for Rh. The heteroepitaxial growth of Rh on the Au@Pt nanowires results in unusual crystal growth behaviours. First, novel morphologies of Rh nanorods, nanoplates, and tangled manes are obtained temperature-dependently, which are not obtained in the absence of the Au@Pt nanowire substrate. Secondly, the thickness of vertically grown nanorods and nanoplates is tightly controlled. We also report the structure-catalytic activity relationship on the catalytic hydrogenation of phthalimides by the new Rh nanostructures.Simultaneously growing multiple nanocrystallites in a crowded space can cause a shortage of precursors, and this can lead to a vertical growth of nanocrystallites on a given substrate. The presence of surfactant-surfactant interactions among adjacent nanocrystals can also place a unique structural constraint on the growing nanocrystallites, resulting in novel nanocrystal facet control. Herein, we report the growth of Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with multiple twinning boundaries, which are found along the entire nanowire length. The Au@Pt nanowires exhibit numerous bead-like structures, resulting from the preferred Pt deposition on the twinning boundaries, which can serve as nucleation sites for Rh. The heteroepitaxial growth of Rh on the Au@Pt nanowires results in unusual crystal

  8. Crystal Orientation Controlled Photovoltaic Properties of Multilayer GaAs Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-Xing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-06-28

    In recent years, despite significant progress in the synthesis, characterization, and integration of various nanowire (NW) material systems, crystal orientation controlled NW growth as well as real-time assessment of their growth-structure-property relationships still presents one of the major challenges in deploying NWs for practical large-scale applications. In this study, we propose, design, and develop a multilayer NW printing scheme for the determination of crystal orientation controlled photovoltaic properties of parallel GaAs NW arrays. By tuning the catalyst thickness and nucleation and growth temperatures in the two-step chemical vapor deposition, crystalline GaAs NWs with uniform, pure ⟨110⟩ and ⟨111⟩ orientations and other mixture ratios can be successfully prepared. Employing lift-off resists, three-layer NW parallel arrays can be easily attained for X-ray diffraction in order to evaluate their growth orientation along with the fabrication of NW parallel array based Schottky photovoltaic devices for the subsequent performance assessment. Notably, the open-circuit voltage of purely ⟨111⟩-oriented NW arrayed cells is far higher than that of ⟨110⟩-oriented NW arrayed counterparts, which can be interpreted by the different surface Fermi level pinning that exists on various NW crystal surface planes due to the different As dangling bond densities. All this indicates the profound effect of NW crystal orientation on physical and chemical properties of GaAs NWs, suggesting the careful NW design considerations for achieving optimal photovoltaic performances. The approach presented here could also serve as a versatile and powerful platform for in situ characterization of other NW materials.

  9. Bismuth-induced phase control of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenyu; Chen, Pingping E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Shi, Suixing; Yao, Luchi; Zhou, Xiaohao; Lu, Wei E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Zhang, Zhi; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Jin

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the crystal structure of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been tailored only by bismuth without changing the growth temperature and V/III flux ratio. The introduction of bismuth can lead to the formation of zinc-blende GaAs nanowires, while the removal of bismuth changes the structure into a 4H polytypism before it turns back to the wurtzite phase eventually. The theoretical calculation shows that it is the steadiest for bismuth to adsorb on the GaAs(111){sub B} surface compared to the liquid gold catalyst surface and the interface between the gold catalyst droplet and the nanowire, and these adsorbed bismuth could decrease the diffusion length of adsorbed Ga and hence the supersaturation of Ga in the gold catalyst droplet.

  10. Silicon nanowires with controlled sidewall profile and roughness fabricated by thin-film dewetting and metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeredo, B. P.; Sadhu, J.; Ma, J.; Jacobs, K.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.; Eraker, J. H.; Li, X.; Sinha, S.; Fang, N.; Ferreira, P.; Hsu, K.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a non-lithographic approach to generate wafer-scale single crystal silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with controlled sidewall profile and surface morphology. The approach begins with silver (Ag) thin-film thermal dewetting, gold (Au) deposition and lift-off to generate a large-scale Au mesh on Si substrates. This is followed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), where the Au mesh serves as a catalyst to produce arrays of smooth Si nanowires with tunable taper up to 13°. The mean diameter of the thus fabricated SiNWs can be controlled to range from 62 to 300 nm with standard deviations as small as 13.6 nm, and the areal coverage of the wire arrays can be up to 46%. Control of the mean wire diameter is achieved by controlling the pore diameter of the metallic mesh which is, in turn, controlled by adjusting the initial thin-film thickness and deposition rate. To control the wire surface morphology, a post-fabrication roughening step is added to the approach. This step uses Au nanoparticles and slow-rate MacEtch to produce rms surface roughness up to 3.6 nm.

  11. Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Miriam S; Coquillat, Dominique; Viti, Leonardo; Ercolani, Daniele; Teppe, Frederic; Pitanti, Alessandro; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2012-01-11

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has recently opened new paths to silicon integration of device families such as light-emitting diodes, high-efficiency photovoltaics, or high-responsivity photodetectors. It is also offering a wealth of new approaches for the development of a future generation of nanoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate that semiconductor nanowires can also be used as building blocks for the realization of high-sensitivity terahertz detectors based on a 1D field-effect transistor configuration. In order to take advantage of the low effective mass and high mobilities achievable in III-V compounds, we have used InAs nanowires, grown by vapor-phase epitaxy, and properly doped with selenium to control the charge density and to optimize source-drain and contact resistance. The detection mechanism exploits the nonlinearity of the transfer characteristics: the terahertz radiation field is fed at the gate-source electrodes with wide band antennas, and the rectified signal is then read at the output in the form of a DC drain voltage. Significant responsivity values (>1 V/W) at 0.3 THz have been obtained with noise equivalent powers (NEP) < 2 × 10(-9) W/(Hz)(1/2) at room temperature. The large existing margins for technology improvements, the scalability to higher frequencies, and the possibility of realizing multipixel arrays, make these devices highly competitive as a future solution for terahertz detection.

  12. Controlling the plasmonic surface waves of metallic nanowires by transformation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yichao; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2015-07-06

    In this letter, we introduce the technique of using transformation optics to manipulate the mode states of surface plasmonic waves of metallic nanowire waveguides. As examples we apply this technique to design two optical components: a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic mode rotator and a mode convertor. The rotator can rotate the polarization state of the surface wave around plasmonic nanowires by arbitrarily desired angles, and the convertor can transform the surface wave modes from one to another. Full-wave simulation is performed to verify the design and efficiency of our devices. Their potential application in photonic circuits is envisioned.

  13. Controlled pinning and depinning of domain walls in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Theo; Drews, André; Meier, Guido

    2012-01-18

    We investigate switching and field-driven domain wall motion in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy comprising local modifications of the material parameters. Intentional nucleation and pinning sites with various geometries inside the nanowires are realized via a local reduction of the anisotropy constant. Micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations are employed to determine the switching fields and to characterize the pinning potentials and the depinning fields. Nucleation sites in the simulations cause a significant reduction of the switching field and are in excellent agreement with analytical calculations. Pinning potentials and depinning fields caused by the pinning sites strongly depend on their shapes and are well explained by analytical calculations.

  14. Reduced Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, François

    2011-03-01

    The temperature distribution in nanowires due to Joule heating is studied analytically using a continuum model and a Green's function approach. We show that the temperatures reached in nanowires can be much lower than that predicted by bulk models of Joule heating, due to heat loss at the nanowire surface that is important at nanoscopic dimensions, even when the thermal conductivity of the environment is relatively low. In addition, we find that the maximum temperature in the nanowire scales weakly with length, in contrast to the bulk system. A simple criterion is presented to assess the importance of these effects. The results have implications for the experimental measurements of nanowire thermal properties, for thermoelectric applications, and for controlling thermal effects in nanowire electronic devices.

  15. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  16. Modifying the Interface Edge to Control the Electrical Transport Properties of Nanocontacts to Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lord, Alex M; Ramasse, Quentin M; Kepaptsoglou, Despoina M; Evans, Jonathan E; Davies, Philip R; Ward, Michael B; Wilks, Steve P

    2017-02-08

    Selecting the electrical properties of nanomaterials is essential if their potential as manufacturable devices is to be reached. Here, we show that the addition or removal of native semiconductor material at the edge of a nanocontact can be used to determine the electrical transport properties of metal-nanowire interfaces. While the transport properties of as-grown Au nanocatalyst contacts to semiconductor nanowires are well-studied, there are few techniques that have been explored to modify the electrical behavior. In this work, we use an iterative analytical process that directly correlates multiprobe transport measurements with subsequent aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to study the effects of chemical processes that create structural changes at the contact interface edge. A strong metal-support interaction that encapsulates the Au nanocontacts over time, adding ZnO material to the edge region, gives rise to ohmic transport behavior due to the enhanced quantum-mechanical tunneling path. Removal of the extraneous material at the Au-nanowire interface eliminates the edge-tunneling path, producing a range of transport behavior that is dependent on the final interface quality. These results demonstrate chemically driven processes that can be factored into nanowire-device design to select the final properties.

  17. Nonvolatile memory functionality of ZnO nanowire transistors controlled by mobile protons.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Jo, Minseok; Jo, Gunho; Choe, Minhyeok; Park, Woojin; Sohn, Jung Inn; Nedic, Stanko; Hwang, Hyungsang; Welland, Mark E; Lee, Takhee

    2011-01-25

    We demonstrated the nonvolatile memory functionality of ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) using mobile protons that are generated by high-pressure hydrogen annealing (HPHA) at relatively low temperature (400 °C). These ZnO nanowire devices exhibited reproducible hysteresis, reversible switching, and nonvolatile memory behaviors in comparison with those of the conventional FET devices. We show that the memory characteristics are attributed to the movement of protons between the Si/SiO(2) interface and the SiO(2)/ZnO nanowire interface by the applied gate electric field. The memory mechanism is explained in terms of the tuning of interface properties, such as effective electric field, surface charge density, and surface barrier potential due to the movement of protons in the SiO(2) layer, consistent with the UV photoresponse characteristics of nanowire memory devices. Our study will further provide a useful route of creating memory functionality and incorporating proton-based storage elements onto a modified CMOS platform for FET memory devices using nanomaterials.

  18. Synthesis of nickel nanowires via electroless nanowire deposition on micropatterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiwei; Walker, Amy V

    2011-09-20

    Electroless nanowire deposition on micropatterned substrates (ENDOM) is a promising new technique by which to direct the synthesis and precise placement of metallic nanowires. ENDOM is generally applicable to the preparation of metallic, semiconducting, and even insulating nanowires on technologically relevant substrates, is inexpensive, and can achieve high growth rates. The deposited nanowires are ultralong (centimeters) and can be patterned in arbitrary shapes. We demonstrate ENDOM using the growth of nickel nanowires. By controlling the deposition time, the width of the nanowires can be varied from 200 to 1000 nm and the height can be varied from 7 to 20 nm.

  19. Increased InAs quantum dot size and density using bismuth as a surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Dasika, Vaishno D.; Krivoy, E. M.; Nair, H. P.; Maddox, S. J.; Park, K. W.; Yu, E. T.; Bank, S. R.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.

    2014-12-22

    We have investigated the growth of self-assembled InAs quantum dots using bismuth as a surfactant to control the dot size and density. We find that the bismuth surfactant increases the quantum dot density, size, and uniformity, enabling the extension of the emission wavelength with increasing InAs deposition without a concomitant reduction in dot density. We show that these effects are due to bismuth acting as a reactive surfactant to kinetically suppress the surface adatom mobility. This mechanism for controlling quantum dot density and size has the potential to extend the operating wavelength and enhance the performance of various optoelectronic devices.

  20. Superconducting contacts to Ge/Si core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhaoen; Zarassi, Azarin; Patil, Dharamraj; Frolov, Sergey; Hocevar, Moira; Nguyen, Minh; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi

    2015-03-01

    Ge/Si core/shell nanowires are hosts to one dimensional hole gas. The spin-orbit interaction is expected to be much larger than that in electron systems such as InSb and InAs. Therefore, Ge/Si nanowires have great potential to demonstrate helical liquid. When strong superconductivity is induced in the nanowire, robust topological superconductivity may form in the system. We will show how to achieve semiconductor-superconductor contacts to the nanowire. The effects of a few surface cleaning methods and annealing process on the contact resistance will be shown. Superconducting contacts of NbTiN, Al, Ti and their combinations are studied. NbTiN may be suitable for hybrid device carrying Majorana fermions for its high critical temperature and magnetic field. Supercurrent through Josephson junctions with these contacts is measured.

  1. Vertical III-V nanowire device integration on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Moselund, Kirsten E; Signorello, Giorgio; Gignac, Lynne; Bruley, John; Breslin, Chris; Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Werner, Peter; Riel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    We report complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration of compound semiconductors on Si substrates. InAs and GaAs nanowires are selectively grown in vertical SiO2 nanotube templates fabricated on Si substrates of varying crystallographic orientations, including nanocrystalline Si. The nanowires investigated are epitaxially grown, single-crystalline, free from threading dislocations, and with an orientation and dimension directly given by the shape of the template. GaAs nanowires exhibit stable photoluminescence at room temperature, with a higher measured intensity when still surrounded by the template. Si-InAs heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes were fabricated on Si(100) and are electrically characterized. The results indicate a high uniformity and scalability in the fabrication process.

  2. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Yu, Linwei E-mail: linwei.yu@polytechnique.edu

    2015-10-19

    Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film solar cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology control with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology control. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we show that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction solar cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs.

  3. An Interview with Ina May Gaskin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary; Mercogliano, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Ina May Gaskin, a traditional midwife and founder of The Farm Midwifery Center in Summertown, Tennessee, discusses how she first became involved in midwifery, where she learned her skills, the status of midwifery, and her future plans. Ms. Gaskin has been instrumental in the revolution of birth practices worldwide. (LP)

  4. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  5. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a

  6. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  7. The effect of nanowire length and diameter on the properties of transparent, conducting nanowire films.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Stephen M; Chen, Yu-Hui; Rathmell, Aaron R; Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2012-03-21

    This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For individual nanowires with diameters greater than 50 nm, increasing diameter increases the electrical conductance to optical extinction ratio, but the opposite is true for nanowires with diameters less than this size. Calculations and experimental data show that for a random network of nanowires, decreasing nanowire diameter increases the number density of nanowires at a given transmittance, leading to improved connectivity and conductivity at high transmittance (>90%). This information will facilitate the design of transparent, conducting nanowire films for flexible displays, organic light emitting diodes and thin-film solar cells.

  8. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  9. Controlled synthesis of highly ordered LaFeO{sub 3} nanowires using a citrate-based sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhi; Huang Yi; Dong Bin; Li Hulin . E-mail: lihl@lzu.edu.cn

    2006-02-02

    Highly ordered LaFeO{sub 3} nanowires of complex oxide were controlled synthesized with a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by a citrate-based sol-gel route. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanowires formed a uniform length and diameter, which were determined by the thickness and the pore diameter of the AAO template, respectively. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanowires had a perovskite-type crystal structure. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated that stoichiometric LaFeO{sub 3} was formed.

  10. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  11. Insights into the Controllable Chemical Composition of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Graphene Aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Anna Patrice

    The design and synthesis of materials that absorb visible light and create fuel to store solar energy is a pursuit that has captivated chemists for decades. In order to take part in solar water splitting, i.e. the production of hydrogen and oxygen gas from water and sunlight, electrode materials must fit specific requirements in terms of their electronic structure. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are both of interest for their ability to produce oxygen from photogenerated holes, but their band gaps are too large to capture a significant portion of the solar spectrum. We address this challenge by modifying the crystal structures of ZnO and TiO 2 to make lower band gap materials. Furthermore, we use nanowires as the synthetic template for these materials because they provide a large semiconductor-liquid interfacial area. ZnO nanowires can be alloyed with In3+, Fe3+ and other trivalent metal ions to form a unique structure with the formula M2O3(ZnO)n, also known as MZO. We synthesize indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium iron zinc oxide (IFZO) nanowires and study their crystal structure using atomically-resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM), among other methods. We elucidate a structural model for MZO that resolves inconsistencies in the existing literature, based on the identification of the zigzag layer as an inversion domain boundary. These nanowires are shown to have a lower band gap than ZnO and produce photocurrent under visible light illumination. The solid-state diffusion reaction to form ternary titanates is also studied by TEM. TiO2 nanowires are coated with metal oxides by a variety of deposition methods, and then converted to MTiO3 at high temperatures, where M is a divalent transition metal ion such as Mn 2+, CO2+, or Ni2+. When Co3O 4 particles attached to TiO2 nanowires are annealed for a short time, we observe the formation of a CoO(111)/TiO2 (010) interface. If the nanowires are instead coated with Co(NO3)2 salt and then annealed

  12. Foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    So, Hyok; Pan, Dong; Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial high-quality InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires are of great interest due to their distinct advantages in fundamental research as well as applications in semiconductor electronic and quantum devices. Currently, nearly all the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is assisted with foreign catalysts such as Au, and work on foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is lacking. Here we report on the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy without using any foreign catalysts. The Sb/In beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio is found to have important influence on the heterostructure nanowire morphology, and InSb nanowires can be epitaxially grown on InAs nanowire stems with a hexagonal prism and nanosheet-like shapes when the Sb/In BEP ratio varies from 10 to 20. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the InAs nanowire stems have a mixture of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structures, while InSb nanowire parts have a pure ZB crystal structure free of stacking faults. Composition analysis of axial heterostructure nanowires provides clear evidence that the InSb nanowires are epitaxially grown on InAs nanowires in an In self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid manner. This study paves a new route for growing narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction for the study of topological states, and the growth manner presented here is expected to be used to grow other In-based axial heterostructure nanowires.

  13. Foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hyok; Pan, Dong; Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial high-quality InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires are of great interest due to their distinct advantages in fundamental research as well as applications in semiconductor electronic and quantum devices. Currently, nearly all the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is assisted with foreign catalysts such as Au, and work on foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is lacking. Here we report on the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy without using any foreign catalysts. The Sb/In beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio is found to have important influence on the heterostructure nanowire morphology, and InSb nanowires can be epitaxially grown on InAs nanowire stems with a hexagonal prism and nanosheet-like shapes when the Sb/In BEP ratio varies from 10 to 20. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the InAs nanowire stems have a mixture of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structures, while InSb nanowire parts have a pure ZB crystal structure free of stacking faults. Composition analysis of axial heterostructure nanowires provides clear evidence that the InSb nanowires are epitaxially grown on InAs nanowires in an In self-assisted vapor–liquid–solid manner. This study paves a new route for growing narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin–orbit interaction for the study of topological states, and the growth manner presented here is expected to be used to grow other In-based axial heterostructure nanowires.

