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Sample records for inbred bedouin families

  1. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  2. The Relationship between Monogamous/Polygamous Family Structure and the Mental Health of Bedouin Arab Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, S.; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second…

  3. Scholastic Achievement and Family Marital Structure: Bedouin-Arab Adolescents from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scholastic achievement in Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics of 240 Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Negev (Israel). Reveals that adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families demonstrate equivalent levels of scholastic achievement, although boys in polygamous families and girls in…

  4. Learning Achievement, Social Adjustment, and Family Conflict among Bedouin-Arab Children from Polygamous and Monogamous Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightman, Ernie S.; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2000-01-01

    Compares learning achievement, social adjustment, and family conflict among 146 Bedouin-Arab students from polygamous and monogamous families. Reveals that children from monogamous families had higher levels of learning achievement, and they adjusted better to the school framework. The mean conflict rating was higher for children from polygamous…

  5. Learning achievement, social adjustment, and family conflict among Bedouin-Arab children from polygamous and monogamous families.

    PubMed

    al-Krenawi, A; Lightman, E S

    2000-06-01

    A sample of 146 Bedouin-Arab pupils from polygamous and monogamous families participated in this study, which was conducted in a Bedouin-Arab village in the Negev, Israel. The authors compared learning achievement, social adjustment, and family conflict. Data revealed differences between the two groups: The children from monogamous families had higher levels of learning achievement than did the children from polygamous families; in addition, those from monogamous families adjusted to the school framework better than did those from polygamous families. The mean conflict rating of children from polygamous families was higher than that of their counterparts from monogamous families. The father's level of education tended to be inversely correlated with family size in terms of both number of children and number of wives.

  6. Scholastic achievement and family marital structure: Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Bart, W M; Hektner, J M

    2000-08-01

    In a sample of Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in the Negev region of Israel, the authors examined scholastic achievement levels in the subjects of Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics. There were no significant differences in the scholastic achievement levels in those 4 disciplines between adolescents from monogamous families and those from polygamous families. There was, however, a significant interaction between gender and family marital structure for Hebrew scores: Polygamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the male participants, whereas monogamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the female participants. However, the major overall finding was that polygamous family marital structures did not affect deleteriously the scholastic achievement levels of the Bedouin-Arab participants.

  7. The relationship between monogamous/polygamous family structure and the mental health of bedouin Arab adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second study involved 182 Bedouin Arab adolescents in which the student participants completed a single instrument about themselves and in which the teachers of the students completed the Teachers' Report Form of the Child Behaviour Checklist by Achenbach. The Bedouin Arab adolescents fell into two groups: (a) adolescents in monogamous family structures and (b) adolescents in polygamous family structures. The findings of the first study suggest that the two groups did not differ significantly in the majority of the assessed variables, even though there were significant differences obtained between groups for 4 of the 13 assessed variables. The two groups did not differ significantly in the second study. Results were discussed in terms of their cultural and developmental significance.

  8. Intelligence and family marital structure: the case of adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M; Hektner, Joel

    2003-02-01

    The levels of intelligence among Bedouin Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families living in the Negev region of Israel were examined. A shortened version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test (S. Elbedour, T. J. Bouchard, & Y. Hur, 1997; J. Raven, J. C. Raven, & J. H. Court, 1998) was used to assess intelligence. There were no significant test score differences between adolescents from monogamous families and adolescents from polygamous families. In addition, participants with 2 mothers tended to have lower RPM scores than those with 3 or 4 mothers, and participants with related parents tended to have lower RPM scores than participants with unrelated parents. One major finding of this study is that polygamous family marital structures tended not to have deleterious effects on the Bedouin Arab adolescents' RPM test scores.

  9. Behavioral problems and scholastic adjustment among Bedouin-Arab children from polygamous and monogamous marital family structures: some developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Alatamin, Mohammad

    2003-08-01

    Families in the Bedouin-Arab community in Israel are characterized by monogamous and polygamous marriages. Such diversity in family structure occurs in other parts of the world, yet scant empirical evidence exists to refute or to support the claim that polygamous family structure can be a risk factor for children's school maladjustment and negative developmental outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to test this claim. Participants were 255 3rd-grade children from the Negev Bedouin community in Israel. One hundred fifty-three children came from monogamous families that were characterized by 1 wife (i.e., 1-wife families), and 102 children came from polygamous families consisting of 2 wives (i.e., 2-wife families). Teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenback, 1991b). A series of logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for maternal education level, revealed that 2-wife children tended to have higher levels of externalizing problems in general and higher levels of attention problems in particular than did their 1-wife counterparts. Also, 2-wife children had higher rates of school absenteeism and lower levels of overall academic achievement than did 1-wife children. Implications for the Bedouin society are discussed.

  10. Cultural Perspectives on the Aftereffects of Combat Trauma: Review of a Community Study of Bedouin IDF Servicemen and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Yael; Slobodin, Ortal; Klein, Ehud

    2015-04-01

    Combat trauma may affect servicemen from indigenous, traditional communities in ways that warrant special attention. The Bedouins, who enlist in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) voluntarily, represent a unique, closed, collectivist cultural minority, potentially in a predicament in light of ongoing sociopolitical events. This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from a community study of Bedouin IDF servicemen and their families residing in Israel's Western Galilee. This is the only research endeavor to have addressed trauma exposure and posttraumatic reactions in this community. The sampling strategies and interview schedule were designed in consideration of participation barriers typical of hard-to-reach populations. Data collection followed an extended phase of liaising with key informants and building trust. Study limitations are discussed in terms of the challenges presented by this type of research. Interviews conducted with 317 men, 129 wives, and 67 mothers revealed high levels of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the men, and related distress in wives and mothers, but not in the children. The role of aggression in mediating the impact of PTSD and concepts such as shame, the loss of personal resources, and beliefs about retribution are highlighted as key issues for a culturally relevant understanding of traumatized indigenous communities. PMID:25973273

  11. Cultural Perspectives on the Aftereffects of Combat Trauma: Review of a Community Study of Bedouin IDF Servicemen and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Yael; Slobodin, Ortal; Klein, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Combat trauma may affect servicemen from indigenous, traditional communities in ways that warrant special attention. The Bedouins, who enlist in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) voluntarily, represent a unique, closed, collectivist cultural minority, potentially in a predicament in light of ongoing sociopolitical events. This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from a community study of Bedouin IDF servicemen and their families residing in Israel’s Western Galilee. This is the only research endeavor to have addressed trauma exposure and posttraumatic reactions in this community. The sampling strategies and interview schedule were designed in consideration of participation barriers typical of hard-to-reach populations. Data collection followed an extended phase of liaising with key informants and building trust. Study limitations are discussed in terms of the challenges presented by this type of research. Interviews conducted with 317 men, 129 wives, and 67 mothers revealed high levels of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the men, and related distress in wives and mothers, but not in the children. The role of aggression in mediating the impact of PTSD and concepts such as shame, the loss of personal resources, and beliefs about retribution are highlighted as key issues for a culturally relevant understanding of traumatized indigenous communities. PMID:25973273

  12. InbR, a TetR family regulator, binds with isoniazid and influences multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Gao, Chun-Hui; Hu, Jialing; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Qiaoyun; He, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH), an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, has been widely used for nearly 60 years. However, the pathway through which Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds INH remain largely unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel transcriptional factor, InbR, which is encoded by Rv0275c and belongs to the TetR family, that is directly responsive to INH. Disrupting inbR made mycobacteria more sensitive to INH, whereas overexpressing inbR decreased bacterial susceptibility to the drug. InbR could bind specifically to the upstream region of its own operon at two inverted repeats and act as an auto-repressor. Furthermore, InbR directly bind with INH, and the binding reduced InbR's DNA-binding ability. Interestingly, susceptibilities were also changed by InbR for other anti-TB drugs, such as rifampin, implying that InbR may play a role in multi-drug resistance. Additionally, microarray analyses revealed a portion genes of the inbR regulon have similar expression patterns in inbR-overexpressing strain and INH-treated wild type strain, suggesting that these genes, for example iniBAC, may be responsible to the drug resistance of inbR-overexpressing strain. The regulation of these genes by InbR were further assessed by ChIP-seq assay. InbR may regulate multiple drug resistance of mycobacteria through the regulation of these genes.

  13. Nonsyndromic autosomal recessive deafness is linked to the DFNB1 locus in a large inbred Bedouin family from Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.A.; Sheffield, V.C.; Stone, E.M.