  14. Position-controlled growth of GaN nanowires and nanotubes on diamond by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Fabian; Hetzl, Martin; Weiszer, Saskia; Garrido, Jose A; de la Mata, María; Magen, Cesar; Arbiol, Jordi; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-03-11

    In this work the position-controlled growth of GaN nanowires (NWs) on diamond by means of molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. In terms of growth, diamond can be seen as a model substrate, providing information of systematic relevance also for other substrates. Thin Ti masks are structured by electron beam lithography which allows the fabrication of perfectly homogeneous GaN NW arrays with different diameters and distances. While the wurtzite NWs are found to be Ga-polar, N-polar nucleation leads to the formation of tripod structures with a zinc-blende core which can be efficiently suppressed above a substrate temperature of 870 °C. A variation of the III/V flux ratio reveals that both axial and radial growth rates are N-limited despite the globally N-rich growth conditions, which is explained by the different diffusion behavior of Ga and N atoms. Furthermore, it is shown that the hole arrangement has no effect on the selectivity but can be used to force a transition from nanowire to nanotube growth by employing a highly competitive growth regime.

  15. The lateral In2O3 nanowires and pyramid networks manipulation by controlled substrate surface energy in annealing evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariati, Mohsen; Darjani, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    The continuous laterally aligned growth of In2O3 nanocrystal networks extended with nanowire and pyramid connections under annealing influence has been reported. These nanostructures have been grown on Si substrate by using oxygen-assisted annealing process through PVD growth technique. The formation of In2O3 nanocrystals has been achieved by the successive growth of critical self-nucleated condensation in three orientations. The preferred direction was the route between two pyramids especially in the smallest surface energy. The effects of substrate temperature in annealing process on the morphological properties of the as-grown nanostructures were investigated. The annealing technique showed that by controlling the surface energy, the morphology of structures was changed from unregulated array to defined nanostructures; especially nanowires 50 nm in width. The obtained nanostructures also were investigated by the (transmission electron microscopy) TEM, Raman spectrum and the (X-ray diffraction) XRD patterns. They indicated that the self-assembled In2O3 nanocrystal networks have been fabricated by the vapor-solid (VS) growth mechanism. The growth mechanism process was prompted to attribute the relationship among the kinetics parameters, surface diffusion and morphology of nanostructures.

  16. Preparation, mechanical property and cytocompatibility of poly(L-lactic acid)/calcium silicate nanocomposites with controllable distribution of calcium silicate nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yuandong; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    How to accurately control the microstructure of bioactive inorganic/organic nanocomposites still remains a significant challenge, which is of great importance in influencing their mechanical strength and biological properties. In this study, using a combined method of electrospinning and hot press processing, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanowire/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanocomposites with controllable microstructures and tailored mechanical properties were successfully prepared as potential bone graft substitutes. The electrospun hybrid nanofibers with various degrees of alignment were stacked together in a predetermined manner and hot pressed into hierarchically structured nanocomposites. The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites were systematically evaluated. The results showed that CSH nanowires in a PLLA matrix were able to be controlled from completely randomly oriented to uniaxially aligned, and then hierarchically organized with different interlayer angles, leading to corresponding nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties and varied anisotropies. It was also found that the bending strength of nanocomposites with 5 wt.% CSH nanowires (130 MPa) was significantly higher than that of pure PLLA (86 MPa) and other composites. The addition of CSH nanowires greatly enhanced the hydrophilicity and apatite-forming ability of PLLA films, as well as the attachment and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells. The study suggested that a combination of electrospinning and hot pressing is a viable means to control the microstructure and mechanical properties, and improve the mineralization ability and cellular responses, of CSH/PLLA nanocomposites for potential bone repair applications.

  17. Piezoelectric effect in InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires grown on silicon substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas Bru-Chevallier, Catherine; Khmissi, Hammadi; Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2014-05-05

    We report on the evidence of a strain-induced piezoelectric field in wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires. This electric field, caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and InP, results in the quantum confined Stark effect and, as a consequence, affects the optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure. It is shown that the piezoelectric field can be screened by photogenerated carriers or removed by increasing temperature. Moreover, a dependence of the piezoelectric field on the quantum rod diameter is observed in agreement with simulations of wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowire heterostructures.

  18. Current–Voltage Characterization of Individual As-Grown Nanowires Using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing semiconductor nanowires for (opto)electronics requires exact knowledge of their current–voltage properties. We report accurate on-top imaging and I–V characterization of individual as-grown nanowires, using a subnanometer resolution scanning tunneling microscope with no need for additional microscopy tools, thus allowing versatile application. We form Ohmic contacts to InP and InAs nanowires without any sample processing, followed by quantitative measurements of diameter dependent I–V properties with a very small spread in measured values compared to standard techniques. PMID:24059470

  19. Leveraging Crystal Anisotropy for Deterministic Growth of InAs Quantum Dots with Narrow Optical Linewidths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-29

    spin qubit for quantum information. KEYWORDS: Quantum dot , InAs, molecular beam epitaxy, site...removes a major obstacle toward sophisticated quantum dot complexes such as a quantum network of spin qubits . Methods. Substrate Patterning. Lines and...controlled, quantum information, single photon source Epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) have atom-like electronicproperties, including long coherence

  20. Controlled in situ boron doping of short silicon nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Zakharov, Nikolai; Bauer, Jan; Breitenstein, Otwin; Werner, Peter; Goesele, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Epitaxial silicon nanowires (NWs) of short heights (˜280nm) on Si ⟨111⟩ substrate were grown and doped in situ with boron on a concentration range of 1015-1019cm-3 by coevaporation of atomic Si and B by molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a single-crystalline structure of the NWs. Electrical measurements of the individual NWs confirmed the doping. However, the low doped (1015cm-3) and medium doped (3×1016 and 1×1017cm-3) NWs were heavily depleted by the surface states while the high doped (1018 and 1019cm-3) ones showed volume conductivities expected for the corresponding intended doping levels.

  1. One-dimensional behavior and high thermoelectric power factor in thin indium arsenide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mensch, P.; Karg, S. Schmidt, V.; Gotsmann, B.; Schmid, H.; Riel, H.

    2015-03-02

    Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of quasi-one-dimensional indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires with 20 nm diameter are investigated. The carrier concentration of the passivated nanowires was modulated by a gate electrode. A thermoelectric power factor of 1.7 × 10{sup −3} W/m K{sup 2} was measured at room temperature. This value is at least as high as in bulk-InAs and exceeds by far typical values of thicker InAs nanowires with three-dimensional properties. The interpretation of the experimental results in terms of power-factor enhancement by one-dimensionality is supported by model calculations using the Boltzmann transport formalism.

  2. Patterned Fabrication of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sahar; Lamson, Thomas; Xu, Huizhong

    Zinc oxide nanowires possess desirable mechanical, thermodynamic, electrical, and optical properties. Although the hydrothermal growth process can be applied in tolerable growth conditions, the dimension and density of nanowires has a complex dependence on substrate pre-treatment, precursor concentrations, and growth conditions. Precise control of the geometry and density of nanowires as well as the location of nanowires would allow for the fabrication of useful nanowaveguide devices. In this work, we used electron beam lithography to pattern hole arrays in a polymer layer on gold-coated glass substrates and synthesized zinc oxide nanowires inside these holes. Arrays of nanowires with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 140 nm and various spacings were obtained. The transmission of light through these zinc oxide nanowire arrays in a silver film was also studied. This research was supported by the Seed Grant Program of St. John's University and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-0953645.

  3. III-nitride nanowires : growth, properties, and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Lin, Yong; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-06-01

    Nanowires based on the III nitride materials system have attracted attention as potential nanoscale building blocks in optoelectronics, sensing, and electronics. However, before such applications can be realized, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled and ordered nanowire synthesis, fabrication of advanced nanowire heterostructures, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical and optical properties. Here, recent work is presented involving the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using advanced electrical, optical and structural characterization techniques.

  4. Controlled growth of Cu-Ni nanowires and nanospheres for enhanced microwave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Lifeng; Zhang, Baoqin; Yu, Mingxun; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-01

    Copper is a good dielectric loss material but has low stability, whereas nickel is a good magnetic loss material and is corrosion resistant but with low conductivity, therefore Cu-Ni hybrid nanostructures have synergistic advantages as microwave absorption (MA) materials. Different Cu/Ni molar ratios of bimetallic nanowires (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu7@Ni13) and nanospheres (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu1@Ni3) have been successfully synthesized via facile reduction of hydrazine under similar reaction conditions, and the morphology can be easily tuned by varying the feed ratio or the complexing agent. Apart from the concentrations of Cu2+ and Ni2+, the reduction parameters are similar for all samples to confirm the effects of the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology on MA properties. Ni is incorporated into the Cu-Ni nanomaterials as a shell over the Cu core at low temperature, as proved by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS. Through the complex relative permittivity and permeability, reflection loss was evaluated, which revealed that the MA capacity greatly depended on the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology. For Cu@Ni nanowires, as the molar ratio of Ni shell increased the MA properties decreased accordingly. However, for Cu@Ni nanospheres, the opposite trend was found, that is, as the molar ratio of the Ni shell increased the MA properties increased.

  5. Shape-controlled synthesis of palladium and copper superlattice nanowires for high-stability hydrogen sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dachi; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Fonseca, Luis F.; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrogen sensors built with pure Pd nanowires, the instabilities causing baseline drifting and temperature-driven sensing behavior are limiting factors when working within a wide temperature range. To enhance the material stability, we have developed superlattice-structured palladium and copper nanowires (PdCu NWs) with random-gapped, screw-threaded, and spiral shapes achieved by wet-chemical approaches. The microstructure of the PdCu NWs reveals novel superlattices composed of lattice groups structured by four-atomic layers of alternating Pd and Cu. Sensors built with these modified NWs show significantly reduced baseline drifting and lower critical temperature (259.4 K and 261 K depending on the PdCu structure) for the reverse sensing behavior than those with pure Pd NWs (287 K). Moreover, the response and recovery times of the PdCu NWs sensor were of ~9 and ~7 times faster than for Pd NWs sensors, respectively. PMID:24440892

  6. Control of GaP nanowire morphology by group V flux in gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyanov, P.; Boulanger, J.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2017-03-01

    GaP nanowires (NWs) were grown on a Si substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using self-assisted growth. Selective-area growth was achieved using a patterned oxide mask. Periodic GaAsP marker layers were introduced during growth to study the growth progression using transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate control of the NW morphology via the V/III flux ratio, the pattern pitch, and the oxide hole diameter. As the V/III flux ratio was increased from 1 to 6, the NWs showed a reduced top diameter and increased height. Reduced oxide hole diameter and increased V/III flux ratio caused the Ga droplet to be consumed partway through the growth for some NWs, leading to a switch from VLS group V limited growth to diffusion limited growth.

  7. Synthesis and characterizations of ternary InGaAs nanowires by a two-step growth method for high-performance electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jared J; Han, Ning; Wang, Fengyun; Xiu, Fei; Yip, Senpo; Hui, Alvin T; Hung, TakFu; Ho, Johnny C

    2012-04-24

    InAs nanowires have been extensively studied for high-speed and high-frequency electronics due to the low effective electron mass and corresponding high carrier mobility. However, further applications still suffer from the significant leakage current in InAs nanowire devices arising from the small electronic band gap. Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of ternary InGaAs nanowires in order to tackle this leakage issue utilizing the larger band gap material but at the same time not sacrificing the high electron mobility. In this work, we adapt a two-step growth method on amorphous SiO(2)/Si substrates which significantly reduces the kinked morphology and surface coating along the nanowires. The grown nanowires exhibit excellent crystallinity and uniform stoichiometric composition along the entire length of the nanowires. More importantly, the electrical properties of those nanowires are found to be remarkably impressive with I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio >10(5), field-effect mobility of ∼2700 cm(2)/(V·s), and ON current density of ∼0.9 mA/μm. These nanowires are then employed in the contact printing and achieve large-scale assembly of nanowire parallel arrays which further illustrate the potential for utilizing these high-performance nanowires on substrates for the fabrication of future integrated circuits.

  8. Architectural control syntheses of CdS and CdSe nanoflowers, branched nanowires, and nanotrees via a solvothermal approach in a mixed solution and their photocatalytic property.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei-Tang; Yu, Shu-Hong; Liu, Shu-Juan; Chen, Jun-Peng; Liu, Xian-Ming; Li, Fan-Qing

    2006-06-22

    Wurtzite CdS and CdSe nanostructures with complex morphologies such as urchin-like CdS nanoflowers, branched nanowires, and fractal nanotrees can be produced via a facile solvothermal approach in a mixed solution made of diethylenetriamine (DETA) and deionized water (DIW). The morphologies of CdS and CdSe nanocrystals can be easily controlled via tuning the volume ratio of DETA and DIW. Urchin-like CdS nanoflowers made of CdS nanorods are in a form of highly ordered hierarchical structures, while the nanowires are branched nanowires, and the fractal CdS nanotrees are a buildup of branched nanopines. The results demonstrated that solvothermal reaction in a mixed amine/water can access a variety of complex morphologies of semiconductor materials. The photocatalytic activity of CdS particles with different morphologies has been tested by the degradation of acid fuchsine under both UV and visible light, showing that the as-prepared branched CdS nanowires exhibit high photocatalytic activity for degradation of acid fuchsine.

  9. Review on photonic properties of nanowires for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mokkapati, S; Jagadish, C

    2016-07-25

    III-V semiconductor nanowires behave as optical antennae because of their shape anisotropy and high refractive index. The antennae like behavior modifies the absorption and emission properties of nanowires compared to planar materials. Nanowires absorb light more efficiently compared to an equivalent volume planar material, leading to higher short circuit current densities. The modified emission from the nanowires has the potential to increase the open circuit voltage from nanowire solar cells compared to planar solar cells. In order to achieve high efficiency nanowire solar cells it is essential to control the surface state density and doping in nanowires. We review the physics of nanowire solar cells and progress made in addressing the surface recombination and doping of nanowires, with emphasis on GaAs and InP materials.

  10. Nanoimprint and selective-area MOVPE for growth of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Sladek, K; Winden, A; von der Ahe, M; Weirich, T E; Rieger, T; Lüth, H; Grützmacher, D; Schäpers, Th; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-03-01

    We report on the technology and growth optimization of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires. The GaAs nanowire cores were grown selectively by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) on SiO(2) masked GaAs (111)B templates. These were structured by a complete thermal nanoimprint lithography process, which is presented in detail. The influence of the subsequent InAs shell growth temperature on the shell morphology and crystal structure was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to obtain the desired homogeneous and uniform InAs overgrowth. At the optimal growth temperature, the InAs shell adopted the morphology and crystal structure of the underlying GaAs core and was perfectly uniform.

  11. Nanoimprint and selective-area MOVPE for growth of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, F.; Sladek, K.; Winden, A.; von der Ahe, M.; Weirich, T. E.; Rieger, T.; Lüth, H.; Grützmacher, D.; Schäpers, Th; Hardtdegen, H.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the technology and growth optimization of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires. The GaAs nanowire cores were grown selectively by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) on SiO2 masked GaAs (\\bar {1}\\bar {1}\\bar {1}){B} templates. These were structured by a complete thermal nanoimprint lithography process, which is presented in detail. The influence of the subsequent InAs shell growth temperature on the shell morphology and crystal structure was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to obtain the desired homogeneous and uniform InAs overgrowth. At the optimal growth temperature, the InAs shell adopted the morphology and crystal structure of the underlying GaAs core and was perfectly uniform.

  12. Controlled in situ boron doping of short silicon nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Zakharov, Nikolai; Bauer, Jan; Breitenstein, Otwin; Werner, Peter; Goesele, Ulrich

    2008-06-30

    Epitaxial silicon nanowires (NWs) of short heights ({approx}280 nm) on Si <111> substrate were grown and doped in situ with boron on a concentration range of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} by coevaporation of atomic Si and B by molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a single-crystalline structure of the NWs. Electrical measurements of the individual NWs confirmed the doping. However, the low doped (10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) and medium doped (3x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) NWs were heavily depleted by the surface states while the high doped (10{sup 18} and 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) ones showed volume conductivities expected for the corresponding intended doping levels.

  13. Tin oxide nanowire sensor with integrated temperature and gate control for multi-gas recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattoli, Eric N.; Davydov, Albert V.; Benkstein, Kurt D.

    2012-02-01

    The selectivity of a chemiresistive gas sensor comprising an array of single-crystalline tin oxide nanowires (NWs) is shown to be greatly enhanced by combined temperature and gate voltage modulation. This dual modulation was effected by a novel microsensor platform that consisted of a suspended nitride membrane embedded with independently addressable platinum heater and back-gate structures. The sensor was evaluated in a chemical vapor exposure test consisting of three volatile organic compound (VOC) analytes in an air background; VOC concentrations ranged from 20 μmol/mol to 80 μmol/mol. During the exposure test, the temperature and gating conditions of the NW sensor were modulated in order to induce variations in the sensor's analyte response behavior. By treating these temperature- and gate-dependent analyte response variations as an identifying ``fingerprint,'' analyte identification was achieved using a statistical pattern recognition procedure, linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Through optimization of this pattern recognition procedure, a VOC recognition rate of 98% was obtained. An analysis of the recognition results revealed that this high recognition rate could only be achieved through the combined modulation of temperature and gate bias as compared to either parameter alone. Overall, the highly accurate VOC analyte discrimination that was achieved here confirms the selectivity benefits provided by the utilized dual modulation approach and demonstrates the suitability of miniature nanowire sensors in real-world, multi-chemical detection problems.The selectivity of a chemiresistive gas sensor comprising an array of single-crystalline tin oxide nanowires (NWs) is shown to be greatly enhanced by combined temperature and gate voltage modulation. This dual modulation was effected by a novel microsensor platform that consisted of a suspended nitride membrane embedded with independently addressable platinum heater and back-gate structures. The sensor was

  14. Shape-controlled narrow-gap SnTe nanostructures: From nanocubes to nanorods and nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shaojun; Andrew F. Fidler; He, Kai; Su, Dong; Chen, Gen; Lin, Qianglu; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the rational design and synthesis of narrow-gap colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is an important step toward the next generation of solution-processable photovoltaics, photodetectors, and thermoelectric devices. SnTe NCs are particularly attractive as a Pb-free alternative to NCs of narrow-gap lead chalcogenides. Previous synthetic efforts on SnTe NCs have focused on spherical nanoparticles. Here we report new strategies for synthesis of SnTe NCs with shapes tunable from highly monodisperse nanocubes, to nanorods (NRs) with variable aspect ratios, and finally to long, straight nanowires (NWs). Reaction at high temperature quickly forms thermodynamically favored nanocubes, but low temperatures lead to elongated particles. Transmission electron microscopy studies of reaction products at various stages of the synthesis reveal that the growth and shape-focusing of monodisperse SnTe nanocubes likely involves interparticle ripening, while directional growth of NRs and NWs may be initiated by particle dimerization via oriented attachment.

  15. Near-field control and imaging of free charge carrier variations in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berweger, Samuel; Blanchard, Paul T.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Coakley, Kevin J.; Sanford, Norman A.; Wallis, Thomas M.; Bertness, Kris A.; Kabos, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Despite their uniform crystallinity, the shape and faceting of semiconducting nanowires (NWs) can give rise to variations in structure and associated electronic properties. Here, we develop a hybrid scanning probe-based methodology to investigate local variations in electronic structure across individual n-doped GaN NWs integrated into a transistor device. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM), which we combine with scanning gate microscopy to determine the free-carrier SMM signal contribution and image local charge carrier density variations. In particular, we find significant variations in free carriers across NWs, with a higher carrier density at the wire facets. By increasing the local carrier density through tip-gating, we find that the tip injects current into the NW with strongly localized current when positioned over the wire vertices. These results suggest that the strong variations in electronic properties observed within NWs have significant implications for device design and may lead to new paths to optimization.

  16. III-Nitride Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key gure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical con nement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve singlemode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode op eration. The rst method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-o condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter e ciency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, speci cally a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip that emit

  17. III-nitride nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key figure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical confinement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve single-mode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode operation. The first method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-off condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter efficiency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, specifically a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip

  18. Low radiation level detection with room temperature InAs detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makai, Janos P.; Makai, Tamas

    2014-08-01

    Recently, room temperature or near room temperature InAs detectors are widely used in laser warning receivers, process control monitors, temperature sensors, etc. requiring linear operation over many decades of the sensitivity range. The linearity of zero biased Si, InGaAs and Ge detectors is thoroughly discussed in the literature, contrary to InAs detectors. In an earlier work of the authors it has been demonstrated that applying a bootstrap circuit to a Ge detector - depending on the frequency of the operation - will virtually increase the shunt resistance of the detector by 3-6 decades compared to the detector alone. In the present work, a similar circuitry was applied to a room temperature InAs detector, the differences between the bootstrapped Ge and bootstrapped InAs detector are underlined. It is shown, how the bootstrap circuit channels the photogenerated current to the feedback impedance decreasing with many decades the detectable low level limit of the detector - I/V converter unit. The linearity improvement results are discussed as a function of the chopping frequency, calculated and measured values are compared, the noise sources are analyzed and noise measurement results are presented.

  19. Cellular manipulation and patterning using ferromagnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, Anne

    Ferromagnetic nanowires are demonstrated as an effective tool to apply forces to living cells. Both magnetic cell separations and the magnetic patterning of cells on a substrate will be accomplished through the use of cell-nanowire interactions as well as nanowire-magnetic field interactions. When introduced into cultures of NIH-3T3 cells, the nanowires are internalized by cells via the integrin-mediated adhesion pathway without inflicting any toxic effects on the cell cycle over the course of several days. In addition, the length of the nanowires was found to have an effect on the cell-nanowire interactions when the cells were dissociated from the tissue culture dish. To compare the effectiveness of the nanowires as a means of manipulating cells to the current technology which is based on superparamagnetic beads, magnetic cell separations were performed with electrodeposited Ni nanowires 350 nm in diameter and 5--35 mum long in field gradients of 80 T/m. Single-pass separations of NIH-3T3 cells bound to nanowires achieve up to 81% purity with 85% yield, a dramatic improvement over the 55% purity and 20% yield obtained with the beads. The yield for the separations were found to be dependent on the length of the nanowires, and was maximized when the length of the nanowires equaled the diameter of the cells. This dependence was exploited to perform a size-selective magnetic separation. Substrates containing arrays of micro-magnets, fabricated using photolithography, were placed in cell cultures. These micro-magnet arrays create regions of locally strong magnetic field gradients to trap nanowires in specific locations on the substrate. These substrates were used in conjunction with fluid flow and a weak, externally applied magnetic field to create and control patterns of cells bound to nanowires. Controlled isolation of heterogeneous pairs and groups of cells will enable the study of the biochemistry of cell-cell contacts.

  20. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silane provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.

  1. Facile synthesis of silicon nitride nanowires with flexible mechanical properties and with diameters controlled by flow rate

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shun; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Xinghong; Cheng, Yuan; Fang, Cheng; Xu, Jianguo; Chen, Guiqing

    2017-01-01

    Ultralong Si3N4 nanowires (NWs) were successfully synthesized with size controlled in N2 gas by using an efficient method. The diameters of the Si3N4 NWs increased when the flow rate of N2 gas increased, with average diameters of 290 nm from flow rates of 100 ml/min, 343 nm from flow rates of 200 ml/min and 425 nm from flow rates of 400 ml/min. Young’s modulus was found to rely strongly on the diameters of the Si3N4 NWs, decreasing from approximately 526.0 GPa to 321.9 GPa; as the diameters increased from 360 nm to 960 nm. These findings provide a promising method for tailoring these mechanical properties of the NWs in a controlled manner over a wide range of Young’s modulus values. Vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanisms were used to model the growth of Si3N4 NWs on the inner wall of an alumina crucible and on the surface of the powder mixture. Alumina may be an effective mediator of NW growth that plays an important role in controlling the concentrations of Si-containing reactants to support the growth of NWs on the inner wall of the alumina crucible. This approach offers a valuable means for preparing ultralong Si3N4 NWs doped with Al with unique properties. PMID:28349956

  2. Facile synthesis of silicon nitride nanowires with flexible mechanical properties and with diameters controlled by flow rate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shun; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Xinghong; Cheng, Yuan; Fang, Cheng; Xu, Jianguo; Chen, Guiqing

    2017-03-28

    Ultralong Si3N4 nanowires (NWs) were successfully synthesized with size controlled in N2 gas by using an efficient method. The diameters of the Si3N4 NWs increased when the flow rate of N2 gas increased, with average diameters of 290 nm from flow rates of 100 ml/min, 343 nm from flow rates of 200 ml/min and 425 nm from flow rates of 400 ml/min. Young's modulus was found to rely strongly on the diameters of the Si3N4 NWs, decreasing from approximately 526.0 GPa to 321.9 GPa; as the diameters increased from 360 nm to 960 nm. These findings provide a promising method for tailoring these mechanical properties of the NWs in a controlled manner over a wide range of Young's modulus values. Vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanisms were used to model the growth of Si3N4 NWs on the inner wall of an alumina crucible and on the surface of the powder mixture. Alumina may be an effective mediator of NW growth that plays an important role in controlling the concentrations of Si-containing reactants to support the growth of NWs on the inner wall of the alumina crucible. This approach offers a valuable means for preparing ultralong Si3N4 NWs doped with Al with unique properties.

  3. The Role of Late INa in Development of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Antzelevitch, Charles; Nesterenko, Vladislav; Shryock, John C.; Rajamani, Sridharan; Song, Yejia; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Late INa is an integral part of the sodium current, which persists long after the fast-inactivating component. The magnitude of the late INa is relatively small in all species and in all types of cardiomyocytes as compared with the amplitude of the fast sodium current, but it contributes significantly to the shape and duration of the action potential. This late component had been shown to increase in several acquired or congenital conditions, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and heart failure, or due to mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the α-subunit of the sodium channel, as well as in channel-interacting proteins, including multiple β subunits and anchoring proteins. Patients with enhanced late INa exhibit the type-3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) characterized by high propensity for the life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, such as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), as well as for atrial fibrillation. There are several distinct mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis due to abnormal late INa, including abnormal automaticity, early and delayed afterdepolarization-induced triggered activity, and dramatic increase of ventricular dispersion of repolarization. Many local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agents have a higher potency to block late INa as compared with fast INa. Several novel compounds, including ranolazine, GS-458967, and F15845, appear to be the most selective inhibitors of cardiac late INa reported to date. Selective inhibition of late INa is expected to be an effective strategy for correcting these acquired and congenital channelopathies. PMID:24737235

  4. Position-controlled III-V compound semiconductor nanowire solar cells by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takashi; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate position-controlled III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) by using selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and their application to solar cells. Efficiency of 4.23% is achieved for InP core-shell NW solar cells. We form a 'flexible NW array' without a substrate, which has the advantage of saving natural resources over conventional thin film photovoltaic devices. Four junction NW solar cells with over 50% efficiency are proposed and discussed.

  5. Chlorine adsorption on the InAs (001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulin, A. V.; Eremeev, S. V.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Kulkova, S. E.

    2011-01-15

    Chlorine adsorption on the In-stabilized InAs(001) surface with {zeta}-(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) and {beta}3 Prime -(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) reconstructions and on the Ga-stabilized GaAs (001)-{zeta}-(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) surface has been studied within the electron density functional theory. The equilibrium structural parameters of these reconstructions, surface atom positions, bond lengths in dimers, and their changes upon chlorine adsorption are determined. The electronic characteristics of the clean surface and the surface with adsorbed chlorine are calculated. It is shown that the most energetically favorable positions for chlorine adsorption are top positions over dimerized indium or gallium atoms. The mechanism of chlorine binding with In(Ga)-stabilized surface is explained. The interaction of chlorine atoms with dimerized surface atoms weakens surface atom bonds and controls the initial stage of surface etching.

  6. Long Term Stability of Nanowire Nanoelectronics in Physiological Environments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease. PMID:24479700

  7. Long term stability of nanowire nanoelectronics in physiological environments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Fu, Tian-Ming; Xie, Chong; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-03-12

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease.

  8. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Romano, Lucia; Rudawski, Nicholas G; Holzworth, Monta R; Jones, Kevin S; Choi, S G

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  9. Controlled DNA-templated metal deposition: towards ultra-thin nanowires.

    PubMed

    Berti, Lorenzo; Alessandrini, Andrea; Menozzi, Claudia; Facci, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we report the metallization of a dsDNA template using a novel photography-derived two-step strategy in which dsDNA is first complexed with Ag(I) ions and then irradiated with UV light at 254 nm. The nucleobases act as light harvesters and sensitizers, triggering the photoreduction of the complexed silver ions. This process yields a silver nanoparticles blueprint along the DNA strand. The silver latent image is then developed by depositing metallic nickel through an electroless plating process. This photography-derived procedure generates very homogeneous and evenly distributed strings of silver-core/nickel-shell nanoparticles. Although still discontinuous, we believe that such chains can serve as the base for obtaining continuous metal nanowires. Furthermore, this process can most likely be extended to other plating metals, resulting in a broadly general procedure for metallizing DNA with a variety of different materials. Because of the intrinsic simplicity in using light as the key step, this methodology might be amenable to large-scale development, eventually leading to a very efficient molecular-photolithography process.

  10. Growth Conditions Control the Elastic and Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wan, Jingchun; Warren, Oden L; Oh, Jason; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhiwei

    2015-12-09

    Great efforts have been made to synthesize ZnO nanowires (NWs) as building blocks for a broad range of applications because of their unique mechanical and mechanoelectrical properties. However, little attention has been paid to the correlation between the NWs synthesis condition and these properties. Here we demonstrate that by slightly adjusting the NW growth conditions, the cross-sectional shape of the NWs can be tuned from hexagonal to circular. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra suggested that NWs with cylindrical geometry have a higher density of point defects. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uniaxial tensile-electrical coupling tests revealed that for similar diameter, the Young's modulus and electrical resistivity of hexagonal NWs is always larger than that of cylindrical NWs, whereas the piezoresistive coefficient of cylindrical NWs is generally higher. With decreasing diameter, the Young's modulus and the resistivity of NWs increase, whereas their piezoresistive coefficient decreases, regardless of the sample geometry. Our findings shed new light on understanding and advancing the performance of ZnO-NW-based devices through optimizing the synthesis conditions of the NWs.

  11. Coaxial GaAs-AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire lasers with epitaxial gain control

    SciTech Connect

    Stettner, T. E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de Zimmermann, P.; Loitsch, B.; Regler, A.; Mayer, B.; Winnerl, J.; Matich, S.; Riedl, H.; Kaniber, M.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G. E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de Finley, J. J. E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de; Döblinger, M.

    2016-01-04

    We demonstrate the growth and single-mode lasing operation of GaAs-AlGaAs core-multishell nanowires (NW) with radial single and multiple GaAs quantum wells (QWs) as active gain media. When subject to optical pumping lasing emission with distinct s-shaped input-output characteristics, linewidth narrowing and emission energies associated with the confined QWs are observed. Comparing the low temperature performance of QW NW laser structures having 7 coaxial QWs with a nominally identical structure having only a single QW shows that the threshold power density reduces several-fold, down to values as low as ∼2.4 kW/cm{sup 2} for the multiple QW NW laser. This confirms that the individual radial QWs are electronically weakly coupled and that epitaxial design can be used to optimize the gain characteristics of the devices. Temperature-dependent investigations show that lasing prevails up to 300 K, opening promising new avenues for efficient III–V semiconductor NW lasers with embedded low-dimensional gain media.

  12. Electrodeposition of InSb branched nanowires: Controlled growth with structurally tailored properties

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suprem R.; Mohammad, Asaduzzaman; Janes, David B.; Akatay, Cem; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A.; Maeda, Kosuke; Deacon, Russell S.; Ishibashi, Koji; Chen, Yong P.; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-08-28

    In this article, electrodeposition method is used to demonstrate growth of InSb nanowire (NW) arrays with hierarchical branched structures and complex morphology at room temperature using an all-solution, catalyst-free technique. A gold coated, porous anodic alumina membrane provided the template for the branched NWs. The NWs have a hierarchical branched structure, with three nominal regions: a “trunk” (average diameter of 150 nm), large branches (average diameter of 100 nm), and small branches (average diameter of sub-10 nm to sub-20 nm). The structural properties of the branched NWs were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In the as-grown state, the small branches of InSb NWs were crystalline, but the trunk regions were mostly nanocrystalline with an amorphous boundary. Post-annealing of NWs at 420 °C in argon produced single crystalline structures along 〈311〉 directions for the branches and along 〈111〉 for the trunks. Based on the high crystallinity and tailored structure in this branched NW array, the effective refractive index allows us to achieve excellent antireflection properties signifying its technological usefulness for photon management and energy harvesting.

  13. Shape-controlled narrow-gap SnTe nanostructures: From nanocubes to nanorods and nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Shaojun; Andrew F. Fidler; He, Kai; ...

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the rational design and synthesis of narrow-gap colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is an important step toward the next generation of solution-processable photovoltaics, photodetectors, and thermoelectric devices. SnTe NCs are particularly attractive as a Pb-free alternative to NCs of narrow-gap lead chalcogenides. Previous synthetic efforts on SnTe NCs have focused on spherical nanoparticles. Here we report new strategies for synthesis of SnTe NCs with shapes tunable from highly monodisperse nanocubes, to nanorods (NRs) with variable aspect ratios, and finally to long, straight nanowires (NWs). Reaction at high temperature quickly forms thermodynamically favored nanocubes, but low temperatures lead tomore » elongated particles. Transmission electron microscopy studies of reaction products at various stages of the synthesis reveal that the growth and shape-focusing of monodisperse SnTe nanocubes likely involves interparticle ripening, while directional growth of NRs and NWs may be initiated by particle dimerization via oriented attachment.« less

  14. Photocatalytic Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhong, Xing; Li, Yujing; Liao, Lei; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires are synthesized through metal assisted wet-chemical etch of highly-doped silicon wafer. The resulted porous silicon nanowires exhibit a large surface area of 337 m(2)·g(-1) and a wide spectrum absorption across the entire ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regime. We further demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles can be loaded onto the surface of the porous silicon nanowires with controlled density. These combined advancements make the porous silicon nanowires an interesting material for photocatalytic applications. We show that the porous silicon nanowires and platinum nanoparticle loaded porous silicon nanowires can be used as effective photocatalysts for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and toxic pollutants under visible irradiation, and thus are of significant interest for organic waste treatment and environmental remediation.

  15. 20 CFR 668.800 - What systems must an INA grantee have in place to administer an INA program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to the best of his/her knowledge; and (3) The information necessary to comply with all program... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What systems must an INA grantee have in... ACT Administrative Requirements § 668.800 What systems must an INA grantee have in place to...

  16. 20 CFR 668.800 - What systems must an INA grantee have in place to administer an INA program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What systems must an INA grantee have in place to administer an INA program? 668.800 Section 668.800 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF...

  17. Controllable Synthesis of Single-Crystalline CdO and Cd(OH)2Nanowires by a Simple Hydrothermal Approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline Cd(OH)2 or CdO nanowires can be selectively synthesized at 150 °C by a simple hydrothermal method using aqueous Cd(NO3)2 as precursor. The method is biosafe, and compared to the conventional oil-water surfactant approach, more environmental-benign. As revealed by the XRD results, CdO or Cd(OH)2 nanowires can be generated in high purity by varying the time of synthesis. The results of FESEM and HRTEM analysis show that the CdO nanowires are formed in bundles. Over the CdO-nanowire bundles, photoluminescence at ~517 nm attributable to near band-edge emission of CdO was recorded. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the products is proposed. PMID:20672033

  18. Control over the number density and diameter of GaAs nanowires on Si(111) mediated by droplet epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Somaschini, Claudio; Bietti, Sergio; Trampert, Achim; Jahn, Uwe; Hauswald, Christian; Riechert, Henning; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2013-08-14

    We present a novel approach for the growth of GaAs nanowires (NWs) with controllable number density and diameter, which consists of the combination between droplet epitaxy (DE) and self-assisted NW growth. In our method, GaAs islands are initially formed on Si(111) by DE and, subsequently, GaAs NWs are selectively grown on their top facet, which acts as a nucleation site. By DE, we can successfully tailor the number density and diameter of the template of initial GaAs islands and the same degree of control is transferred to the final GaAs NWs. We show how, by a suitable choice of V/III flux ratio, a single NW can be accommodated on top of each GaAs base island. By transmission electron microscopy, as well as cathodo- and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we confirmed the high structural and optical quality of GaAs NWs grown by our method. We believe that this combined approach can be more generally applied to the fabrication of different homo- or heteroepitaxial NWs, nucleated on the top of predefined islands obtained by DE.