    1995-10-01

    Nonsyndromic deafness accounts for {approximately}70% of all genetically determined deafness. Several types of nonsyndromic deafness, with a variety of inheritance patterns, have been genetically linked, including dominant, recessive and X-linked forms. Two of these forms - DFNA3, a dominant form causing moderate to severe hearing loss, predominantly in the high frequencies, and DFNB1, a recessive form causing profound, prelingual, neurosensory deafness affecting all frequencies - have been linked to the same pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. This finding is equally compatible with (1) the existence two closely linked deafness genes, (2) different mutations within a single deafness gene, and (3) a single mutation in a single gene that behaves differently in different genetic backgrounds. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A comparative study of family functioning, health, and mental health awareness and utilization among female Bedouin-Arabs from recognized and unrecognized villages in the Negev.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R

    2006-02-01

    A good portion of geography is contested by the Israeli state and the country's Bedouin-Arab population. There are two categories of Bedouin villages: those areas that are "officially" recognized by the state and those that are not. In this article we determine utilization and awareness of health and mental health services among 376 Bedouin-Arab women in recognized and unrecognized villages in the Negev. Although there are differences between them, primary health care (PHC) services usually are available within recognized villages, accessible to those from unrecognized villages, and tend to precipitate user satisfaction. We conclude with various suggestions for improving health service delivery and making PHC and mental health delivery more accessible. Through this article we intend to help mental health practitioners on two levels: the policy level, regarding the design of mental health services for societies in transition, such as the Bedouin Arab, and the practical level by helping practitioners better appreciate the psychosocial status of women in Bedouin-Arab societies and the factors associated with Bedouin-Arab PHC utilization.

  15. A Missense Mutation in a Highly Conserved Region of CASQ2 Is Associated with Autosomal Recessive Catecholamine-Induced Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Bedouin Families from Israel

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Hadas; Pras, Elon; Olender, Tsviya; Avidan, Nili; Ben-Asher, Edna; Man, Orna; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Khoury, Asad; Lorber, Avraham; Goldman, Boleslaw; Lancet, Doron; Eldar, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Catecholamine-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) is characterized by episodes of syncope, seizures, or sudden death, in response to physical activity or emotional stress. Two modes of inheritance have been described: autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Mutations in the ryanodine receptor 2 gene (RYR2), which encodes a cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-release channel, were recently shown to cause the autosomal dominant form of the disease. In the present report, we describe a missense mutation in a highly conserved region of the calsequestrin 2 gene (CASQ2) as the potential cause of the autosomal recessive form. The CASQ2 protein serves as the major Ca2+ reservoir within the SR of cardiac myocytes and is part of a protein complex that contains the ryanodine receptor. The mutation, which is in full segregation in seven Bedouin families affected by the disorder, converts a negatively charged aspartic acid into a positively charged histidine, in a highly negatively charged domain, and is likely to exert its deleterious effect by disrupting Ca2+ binding. PMID:11704930

  16. Parent-adolescent conflict and its resolution in monogamous and polygamous Bedouin Arab families in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Hektner, Joel M; Morad, Mohammed; Abu-Bader, Soleman H

    2003-12-05

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare whether children from polygamous family structures significantly differ from children from monogamous family structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict, and (2) whether children from these two structures employ different patterns of family conflict resolution. To address these questions, a random sample of 212 high school students (60.8% monogamous) completed a self-administered survey. The results of MANOVA show no significant differences (p > 0.05) between these two structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict. The results also show similar conflict management styles between these two family structures within each of the following five domains (privacy, school and career, money spending, going out and leisure, and physical appearance). This study is unique in that it is the first empirical research to be conducted in the field of conflict resolution among youth and adolescents in polygamous marital structures and therefore, further investigation is needed to replicate these results utilizing different cross-cultural populations practicing polygamy.

  17. Similarity in General Mental Ability in Bedouin Full and Half Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A battery of "g" loaded mental ability tests was administered to 274 Bedouin children and adolescents, full and half siblings from 106 families. Results demonstrate internal validity for the tests in this cultural context and support the idea that shared family environment is a strong determinant of sibling similarity for children in the given age…

  18. Navigating care for Bedouin patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Shauna; Higgins, Alison; Amkraut, Jonathan; Abu-Rabia, Yones

    2016-01-01

    The Bedouin Arab population in the southern Negev region of Israel has faced health problems as a result of transitioning rapidly from a nomadic agricultural lifestyle to a more modern urban lifestyle. Like many populations around the world, the Bedouins have changed their diets and become more sedentary and this has led to a high rate of diabetes. In this case report, we examine how diabetes has affected the life of an influential man in the Bedouin community and the significance this case has in the greater context of a global rise in chronic disease. PMID:26944372

  19. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  20. Deciphering the fine-structure of tribal admixture in the Bedouin population using genomic data.

    PubMed

    Markus, B; Alshafee, I; Birk, O S

    2014-02-01

    The Bedouin Israeli population is highly inbred and structured with a very high prevalence of recessive diseases. Many studies in the past two decades focused on linkage analysis in large, multiple consanguineous pedigrees of this population. The advent of high-throughput technologies motivated researchers to search for rare variants shared between smaller pedigrees, integrating data from clinically similar yet seemingly non-related sporadic cases. However, such analyses are challenging because, without pedigree data, there is no prior knowledge regarding possible relatedness between the sporadic cases. Here, we describe models and techniques for the study of relationships between pedigrees and use them for the inference of tribal co-ancestry, delineating the complex social interactions between different tribes in the Negev Bedouins of southern Israel. Through our analysis, we differentiate between tribes that share many yet small genomic segments because of co-ancestry versus tribes that share larger segments because of recent admixture. The emergent pattern is well correlated with the prevalence of rare mutations in the different tribes. Tribes that do not intermarry, mostly because of social restrictions, hold private mutations, whereas tribes that do intermarry demonstrate a genetic flow of mutations between them. Thus, social structure within an inbred community can be delineated through genomic data, with implications to genetic counseling and genetic mapping.

  1. Deciphering the fine-structure of tribal admixture in the Bedouin population using genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Markus, B; Alshafee, I; Birk, O S

    2014-01-01

    The Bedouin Israeli population is highly inbred and structured with a very high prevalence of recessive diseases. Many studies in the past two decades focused on linkage analysis in large, multiple consanguineous pedigrees of this population. The advent of high-throughput technologies motivated researchers to search for rare variants shared between smaller pedigrees, integrating data from clinically similar yet seemingly non-related sporadic cases. However, such analyses are challenging because, without pedigree data, there is no prior knowledge regarding possible relatedness between the sporadic cases. Here, we describe models and techniques for the study of relationships between pedigrees and use them for the inference of tribal co-ancestry, delineating the complex social interactions between different tribes in the Negev Bedouins of southern Israel. Through our analysis, we differentiate between tribes that share many yet small genomic segments because of co-ancestry versus tribes that share larger segments because of recent admixture. The emergent pattern is well correlated with the prevalence of rare mutations in the different tribes. Tribes that do not intermarry, mostly because of social restrictions, hold private mutations, whereas tribes that do intermarry demonstrate a genetic flow of mutations between them. Thus, social structure within an inbred community can be delineated through genomic data, with implications to genetic counseling and genetic mapping. PMID:24084643

  2. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  3. A Missense Mutation in the LIM2 Gene Is Associated with Autosomal Recessive Presenile Cataract in an Inbred Iraqi Jewish Family

    PubMed Central

    Pras, Eran; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Bakhan, Tangiz; Lahat, Hadas; Assia, Ehud; Geffen-Carmi, Noa; Frydman, Moshe; Goldman, Boleslaw; Pras, Elon

    2002-01-01

    In an inbred Iraqi Jewish family, we have studied three siblings with presenile cataract first noticed between the ages of 20 and 51 years and segregating in an autosomal recessive mode. Using microsatellite repeat markers in close proximity to 25 genes and loci previously associated with congenital cataracts in humans and mice, we identified five markers on chromosome 19q that cosegregated with the disease. Sequencing of LIM2, one of two candidate genes in this region, revealed a homozygous T→G change resulting in a phenylalanine-to-valine substitution at position 105 of the protein. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report, in humans, of cataract formation associated with a mutation in LIM2. Studies of late-onset single-gene cataracts may provide insight into the pathogenesis of the more common age-related cataracts. PMID:11917274

  4. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  5. Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, T.; Xue, Yali; Evison, M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Bedouin are traditionally nomadic inhabitants of the Persian Gulf who claim descent from two male lineages: Adnani and Qahtani. We have investigated whether or not this tradition is reflected in the current genetic structure of a sample of 153 Bedouin males from six Kuwaiti tribes, including three tribes from each traditional lineage. Volunteers were genotyped using a panel of autosomal and Y-STRs, and Y-SNPs. The samples clustered with their geographical neighbours in both the autosomal and Y-chromosomal analyses, and showed strong evidence of genetic isolation and drift. Whilst there was no evidence of segregation into the two male lineages, other aspects of genetic structure were in accord with tradition. PMID:19639002

  6. Study of large inbred Friedreich ataxia families reveals a recombination between D9S15 and the disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Belal, S.; Ben Hamida, C.; Hentati, F.; Ben Hamida, M. ); Panayides, K.; Ioannou, P.; MIddleton, L.T. ); Sirugo, G.; Koenig, S.; Mandel, J.L ); Beckmann, J. )

    1992-12-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. Precise linkage mapping of the Friedreich ataxia locus (FRDA) in 9q13-q21 should lead to the isolation of the defective gene by positional cloning. The two closest DNA markers, D9S5 and D9S15, show very tight linkage to FRDA, making difficult the ordering of the three loci. The authors present a linkage study of three large Friedreich ataxia families of Tunisian origin, with several multiallelic markers around D9S5 and D9S15. Haplotype data were used to investigate genetic homogeneity of the disease in these geographically related families. A meiotic recombination was found in a nonaffected individual, which excludes a 150-kb segment, including D9S15, as a possible location for the Freidreich ataxia gene and which should orient the search in the D9S5 region. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins.

    PubMed

    Na'amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-10-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the maternity wards of the only hospital serving the Bedouin population were interviewed between November 2009 and January 2010. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 44.8 %. The most common type of spousal relationship was first cousins (65.7 % of all consanguineous marriages). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.0238. Factors significantly associated with consanguinity were less years of schooling (OR 0.94, 95 % CI (0.88-0.99), p = 0.02) and younger age at marriage of the wife (OR 0.90, 95 % CI (0.80-0.96), p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the rate of consanguineous marriages among Bedouins is very high, making this population at risk for congenital malformations and genetic diseases. Efforts should be directed at better education and provision of premarital and prenatal counseling on the health consequences of consanguineous marriages and the possibilities to lower those risks.

  8. When a man encounters a woman, Satan is also present: clinical relationships in Bedouin society.

    PubMed

    Mass, M; al-Krenawi, A

    1994-07-01

    Professional encounters in Bedouin society between male therapists and their female clients are discussed in terms of the conflict between clinical precepts and Bedouin codes of social conduct. The effects of the conflict on the transference relationship are examined by means of case presentations, and rules of conduct acceptable in both the professional realm and Bedouin society are proposed as an avenue toward resolution.

  9. Construction of the Inbred Strain.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Minori

    2016-01-01

    Genetically homogeneous populations such as inbred strains are valuable experimental tools in various fields of biomedical analyses. In many animals, inbred strains are established by consecutive sib-pair mating for a minimum of 20 generations. As the generation proceeds, fitness of the population reduces usually. Therefore, in order to establish inbred strains, the important point is the selection of pairs in good condition at each generation. Here, I describe the procedure and tips for generating inbred strains in zebrafish. PMID:27464804

  10. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  11. Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-06-18

    The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.

  12. Ritual female genital surgery among Bedouin in Israel.

    PubMed

    Asali, A; Khamaysi, N; Aburabia, Y; Letzer, S; Halihal, B; Sadovsky, M; Maoz, B; Belmaker, R H

    1995-10-01

    Ritual female genital operations are common in many parts of the world, with varying degrees of mutilation from clitoridectomy and removal of the labia to removal of the clitoral prepuce. Interviews of 21 Bedouin women in southern Israel revealed the practice to be normative in several tribes. However, physical examination of 37 young women from those tribes at a gynecological clinic revealed only small scars on the labia in each woman. Bedouin in southern Israel may offer a model of evolution of female circumcision into a nonmutilative ritual incision.

  13. Special Education in the Bedouin Community in Israel's Negev Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the special education sector of the Bedouin Arab community in southern Israel. The paper opens with the study rationale and the importance of the subject. The review is based on a thematic analysis of content taken from diverse sources. The analysis showed five principle themes: (a) numerous…

  14. Bedouin Special-Education Teachers as Agents of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Efrat; Miller, Erez C.

    2011-01-01

    This study probes the career motives of minority special-education teachers in the Bedouin Arab society of southern Israel. The results, obtained via in-depth interviews of teachers, show that the teachers aspire to become agents of social change in three spheres: In the external sphere, they aim for professional autonomy and independence within…

  15. When a man encounters a woman, Satan is also present: clinical relationships in Bedouin society.

    PubMed

    Mass, M; al-Krenawi, A

    1994-07-01

    Professional encounters in Bedouin society between male therapists and their female clients are discussed in terms of the conflict between clinical precepts and Bedouin codes of social conduct. The effects of the conflict on the transference relationship are examined by means of case presentations, and rules of conduct acceptable in both the professional realm and Bedouin society are proposed as an avenue toward resolution. PMID:7977659

  16. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Beck, J A; Lloyd, S; Hafezparast, M; Lennon-Pierce, M; Eppig, J T; Festing, M F; Fisher, E M

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each other, particularly in the light of available DNA polymorphism data from microsatellite and other markers. We describe the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains, 90 years after the generation of the first inbred strain. Given the large collection of inbred strains available, and that published information on these strains is incomplete, we propose that all genealogical and genetic data on inbred strains be submitted to a common electronic database to ensure this valuable information resource is preserved and used efficiently.

  17. Dehomed: the impacts of house demolitions on the well-being of women from the unrecognized Bedouin-Arab villages in the Negev/Israel.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Feder-Bubis, Paula

    2014-09-01

    Thirty-five Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel are regarded illegal settlements by the state. Consequently, the residents׳ homes are subject to demolition. Based on 12 semi-structured multiple-participant interviews, this paper examines the house demolitions׳ impacts on women, in the context of gendered constructions of social roles and space. It highlights that the marginalized position of Arab-Bedouin women - as women in a patriarchal community, as members of a minority within Israeli society, and as residents of an "invisible" settlement - contributes to the devastating effects of the house demolitions. In particular, the study׳s results show that the house demolitions inflict severe personal and collective trauma, amplified by women׳s primary role as mothers. Paradoxically, the very same role also becomes a source of resilience and political resistance, as women act to defend a sense of home and restore family life in the face of state violence.

  18. Mollaret's meningitis in association with delivery in a Bedouin woman; a case report.

    PubMed

    Hendler, N; Schlaeffer, F; Zirkin, H; Rabinowitz, B; Berginer, V M

    1991-03-21

    A young Bedouin woman suffered two clusters of recurrent benign aseptic (Mollaret's) meningitis in association with two of her deliveries. This is the first case of Mollaret's syndrome related to delivery, and also the first presentation in a Bedouin. PMID:2029961

  19. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  20. Between Tradition and Modernization: Understanding the Problem of Female Bedouin Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the problem of Bedouin girls dropping out from the public school system in the Negev region of Israel. Data show that this phenomenon results from a conflict between the modern Israeli institutes' perception of modernity (which promote coeducation) and the Bedouin traditions that remain the cultural ethos of the girls'…

  1. The Prevalence of the Celiac Disease Among Urban Bedouin Population in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Inna, Rudoy; Andrew, Korobeinikov; Hanna, Shalev; Ilia, Volkov

    2012-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a common, but often under-diagnosed condition with possible serious complications. CD, having a prevalence of about 1% is more common than once thought. Only limited research is available comparing differences between adults and children. A comprehensive Medline search was conducted. No data was found concerning the prevalence of CD among the adult Bedouin population. Methods The research is retrospective and descriptive. The objective of our research was to determine the prevalence of the CD within adult and child Bedouin populations in urban Israel. A report of all of diagnosed CD patients extracted from the medical computerized information system (“Clicks”). Results In our sample we found the prevalence was 0.51% in children and 0.12% in adults. Conclusion In our opinion, one of reasons for the low prevalence level in the Bedouin community might be that typical CD symptoms are less prominent in Bedouin communities than in other communities. But no doubt hypo-diagnosis does exist. We suppose more advanced research about the nature and typical clinical manifestations of CD within the Bedouin population need to be investigated. Medical personnel working within the Bedouin community needs information concerning CD and the characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in the Bedouin community. The Bedouin community itself needs more information concerning CD and the importance of treatment, which could also improve early diagnosis and compliance.