  19. High Field-Emission Stability of Offset-Thin-Film Transistor-Controlled Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Jyh-Liang; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Jia-Chuan; Lee, I.-Che; Chang, Chia-Tsung; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2011-04-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanowire (NW) arrays incorporating an offset thin-film transistor (offset-TFT) have been proposed to achieve high field-emission (FE) stability. The AZO NW field emission arrays (FEAs) were hydrothermally grown at a low temperature of 85 °C. The uncontrolled AZO NW FEAs demonstrated superior FE characteristics (i.e., turn-on field of ˜2.17 V/µm and threshold field of ˜3.43 V/µm) compared with those of the conventional CNT FEAs grown at a temperature below 600 °C. However, uncontrolled AZO NW FEAs show a larger current fluctuation of 15.6%. Therefore, the offset-TFTs were used to control the AZO NW FEAs. Consequently, the fluctuation of AZO NW FEAs could be significantly reduced to less than 2%. This novel field emission device exhibits good emission stability, low-voltage controllability, low-temperature processing, and structural simplicity, making it promising for applications in flat panel displays.

  20. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity.

    PubMed

    Arefpour, M; Kashi, M Almasi; Ramazani, A; Montazer, A H

    2016-06-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (∼18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm(2)) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  1. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefpour, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (˜18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm2) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  2. Rational defect introduction in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shin, Naechul; Chi, Miaofang; Howe, Jane Y; Filler, Michael A

    2013-05-08

    The controlled introduction of planar defects, particularly twin boundaries and stacking faults, in group IV nanowires remains challenging despite the prevalence of these structural features in other nanowire systems (e.g., II-VI and III-V). Here we demonstrate how user-programmable changes to precursor pressure and growth temperature can rationally generate both transverse twin boundaries and angled stacking faults during the growth of <111> oriented Si nanowires. We leverage this new capability to demonstrate prototype defect superstructures. These findings yield important insight into the mechanism of defect generation in semiconductor nanowires and suggest new routes to engineer the properties of this ubiquitous semiconductor.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of single crystalline selenium nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.Y. . E-mail: apzhxy@polyu.edu.hk; Xu, L.H.; Dai, J.Y.; Cai, Y.; Wang, N.

    2006-09-14

    Ordered selenium nanowire arrays with diameters about 40 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition using anodic porous alumina templates. As determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selenium nanowires have uniform diameters, which are fully controllable. Single crystalline trigonal selenium nanowires have been obtained after postannealing at 180 deg. C. These nanowires are perfect with a c-axis growth orientation. The optical absorption spectra reveal two types of electron transition activity.

  4. Using galvanostatic electroforming of Bi1–xSbx nanowires to control composition, crystallinity, and orientation

    DOE PAGES

    Limmer, Steven J.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Siegal, Michael P.; ...

    2014-12-03

    When using galvanostatic pulse deposition, we studied the factors influencing the quality of electroformed Bi1–xSbx nanowires with respect to composition, crystallinity, and preferred orientation for high thermoelectric performance. Two nonaqueous baths with different Sb salts were investigated. The Sb salts used played a major role in both crystalline quality and preferred orientations. Nanowire arrays electroformed using an SbI3 -based chemistry were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, whereas arrays electroformed from an SbCl3-based chemistry were strongly crystallographically textured with the desired trigonal orientation for optimal thermoelectric performance. From the SbCl3 bath, the electroformed nanowire arrays were optimized to have nanocompositionalmore » uniformity, with a nearly constant composition along the nanowire length. Moreover, nanowires harvested from the center of the array had an average composition of Bi0.75 Sb0.25. However, the nanowire compositions were slightly enriched in Sb in a small region near the edges of the array, with the composition approaching Bi0.70Sb0.30.« less

  5. Quantum Dots: Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on GaAs (511)A Substrates: The Competition between Thermal Dynamics and Kinetics (Small 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wen, Lei; Gao, Fangliang; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    On page 4277, G. Li and co-workers aim to promote III-V compound semiconductors and devices for a broad range of applications with various technologies. The growth process of InAs quantum dots on GaAs (511)A substrates is systematically studied. By carefully controlling the competition between growth thermal-dynamics and kinetics, InAs quantum dots with high size uniformity are prepared, which are highly desirable for the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells.

  6. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-12-13

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation.

  7. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-01-01

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation. PMID:27958367

  8. Controlled electrodeposition of bismuth nanocatalysts for the solution-liquid-solid synthesis of CdSe nanowires on transparent conductive substrates.

    PubMed

    Reim, Natalia; Littig, Alexander; Behn, Dino; Mews, Alf

    2013-12-11

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been directly grown on transparent conductive substrates via the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach using electrodeposited bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) as catalyst. Bi NPs were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces from a bismuth trichloride solution using potentiostatic double-pulse techniques. The size and density of electrodeposited Bi NPs were controlled by the pulse parameters. Since the NW diameter is governed by the dimension of the Bi catalyst, the electrodeposition is a reliable method to synthesize nanowires directly on substrates with a desired size and density. We show that the density can be adjusted from individual NWs on several square micrometer to very dense NW networks. The diameter can be controlled between thick nanowires above 100 nm to very thin NW of 7 nm in diameter, which is well below the respective exciton dimension. Hence, especially the thinnest NWs exhibit diameter-dependent photoluminescence energies as a result of quantum confinement effects in the radial dimension.

  9. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-12-01

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation.

  10. Random access actuation of nanowire grid metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Valente, João; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    While metamaterials offer engineered static optical properties, future artificial media with dynamic random-access control over shape and position of meta-molecules will provide arbitrary control of light propagation. The simplest example of such a reconfigurable metamaterial is a nanowire grid metasurface with subwavelength wire spacing. Recently we demonstrated computationally that such a metadevice with individually controlled wire positions could be used as dynamic diffraction grating, beam steering module and tunable focusing element. Here we report on the nanomembrane realization of such a nanowire grid metasurface constructed from individually addressable plasmonic chevron nanowires with a 230 nm × 100 nm cross-section, which consist of gold and silicon nitride. The active structure of the metadevice consists of 15 nanowires each 18 μm long and is fabricated by a combination of electron beam lithography and ion beam milling. It is packaged as a microchip device where the nanowires can be individually actuated by control currents via differential thermal expansion.

  11. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  12. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  13. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-18

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  14. Preparation and optical properties of silver nanowires and silver-nanowire thin films.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quocanh N; Doorn, Joshua M; Berry, Mary T; Jiang, Chaoyang; Lin, Cuikun; May, P Stanley

    2011-04-01

    Silver nanowires and silver-nanowire thin films have attracted much attention due to their extensive applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence (SEF). Thin films of silver nanowires within polyelectrolyte layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were fabricated by the Spin-Assisted Layer-by-Layer (SA-LbL) method. The surface coverage, thickness, and absorbance properties of the silver-nanowire films were controlled by the number of layers deposited. Both transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon (SP) modes of the silver-nanowires were observed in the absorbance spectra, as was evidence for nanowire interaction. Two-dimensional finite difference time-domain (2D FDTD) simulations predict that the maximum field enhancement occurs at the ends and cross-sectional edges of the wires for the longitudinal and transverse modes, respectively. Silver nanowires were synthesized by a facile, high-yield solvothermal approach, which can be easily manipulated to control the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentration and molecular weight on the growth of the silver nanowires, which are not documented in the original procedure, are discussed. It is shown that the growth mechanism for silver nanowires in the solvothermal synthesis is similar to that reported for the polyol synthesis.

  15. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With the core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]

  16. Controlled-Direction Growth of Planar InAsSb Nanowires on Si Substrates without Foreign Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenna; Yang, Xiaoguang; Pan, Huayong; Ji, Xianghai; Ji, Haiming; Luo, Shuai; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Zhanguo; Yang, Tao

    2016-02-10

    We describe the controlled growth of planar InAsSb nanowires (NWs) on differently oriented Si substrates without any foreign catalysts. Interestingly, the planar InAsSb NWs grew along four criss-crossed ⟨110⟩ directions on an [100]-oriented substrate, two ⟨100⟩ directions plus four ⟨111⟩ directions on an [110]-oriented substrate, and six equivalent ⟨112⟩ directions on an [111]-oriented substrate, which correspond to the projections of ⟨111⟩ family crystal directions on the substrate planes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that the NWs experienced a transition from out-of-plane to in-plane growth at the early growth stage but still occurred on the {111} plane, which has the lowest surface energy among all the surfaces. Furthermore, the NWs exhibit a pure zinc-blende crystal structure without any defects. A growth model is presented to explain growth of the NWs. In addition, conductive atomic force microscopy shows that electrically rectifying p-n junctions form naturally between the planar InAsSb NWs and the p-type Si substrates. The results presented here could open up a new route way to fabricate highly integrated III-V nanodevices.

  17. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; ...

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With themore » core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]« less

  18. Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2012-09-07

    Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic "tree" and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

  19. Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2012-08-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic ``tree'' and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

  20. New method for the controlled creation of sub-15 nm aluminum nanowires to probe the 1D superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Wall, Tyler; Hughes, Hannah; Hartman, Nik; McQueen, Tyrell; Markovic, Nina

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a new method for the creation of sub-15 nm aluminum nanostructures using a sodium bicarbonate solution. Using PMMA masks patterned with e-beam lithography, we can controllably etch lithographically-produced nanostructures while measuring their resistances in-situ using a 4-probe measurement. This technique allows for precise control over the final resistance and thus can be used to create a wide variety of nanodevices. In particular, this technique allows for the creation of nanowires to probe the superconductor-insulator transition in 1D.

  1. Purcell enhancement of emitting from the quantum-dot-in-nanowire structure surrounded by Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fengling; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    Single photon sources are key devices for quantum communication and quantum computation. Recently, photonic nanowires with an embedded quantum dot have demonstrated to provide remarkable extraction efficiency due to the axial waveguide configuration and nanocavity function of nanowire. However, for thin nanowires, stable modes cannot be supported, resulting in very poor Purcell factor which is an important parameter of single photon sources. In this paper, a novel single photon source structure with a high Purcell factor is proposed and simulated. The structure consists of a GaAs nanowire embedded with an InAs quantum dot surrounded by Au. The enhancement of the Purcell factor is simulated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Without Au shell, the Purcell factor quickly drops as the diameter of nanowire decreases. When the diameter is decreased to 50 nm, the nanowire cannot support any stable modes, resulting in a rather low Purcell factor of 0.009. After the Au shell is introduced, the Purcell factor is dramatically enhanced, and the enhancement ratio increases as the nanowire diameter decreases. The highest enhancement ratio of 1028 can be obtained at a nanowire diameter of 25 nm and Au shell thickness of 75 nm. The enhancement of the Purcell factor is attributed to the decrease of the cavity effective mode volume, which is inversely proportion to the Purcell factor. This work may offer a way to achieve single photon sources with an ultra-small size and ultrahigh Purcell factor.

  2. Enhanced non-volatile resistive switching in suspended single-crystalline ZnO nanowire with controllable multiple states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Zhihong; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switching nanostructures are a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memories. In this report, we investigate the switching behaviors of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires suspended in air. They exhibit significantly higher current density, lower switching voltage, and more pronounced multiple conductance states compared to nanowires in direct contact with substrate. We attribute the effect to enhanced Joule heating efficiency, reduced surface scattering, and more significantly, the positive feedback established between the current density and local temperature in the suspended nanowires. The proposed mechanism has been quantitatively examined by finite element simulations. We have also demonstrated an innovative approach to initiating the current-temperature mutual enhancement through illumination by ultraviolet light, which further confirmed our hypothesis and enabled even greater enhancement. Our work provides further insight into the resistive switching mechanism of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures, and suggests an effective means of performance enhancement and device optimization.

  3. Enhanced non-volatile resistive switching in suspended single-crystalline ZnO nanowire with controllable multiple states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Zhihong; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-06-27

    Resistive switching nanostructures are a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memories. In this report, we investigate the switching behaviors of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires suspended in air. They exhibit significantly higher current density, lower switching voltage, and more pronounced multiple conductance states compared to nanowires in direct contact with substrate. We attribute the effect to enhanced Joule heating efficiency, reduced surface scattering, and more significantly, the positive feedback established between the current density and local temperature in the suspended nanowires. The proposed mechanism has been quantitatively examined by finite element simulations. We have also demonstrated an innovative approach to initiating the current-temperature mutual enhancement through illumination by ultraviolet light, which further confirmed our hypothesis and enabled even greater enhancement. Our work provides further insight into the resistive switching mechanism of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures, and suggests an effective means of performance enhancement and device optimization.

  4. 20 CFR 668.510 - What services may INA grantees provide to the community at large under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE... community at large under section 166? (a) INA grantees may provide services to the Native American... activities which: (1) Strengthen the capacity of Native American-controlled institutions to provide...

  5. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan; Nabet, Bahram

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in "volumetric modes,"which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry-Perot (FP), and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width), tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal), core-shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs) form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption) and downward transitions (emission) of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this "rate management" scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  6. Plasma effects in semiconducting nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken); Seo, Dong Han; Mehdipour, Hamid; Cheng, Qijin; Kumar, Shailesh

    2012-02-01

    Three case studies are presented to show low-temperature plasma-specific effects in the solution of (i) effective control of nucleation and growth; (ii) environmental friendliness; and (iii) energy efficiency critical issues in semiconducting nanowire growth. The first case (related to (i) and (iii)) shows that in catalytic growth of Si nanowires, plasma-specific effects lead to a substantial increase in growth rates, decrease of the minimum nanowire thickness, and much faster nanowire nucleation at the same growth temperatures. For nucleation and growth of nanowires of the same thickness, much lower temperatures are required. In the second example (related to (ii)), we produce Si nanowire networks with controllable nanowire thickness, length, and area density without any catalyst or external supply of Si building material. This case is an environmentally-friendly alternative to the commonly used Si microfabrication based on a highly-toxic silane precursor gas. The third example is related to (iii) and demonstrates that ZnO nanowires can be synthesized in plasma-enhanced CVD at significantly lower process temperatures than in similar neutral gas-based processes and without compromising structural quality and performance of the nanowires. Our results are relevant to the development of next-generation nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, energy conversion and sensing devices based on semiconducting nanowires.Three case studies are presented to show low-temperature plasma-specific effects in the solution of (i) effective control of nucleation and growth; (ii) environmental friendliness; and (iii) energy efficiency critical issues in semiconducting nanowire growth. The first case (related to (i) and (iii)) shows that in catalytic growth of Si nanowires, plasma-specific effects lead to a substantial increase in growth rates, decrease of the minimum nanowire thickness, and much faster nanowire nucleation at the same growth temperatures. For nucleation and growth of nanowires

  7. The arrhythmogenic consequences of increasing late INa in the cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Shryock, John C; Song, Yejia; Rajamani, Sridharan; Antzelevitch, Charles; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2013-09-01

    This review presents the roles of cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 late current (late INa) in generation of arrhythmic activity. The assumption of the authors is that proper Na(+) channel function is necessary to the maintenance of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of Na(+) and regulation of cardiac electrical activity. Myocyte Na(+) channels' openings during the brief action potential upstroke contribute to peak INa and initiate excitation-contraction coupling. Openings of Na(+) channels outside the upstroke contribute to late INa, a depolarizing current that persists throughout the action potential plateau. The small, physiological late INa does not appear to be critical for normal electrical or contractile function in the heart. Late INa does, however, reduce the net repolarizing current, prolongs action potential duration, and increases cellular Na(+) loading. An increase of late INa, due to acquired conditions (e.g. heart failure) or inherited Na(+) channelopathies, facilitates the formation of early and delayed afterpolarizations and triggered arrhythmias, spontaneous diastolic depolarization, and cellular Ca(2+) loading. These in turn increase the spatial and temporal dispersion of repolarization time and may lead to reentrant arrhythmias.

  8. Controllable Synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays and Their Application for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jiye; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Rational design/fabrication of integrated porous metal oxide arrays is critical for the construction of advanced electrochemical devices. Herein, we report self-supported CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by the combination of electro-deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. CuO/C nanowires with diameters of ~400 nm grow quasi-vertically to the substrates forming three-dimensional arrays architecture. A thin carbon shell is uniformly coated on the CuO nanowire cores. As an anode of lithium ion batteries, the resultant CuO/C nanowire arrays are demonstrated to have high specific capacity (672 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C) and good cycle stability (425 mAh·g−1 at 1 C up to 150 cycles). The core/shell arrays structure plays positive roles in the enhancement of Li ion storage due to fast ion/electron transfer path, good strain accommodation and sufficient contact between electrolyte and active materials. PMID:28347084

  9. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  10. Self-catalysed InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires grown directly on bare Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Anyebe, E.A. Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-catalysed InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires grown directly on bare Si substrates. • InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires directly grown on bare Si substrates without employing the commonly used nucleation nanowire stems which could be problematic in device applications. • Pre-deposited Indium droplets were employed to facilitate InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowire nucleation and growth. • Unravels a promising route for the direct integration of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires with the well-established Silicon platform. - Abstract: We report the self-catalysed growth of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires directly on bare Si substrates. Vertically aligned and non-tapered InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires were realized via indium-assisted nucleation without using nanowire stems. The compositions of the InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires were determined by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). It is observed that the geometry of the nanowires is modified by the Sb flux resulting in an almost doubling of the lateral dimension and a corresponding suppression in the axial growth of the InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. This observation unravels a method to modify the geometry of InAs nanowire and open up a promising route for the direct integration of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires with the well-established Si platform.