  2. The sodium-phosphate co-transporter SLC34A2, and pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Presentation of an inbred family and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Marco Favio Michele; Colao, Emma; Fabiani, Fernanda; Bombardiere, Francesco; Tamburrini, Oscar; Alessio, Caterina; Manti, Francesco; Pelaia, Gerolamo; Romeo, Pasquale; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Perrotti, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a disorder in which many tiny fragments (microliths) of calcium phosphate gradually accumulate in alveoli. Loss of function mutations in the gene SLC34A2 coding for the sodium phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-IIb) are responsible for genetic forms of alveolar microlithiasis. We now report a consanguineous Italian family from Calabria with two affected members segregating alveolar microlithiasis in a recessive fashion. We describe, for the first time, a novel loss of function mutation in the gene coding for NaPi-IIb. A careful description of the clinical phenotype is provided together with technical details for direct sequencing of the gene. PMID:26744662

  3. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park.

  4. Impacts of using inbred animals in studies for detection of quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Freyer, G; Vukasinovic, N; Cassell, B

    2009-02-01

    Effects of utilizing inbred and noninbred family structures in experiments for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) were compared in this simulation study. Simulations were based on a general pedigree design originating from 2 unrelated sires. A variance component approach of mapping QTL was applied to simulated data that reflected common family structures from dairy populations. Five different family structures were considered: FS0 without inbreeding, FS1 with an inbred sire from an aunt-nephew mating, FS2 with an inbred sire originating from a half-sib mating, FS3 and FS4 based on FS2 but containing an increased number of offspring of the inbred sire (FS3), and another extremely inbred sire with its final offspring (FS4). Sixty replicates each of the 5 family structures in 2 simulation scenarios each were analyzed to provide a praxis-like situation of QTL analysis. The largest proportion of QTL position estimates within the correct interval of 3 cM, best test statistic profiles and the smallest average bias were obtained from the pedigrees described by FS4 and FS2. The approach does not depend on the kind and number of genetic markers. Inbreeding is not a recommended practice for commercial dairy production because of possible inbreeding depression, but inbred animals and their offspring that already exist could be advantageous for QTL mapping, because of reduced genetic variance in inbred parents.

  5. Education Development among Bedouin Tribes of the Negev Desert. [Paper and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    About 60,000 Bedouins live in the Negev Desert, which comprises 60% of Israel. Of these, about half live in towns, a third live in settlements of huts for all or part of the year, while a sixth continue to follow traditional nomadic practices. The number of Bedouin children enrolled in school has grown from 150 in 1950 to about 16,000 in 1986.…

  6. Towards an Understanding of Minority Education in Israel: The Case of the Bedouin Arabs of the Negev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Saad, Ismael

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the educational system of the Bedouin Arab minority in southern Israel. Inequities between the Jewish and Arab schools include (1) inadequate school facilities; (2) an insufficient number of qualified teachers and administrators; and (3) an unacceptably high student-to-teacher ratio. A clear reform policy for Bedouin Arab…

  7. Human diversity in Jordan: polymorphic Alu insertions in general Jordanian and Bedouin groups.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Daniela; Sadiq, May; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Khabour, Omar; Alkaraki, Almuthanna; Esteban, Esther; Via, Marc; Moral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Jordan, located in the Levant region, is an area crucial for the investigation of human migration between Africa and Eurasia. However, the genetic history of Jordanians has yet to be clarified, including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and the general population) to begin to examine the genetic diversity inside this country and to provide new information about the genetic position of these populations in the context of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The markers analyzed were 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized by their identity by descent, known ancestral state (lack of insertion), and apparent selective neutrality. The results indicate significant genetic diffferences between Bedouins and general Jordanians (p = 0.038). Whereas Bedouins show a close genetic proximity to North Africans, general Jordanians appear genetically more similar to other Middle East populations. In general, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Bedouins had an important role in the peopling of Jordan and constitute the original substrate of the current population. However, migration into Jordan in recent years likely has contributed to the diversity among current Jordanian population groups.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Inbred Long Sleep and Inbred Short Sleep mice

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Todd; Ehringer, Marissa; Larson, Colin; Phang, Tzu; Radcliffe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have utilized the Inbred Long Sleep and Inbred Short Sleep mouse strains to model the genetic influence on initial sensitivity to ethanol. The mechanisms underlying this divergent phenotype are still not completely understood. In this study, we attempt to identify genes that are differentially expressed between these two strains and to identify baseline networks of co-expressed genes, which may provide insight regarding their phenotypic differences. We examined the whole brain and striatal transcriptomes of both strains, using next generation RNA sequencing techniques. Many genes were differentially expressed between strains, including several in chromosomal regions previously shown to influence initial sensitivity to ethanol. These results are in concordance with a similar sample of striatal transcriptomes measured using microarrays. In addition to the higher dynamic range, RNA-Seq is not hindered by high background noise or polymorphisms in probesets as with microarray technology, and we are able to analyze exome sequence of abundant genes. Furthermore, utilizing Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) we identified several modules of co-expressed genes corresponding to strain differences. Several candidate genes were identified, including protein phosphatase 1 regulatory unit 1b (Ppp1r1b), prodynorphin (Pdyn), proenkephalin (Penk), ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 2 (Rassf2), myosin 1d (Myo1d), and transthyretin (Ttr). In addition, we propose a role for potassium channel activity as well as map kinase signaling in the observed phenotypic differences between the two strains. PMID:23433184

  9. Seasonality of births among Bedouin Arabs residing in the Negev Desert of Israel.

    PubMed

    Guptill, K; Berendes, H; Forman, M R; Chang, D; Sarov, B; Naggan, L; Hundt, G L

    1990-04-01

    From 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1982 information on all births to Bedouin Arab women residing in the Negev Desert of Israel showed a previously unreported seasonal pattern. The peak season, November-February, coincided with the period of cool temperatures and the Bedouin Arab cultural seasons of winter and spring. This pattern is different from those of Jewish and Christian groups in the same region, a difference not attributable to religion alone. Sociodemographic factors associated with the peak season of birth include traditional occupations of fathers, multiparae 2+, and traditional place of residence. This pattern has persisted over the past 15 years although it is less apparent among the more recently sedentarized Bedouin Arabs.

  10. The influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin population--a survey study.

    PubMed

    Morad, Mohammed; Shvarts, Shifra; Merrick, Joav; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL) has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999), a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997), and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age) and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met fully, the

  11. [Reporting maternal behavior during diarrhea in Bedouin children].

    PubMed

    Bilenko, N; Levy, A; Fraser, D

    1997-05-15

    Diarrhea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The Bedouin population of southern Israel is in transition from a nomadic to a settled life-style. We examined maternal knowledge and reported behavior when their children had diarrhea. Mothers defined diarrhea as the passing of 4-5 stools per day. The most frequent signs of the illness were an increased number of watery stools with changes in either color or form. The most frequent symptom that prompted mothers to seek medical aid was blood in the stool. All mothers reported increasing fluid intake in their children during diarrhea, and most reported giving herbal tea. About half of the women avoided milk products and used special foods for the treatment of diarrhea. A quarter of the women reported stopping or decreasing the frequency of breast feeding during diarrhea. Reported cessation of breast feeding during diarrhea was associated with changing to special foods, and failure to note the onset of diarrhea or to recognize signs of dehydration. The withdrawal of breast feeding during episodes of illness and diarrhea is related to lack of knowledge regarding diarrhea. These data indicate that even in this population, with free access to preventive and curative medical care, there should be greater efforts to educate mothers to detect diarrheal disease and to maintain breast feeding during the diarrhea. PMID:9264967

  12. Coping of Siblings of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Bedouin Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris; Abu-Ajaj, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study that examines the coping of siblings of children with developmental disabilities in comparison with siblings of children without disabilities in the Bedouin community in Israel. For this purpose, the study examines the components of self-esteem, stress, and growth. Data were collected from 200 adolescents. The findings of…

  13. Factors Related to Students' Achievements: Comparing Israeli Bedouin and Jewish Students in College Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischl, Dita; Sagy, Shifra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors contributing to the achievements of Israeli Bedouin and Jewish students in an Israeli college for teacher education. The study employed Tinto's model and its core concepts of academic and social integration as main explanatory factors for student achievement in an academic institute. Background characteristics were also…

  14. De-Arabization of the Bedouin: A Study of an Inevitable Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonah, Yossi; Abu-Saad, Ismael; Kaplan, Avi

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an assessment of the efforts to de-Arabize the Bedouin Arab youth of the Negev. We show that despite the extensive efforts to achieve this goal, they have become pronouncedly alienated from the State of Israel, and are increasingly perceiving themselves as an integral part of Israel's Palestinian Arab national minority. The…

  15. Perceptions of "the Other" in Children's Drawings: An Intercultural Project among Bedouin and Jewish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Orly; Rajuan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents research on an intercultural project supervised by teacher trainers and implemented by two Jewish student teachers in a Bedouin school in the south of Israel. The student teachers developed and taught an English language unit on the differences and similarities between Jewish and Arab cultures for the purpose of promoting…

  16. Social Work Intervention with Bedouin-Arab Children in the Context of Blood Vengeance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.

    1999-01-01

    "Blood vengeance" is a culturally specific phenomenon that can place Bedouin-Arab children at high risk of neglect. This case study examines psychological and social implications of vengeance on children, the children's coping strategies, and the role of social work. The study provides insight into bridging the "emic-etic" gap in conceptualizing…

  17. Science and Education across Cultures: Another Look at the Negev Bedouins and Their Environmental Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life…

  18. The Assessment of Organisational Climate in Bedouin Arab Schools in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes results of a study designed to identify organizational climate factors in Israel's 29 Bedouin Arab elementary schools and to explore their relation to certain teacher and school-level variables, including sex, educational level, tenure, teachers' origin, school type, and school size. The most important organizational climate factor was…

  19. Phonemic Awareness and Middle-Ear Disease among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of middle-ear infections on phonemic awareness on first-grade Bedouin Arab elementary school children in northern Israel. Divides 49 children who were screened according to their infant medical records into two groups: one with repeated middle-ear infection and one without. Indicates a nonsignificant effect of middle-ear…

  20. Stress reactions and coping strategies among Bedouin Arab adolescents exposed to demolition of houses.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra; Al Said, Haled

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine emotional reactions and coping strategies of Bedouin adolescents against the backdrop of house demolitions in the unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev, Israel. We compared two groups of adolescents living in unrecognized Bedouin villages, teenagers whose houses had been destroyed (acute + chronic group) and their counterparts whose houses had not been destroyed (chronic group). Data were gathered during October to December 2010 from 465 Bedouin adolescents aged 13-18 years. Adolescents filled out self-report questionnaires, which included demographics, objective and subjective exposure to house demolition, state anxiety, state anger, psychological distress and Adolescent Coping Scale. Results show differences between the two groups in stress reactions as well as in objective exposure to house demolition with the acute + chronic group reporting more stress and more exposure. In addition, different variables explained stress reactions in the different groups. Whereas in the acute + chronic group, objective and subjective exposure were the most significant variables, in the chronic group, the coping strategies explained stress with more variance. Results are discussed in terms of differentiating between types of stress, chronic versus acute + chronic and in relation to the interactionist model of coping with stress.

  1. Teachers' Job Satisfaction in Transitional Society within the Bedouin Arab Schools of the Negev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismael Abu; Isralowitz, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study of job satisfaction among 373 elementary teachers in Bedouin schools in southern Israel. Finds that the two most significant job satisfaction factors were teachers' satisfaction with work itself and teachers' satisfaction with social needs. Also finds that female teachers and teachers with higher educational levels were more…

  2. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  3. Work Values of Jewish and Bedouin-Arab Youth in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Reports a study, based on the father-child occupational linkage theory, that compares the work values of independence, management, and achievement of Jewish and Bedouin-Arab Israeli youth in order to determine if work values differ when the father's occupational status was controlled. Findings failed to support the occupational linkage theory. (LS)

  4. Special Education Use among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel: A Case of Minority Underrepresentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…

  5. Kuwaiti population subgroup of nomadic Bedouin ancestry-Whole genome sequence and analysis.

    PubMed

    John, Sumi Elsa; Thareja, Gaurav; Hebbar, Prashantha; Behbehani, Kazem; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse; Alsmadi, Osama

    2015-03-01

    Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, "city-dwelling" Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic "tent-dwelling" Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. By sequencing whole genome of a Kuwaiti male from this subgroup at 41X coverage, we report 3,752,878 SNPs, 411,839 indels, and 8451 structural variations. Neighbor-joining tree, based on shared variant positions carrying disease-risk alleles between the Bedouin and other continental genomes, places Bedouin genome at the nexus of African, Asian, and European genomes in concordance with geographical location of Kuwait and Peninsula. In congruence with participant's medical history for morbid obesity and bronchial asthma, risk alleles are seen at deleterious SNPs associated with obesity and asthma. Many of the observed deleterious 'novel' variants lie in genes associated with autosomal recessive disorders characteristic of the region. PMID:26484159

  6. Kuwaiti population subgroup of nomadic Bedouin ancestry—Whole genome sequence and analysis

    PubMed Central

    John, Sumi Elsa; Thareja, Gaurav; Hebbar, Prashantha; Behbehani, Kazem; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse; Alsmadi, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. By sequencing whole genome of a Kuwaiti male from this subgroup at 41X coverage, we report 3,752,878 SNPs, 411,839 indels, and 8451 structural variations. Neighbor-joining tree, based on shared variant positions carrying disease-risk alleles between the Bedouin and other continental genomes, places Bedouin genome at the nexus of African, Asian, and European genomes in concordance with geographical location of Kuwait and Peninsula. In congruence with participant's medical history for morbid obesity and bronchial asthma, risk alleles are seen at deleterious SNPs associated with obesity and asthma. Many of the observed deleterious ‘novel’ variants lie in genes associated with autosomal recessive disorders characteristic of the region. PMID:26484159

  7. School Violence in Bedouin Schools in Israel: A Re-Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; ElBassiouny, Amanda; Bart, William M.; Elbedour, Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Students in Bedouin schools in Israel completed a survey in which they indicated how frequent abusive teacher behaviors occurred in their classrooms; responses indicated that abusive teacher behaviors occur often. Female students tended to register higher levels of punitive teacher behaviors than male students and secondary school students tended…

  8. Individuation among bedouin versus urban arab adolescents: ethnic and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-11-01

    Three scales assessing individuation (Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status [OMEIS], Separation-Individuation Test of Adolescence [SITA], and Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale [MIS]) were administered to 40 female and 38 male Bedouin Arab adolescents and to 39 female and 38 male urban Arab adolescents in Grade 12. It was hypothesized that Bedouin Arab adolescents and female adolescents would manifest less individuation than urban Arab adolescents and male adolescents, respectively. Results from the OMEIS revealed that the identity foreclosed mean of the Bedouin adolescents was higher than that of the urban adolescents. As for the SITA, significant differences were found between Bedouin and urban Arabs in terms of dependency denial, separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, peer enmeshment, and rejection expectancy. Significant gender differences were found in regard to dependency denial, and a borderline difference was found for separation anxiety. Significant effects of ethnicity and gender were found on the financial interconnectedness subscale of the MIS. The results support the present hypotheses concerning ethnicity differences and indicate that urbanization seems to narrow the differences in individuation between male and female adolescents.

  9. Attitudes toward and perceived psychosocial impact of female circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev.

    PubMed

    al-Krenawi, A; Wiesel-Lev, R

    1999-01-01

    The present pilot study examines attitudes toward and the perceived psychosocial impact of circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev, Israel. A convenience sample of 24 women participated in the study: 12 who had experienced the ritual, and 12 who had not, but who had witnessed or been told about the practice of the ritual on women in their extended families. Two research instruments were used: a structured questionnaire, and a semi-structured open-ended interview. Data showed differences in subject responses depending on the research tools. The structured questionnaire revealed that women who had experienced the circumcision gave legitimization and cognitive rationalization to it. In contrast, the semi-structured interview revealed that these same subjects reported insult: traumatization, direct negative influences, and narcissistic insult, and described emotional difficulties during the research interviews. The findings indicated that they had difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. Implications of the ritual on the continuity of polygamy and marital/sexual problems are discussed.

  10. From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.

    PubMed

    Graulund, Rune

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth. PMID:19886291

  11. Entangled Bodies: Jews, Bedouins, and the Making of the Secular Israeli.

    PubMed

    Razon, Na'amah

    2016-01-01

    Taking Israel's National Health Insurance Law as a point of entry, in this article I probe how notions of equality and citizenship, secularism, and religion become entangled in the experience of Negev/Naqab Bedouins, who are Palestinian citizens of Israel. Drawing on ethnographic and archival research, I show how Jewish citizens have come to represent the secular and modern citizens in the region, while Bedouins, although mandated and claimed by policy and providers to be the 'same' and 'equal,' are always already imagined and characterized as other. Universal health care and the daily manner in which biomedicine is practiced in southern Israel provides an avenue for examining the Jewish valences medicine carries in southern Israel, Israel's boundaries of inclusion, and the connection between biomedicine and secularism.