  11. Nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistors: Prospects and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Somaia Sarwat

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) has the potential to operate at lower voltages and lower power than the field effect transistor (FET). The TFET can circumvent the fundamental thermal limit of the inverse subthreshold slope (S) by exploiting interband tunneling of non-equilibrium "cold" carriers. The conduction mechanism in the TFET is governed by band-to-band tunneling which limits the drive current. TFETs built with III-V materials like InAs and InSb can produce enough tunneling current because of their small direct bandgap. Our simulation results show that although they require highly degenerate source doping to support the high electric fields in the tunnel region, the devices achieve minimum inverse subthreshold slopes of 30 mV/dec. In subthreshold, these devices experience both regimes of voltage-controlled tunneling and cold-carrier injection. Numerical results based on a discretized 8-band k.p model are compared to analytical WKB theory. For both regular FETs and TFETs, direct channel tunneling dominates the leakage current when the physical gate length is reduced to 5 nm. Therefore, a survey of materials is performed to determine their ability to suppress the direct tunnel current through a 5 nm barrier. The tunneling effective mass gives the best indication of the relative size of the tunnel currents. Si gives the lowest overall tunnel current for both the conduction and valence band and, therefore, it is the optimum choice for suppressing tunnel current at the 5 nm scale. Our numerical simulation shows that the finite number, random placement, and discrete nature of the dopants in the source of an InAs nanowire (NW) TFET affect both the mean value and the variance of the drive current and the inverse subthreshold slope. The discrete doping model gives an average drive current and an inverse subthreshold slope that are less than those predicted from the homogeneous doping model. The doping density required to achieve a target drive current is

  12. Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition: a method for patterning electrically continuous metal nanowires on dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chenxiang; Kung, Sheng-Chin; Taggart, David K; Yang, Fan; Thompson, Michael A; Güell, Aleix G; Yang, Yongan; Penner, Reginald M

    2008-09-23

    Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) is a new method for fabricating polycrystalline metal nanowires using electrodeposition. In LPNE, a sacrificial metal (M(1)=silver or nickel) layer, 5-100 nm in thickness, is first vapor deposited onto a glass, oxidized silicon, or Kapton polymer film. A (+) photoresist (PR) layer is then deposited, photopatterned, and the exposed Ag or Ni is removed by wet etching. The etching duration is adjusted to produce an undercut approximately 300 nm in width at the edges of the exposed PR. This undercut produces a horizontal trench with a precisely defined height equal to the thickness of the M(1) layer. Within this trench, a nanowire of metal M(2) is electrodeposited (M(2)=gold, platinum, palladium, or bismuth). Finally the PR layer and M(1) layer are removed. The nanowire height and width can be independently controlled down to minimum dimensions of 5 nm (h) and 11 nm (w), for example, in the case of platinum. These nanowires can be 1 cm in total length. We measure the temperature-dependent resistance of 100 microm sections of Au and Pd wires in order to estimate an electrical grain size for comparison with measurements by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Nanowire arrays can be postpatterned to produce two-dimensional arrays of nanorods. Nanowire patterns can also be overlaid one on top of another by repeating the LPNE process twice in succession to produce, for example, arrays of low-impedance, nanowire-nanowire junctions.

  13. Electrically conductive and optically active porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2009-12-01

    We report the synthesis of vertical silicon nanowire array through a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching of highly doped n-type silicon (100) wafers in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of the as-grown silicon nanowires is tunable from solid nonporous nanowires, nonporous/nanoporous core/shell nanowires, to entirely nanoporous nanowires by controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution. The porous silicon nanowires retain the single crystalline structure and crystallographic orientation of the starting silicon wafer and are electrically conductive and optically active with visible photoluminescence. The combination of electronic and optical properties in the porous silicon nanowires may provide a platform for novel optoelectronic devices for energy harvesting, conversion, and biosensing.

  14. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; ...

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystalsmore » that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.« less

  15. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  16. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M.C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E.A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid state lighting and single photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyze nanowire growth as a “mixing bowl”, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures. PMID:26168344

  17. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a `mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  18. Growth and fabrication of proximity-coupled topological quantum wire circuits from thin InAs films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Carolyn; Xue, Chi; Bai, Yang; Eckstein, James

    The realization of topological states in strongly spin orbit coupled semiconductors proximity-coupled to conventional superconductors requires delicate materials engineering. Key areas for improvement include the crystalline quality of the semiconductor itself, but a high-quality interface between the semiconductor and superconductor is essential. Recent results have demonstrated the necessity of forming an in situ interface to eliminate the ``soft gap'' observed in earlier experiments. While much work has focused on vertically grown nanowires, we take a lithographic approach to fabricating quantum wires out of MBE-grown thin films, which allow for increased flexibility and scalability of device structures. Notably, our films are grown entirely in situ in linked MBE systems, vastly improving interface transmission and cleanliness. Aspects of growth architecture aimed toward increasing the InAs mobility, such as substrate choice and layer structure, are also discussed.

  19. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, E.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  20. Topological Phases in InAs1 -xSbx: From Novel Topological Semimetal to Majorana Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Georg W.; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Krogstrup, Peter; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-08-01

    Superconductor proximitized one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are, at this time, the most promising candidates for the realization of topological quantum information processing. In current experiments the SOI originates predominantly from extrinsic fields, induced by finite size effects and applied gate voltages. The dependence of the topological transition in these devices on microscopic details makes scaling to a large number of devices difficult unless a material with dominant intrinsic bulk SOI is used. Here, we show that wires made of certain ordered alloys InAs1 -xSbx have spin splittings up to 20 times larger than those reached in pristine InSb wires. In particular, we show this for a stable ordered CuPt structure at x =0.5 , which has an inverted band ordering and realizes a novel type of a topological semimetal with triple degeneracy points in the bulk spectrum that produce topological surface Fermi arcs. Experimentally achievable strains can either drive this compound into a topological insulator phase or restore the normal band ordering, making the CuPt-ordered InAs0.5Sb0.5 a semiconductor with a large intrinsic linear in k bulk spin splitting.

  1. Organic solvent-induced controllable crystallization of the inorganic salt Na3[Au(SO3)2] into ultralong nanobelts and hierarchical microstructures of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sen; Tian, Jingqi; Wang, Lei; Li, Hailong; Sun, Xuping

    2011-04-01

    The present paper reports an organic solvent-induced controllable crystallization of a water-soluble inorganic salt Na3[Au(SO3)2] into ultralong nanobelts and hierarchical microstructures of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. It was found that the morphology of the resulting crystals can be fine tuned by simply varying the experimental parameters, such as the ratios of water to organic solvent and gold salt to organic solvent, as well as the type of organic solvent.The present paper reports an organic solvent-induced controllable crystallization of a water-soluble inorganic salt Na3[Au(SO3)2] into ultralong nanobelts and hierarchical microstructures of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. It was found that the morphology of the resulting crystals can be fine tuned by simply varying the experimental parameters, such as the ratios of water to organic solvent and gold salt to organic solvent, as well as the type of organic solvent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: EDS and XRD analysis of nanobelts. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00690d

  2. Thermal and chemical vapor deposition of Si nanowires: Shape control, dispersion, and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Colli, A.; Fasoli, A.; Beecher, P.; Servati, P.; Pisana, S.; Fu, Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.; De Franceschi, S.; Hofmann, S.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate and compare complementary approaches to SiNW production in terms of yield, morphology control, and electrical properties. Vapor-phase techniques are considered, including chemical vapor deposition (with or without the assistance of a plasma) and thermal evaporation. We report Au-catalyzed nucleation of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 300 deg. C using SiH{sub 4} as precursor. We get yields up to several milligrams by metal-free condensation of SiO powders. For all processes, we control the final nanostructure morphology. We then report concentrated and stable dispersions of SiNWs in solvents compatible with semiconducting organic polymers. Finally, we investigate the electrical response of intrinsic SiNWs grown by different methods. All our SiNWs exhibit p-type behavior and comparable performance, though in some cases ambipolar devices are observed. Thus, processing and morphology, rather than the growth technique, are key to achieve optimal samples for applications.

  3. Thermal and chemical vapor deposition of Si nanowires: Shape control, dispersion, and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, A.; Fasoli, A.; Beecher, P.; Servati, P.; Pisana, S.; Fu, Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.; De Franceschi, S.; Hofmann, S.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate and compare complementary approaches to SiNW production in terms of yield, morphology control, and electrical properties. Vapor-phase techniques are considered, including chemical vapor deposition (with or without the assistance of a plasma) and thermal evaporation. We report Au-catalyzed nucleation of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 300°C using SiH4 as precursor. We get yields up to several milligrams by metal-free condensation of SiO powders. For all processes, we control the final nanostructure morphology. We then report concentrated and stable dispersions of SiNWs in solvents compatible with semiconducting organic polymers. Finally, we investigate the electrical response of intrinsic SiNWs grown by different methods. All our SiNWs exhibit p-type behavior and comparable performance, though in some cases ambipolar devices are observed. Thus, processing and morphology, rather than the growth technique, are key to achieve optimal samples for applications.

  4. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga {sup +} ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, D. M. Atkinson, D.

    2014-10-28

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  5. Controllable synthesis of p-type Cu2S nanowires for self-driven NIR photodetector application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Pan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Zhu; Wang, You-Yi; Liang, Feng-Xia; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Li; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Face-centered cubic Cu2S nanowires with length of up to 50 μm and diameters in the range of 100-500 nm are synthesized on Si substrates through the chemical vapor deposition method using a mixed gas of Ar and H2 as the carrier gas under a chamber pressure of about 700 Torr. It was found that the growth of quasi 1D nanostructure followed a typical vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism in which the element Cu was reduced by H2 as the catalyst. The as-synthesized Cu2S nanowires exhibited typical p-type semiconducting characteristics with a conductivity of about 600 S cm-1 and a hole mobility ( μ h) of about 72 cm2 V-1 s-1. Further study reveals that p-Cu2S nanowires/n-Si heterojunction exhibits distinct rectifying characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 0.6 V and a rectification ratio of 300 at ±1 V in the dark and a pronounced photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.09 V and a short circuit current ( I sc) of 65 nA when illuminated by the NIR light (790 nm, 0.35 mW cm-1), giving rise to a responsivity ( R) about 0.8 mA W-1 and specific detectivity ( D*) 6.7 × 1010 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at zero bias, which suggests the potential of as-synthesized Cu2S nanowires applied in the field of self-driven NIR photodetector.

  6. Control of Nanofilament Structure and Observations of Quantum Point Contact Behavior in Ni/NiO Nanowire Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Sean; Fairfield, Jessamyn; Lee, Sunghun; Bellew, Allen; Stone, Iris; Ruppalt, Laura; Boland, John; Vora, Patrick

    Resistive switching is ideal for use in non-volatile memory where information is stored in a metallic or insulating state. Nanowire junctions formed at the intersection of two Ni/NiO core/shell nanowires have emerged as a leading candidate structure where resistive switching occurs due to the formation and destruction of conducting filaments. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the conduction mechanisms as measurements are typically only performed at room temperature. Here, we combine temperature-dependent current-voltage (IV) measurements from 15 - 300 K with magnetoresistance studies and achieve new insight into the nature of the conducting filaments. We identify a novel semiconducting state that behaves as a quantum point contact and find evidence for a possible electric-field driven phase transition. The insulating state exhibits unexpectedly complex IV characteristics that highlight the disordered nature of the ruptured filament while we find clear signs of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the metallic state. Our results expose previously unobserved behaviors in nanowire resistive switching devices and pave the way for future applications where both electrical and magnetic switching can be achieved in a single device. This work was supported by ONR Grant N-00014-15-1-2357.

  7. Synthesis of Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires with controllable morphology in a water-in-oil microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Hongyu; Jiao Qingze; Zhao Yun; Huang Silu; Li Xuefei; Liu Hongbo; Zhou Mingji

    2010-02-15

    The Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires were synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) /n-hexane/n-hexanol/water as Soft-Template. ZnSO{sub 4}, CoSO{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and urea were used as raw materials. The influence of reaction temperature, time, urea concentration and Cn (molar ratio of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to water) on the structure and morphology of Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxides was investigated. The samples were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Absorption Spectrum (IR). The results indicate that higher temperature is beneficial to the formation of layered double hydroxides, but particles apart from nanowires could be produced if temperature is up to 120 deg. C. By varying the temperature, reaction time, urea concentration and Cn, we got the optimum conditions of synthesizing uniform Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires: 100 deg. C, more than 12 h, Cn: 30-33, urea concentration: 0.3 M.

  8. Laser-Assisted Growth of t-Te Nanotubes and their Controlled Photo-induced Unzipping to ultrathin core-Te/sheath-TeO2 Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiadis, Thomas; Dracopoulos, Vassileios; Kollia, Mary; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.

    2013-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures of semiconducting oxides and elemental chalcogens culminate over the last decade in nanotechnology owing to their unique properties exploitable in several applications sectors. Whereas several synthetic strategies have been established for rational design of 1D materials using solution chemistry and high temperature evaporation methods, much less attention has been given to the laser-assisted growth of hybrid nanostructures. Here, we present a laser-assisted method for the controlled fabrication of Te nanotubes. A series of light-driven phase transition is employed to controllably transform Te nanotubes to core-Te/sheath-TeO2 and/or even neat TeO2 nanowires. This solid-state laser-processing of semiconducting materials apart from offering new opportunities for the fast and spatially controlled fabrication of anisotropic nanostructures, provides a means of simultaneous growing and integrating these nanostructures into an optoelectronic or photonic device. PMID:23383377

  9. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A R; Gluschke, J G; Krogstrup, P; Sørensen, C B; Nygård, J; Micolich, A P

    2017-03-01

    GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin-orbit effects, motivating our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top-gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio [Formula: see text], and sub-threshold slope 50 mV/dec at [Formula: see text] K. Lastly, we made a device featuring a moderately doped nanowire with annealed contacts and multiple top-gates. Top-gate sweeps show a plateau in the sub-threshold region that is reproducible in separate cool-downs and indicative of possible conductance quantisation highlighting the potential for future quantum device studies in this material system.

  10. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Krogstrup, P.; Sørensen, C. B.; Nygård, J.; Micolich, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top-gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio ∼ {10}4, and sub-threshold slope 50 mV/dec at T=4 K. Lastly, we made a device featuring a moderately doped nanowire with annealed contacts and multiple top-gates. Top-gate sweeps show a plateau in the sub-threshold region that is reproducible in separate cool-downs and indicative of possible conductance quantisation highlighting the potential for future quantum device studies in this material system.

  11. 20 CFR 668.296 - How are WIA funds allocated to INA grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... number of unemployed Native American persons in the grantee's designated INA service area(s) compared to... designated INA service area(s) as compared to all such persons in all such areas in the United States....

  12. Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by a glass capillary: a portable, reusable and durable SERS substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Huang, Wei-Ran; Yu, Le; Ren, Xi-Feng; Wen, Wu-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Assembly of nanowires into ordered macroscopic structures with new functionalities has been a recent focus. In this Letter, we report a new route for ordering hydrophilic Ag nanowires with high aspect ratio by flowing through a glass capillary. The present glass capillary with well-defined silver nanowire films inside can serve as a portable and reusable substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which may provide a versatile and promising platform for detecting mixture pollutions. By controlling the flow parameters of nanowire suspensions, initially random Ag nanowires can be aligned to form nanowire arrays with tunable density, forming cambered nanowire films adhered onto the inner wall of the capillary. Compared with the planar ordered Ag nanowire films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, the cambered nanowire films show better SERS performance.

  13. Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandall, Ian; Tan, Chee Hing; Smith, Andrew; Gwilliam, Russell

    2012-04-09

    We have performed Helium (He) ion implantation on InAs and performed post implant annealing to investigate the effect on the sheet resistance. Using the transmission line model (TLM) we have shown that the sheet resistance of a p⁺ InAs layer, with a nominal doping concentration of 1x10¹⁸ cm⁻³, can increase by over 5 orders of magnitude upon implantation. We achieved a sheet resistance of 1x10⁵ Ω/Square in an 'as-implanted' sample and with subsequent annealing this can be further increased to 1x10⁷ Ω/Square. By also performing implantation on p-i-n structures we have shown that it is possible to produce planar photodiodes with comparable dark currents and quantum efficiencies to chemically etched reference mesa InAs photodiodes.

  14. Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

    2015-01-09

    Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications.

  15. Controlling the polarity of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy-grown GaP on Si(111) for subsequent III-V nanowire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Paszuk, A.; Steidl, M.; Zhao, W.; Dobrich, A.; Kleinschmidt, P.; Brückner, S.; Supplie, O.; Hannappel, T.; Prost, W.

    2015-06-08

    Nanowire growth on heteroepitaxial GaP/Si(111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy requires the [-1-1-1] face, i.e., GaP(111) material with B-type polarity. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) allows us to identify the polarity of GaP grown on Si(111), since (2×2) and (1×1) surface reconstructions are associated with GaP(111)A and GaP(111)B, respectively. In dependence on the pre-growth treatment of the Si(111) substrates, we were able to control the polarity of the GaP buffers. GaP films grown on the H-terminated Si(111) surface exhibited A-type polarity, while GaP grown on Si surfaces terminated with arsenic exhibited a (1×1) LEED pattern, indicating B-type polarity. We obtained vertical GaAs nanowire growth on heteroepitaxial GaP with (1×1) surface reconstruction only, in agreement with growth experiments on homoepitaxially grown GaP(111)

  16. Dynamical color-controllable lasing with extremely wide tuning range from red to green in a single alloy nanowire using nanoscale manipulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhicheng; Yin, Leijun; Ning, Hao; Yang, Zongyin; Tong, Limin; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2013-10-09

    Multicolor lasing and dynamic color-tuning in a wide spectrum range are challenging to realize but critically important in many areas of technology and daily life, such as general lighting, display, multicolor detection, and multiband communication. By exploring nanoscale growth and manipulation, we have demonstrated the first active dynamical color control of multicolor lasing, continuously tunable between red and green colors separated by 107 nm in wavelength. This is achieved in a purposely engineered single CdSSe alloy nanowire with composition varied along the wire axis. By looping the wide-gap end of the alloy nanowire through nanoscale manipulation, two largely independent (only weakly coupled) laser cavities are formed respectively for the green and red color modes. Our approach simultaneously overcomes the two fundamental challenges for multicolor lasing in material growth and cavity design. Such multicolor lasing and continuous color tuning in a wide spectral range represents a new paradigm shift and would eventually enable color-by-design and white-color lasers for lighting, illumination, and many other applications.