  12. Bedouin in Lebanon: Social discrimination, political exclusion, and compromised health care.

    PubMed

    Chatty, Dawn; Mansour, Nisrine; Yassin, Nasser

    2013-04-01

    Global inequalities in health have long been associated with disparities between rich and poor nations. The middle-income countries of the Levant (Lebanon, Syria and Jordan) have developed models of health care delivery that mirror the often complex make-up of their states. In Lebanon, which is characterized by political clientelism and sectarian structures, access to health care is more contingent on ethnicity and religious affiliation than on poverty. This case study of the Bedouin of the Middle Bekaa Valley of Lebanon is based on interviews with policymakers, health care providers and the Bedouin as part of a study funded by the European Commission between 2006 and 2010. The study explores the importance of considering social discrimination and political exclusion in understanding compromised health care. Three decades after the Declaration of Alma Ata (1978), which declared that an acceptable level of health care for all should be attained by the year 2000, the Bedouin community of Lebanon remains largely invisible to the government and, thus, invisible to national health care policy and practice. They experience significant social discrimination from health practitioners and policymakers alike. Their unfair treatment under the health system is generally disassociated from issues of wealth or poverty; it is manifested in issues of access and use, discrimination, and resistance and agency. Overcoming their political exclusion and recognizing the social discrimination they face are steps that can be taken to protect and promote equal access to basic reproductive and child health care. This case study of the Bedouin in Lebanon is also relevant to the health needs of other marginalized populations in remote and rural areas.

  13. Mortality in the Bedouin Population and Proximity to a Regional Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Kordysh, Ella; Belmaker, Ilana; Sarov, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background: The study was initiated by public concern about exposure to an industrial park (IP) emission. The study examined whether mortality in the Bedouin population in the southern part of Israel is associated with the residential distance to the IP. Material and Methods: Ecological study during 1995–2001 included the entire Bedouin population. Mortality data was obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. As an indirect measurement of exposure we used residential distance to the IP (with 20 km radius as a cut-of-point) based on residents’ complaints about odor related to the IP. Differences in mortality rates by distance were assessed by the Mantel-Haenszel relative risk (M-H RR) within the 95% CI. The country Arab population served as a reference for calculation of the age-adjusted standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Results: Increased mortality rates due to symptoms/ill-defined conditions and non-external causes were observed in the Bedouin population of both sexes, residing up to 20 km from the IP, compared to those living in more remote areas. Corresponding M-H RR (plus 95% CI) were 1.66 (1.17–2.36), 1.24 (1.06–1.44) in females, and 1.55 (1.15–2.10), 1.32 (1.15–1.52) in males. Conclusions: The study results suggest an association between residential proximity to the regional IP and increased mortality rates in the Negev Bedouin population. These findings have been accepted by the authorities as an issue for community health protection. PMID:21572844

  14. Registration of maize inbred line 'GT888'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line GT888 (PI 670116) was developed and released by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with the University of Georgia, and in participation with the USDA Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project. GT888 was derived from GEM population DK888:N11 (GEMN-0177), which has 50% tro...

  15. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  16. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities.

  17. Genotypic probabilities for pairs of inbred relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenlei; Weir, B S

    2005-07-29

    Expressions for the joint genotypic probabilities of two related individuals are used in many population and quantitative genetic analyses. These expressions, resting on a set of 15 probabilities of patterns of identity by descent among the four alleles at a locus carried by the relatives, are generally well known. There has been recent interest in special cases where the two individuals are both related and inbred, although there have been differences among published results. Here, we return to the original 15-probability treatment and show appropriate reductions for relatives when they are drawn from a population that itself is inbred or when the relatives have parents who are related. These results have application in affected-relative tests for linkage, and in methods for interpreting forensic genetic profiles.

  18. Successful cultural change: the example of female circumcision among Israeli Bedouins and Israeli Jews from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, R H

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced in many areas of the world, including the Middle East, Africa and Australia. Although it is most common in Muslim populations it is not a dictate of Islam. In the 1980s this practice was reported among Bedouin tribes, originally nomadic, in the southern area of Israel. Almost all of the women interviewed in the first study intended to continue the practice by performing FGM on their daughters including educated women who were teachers, dental assistants or university students. A second study was therefore done based in the obstetrical clinic where only women from tribes reporting to undergo FGM were examined for signs of FGM by an experienced gynecologist, in the presence of an Arabic-speaking female nurse and translator, as part of a gynecologic examination that was indicated for other reasons. In no cases was clitoridectomy or any damage to the labia found. All women had a small scar from a 1cm. incision somewhere on the labia or prepuce of the clitoris. this study concluded that the importance of the ritual in this population was unrelated to its severity. the ritual had apparently become over time a small symbolic scar, even though this population continued to believe in its importance. By contrast, a group of Ethiopian Jews who had immigrated to Israel was interviewed by an Amharic translator, and examined during routine gynecological examination in the same manner as the Bedouin group above. In Ethiopia, FGM is universal among Christian, Muslim and Jewish groups. All women interviewed reported that FGM was universal in Ethiopia, but none intended to continue this practice with their daughters. All stated that this was a practice that would be left behind in their country of origin. On physical examination many of the women had amputation of the clitoris. The conclusion of this study was that the severity of the operation performed had no relation to the social and cultural adherence to the operation, since the

  19. A Republican Egalitarian Approach to Bioethics: The Case of the Unrecognized Bedouin Villages in Israel.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani; Davidovich, Nadav; Gottlieb, Nora

    2016-10-01

    This article argues that current, mainstream, liberal approaches to the right to health and to bioethics are not adequately aware of the structural and political character of health and illness. We propose a radical egalitarian definition of the right to health as the basis for the discussion of a republican egalitarian perspective on bioethics that redefines autonomy and stresses the importance of equality, political participation, and the common good. The violations of the right to health in unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel are analyzed to exemplify the possibilities opened by the republican egalitarian approach.

  20. Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children

    SciTech Connect

    Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.

    1987-06-19

    An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

  1. Maternal perceptions of social context and adherence to maternal and child health (MCH) clinic recommendations among marginalized Bedouin mothers.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2015-03-01

    National maternal and child health (MCH) care systems often deliver universal health care recommendations that do not take into consideration the social context of infant care (IC) for marginalized groups. We examined associations between maternal perceptions of social context (MPSC) and adherence by minority Bedouin mothers in Israel to three commonly recommended IC practices. We conducted personal interviews with 464 mothers visiting 14 MCH clinics using a structured questionnaire based on findings from a previous focus-group study, and guided by constructs of the Health Beliefs Model. Items were tested for validity and reliability. We used multivariate analysis to identify MPSC constructs associated with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations (timely postnatal first visit, sustaining breastfeeding, and use of infant car seat). Social context, when perceived as a barrier to IC, was negatively associated with adherence to timely first postnatal MCH clinic visit (odds ratio, 95 %, confidence intervals (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.24, 1.70) and use of infant car seat (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.21, 1.69). However, social context was positively associated with sustained breastfeeding (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.37, 0.79). Perceptions of the severity of infant health problems, and family financial and relationship problems had less significant associations with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations. Adherence by marginalized mothers to MCH clinic recommendations is related to their perceptions of social context. When there are higher financial and other living conditions barriers mothers tend toward lower adherence to these recommendations. MCH policy makers and service providers must consider MPSC in planning and delivery of MCH recommendations.