  17. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  18. Enhanced photogenerated carrier collection in hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and nanocrystalline CdSe.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Elaine D; Joo, John H; Hodelin, Juan F; Hu, Evelyn L

    2009-10-14

    Hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and chemical bath deposited nanocrystalline CdSe were fabricated. The conductivity of the gold nanowires within the hybrid material was controlled by gold electroless deposition. Photocurrent measurements were taken on gold nanowire films, CdSe chemical bath deposited films, and hybrid films. The incorporation of gold nanowires within the hybrid material clearly increased the extraction of photogenerated carriers within the CdSe. Photocurrent showed a direct correlation with gold nanowire conductivity.

  19. Enhanced photogenerated carrier collection in hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and nanocrystalline CdSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberer, Elaine D.; Joo, John H.; Hodelin, Juan F.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2009-10-01

    Hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and chemical bath deposited nanocrystalline CdSe were fabricated. The conductivity of the gold nanowires within the hybrid material was controlled by gold electroless deposition. Photocurrent measurements were taken on gold nanowire films, CdSe chemical bath deposited films, and hybrid films. The incorporation of gold nanowires within the hybrid material clearly increased the extraction of photogenerated carriers within the CdSe. Photocurrent showed a direct correlation with gold nanowire conductivity.

  20. 22 CFR 40.205 - Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Failure to Comply with INA § 40.205 Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c). An alien shall be ineligible to receive a...

  1. 22 CFR 40.205 - Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Failure to Comply with INA § 40.205 Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c). An alien shall be ineligible to receive a...

  2. 22 CFR 40.205 - Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Failure to Comply with INA § 40.205 Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c). An alien shall be ineligible to receive a...

  3. 22 CFR 40.205 - Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Failure to Comply with INA § 40.205 Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c). An alien shall be ineligible to receive a...

  4. 22 CFR 40.205 - Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Failure to Comply with INA § 40.205 Applicant for immigrant visa under INA 203(c). An alien shall be ineligible to receive a...

  5. Laser direct writing of modulation-doped nanowire p/n junctions.

    PubMed

    Nam, Woongsik; Mitchell, James I; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-12-02

    We demonstrate a single-step, laser-based technique to fabricate axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires. Our method is based on laser-direct-write chemical vapor deposition and has the capability to fabricate nanowires as small as 60 nm, which is far below the diffraction limit of the laser wavelength of 395 nm, with precise control of nanowire position, length, and orientation. By switching dopant gases during nanowire writing, p-n junction nanowires are produced. The p-n junction nanowires are fabricated into multifinger devices with parallel metal contacts and electrically tested to demonstrate diode characteristics.

  6. Growth behaviors of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wong, T. L.; Chan, S. K.; Sou, I. K.; Wang, N.; Su, D. S.

    2008-12-08

    Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy show an interesting growth behavior of diameter dependence of growth rates. The smaller the nanowire diameter, the faster is its growth rate. This growth behavior is totally different from that of the nanowires with diameters greater than 60 nm and cannot be interpreted by the classical theories of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. For the Au-catalyzed nanowire growth at low temperatures, we found that the surface and interface incorporation and diffusion of the source atoms at the nanowire tips controlled the growth of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires.

  7. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Alberto; Krogstrup, Peter; Heiss, Martin; Röhr, Jason A.; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sørensen, Claus B.; Nygârd, Jesper; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  8. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Alberto; Heiss, Martin; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Krogstrup, Peter; Roehr, Jason A.; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sorensen, Claus B.; Nygard, Jesper

    2013-01-07

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  9. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Su, Jie

    2008-08-05

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  10. Band-inverted gaps in InAs/GaSb and GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ning; Huang, Guang-Yao; Liao, Gaohua; Ye, Lin-Hui; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-01-01

    The [111]-oriented InAs/GaSb and GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires have been studied by the 8 × 8 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian to search for non-vanishing fundamental gaps between inverted electron and hole bands. We focus on the variations of the band-inverted fundamental gap, the hybridization gap, and the effective gap with the core radius and shell thickness of the nanowires. The evolutions of all the energy gaps with the structural parameters are shown to be dominantly governed by the effect of quantum confinement. With a fixed core radius, a band-inverted fundamental gap exists only at intermediate shell thicknesses. The maximum band-inverted gap found is ~4.4 meV for GaSb/InAs and ~3.5 meV for InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires, and for the GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires the gap persists over a wider range of geometrical parameters. The intrinsic reason for these differences between the two types of nanowires is that in the shell the electron-like states of InAs is more delocalized than the hole-like state of GaSb, while in the core the hole-like state of GaSb is more delocalized than the electron-like state of InAs, and both favor a stronger electron-hole hybridization. PMID:27924856

  11. Band-inverted gaps in InAs/GaSb and GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Huang, Guang-Yao; Liao, Gaohua; Ye, Lin-Hui; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-12-01

    The [111]-oriented InAs/GaSb and GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires have been studied by the 8 × 8 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian to search for non-vanishing fundamental gaps between inverted electron and hole bands. We focus on the variations of the band-inverted fundamental gap, the hybridization gap, and the effective gap with the core radius and shell thickness of the nanowires. The evolutions of all the energy gaps with the structural parameters are shown to be dominantly governed by the effect of quantum confinement. With a fixed core radius, a band-inverted fundamental gap exists only at intermediate shell thicknesses. The maximum band-inverted gap found is ~4.4 meV for GaSb/InAs and ~3.5 meV for InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires, and for the GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires the gap persists over a wider range of geometrical parameters. The intrinsic reason for these differences between the two types of nanowires is that in the shell the electron-like states of InAs is more delocalized than the hole-like state of GaSb, while in the core the hole-like state of GaSb is more delocalized than the electron-like state of InAs, and both favor a stronger electron-hole hybridization.

  12. Highly doped silicon nanowires by monolayer doping.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Ye, Liang; Vijselaar, Wouter; Kudernac, Tibor; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-02-23

    Controlling the doping concentration of silicon nanostructures is challenging. Here, we investigated three different monolayer doping techniques to obtain silicon nanowires with a high doping dose. These routes were based on conventional monolayer doping, starting from covalently bound dopant-containing molecules, or on monolayer contact doping, in which a source substrate coated with a monolayer of a carborane silane was the dopant source. As a third route, both techniques were combined to retain the benefits of conformal monolayer formation and the use of an external capping layer. These routes were used for doping fragile porous nanowires fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching. Differences in porosity were used to tune the total doping dose inside the nanowires, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. The higher the porosity, the higher was the surface available for dopant-containing molecules, which in turn led to a higher doping dose. Slightly porous nanowires could be doped via all three routes, which resulted in highly doped nanowires with (projected areal) doping doses of 10(14)-10(15) boron atoms per cm(2) compared to 10(12) atoms per cm(2) for a non-porous planar sample. Highly porous nanowires were not compatible with the conventional monolayer doping technique, but monolayer contact doping and the combined route resulted for these highly porous nanowires in tremendously high doping doses up to 10(17) boron atoms per cm(2).

  13. Manipulating Surface States of III-V Nanowires with Uniaxial Stress.

    PubMed

    Signorello, G; Sant, S; Bologna, N; Schraff, M; Drechsler, U; Schmid, H; Wirths, S; Rossell, M D; Schenk, A; Riel, H

    2017-04-10

    III-V compound semiconductors are indispensable materials for today's high-end electronic and optoelectronic devices and are being explored for next-generation transistor logic and quantum technologies. III-V surfaces and interfaces play the leading role in determining device performance, and therefore, methods to control their electronic properties have been developed. Typically, surface passivation studies demonstrated how to limit the density of surface states. Strain has been widely used to improve the electronic transport properties and optoelectronic properties of III-Vs, but the potential of this technology to modify the surface properties still remains to be explored. Here we show that uniaxial stress induces a shift in the energy of the surface states of III-V nanowires, modifying their electronic properties. We demonstrate this phenomenon by modulating the conductivity of InAs nanowires over 4 orders of magnitude with axial strain ranging between -2.5% in compression and 2.1% in tension. The band bending at the surface of the nanostructure is modified from accumulation to depletion reversibly and reproducibly. We provide evidence of this physical effect using a combination of electrical transport measurement, Raman spectroscopy, band-structure modeling, and technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations. With this methodology, the deformation potentials for the surface states are quantified. These results reveal that strain technology can be used to shift surface states away from energy ranges in which device performance is negatively affected and represent a novel route to engineer the electronic properties of III-V devices.

  14. Role of dissipation in realistic Majorana nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-02-01

    We carry out a realistic simulation of Majorana nanowires in order to understand the latest high-quality experimental data [H. Zhang et al., arXiv:1603.04069 (2016)] and, in the process, develop a comprehensive picture for what physical mechanisms may be operational in realistic nanowires leading to discrepancies between minimal theory and experimental observations (e.g., weakness and broadening of the zero-bias peak and breaking of particle-hole symmetry). Our focus is on understanding specific intriguing features in the data, and our goal is to establish matters of principle controlling the physics of the best possible nanowires available in current experiments. We identify dissipation, finite temperature, multi-sub-band effects, and the finite tunnel barrier as the four most important physical mechanisms controlling the zero-bias conductance peak. Our theoretical results including these realistic effects agree well with the best available experimental data in ballistic nanowires.

  15. Angle-dependent magnetotransport in GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Fabian; Wenz, Tobias; Zellekens, Patrick; Demarina, Nataliya; Rieger, Torsten; Lepsa, Mihail; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of the direction of magnetic flux on the electron motion in GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires. At small tilt angles, when the magnetic field is aligned nearly parallel to the nanowire axis, we observe Aharonov–Bohm type h/e flux periodic magnetoconductance oscillations. These are attributed to transport via angular momentum states, formed by electron waves within the InAs shell. With increasing tilt of the nanowire in the magnetic field, the flux periodic magnetoconductance oscillations disappear. Universal conductance fluctuations are observed for all tilt angles, however with increasing amplitudes for large tilt angles. We record this evolution of the electron propagation from a circling motion around the core to a diffusive transport through scattering loops and give explanations for the observed different transport regimes separated by the magnetic field orientation. PMID:27091000

  16. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  17. Combined vertically correlated InAs and GaAsSb quantum dots separated by triangular GaAsSb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hospodková, A. Oswald, J.; Pangrác, J.; Zíková, M.; Kubištová, J.; Kuldová, K.; Hulicius, E.; Komninou, Ph; Kioseoglou, J.

    2013-11-07

    The aim of this work is to offer new possibilities for quantum dot (QD) band structure engineering, which can be used for the design of QD structures for optoelectronic and single photon applications. Two types of QDs, InAs and GaAsSb, are combined in self assembled vertically correlated QD structures. The first QD layer is formed by InAs QDs and the second by vertically correlated GaAsSb QDs. Combined QD layers are separated by a triangular GaAsSb barrier. The structure can be prepared as type-I, with both electrons and holes confined in InAs QDs, exhibiting a strong photoluminescence, or type-II, with electrons confined in InAs QDs and holes in GaAsSb QDs. The presence of the thin triangular GaAsSb barrier enables the realization of different quantum level alignment between correlated InAs and GaAsSb QDs, which can be adjusted by structure parameters as type-I or type-II like for ground and excited states separately. The position of holes in this type of structure is influenced by the presence of the triangular barrier or by the size and composition of the GaAsSb QDs. The electron-hole wavefunction overlap and the photoluminescence intensity alike can also be controlled by structure engineering.

  18. Periodic nanowire array at the crystal interface.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Atsutomo; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-07-23

    A dislocation in a crystalline material has dangling bonds at its core and a strong strain field in its vicinity. Consequently, the dislocation attracts solute atoms and forms a so-called Cottrell atmosphere along the dislocation. A crystalline dislocation can be used as a template to produce nanowires by selectively doping foreign atoms along the dislocation. However, control of the configuration, spacing, and density of the formed periodic nanowire array has heretofore been extremely difficult. Here we show a method for fabricating ordered, electrically conductive nanowire arrays using periodic dislocations at crystal interfaces. As a demonstration, we fabricated arrays of titanium nanowires arranged at intervals of either 13 or 90 nm and then confirmed by scanning probe microscopy that they exhibit electrical conductivity inside an insulating aluminum oxide. Significantly, we were able to precisely control nanowire periodicity by the choice of crystal orientation and/or crystal planes at the crystal interface. This simple method for the fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays of highly controlled density should be widely applicable to electrical, magnetic, and optical devices.

  19. Spin transistor operation driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the gated nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J. Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.

    2014-03-14

    A theoretical description has been proposed for the operation of the spin transistor in the gate-controlled InAs nanowire. The calculated current-voltage characteristics show that the electron current flowing from the source (spin injector) to the drain (spin detector) oscillates as a function of the gate voltage, which results from the precession of the electron spin caused by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the vicinity of the gate. We have studied the operation of the spin transistor under the following conditions: (A) the full spin polarization of electrons in the contacts, zero temperature, and the single conduction channel corresponding to the lowest-energy subband of the transverse motion and (B) the partial spin polarization of the electrons in the contacts, the room temperature, and the conduction via many transverse subbands taken into account. For case (A), the spin-polarized current can be switched on/off by the suitable tuning of the gate voltage, for case (B) the current also exhibits the pronounced oscillations but with no-zero minimal values. The computational results obtained for case (B) have been compared with the recent experimental data and a good agreement has been found.

  20. Effect of nanowire number, diameter, and doping density on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jason; Zhang, Yanliang; To, Steve; You, Lidan; Sun, Yu

    2011-08-23

    Semiconductive nanowire-based biosensors are capable of label-free detection of biological molecules. Nano-FET (field-effect transistor) biosensors exhibiting high sensitivities toward proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses have been demonstrated. Rational device design methodologies, particularly those based on theoretical predictions, were reported. However, few experimental studies have investigated the effect of nanowire diameter, doping density, and number on nano-FET sensitivity. In this study, we devised a fabrication process based on parallel approaches and nanomanipulation-based post-processing for constructing nano-FET biosensor devices with carefully controlled nanowire parameters (diameter, doping density, and number). We experimentally reveal the effect of these nanowire parameters on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity. The experimental findings quantitatively demonstrate that device sensitivity decreases with increasing number of nanowires (4 and 7 nanowire devices exhibited a ∼38 and ∼82% decrease in sensitivity as compared to a single-nanowire device), larger nanowire diameters (sensors with 81-100 and 101-120 nm nanowire diameters exhibited a ∼16 and ∼37% decrease in sensitivity compared to devices with nanowire diameters of 60-80 nm), and higher nanowire doping densities (∼69% decrease in sensitivity due to an increase in nanowire doping density from 10(17) to 10(19) atoms·cm(-3)). These results provide insight into the importance of controlling nanowire properties for maximizing sensitivity and minimizing performance variation across devices when designing and manufacturing nano-FET biosensors.

  1. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  2. Surface physics of semiconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Michele; Rurali, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowires (NWs) are firm candidates for novel nanoelectronic devices and a fruitful playground for fundamental physics. Ultra-thin nanowires, with diameters below 10 nm, present exotic quantum effects due to the confinement of the wave functions, e.g. widening of the electronic band-gap, deepening of the dopant states. However, although several reports of sub-10 nm wires exist to date, the most common NWs have diameters that range from 20 to 200 nm, where these quantum effects are absent or play a very minor role. Yet, the research activity on this field is very intense and these materials still promise to provide an important paradigm shift for the design of emerging electronic devices and different kinds of applications. A legitimate question is then: what makes a nanowire different from bulk systems? The answer is certainly the large surface-to-volume ratio. In this article we discuss the most salient features of surface physics and chemistry in group-IV semiconducting nanowires, focusing mostly on Si NWs. First we review the state-of-the-art of NW growth to achieve a smooth and controlled surface morphology. Next we discuss the importance of a proper surface passivation and its role on the NW electronic properties. Finally, stressing the importance of a large surface-to-volume ratio and emphasizing the fact that in a NW the surface is where most of the action takes place, we discuss molecular sensing and molecular doping.

  3. Controllable growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays on hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foams for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pingping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Free-standing hierarchical macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam have been constructed by rational intergration ofwell dispersed graphene oxide sheets and amino-modified polystyrene (PS) spheres through a facile "templating and embossing" technique. The three dimensional (3D) macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam not only inherits the uniform porous structures of graphene foam, but also contains hierarchical macro/mesopores on the struts by sacrificing PS spheres and the activation of KOH, which could providing rapid pathways for ionic and electronic transport to high specific capacitance. Vertically polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays are then uniformly deposited onto the hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foam(fRGO-F/PANI) by a simple in situ polymerization, which show a high specific capacitance of 939 F g-1. Thanks to the synergistic function of 3D bicontinuous hierarchical porous structure of graphene foam and effective immobilization of PANI nanowires on the struts, the assembled symmetric supercapctior with fRGO-F/PANI as electrodes exhibits a maximum energy density and power density of 20.9 Wh kg-1 and 103.2 kW kg-1, respectively. Moreover, it also displays an excellent cyclic stability with a 88.7% retention after 5000 cycles.

  4. Large-scale synthesis of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} nanowires with controlled stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Haixiong E-mail: hsodano@ufl.edu; Zhou, Zhi; Sodano, Henry A. E-mail: hsodano@ufl.edu

    2014-04-07

    This study demonstrates a highly efficient method for large-scale synthesis BaTiO{sub 3} nanowires (NWs) using a two-step hydrothermal reaction. This synthesis process provides a facile approach to the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} NWs with high yield and control over the stoichiometry of the Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} solid solution. The ferroelectricity of the BaTiO{sub 3} NWs is directly characterized using atomic force microscopy with the piezoelectric strain coupling coefficient (d{sub 33}) reaching 31.1 pm/V. This work provide an avenue for high volume manufacturing of ferroelectric NWs, allowing both fundamental investigation of nanoscale ferroelectricity as well as their future application in the electrical devices.

  5. Uniform phosphorus doping of untapered germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Guilloy, K; Pauc, N; Gentile, P; Robin, E; Calvo, V

    2016-12-02

    One of the major challenges in the growth of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) nanowires is the control of dopant incorporation in the structures. In this work, we study the n-type doping and morphology of nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition when HCl is introduced. We obtain fully untapered nanowires with a growth temperature up to 410 °C and measure their resistivity using the 4-probe technique to be 2.0 mΩ cm. We perform energy dispersive x-ray measurements showing a concentration of dopants in the (5-7) × 10(18) cm(-3) range, being radially and axially uniform. The combination of these two measurements shows that the mobility is the same as for bulk germanium, demonstrating that the VLS mechanism has no detrimental effect for the electron transport in these nanowires.