  2. Maternal perceptions of social context and adherence to maternal and child health (MCH) clinic recommendations among marginalized Bedouin mothers.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2015-03-01

    National maternal and child health (MCH) care systems often deliver universal health care recommendations that do not take into consideration the social context of infant care (IC) for marginalized groups. We examined associations between maternal perceptions of social context (MPSC) and adherence by minority Bedouin mothers in Israel to three commonly recommended IC practices. We conducted personal interviews with 464 mothers visiting 14 MCH clinics using a structured questionnaire based on findings from a previous focus-group study, and guided by constructs of the Health Beliefs Model. Items were tested for validity and reliability. We used multivariate analysis to identify MPSC constructs associated with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations (timely postnatal first visit, sustaining breastfeeding, and use of infant car seat). Social context, when perceived as a barrier to IC, was negatively associated with adherence to timely first postnatal MCH clinic visit (odds ratio, 95 %, confidence intervals (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.24, 1.70) and use of infant car seat (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.21, 1.69). However, social context was positively associated with sustained breastfeeding (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.37, 0.79). Perceptions of the severity of infant health problems, and family financial and relationship problems had less significant associations with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations. Adherence by marginalized mothers to MCH clinic recommendations is related to their perceptions of social context. When there are higher financial and other living conditions barriers mothers tend toward lower adherence to these recommendations. MCH policy makers and service providers must consider MPSC in planning and delivery of MCH recommendations. PMID:24927786

  3. Does Education Necessarily Mean Enlightenment? The Case of Higher Education among Palestinians--Bedouin Women in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2008-01-01

    This study challenges and evaluates modern-liberal-humanistic discourse on education as enlightenment through analysis of the life stories of the first Bedouin women to acquire higher education (hereafter: First Women). The liberal discourse is examined in terms of its ethnic and genderial contexts and the special status these women gained as…

  4. Higher Education as a Platform for Cross-Cultural Transition: The Case of the First Educated Bedouin Women in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aburabia-Queder, Sarab

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two groups of Bedouin women who studied in different cultural spaces. The first group, due to a lack of high schools in the Negev (during the 1970s), were obliged to leave the village to study and reside in boarding schools in the central and northern regions of Israel. These women returned to their society of origin after…

  5. Stereotyping in a Traditional Society and Its Implications for School Psychologist Referral Patterns: The Case of the Negev Bedouin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Ram

    2007-01-01

    The present report describes the psycho-educational services referral pattern in the school system serving both a permanent Bedouin town A and its vicinity in Israel's Negev desert. The subjects of the study were students in the school system in A between the years 1997 to 2002 (with additional data from 2004). The total number of referrals to…

  6. Relations between Mothers and Adolescent Daughters in the Israeli Bedouin Society Characterized by Education of Traditional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwaed, Muhammad; Swaid, Faten

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the Bedouin population in Galilee, in Northern Israel, experienced significant multifaceted changes. Exposure to other cultures and other social components, with which this population had very limited interaction in the past, had affected its norms and behavior patterns and caused adaption of manners and values that had not been…

  7. Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim; Orion, Nir; Alamour, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims at pinpointing differences in spontaneous and non-spontaneous mental models of water cycle conceptions of two 4th grade student groups: the Jewish residents of a small provincial town and a group of students from an indigenous Bedouin community. Students' conceptions were elicited using the Repertory Grid technique as…

  8. Role of School Administration in Solving Students' Problems among Bedouin Schools within the Green Line in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badarna, Laila Khaled; abu Ashour, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the role of the school administration in solving the students' problems and differences according to gender, scientific qualification, years of experience and job title. The sample consisted of (300) staff from those who are working in the Bedouin schools within the Green Line of Palestine. The author used a…

  9. Depressive symptoms among Arab Bedouin women whose houses are under threat of demolition in southern Israel: a right to housing issue.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Jabareen, Yousef

    2014-06-14

    Housing is a fundamental human right and a social determinant of health. According to international law, indigenous peoples are entitled to special housing and health rights and protections. In Israel, land disputes between the government and Arab Bedouins, an indigenous minority, have resulted in ongoing demolitions of Arab Bedouin homes, with thousands more homes threatened. While demolitions could expose this population to mental health problems, research linking house demolition and health is scarce. In this paper, we draw on a human rights perspective to describe this housing instability and examine the association between the threat of house demolition and depressive symptoms (DS) among 464 Arab Bedouin women. We conclude that having their house under threat of demolition is an important determinant of poor mental health among Bedouin women. Any efforts to decrease DS among these women will have to take place alongside efforts to stop this practice.

  10. Differential pre-mRNA Splicing Alters the Transcript Diversity of Helitrons Between the Maize Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Brian T.; Patrick, Tara L.; Moreno, Jennifer J.; Siebert, Amy E.; Klusman, Katarina M.; Shodja, Donya N.; Hannah, L. Curtis; Lal, Shailesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The propensity to capture and mobilize gene fragments by the highly abundant Helitron family of transposable elements likely impacts the evolution of genes in Zea mays. These elements provide a substrate for natural selection by giving birth to chimeric transcripts by intertwining exons of disparate genes. They also capture flanking exons by read-through transcription. Here, we describe the expression of selected Helitrons in different maize inbred lines. We recently reported that these Helitrons produce multiple isoforms of transcripts in inbred B73 via alternative splicing. Despite sharing high degrees of sequence similarity, the splicing profile of Helitrons differed among various maize inbred lines. The comparison of Helitron sequences identified unique polymorphisms in inbred B73, which potentially give rise to the alternatively spliced sites utilized by transcript isoforms. Some alterations in splicing, however, do not have obvious explanations. These observations not only add another level to the creation of transcript diversity by Helitrons among inbred lines but also provide novel insights into the cis-acting elements governing splice-site selection during pre-mRNA processing. PMID:26070844

  11. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  12. Growth and nutritional status of Bedouin infants in the Negev Desert, Israel: evidence for marked stunting in the presence of only mild malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Dagan, R; Sofer, S; Klish, W J; Hundet, G; Saltz, H; Moses, S W

    1983-11-01

    Growth and feeding practices of 353 Bedouin infants from the Negev Desert, Israel, were compared to those of 302 Jewish infants from the same area and to American standards. These two populations differed in their cultures and educational backgrounds. The use of medical and health services was lower among the Bedouin population. The feeding practices of the Bedouin infants were markedly different from those of their controls. The Bedouin infants show a progressive decrease in weight, length, and head circumference (means of all three parameters were around the 5th percentile) while the Jews were comparable to Americans. The nutritional status was assessed by three different anthropometric measurements. The weight to length ratio showed that 88% of Bedouin and 96% of Jewish infants were above the 10th percentile. Tricep skinfold measurements showed that 96% of the Bedouins and 99% of the Jews were above the 5th percentile. The midarm circumference to head circumference ratio was in the range between 0.280 and 0.310 (mild malnutrition range) while that of the Jews was above 0.310 (well-nourished range). These data show marked stunting in the presence of only mild malnutrition. This observation argues against the general belief that marked stunting is the result of prolonged severe malnutrition. Differences in cultural and genetic backgrounds, as well as different feeding practices and increased morbidity, could contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:6637867

  13. Genetic rescue in a severely inbred wolf population.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, Mikael; Liberg, Olof; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Bensch, Staffan; Flagstad, Øystein

    2016-10-01

    Natural populations are becoming increasingly fragmented which is expected to affect their viability due to inbreeding depression, reduced genetic diversity and increased sensitivity to demographic and environmental stochasticity. In small and highly inbred populations, the introduction of only a few immigrants may increase vital rates significantly. However, very few studies have quantified the long-term success of immigrants and inbred individuals in natural populations. Following an episode of natural immigration to the isolated, severely inbred Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, we demonstrate significantly higher pairing and breeding success for offspring to immigrants compared to offspring from native, inbred pairs. We argue that inbreeding depression is the underlying mechanism for the profound difference in breeding success. Highly inbred wolves may have lower survival during natal dispersal as well as competitive disadvantage to find a partner. Our study is one of the first to quantify and compare the reproductive success of first-generation offspring from migrants vs. native, inbred individuals in a natural population. Indeed, our data demonstrate the profound impact single immigrants can have in small, inbred populations, and represent one of very few documented cases of genetic rescue in a population of large carnivores. PMID:27497431

  14. Science and education across cultures: another look at the Negev Bedouins and their environmental management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-12-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life conditions. They do so by analyzing the impact of current precarious waste management practices on children's health and proposing the implementation of a science study unit in school that could assist them in dealing with the problem. My argument here is divided in three parts: first, based on the original article's information, I comment on some important characteristics of those unrecognized settlements and their waste production practices; second, I try to determine what kind of environmental education—if any—is necessary in that context to promote the desired changes put forward by the authors; and third, I adopt a cross-cultural approach to science and environmental literacy as means to provoke readers to consider the scientific value (often neglected) of traditional knowledge in attempting to solve the issues described in the original paper. In addition, both the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education (1977) and the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (1992) are used to support my argument, which also encompasses the concept of empowerment. Ultimately, bridging the Bedouin's traditional knowledge and Western modern science can help to improve science education at the school level in the unrecognized township under study by linking present and past in search of a more sustainable and peaceful future.