  6. Fabrication of metallic nanowires and nanoribbons using laser interference lithography and shadow lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joong- Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai; Constant, Kristen; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2010-04-30

    Ordered and free-standing metallic nanowires were fabricated by e-beam deposition on patterned polymer templates made by interference lithography. The dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled through adjustment of deposition conditions and polymer templates. Grain size, polarized optical transmission and electrical resistivity were measured with ordered and free-standing nanowires.

  7. On-surface formation of metal nanowire transparent top electrodes on CdSe nanowire array-based photoconductive devices.

    PubMed

    Azulai, Daniel; Givan, Uri; Shpaisman, Nava; Belenkova, Tatyana Levi; Gilon, Hagit; Patolsky, Fernando; Markovich, Gil

    2012-06-27

    A simple wet chemical approach was developed for a unique on-surface synthesis of transparent conductive films consisting of ultrathin gold/silver nanowires directly grown on top of CdSe nanowire array photoconductive devices enclosed in polycarbonate membranes. The metal nanowire film formed an ohmic contact to the semiconductor nanowires without additional treatment. The sheet resistance and transparency of the metal nanowire arrays could be controlled by the number of metal nanowire layers deposited, ranging from ∼98-99% transmission through the visible range and several kOhm/sq sheet resistance for a single layer, to 80-85% transmission and ∼100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance for 4 layers.

  8. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Ma, Xin; Gerlein, L. Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2011-07-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  9. Recent progress in patterned silicon nanowire arrays: fabrication, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Teng; Zhang, Wenjun; Chu, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is great interest in patterned silicon nanowire arrays and applications. The accurately controlled fabrication of patterned silicon nanowire arrays with the desirable axial crystallographic orientation using simpler and quicker ways is very desirable and of great importance to material synthesis and future nanoscale optoelectronic devices that employ silicon. The recent advances in manipulating patterned silicon nanowire arrays and patents are reviewed with a focus on the progress of nanowire fabrication and applications.

  10. Ultrafast dynamics of surface plasmons in InAs by time-resolved infrared nanospectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander S; Maddox, Scott J; Fei, Zhe; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D; Fogler, Michael M; Bank, Seth R; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, D N

    2014-08-13

    We report on time-resolved mid-infrared (mid-IR) near-field spectroscopy of the narrow bandgap semiconductor InAs. The dominant effect we observed pertains to the dynamics of photoexcited carriers and associated surface plasmons. A novel combination of pump-probe techniques and near-field nanospectroscopy accesses high momentum plasmons and demonstrates efficient, subpicosecond photomodulation of the surface plasmon dispersion with subsequent tens of picoseconds decay under ambient conditions. The photoinduced change of the probe intensity due to plasmons in InAs is found to exceed that of other mid-IR or near-IR media by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Remarkably, the required control pulse fluence is as low as 60 μJ/cm(2), much smaller than fluences of ∼ 1-10 mJ/cm(2) previously utilized in ultrafast control of near-IR plasmonics. These low excitation densities are easily attained with a standard 1.56 μm fiber laser. Thus, InAs--a common semiconductor with favorable plasmonic properties such as a low effective mass--has the potential to become an important building block of optically controlled plasmonic devices operating at infrared frequencies.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Musket, R.G.; Felter, T.; Quong, A.

    2000-03-01

    With the dimensions of components in microelectronic circuits shrinking, the phenomena associated with electronic conduction through wires and with device operation can be expected to change. For example, as the length of electrical conductors is reduced, ballistic transport will become the main mode of conduction. Sufficient reduction in the cross sectional area of conductors can lead to quantum confinement effects. Prior knowledge of the phenomena associated with decreasing size should help guide the designers of future, smaller devices in terms of geometry and materials. However, prior knowledge requires the availability of sufficiently small nanowires for experiments. To date, the smallest nanowires that have been fabricated and investigated had diameters of 8 nm. We propose to extend the investigation of these size-related phenomena by synthesizing, using a novel version of nuclear, or ion, track lithography and characterizing, physically and electrically, nanowires with diameters D of 1 to 5 nm and lengths L of 2 to 250 nm. Thus, by varying the dimensions of the nanowires, we will be able to determine experimentally when the ideas of macroscopic conductance break down and the conductance becomes dominated by quantum and ballistic effects. In our approach the nature of the small-diameter nanostructure formed can be controlled: Nanowires are formed when L/D is large, and quantum dots are formed when both L and D are small. Theoretical calculations will be performed to both guide and understand the experimental studies. We have examined several aspects of this challenging problem and generated some promising results, but the project was not extended for the second year as planned. Thus, we did not have sufficient resources to complete the proof of concept.

  12. Misfit dislocation free InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, T.; Grützmacher, D.; Lepsa, M. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we present the growth and structural analyses of broken gap InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy using an Au-free approach. Depending on the shell growth temperature, two distinct growth regimes for the GaSb shells are identified resulting in conformal or tapered shells. Morphological analyses reveal a dodecagonal nanowire cross-section after GaSb shell growth. Detailed transmission electron microscope investigations from different zone axes confirm that the small lattice mismatch of 0.6% allows the deposition of 40 nm thick GaSb shells free of misfit dislocations. Additionally, an abrupt interface from InAs to GaSb is found. These nanowires are suitable for future devices such as TFETs.In this report, we present the growth and structural analyses of broken gap InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy using an Au-free approach. Depending on the shell growth temperature, two distinct growth regimes for the GaSb shells are identified resulting in conformal or tapered shells. Morphological analyses reveal a dodecagonal nanowire cross-section after GaSb shell growth. Detailed transmission electron microscope investigations from different zone axes confirm that the small lattice mismatch of 0.6% allows the deposition of 40 nm thick GaSb shells free of misfit dislocations. Additionally, an abrupt interface from InAs to GaSb is found. These nanowires are suitable for future devices such as TFETs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cross sectional shape along the nanowire axis, evolution of the cross sectional shape, comparison of the <110> and the <211> zone axis, HRTEM images, evolution of the GaSb platform ad multiple twinning induced defects in the GaSb platform. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05164e

  13. Advances in nanowire bioelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Lieber, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires represent powerful building blocks for next generation bioelectronics given their attractive properties, including nanometer-scale footprint comparable to subcellular structures and bio-molecules, configurable in nonstandard device geometries readily interfaced with biological systems, high surface-to-volume ratios, fast signal responses, and minimum consumption of energy. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the field of nanowire bioelectronics with a focus primarily on silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors. First, the synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires will be described, including the basics of nanowire FETs crucial to their configuration as biosensors. Second, we will introduce and review recent results in nanowire bioelectronics for biomedical applications ranging from label-free sensing of biomolecules, to extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording.

  14. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  15. Propagating plasmons on silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weidong; Wei, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Yurui; Li, Ping; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-08-01

    Chemically synthesized Ag nanowires (NWs) can serve as waveguides to support propagating surface plasmons (SPs). By using the propagating SPs on Ag NWs, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering of molecules, located in the nanowire-nanoparticle junction a few microns away from the laser spot on one end of the NW, was excited. The propagating SPs can excite the excitons in quantum dots, and in reverse, the decay of excitons can generate SPs. The direction and polarization of the light emitted through the Ag NW waveguide. The emission polarization depends strongly on the shape of the NW terminals. In branched NW structures, the SPs can be switched between the main NW and the branch NW, by tuning the incident polarization. The light of different wavelength can also be controlled to propagate along different ways. Thus, the branched NW structure can serve as controllable plasmonic router and multiplexer.

  16. Phonons in Ge nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The phonon spectra of thin freestanding, hydrogen passivated, Ge nanowires are calculated by ab initio techniques. The effect of confinement on the phonon modes as caused by the small diameters of the wires is investigated. Confinement causes a hardening of the optical modes and a softening of the longitudinal acoustic modes. The stability of the nanowires, undoped or doped with B or P atoms, is investigated using the obtained phonon spectra. All considered wires were stable, except for highly doped, very thin nanowires.

  17. Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangohr, Hans; Chernyshenko, Dmitri S.; Franchin, Matteo; Fischbacher, Thomas; Meier, Guido

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of Joule heating from electric currents flowing through ferromagnetic nanowires on the temperature of the nanowires and on the temperature of the substrate on which the nanowires are grown. The spatial current density distribution, the associated heat generation, and diffusion of heat are simulated within the nanowire and the substrate. We study several different nanowire and constriction geometries as well as different substrates: (thin) silicon nitride membranes, (thick) silicon wafers, and (thick) diamond wafers. The spatially resolved increase in temperature as a function of time is computed. For effectively three-dimensional substrates (where the substrate thickness greatly exceeds the nanowire length), we identify three different regimes of heat propagation through the substrate: regime (i), where the nanowire temperature increases approximately logarithmically as a function of time. In this regime, the nanowire temperature is well described analytically by You [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2399441 89, 222513 (2006)]. We provide an analytical expression for the time tc that marks the upper applicability limit of the You model. After tc, the heat flow enters regime (ii), where the nanowire temperature stays constant while a hemispherical heat front carries the heat away from the wire and into the substrate. As the heat front reaches the boundary of the substrate, regime (iii) is entered, where the nanowire and substrate temperature start to increase rapidly. For effectively two-dimensional substrates (where the nanowire length greatly exceeds the substrate thickness), there is only one regime in which the temperature increases logarithmically with time for large times, before the heat front reaches the substrate boundary. We provide an analytical expression, valid for all pulse durations, that allows one to accurately compute this temperature increase in the nanowire on thin substrates.

  18. Additional compound semiconductor nanowires for photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, F.

    2016-02-01

    GaAs related compound semiconductor heterostructures are one of the most developed materials for photonics. Those have realized various photonic devices with high efficiency, e. g., lasers, electro-optical modulators, and solar cells. To extend the functions of the materials system, diluted nitride and bismide has been paid attention over the past decade. They can largely decrease the band gap of the alloys, providing the greater tunability of band gap and strain status, eventually suppressing the non-radiative Auger recombinations. On the other hand, selective oxidation for AlGaAs is a vital technique for vertical surface emitting lasers. That enables precisely controlled oxides in the system, enabling the optical and electrical confinement, heat transfer, and mechanical robustness. We introduce the above functions into GaAs nanowires. GaAs/GaAsN core-shell nanowires showed clear redshift of the emitting wavelength toward infrared regime. Further, the introduction of N elongated the carrier lifetime at room temperature indicating the passivation of non-radiative surface recombinations. GaAs/GaAsBi nanowire shows the redshift with metamorphic surface morphology. Selective and whole oxidations of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires produce semiconductor/oxide composite GaAs/AlGaOx and oxide GaOx/AlGaOx core-shell nanowires, respectively. Possibly sourced from nano-particle species, the oxide shell shows white luminescence. Those property should extend the functions of the nanowires for their application to photonics.

  19. Phonon Trapping in Pearl-Necklace-Shaped Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunyang; Tai, Guoan; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2015-12-22

    A pearl-necklace-shaped silicon nanowire, in contrast to a smooth nanowire, presents a much lower thermal conductivity due to the phonon trapping effect. By precisely controlling the pearl size and density, this reduction can be more than 70% for the structures designed in the study, which provides a unique approach for designing high-performance nanoscale thermoelectric devices.

  20. Tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Steven Lin, Sz-Chin; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-23

    Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 s. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers, which induced a periodic alternating current (ac) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shaped nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications.

  1. 20 CFR 668.600 - To whom is the INA grantee accountable for the provision of services and the expenditure of INA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To whom is the INA grantee accountable for the provision of services and the expenditure of INA funds? 668.600 Section 668.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...

  2. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail; Bussone, Genziana

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  3. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Rieger, Torsten; Bussone, Genziana; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grützmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail

    2013-01-01

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  4. Random access actuation of nanowire grid metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Valente, João; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-12-02

    While metamaterials offer engineered static optical properties, future artificial media with dynamic random-access control over shape and position of meta-molecules will provide arbitrary control of light propagation. The simplest example of such a reconfigurable metamaterial is a nanowire grid metasurface with subwavelength wire spacing. Recently we demonstrated computationally that such a metadevice with individually controlled wire positions could be used as dynamic diffraction grating, beam steering module and tunable focusing element. Here we report on the nanomembrane realization of such a nanowire grid metasurface constructed from individually addressable plasmonic chevron nanowires with a 230 nm × 100 nm cross-section, which consist of gold and silicon nitride. The active structure of the metadevice consists of 15 nanowires each 18 μm long and is fabricated by a combination of electron beam lithography and ion beam milling. It is packaged as a microchip device where the nanowires can be individually actuated by control currents via differential thermal expansion.

  5. InAs based terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, Martin Kainz, Martin A.; Krall, Michael; Schönhuber, Sebastian; Unterrainer, Karl; Zederbauer, Tobias; Schrenk, Werner; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Strasser, Gottfried; Detz, Hermann

    2016-01-04

    We demonstrate terahertz lasing emission from a quantum cascade structure, realized with InAs/AlAs{sub 0.16}Sb{sub 0.84} heterostructures. Due to the lower effective electron mass, InAs based active regions are expected to provide a higher optical gain compared to structures consisting of GaAs or InGaAs. The growth by molecular beam epitaxy enabled the fabrication of monolayer-thick barriers, required for the active region, which is based on a 3-well resonant phonon depletion design. Devices were processed in a double-metal waveguide geometry to ensure high mode confinement and low optical losses. Lasing emission at 3.8 THz was observed at liquid helium temperatures by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the layered structure in order to suppress parasitic scattering channels. These results demonstrate the feasibility of InAs based active regions for terahertz quantum cascade lasers, potentially enabling higher operating temperatures.

  6. Single-Photon Generation With InAs Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    improved efficiencies [13] and photon state purities such that the mean wavepacket overlap between consecutive photons is as high as 0.8 [14]. The...shown schematically in figure 1(a). One or more InAs quantum dots, surrounded by a GaAs matrix , are embedded in a micropillar optical cavity. The...diagram of single-photon device, (b) scanning-electron microscope image of actual pillar structures; and (c) optical excitation scheme. density of

  7. Colossal injection of catalyst atoms into silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Isheim, Dieter; Blumtritt, Horst; Senz, Stephan; Pippel, Eckhard; Seidman, David N

    2013-04-04

    The incorporation of impurities during the growth of nanowires from the vapour phase alters their basic properties substantially, and this process is critical in an extended range of emerging nanometre-scale technologies. In particular, achieving precise control of the behaviour of group III and group V dopants has been a crucial step in the development of silicon (Si) nanowire-based devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that the use of aluminium (Al) as a growth catalyst, instead of the usual gold, also yields an effective p-type doping, thereby enabling a novel and efficient route to functionalizing Si nanowires. Besides the technological implications, this self-doping implies the detachment of Al from the catalyst and its injection into the growing nanowire, involving atomic-scale processes that are crucial for the fundamental understanding of the catalytic assembly of nanowires. Here we present an atomic-level, quantitative study of this phenomenon of catalyst dissolution by three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of individual Al-catalysed Si nanowires using highly focused ultraviolet-laser-assisted atom-probe tomography. Although the observed incorporation of the catalyst atoms into nanowires exceeds by orders of magnitude the equilibrium solid solubility and solid-solution concentrations in known non-equilibrium processes, the Al impurities are found to be homogeneously distributed in the nanowire and do not form precipitates or clusters. As well as the anticipated effect on the electrical properties, this kinetics-driven colossal injection also has direct implications for nanowire morphology. We discuss the observed strong deviation from equilibrium using a model of solute trapping at step edges, and identify the key growth parameters behind this phenomenon on the basis of a kinetic model of step-flow growth of nanowires. The control of this phenomenon provides opportunities to create a new class of nanoscale devices by precisely tailoring the shape and

  8. Formation of anodic layers on InAs (111)III. Study of the chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Valisheva, N. A. Tereshchenko, O. E.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Kalinkin, A. V.; Goljashov, V. A.; Levtzova, T. A.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.

    2012-04-15

    The chemical composition of {approx}20-nm-thick anodic layers grown on InAs (111)III in alkaline and acid electrolytes containing or not containing NH{sub 4}F is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that the composition of fluorinated layers is controlled by the relation between the concentrations of fluorine and hydroxide ions in the electrolyte and by diffusion processes in the growing layer. Fluorine accumulates at the (anodic layer)/InAs interface. Oxidation of InAs in an acid electrolyte with a low oxygen content and a high NH{sub 4}F content brings about the formation of anodic layers with a high content of fluorine and elemental arsenic and the formation of an oxygen-free InF{sub x}/InAs interface. Fluorinated layers grown in an alkaline electrolyte with a high content of O{sup 2-} and/or OH{sup -} groups contain approximately three times less fluorine and consist of indium and arsenic oxyfluorides. No distinction between the compositions of the layers grown in both types of fluorine-free electrolytes is established.

  9. Nanofabrication of structures for the study of nanowire doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Chad

    A variety of techniques were developed for the characterization of nanowires and applied to the study of nanowire growth and dopant incorporation. A technique to selectively plate gold on the n-type regions of modulation-doped silicon nanowires for junction delineation was developed. The ability to electrolessly deposit metal on segments of nanowires could also facilitate electrical contact formation. More complicated structures such as controlled placement of forks along the nanowire could be made by placement of the gold catalyst at predetermined locations along a nanowire followed by a second growth. Additionally, a process was developed that focuses on using this plating ability to grow silicon nanowires horizontally from pre-determined locations. The processing was worked out and nanowires were grown horizontally from plated gold, but the selectivity of gold limited the ability to grow wires in only the desired locations. A silicon nanowire local electrode atom probe test structure is discussed from the initial design steps to successfully using the test structure to analyze silicon nanowires. Initial results using laser pulsed assisted local electrode atom probe indicated that the thermal properties of the nanowire prevent the tip from cooling fast enough and resulted in large thermal tails in the mass spectra. Thermal modeling was used to identify what nanowire diameters and metal coatings would allow the nanowire tip to cool sufficiently fast. A silver catalyzed silicon nanowire with a diameter large enough to allow for sufficient cooling was analyzed, and the concentration of silver in the silicon nanowire was below the detection limit of 10 ppm or 5 x 10 17 cm-3. The growth and characterization of Al catalyzed silicon nanowires is also discussed. Nanowires were grown at higher pressures and using H 2 as a carrier gas resulting in much higher growth rates than previously observed for Al catalyzed nanowires in the literature. The nanowires were

  10. High-purity InAs1-xSbx epilayer grown by a LPE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. F.; Hu, S. H.; Xu, Y. G.; Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, R.; Yu, G. L.; Dai, N.

    2015-04-01

    High-purity InAs1-xSbx films with x=0.06 were successfully grown on InAs (100) substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Procedures were applied to purify InAs1-xSbx precursor material, which included prolonging baking time in hydrogen and adding rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd) to the growth melt. Electrical transport properties of InAs1-xSbx film were investigated by Hall measurements in the condition of the conductive InAs substrate being removed completely by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to eliminate its influence on the measurements. Hall measurement results show carrier concentration and mobility of our InAs1-xSbx samples are superior to the other reported values when a combinational purification procedure is applied.

  11. III-V Nanowire Array Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence; Yeh, Tingwei; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2011-12-23

    III-V semiconductor nanowires are unique material phase due to their high aspect ratio, large surface area, and strong quantum confinement. This affords the opportunity to control charge transport and optical properties for electrical and photonic applications. Nanoscale selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth (NS-SAG) is a promising technique to maximize control of nanowire diameter and position, which are essential for device application. In this work, InP and GaAs nanowire arrays are grown by NS-SAG. We observe enhanced sidewall growth and array uniformity disorder in high growth rate condition. Disorder in surface morphology and array uniformity of InP nanowire array is explained by enhanced growth on the sidewall and stacking faults. We also find that AsH{sub 3} decomposition on the sidewall affects the growth behavior of GaAs nanowire arrays.

  12. Nanowire systems: technology and design

    PubMed Central

    Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amarù, Luca Gaetano; Bobba, Shashikanth; De Marchi, Michele; Sacchetto, Davide; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Nanosystems are large-scale integrated systems exploiting nanoelectronic devices. In this study, we consider double independent gate, vertically stacked nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with gate-all-around structures and typical diameter of 20 nm. These devices, which we have successfully fabricated and evaluated, control the ambipolar behaviour of the nanostructure by selectively enabling one type of carriers. These transistors work as switches with electrically programmable polarity and thus realize an exclusive or operation. The intrinsic higher expressive power of these FETs, when compared with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, enables us to realize more efficient logic gates, which we organize as tiles to realize nanowire systems by regular arrays. This article surveys both the technology for double independent gate FETs as well as physical and logic design tools to realize digital systems with this fabrication technology. PMID:24567471

  13. Structural characterization of nanowires and nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Catherine Rose

    Nanowires, which have diameter less than a few hundred nanometers and high aspect ratios, may have the same properties as their corresponding bulk materials, or may exhibit unique properties due to their confined dimensions and increased surface to volume ratios. They are a popular field of technological investigation in applications that depend on the transport of charge carriers, because of expectations that microcircuit miniaturization will lead to the next boom in the electronics industry. In this work, the high spatial resolution afforded by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study nanowires formed by electrochemical deposition into porous alumina templates. The goal is to determine the effect of the synthesis and subsequent processing on the microstructure and crystallinity of the wires. A thorough understanding of the microstructural features of a material is vital for optimizing its performance in a desired application. Two material systems were studied in this work. The first is bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te3), which is used in thermoelectric applications. The second is metallic copper, the electrochemical deposition of which is of interest for interconnects in semiconductor devices. The first part of this work utilized TEM to obtain a thorough characterization of the microstructural features of individual Bi2Te3 nanowires following release from the templates. As deposited, the nanowires are fine grained and exhibit significant lattice strain. Annealing increases the grain size and dislocations are created to accommodate the lattice strain. The degree of these microstructural changes depends on the thermal treatment. However, no differences were seen in the nanowire microstructure as a function of the synthetic parameters. The second part of this work utilized a modified dark field TEM technique in order to obtain a spatially resolved, semi-quantitative understanding of the evolution of preferred orientation as a function of the electrochemical

  14. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  15. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  16. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  17. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  18. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  19. Misfit dislocation free InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Rieger, T; Grützmacher, D; Lepsa, M I

    2015-01-07

    In this report, we present the growth and structural analyses of broken gap InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy using an Au-free approach. Depending on the shell growth temperature, two distinct growth regimes for the GaSb shells are identified resulting in conformal or tapered shells. Morphological analyses reveal a dodecagonal nanowire cross-section after GaSb shell growth. Detailed transmission electron microscope investigations from different zone axes confirm that the small lattice mismatch of 0.6% allows the deposition of 40 nm thick GaSb shells free of misfit dislocations. Additionally, an abrupt interface from InAs to GaSb is found. These nanowires are suitable for future devices such as TFETs.

  20. Metallic nanowire networks

    DOEpatents

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  1. Controlled synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires by electrochemical deposition with self-compliance bipolar resistive switching

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires (NWs) by electrochemical deposition on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO with pore diameter of ~70 nm and pore length of ~50 μm was used as the template for synthesis of NWs. After deposition of Au as the seed layer, NWs with a structure of Ni/CuOx/Ni were grown with a length of ~12 μm. The lengths of 1st Ni, CuOx, and 2nd Ni were ~4.5 μm, ~3 μm, and ~4.5 μm, respectively. The Ni/CuOx/Ni device exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior with self-compliance characteristics. Due to the spatial restriction of the current path in NW the Ni/CuOx/Ni NW devices are thought to exhibit self-compliance behaviour. Ni/CuOx/Ni NWs showed bipolar resistive changes possibly due to conducting filaments that are induced by oxygen vacancies. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention measurement. The NW-based resistive switching memory has applications in highly scalable memory devices and neuromorphic devices. PMID:26975330

  2. In situ etching for control over axial and radial III-V nanowire growth rates using HBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Alexander; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Ek, Martin; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Reine Wallenberg, L.; Borgström, Magnus T.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the influence of hydrogen bromide (HBr) in situ etching on the growth of InP, GaP and GaAs nanowires. We find that HBr can be used to impede undesired radial growth during axial growth for all three material systems. The use of HBr opens a window for optimizing the growth parameters with respect to the materials’ quality rather than only their morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization reveals a partial transition from a wurtzite crystal structure to a zincblende upon the use of HBr during growth. For InP, defect-related luminescence due to parasitic radial growth is removed by use of HBr. For GaP, the etching with HBr reduced the defect-related luminescence, but no change in peak emission energy was observed. For GaAs, the HBr etching resulted in a shift to lower photon emission energies due to a shift in the crystal structure, which reduced the wurtzite segments.

  3. In situ etching for control over axial and radial III-V nanowire growth rates using HBr.

    PubMed

    Berg, Alexander; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Ek, Martin; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Reine Wallenberg, L; Borgström, Magnus T

    2014-12-19

    We report on the influence of hydrogen bromide (HBr) in situ etching on the growth of InP, GaP and GaAs nanowires. We find that HBr can be used to impede undesired radial growth during axial growth for all three material systems. The use of HBr opens a window for optimizing the growth parameters with respect to the materials' quality rather than only their morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization reveals a partial transition from a wurtzite crystal structure to a zincblende upon the use of HBr during growth. For InP, defect-related luminescence due to parasitic radial growth is removed by use of HBr. For GaP, the etching with HBr reduced the defect-related luminescence, but no change in peak emission energy was observed. For GaAs, the HBr etching resulted in a shift to lower photon emission energies due to a shift in the crystal structure, which reduced the wurtzite segments.

  4. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  5. Multi-spectral optical absorption in substrate-free nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junpeng; Chia, Andrew; Boulanger, Jonathan; LaPierre, Ray; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khodadad, Iman; Saini, Simarjeet

    2014-09-22

    A method is presented of fabricating gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire arrays of controlled diameter and period by reactive ion etching of a GaAs substrate containing an indium gallium arsenide (InGaP) etch stop layer, allowing the precise nanowire length to be controlled. The substrate is subsequently removed by selective etching, using the same InGaP etch stop layer, to create a substrate-free GaAs nanowire array. The optical absorptance of the nanowire array was then directly measured without absorption from a substrate. We directly observe absorptance spectra that can be tuned by the nanowire diameter, as explained with rigorous coupled wave analysis. These results illustrate strong optical absorption suitable for nanowire-based solar cells and multi-spectral absorption for wavelength discriminating photodetectors. The solar-weighted absorptance above the bandgap of GaAs was 94% for a nanowire surface coverage of only 15%.

  6. III-nitride nanowires: novel materials for solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Huang, Jianyu; Talin, A. Alec; Armstrong, Andrew; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2011-03-01

    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  7. Electron beam tuning of carrier concentrations in oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hyunjin; Choi, Jaewan; Cho, Youngseung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kim, Sun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Heun; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the attractive electrical properties of metal oxide nanowires, it is difficult to tune their surface states, notably the ionic adsorbents and oxygen vacancies, both of which can cause instability, degradation, and the irreproducibility or unrepeatable changes of the electrical characteristics. In order to control the surface states of the nanowires, electron beams were locally irradiated onto the channels of metal oxide nanowire field effect transistors. This high energy electron beam irradiation changed the electrical properties of the individual metal oxide nanowires, due to the removal of the negative adsorbents (O2-, O-). The detachment of the ionic adsorbents changes the charge states of the nanowires, resulting in the enhancement of the electrical conductance in n-type nanowires (ZnO, SnO2) and the degradation of the conductance in p-type nanowires (CuO). By investigating the changes in the electrical properties of nanowire devices in air or vacuum, with or without exposure to electron beams, the roles of the physisorbed water molecules or chemisorbed oxygen molecules can be independently understood. Unlike the electron beam irradiation, the vacuum enhanced the conductance of both n-type (ZnO, SnO2) and p-type (CuO) nanowires, due to the release of charges caused by the detachment of the polarized water molecules that were screening them from the surface of the nanowires, irrespective of the major carrier type. The electron beam irradiation technique has the potential to locally modulate the charge carriers in electronic nanowire devices, and the changes could be maintained with proper passivation for the long-term preservation of the device characteristics.

  8. Beyond spheres: Murphy's silver nanorods and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Yin, Yadong

    2013-01-11

    In this viewpoint we discuss the early work of Murphy et al. on the colloidal synthesis of silver nanorods and nanowires, which represents a milestone in the controllable synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles. We present here an overview of the impact of this pioneering work on the later drastic development of solution phase synthesis of shape-controlled metal nanostructures.

  9. Lazarevicite-type short-range ordering in ternary III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnedler, M.; Lefebvre, I.; Xu, T.; Portz, V.; Patriarche, G.; Nys, J.-P.; Plissard, S. R.; Caroff, P.; Berthe, M.; Eisele, H.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.; Grandidier, B.

    2016-11-01

    Stabilizing ordering instead of randomness in alloy semiconductor materials is a powerful means to change their physical properties. We used scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopies to reveal the existence of an unrecognized ordering in ternary III-V materials. The lazarevicite short-range order, found in the shell of InAs1 -xSbx nanowires, is driven by the strong Sb-Sb repulsion along <110 > atomic chains during their incorporation on unreconstructed {110 } sidewalls. Its spontaneous formation under group-III-rich conditions of growth offers the prospect to broaden the limited classes of ordered structures occurring in III-V semiconductor alloys.

  10. Using galvanostatic electroforming of Bi1–xSbx nanowires to control composition, crystallinity, and orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Limmer, Steven J.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Hekmaty, Michelle; Lensch-Falk, Jessica L.; Erickson, Kristopher; Pillars, Jamin; Yelton, W. Graham

    2014-12-03

    When using galvanostatic pulse deposition, we studied the factors influencing the quality of electroformed Bi1–xSbx nanowires with respect to composition, crystallinity, and preferred orientation for high thermoelectric performance. Two nonaqueous baths with different Sb salts were investigated. The Sb salts used played a major role in both crystalline quality and preferred orientations. Nanowire arrays electroformed using an SbI3 -based chemistry were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, whereas arrays electroformed from an SbCl3-based chemistry were strongly crystallographically textured with the desired trigonal orientation for optimal thermoelectric performance. From the SbCl3 bath, the electroformed nanowire arrays were optimized to have nanocompositional uniformity, with a nearly constant composition along the nanowire length. Moreover, nanowires harvested from the center of the array had an average composition of Bi0.75 Sb0.25. However, the nanowire compositions were slightly enriched in Sb in a small region near the edges of the array, with the composition approaching Bi0.70Sb0.30.

  11. Magnetic nanodiscs fabricated from multilayered nanowires.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Hyun; Cho, Ji Ung; An, Boo Hyun; Choi, Daniel S; Kimlr, Young Keun

    2014-10-01

    We report a simple, high throughput synthesis method of producing magnetic nanodiscs, in which the diameter and thickness are easily controlled. This method consists of two steps: (1) Electrodeposition for growing multilayered nanowires and (2) Selective etching of sacrificial layers. The electrodeposition step results in a bundle of multilayered nanowires. The nanowires consist of alternating layers of magnetic (e.g., Co) and sacrificial materials (e.g., Cu) inside the nanometer-sized pores of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The diameter of each layer is determined by pore size, while the thickness is controlled by electrodeposition time. The selective wet etching step removes sacrificial layers, leaving the magnetic nanodiscs. Through this process, the magnetic nanodiscs are fabricated with aspect ratios ranging from 0.25 to 2.0.

  12. Domain wall oscillations induced by spin torque in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sbiaa, R.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2015-02-07

    Using micromagnetic simulations, the effects of the non-adiabatic spin torque (β) and the geometry of nanowires on domain wall (DW) dynamics are investigated. For the case of in-plane anisotropy nanowire, it is observed that the type of DW and its dynamics depends on its dimension. For a fixed length, the critical switching current decreases almost exponentially with the width W, while the DW speed becomes faster for larger W. For the case of perpendicular anisotropy nanowire, it was observed that DW dynamics depends strongly on β. For small values of β, oscillations of DW around the center of nanowire were revealed even after the current is switched off. In addition to nanowire geometry and intrinsic material properties, β could provide a way to control DW dynamics.

  13. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-21

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts.

  14. Gallium nitride nanowires by maskless hot phosphoric wet etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharrat, D.; Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Samberg, J. P.; Bedair, S. M.; El-Masry, N. A.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires formation by controlling the selective and anisotropic etching of N-polar GaN in hot phosphoric acid. Nanowires of ˜109/cm,2 total height of ˜400 nm, and diameters of 170-200 nm were obtained. These nanowires have both non-polar {11¯00}/ {112¯0} and semi-polar {1011¯} facets. X-Ray Diffraction characterization shows that screw dislocations are primarily responsible for preferential etching to create nanowires. Indium gallium nitride multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on these GaN nanowires showed a blue shift in peak emission wavelength of photoluminescence spectra, and full width at half maximum decreased relative to MQWs grown on planar N-polar GaN, respectively.

  15. Radial growth of plasmon coupled gold nanowires on colloidal templates.

    PubMed

    Farrokhtakin, Elmira; Rodríguez-Fernández, Denis; Mattoli, Virgilio; Solís, Diego M; Taboada, José M; Obelleiro, Fernando; Grzelczak, Marek; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-07-01

    The library of plasmonic nanosystems keeps expanding with novel structures with the potential to provide new solutions to old problems in science and technology. We report the synthesis of a novel plasmonic system based on the growth of gold nanowires radially branching from the surface of silica particles. The nanowires length could be controlled by tuning the molar ratio between metal salt and surface-grafted seeds. Electron microscopy characterization revealed that the obtained one-dimensional nanoparticles are polycrystalline but uniformly distributed on the spherical template. The length of the nanowires in turn determines the optical response of the metallodielectric particles, so that longer wires display red-shifted longitudinal plasmon bands. Accurate theoretical modeling of these complex objects revealed that the densely organized nanowires display intrinsically coupled plasmon modes that can be selectively decoupled upon detachment of the nanowires from the surface of the colloidal silica template.

  16. Methods Of Fabricating Nanosturctures And Nanowires And Devices Fabricated Therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2006-02-07

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  17. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar,; Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  18. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2010-11-16

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. Spatially resolved Hall effect measurement in a single semiconductor nanowire.

    PubMed

    Storm, Kristian; Halvardsson, Filip; Heurlin, Magnus; Lindgren, David; Gustafsson, Anders; Wu, Phillip M; Monemar, Bo; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-11-01

    Efficient light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic energy-harvesting devices are expected to play an important role in the continued efforts towards sustainable global power consumption. Semiconductor nanowires are promising candidates as the active components of both light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, primarily due to the added freedom in device design offered by the nanowire geometry. However, for nanowire-based components to move past the proof-of-concept stage and be implemented in production-grade devices, it is necessary to precisely quantify and control fundamental material properties such as doping and carrier mobility. Unfortunately, the nanoscale geometry that makes nanowires interesting for applications also makes them inherently difficult to characterize. Here, we report a method to carry out Hall measurements on single core-shell nanowires. Our technique allows spatially resolved and quantitative determination of the carrier concentration and mobility of the nanowire shell. As Hall measurements have previously been completely unavailable for nanowires, the experimental platform presented here should facilitate the implementation of nanowires in advanced practical devices.

  20. Strain-balanced InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures and photodiodes grown on InAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D.; Zuo, Daniel; Kesler, Benjamin; Chuang, Shun-Lien; Hu, Hefei; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Ting Lu, Yen; Hsieh, K. C.; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2011-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate strain-balanced InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) grown on InAs substrates employing GaAs-like interfacial (IF) layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for effective strain management, simplified growth scheme, improved materials crystalline quality, and reduced substrate absorption. The in-plane compressive strain from the GaSb layers in the T2SLs on the InAs was completely balanced by the GaAs-like IF layers formed by controlled precursor carry-over and anion exchange effects, avoiding the use of complicated IF layers and precursor switching schemes that were used for the MOCVD growth of T2SLs on GaSb. An infrared (IR) p-i-n photodiode structure with 320-period InAs/GaSb T2SLs on InAs was grown and the fabricated devices show improved performance characteristics with a peak responsivity of ˜1.9 A/W and a detectivity of ˜6.78 × 109 Jones at 8 μm at 78 K. In addition, the InAs buffer layer and substrate show a lower IR absorption coefficient than GaSb substrates in most of the mid- and long-IR spectral range.