  15. Knowledge, action and resistance: the selective use of pre-natal screening among Bedouin women of the Negev, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lewando-Hundt, G; Shoham-Vardi, I; Beckerleg, S; Belmaker, I; Kassem, F; Jaafar, A A

    2001-02-01

    The selective use of prenatal screening by Bedouin women attending Ministry of Health, maternal and child health clinics in Israel is examined. The data consist of a review of 537 prenatal care records, 16 in depth interviews with mothers, and four interviews with health personnel. These data are part of a larger study that took place between 1994-99 amongst Negev Bedouin women, part of the Palestinian Arab minority within Israel. The record review shows that the majority of women who attend prenatal care do not take up referrals for Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein (MSAFP) testing or for amniocentesis tests. Although many women interviewed talked about the value of prenatal screening, they also spoke of 'false alarms' that may result from testing. Similarly, women were aware that the socially preferred pattern of consanguinity in marriage amongst the Bedouin may cause medical problems, however test uptake was unrelated to consanguinity. There was a variety of views concerning the permissibility of terminating a pregnancy. This study shows that women use prenatal screening selectively in a way that helps them to balance social and medical risk.

  16. Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice. PMID:18308707

  17. 'Beduinella massiliensis', gen. nov., sp. nov. a new genus representing a new family in the phylum Firmicutes, and proposal of Beduinellaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Traore, S I; Azhar, E I; Yasir, M; Bibi, F; Delerce, J; Fournier, P-E; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    We report here the main characteristics of a new bacterium named 'Beduinella massiliensis' strain Marseille-P2846(T) (CSURP2846P) that was isolated from a faecal specimen of a 50-year-old Saudi Bedouin female and propose the creation of a new family 'Beduinellaceae'.

  18. 'Beduinella massiliensis', gen. nov., sp. nov. a new genus representing a new family in the phylum Firmicutes, and proposal of Beduinellaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Traore, S I; Azhar, E I; Yasir, M; Bibi, F; Delerce, J; Fournier, P-E; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    We report here the main characteristics of a new bacterium named 'Beduinella massiliensis' strain Marseille-P2846(T) (CSURP2846P) that was isolated from a faecal specimen of a 50-year-old Saudi Bedouin female and propose the creation of a new family 'Beduinellaceae'. PMID:27621822

  19. Estimation of Variance Components of Quantitative Traits in Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Mark; McPeek, Mary Sara; Ober, Carole

    2000-01-01

    Summary Use of variance-component estimation for mapping of quantitative-trait loci in humans is a subject of great current interest. When only trait values, not genotypic information, are considered, variance-component estimation can also be used to estimate heritability of a quantitative trait. Inbred pedigrees present special challenges for variance-component estimation. First, there are more variance components to be estimated in the inbred case, even for a relatively simple model including additive, dominance, and environmental effects. Second, more identity coefficients need to be calculated from an inbred pedigree in order to perform the estimation, and these are computationally more difficult to obtain in the inbred than in the outbred case. As a result, inbreeding effects have generally been ignored in practice. We describe here the calculation of identity coefficients and estimation of variance components of quantitative traits in large inbred pedigrees, using the example of HDL in the Hutterites. We use a multivariate normal model for the genetic effects, extending the central-limit theorem of Lange to allow for both inbreeding and dominance under the assumptions of our variance-component model. We use simulated examples to give an indication of under what conditions one has the power to detect the additional variance components and to examine their impact on variance-component estimation. We discuss the implications for mapping and heritability estimation by use of variance components in inbred populations. PMID:10677322

  20. Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shai, Iris; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; German, Larissa; Vardi, Hillel; Fraser, Drora

    2009-11-01

    The traditionally semi-nomadic Bedouin Arabs in Israel are undergoing urbanisation with concurrent lifestyle changes, including a shift to using unfortified white-flour bread instead of wholewheat bread as the main dietary staple. We explored associations between the transition from wholewheat to white-flour bread and (1) lifestyle factors, (2) overall diet quality, and (3) health status. We conducted a nutrition survey among 451 Bedouin adults, using a modified 24 h recall questionnaire. Bread intake accounted for 32.7 % of the total energy intake. Those consuming predominantly white bread (PWB) (n 327) were more likely to be urban (OR 2.79; 95 % CI 1.70, 4.58), eating store-bought rather than homemade bread (OR 8.18; 95 % CI 4.34, 15.41) and currently dieting (OR 4.67; 95 % CI 1.28, 17.11) than those consuming predominantly wholewheat bread (PWWB) (n 124). PWB consumption was associated with a lower intake of dietary fibre (23.3 (se 0.6) v. 41.8 (se 1.0) g/d; P < or = 0.001), a higher intake of saturated fats (26.9 v. 24.6 % of total fat; P = 0.013) and lower intakes of Fe (11.0 (se 0.3) v. 16.7 (se 0.4) mg/d), Mg (262.2 (se 5.9) v. 490.3 (se 9.8) mg/d), vitamin E (6.5 (se 0.2) v. 8.6 (se 0.3) mg/d) and most B vitamins than PWWB consumption (P < 0.001 for all), after adjusting for total energy intake. Among those aged > or = 40 years, PWB consumption was associated with a 9.85-fold risk (95 % CI 2.64, 36.71; P = 0.001) of having one or more chronic conditions, as compared with PWWB consumption, after controlling for other risk factors. White bread intake was associated with a less traditional lifestyle and poorer diet quality, and may constitute a useful marker for at-risk subgroups to target for nutritional interventions.

  1. Psychosocial and familial functioning of children from polygynous and monogamous families.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2008-12-01

    A sample of 352 Bedouin Arab children--174 from monogamous and 178 from polygynous families--participated in this study. The authors used self-reported standardized measures to assess the participants' level of self-esteem, mental health, social functioning, father-child relationships, mother-child relationships, and family functioning. The findings revealed that children from polygynous families reported more mental health and social difficulties as well as poorer school achievement and poorer relationships with their fathers than did their counterparts from monogamous families. In addition, the children from polygynous families rated their families' functioning and economic status as poorer than did those of monogamous families. Thus, the authors suggest that a polygynous family structure negatively affects the family's socioeconomic status and interpersonal relationships and impairs the children's psychological and social functioning. The authors discuss implications for practice and policy.

  2. Treatment, Conservation and Restoration of the Bedouin Dyed Textiles in the Museum of Jordanian Heritage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Alfaisal, R.

    This study aims to establish and design effective methods to conserve two Bedouin dyed textile objects selected from the museum of Jordanian heritage and to improve the physical and environmental conditions in which items are kept to optimize their longterm chances of survival. The conservation processes that were used in conservation of the selected objects can be used a guide for conservators to conserve other similar textile objects. Investigations and analysis were used to identify the fibers and the extent of deterioration by using noninvasive methods. Transmitted Light Microscopy (TLM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy associated with EDAX (SEM-EDAX) were used for identifying the fibers and the deterioration. The results showed that the textile artifacts studied were very dirty, had white spots occupying cavities and holes, wrinkles and creases, fiber damages. Previous damage may due to the improper display methods in the museum or due to the incompatible environmental conditions surrounded the artifacts during exhibition such as: light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and microorganisms. For these reasons, the textile objects were cleaned using wet cleaning methods that improved the physical and mechanical properties of textile objects and returned them to their original shape as much as possible. Then the textile objects were mounted and supported by stitching on to backing fabric stretched on wooden frames. Finally, and according to the requirements of the museum, the objects were displayed temporarily inside showcases in an aesthetically pleasing manner.

  3. The Bedouin Infant Feeding Study: study design and factors influencing the duration of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Naggan, L; Forman, M R; Sarov, B; Lewando-Hundt, G; Zangwill, L; Chang, D; Berendes, H W

    1991-10-01

    A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices, growth and morbidity among Bedouin Arab infants residing in the Negev, Israel, was conducted during a 3-year period (1981-1983). Follow-up samples were restricted to healthy newborns. The majority of newborns are breast fed at birth but, by 2 months, 50% are also introduced to a milk supplement. Based on the bivariate analysis using the logrank test to examine the factors associated with exclusive versus partial breast feeding during the first 6 months, those born during the wet cool months are exclusively breast fed longer than those born during the dry season. More traditional women, living in tents rather than houses or huts, exclusively breast feed for at least 6 months. In a multiple logistic regression model, parity, house type and birth season are independently associated with the odds of exclusively breast feeding for the first 6 months of life. Factors influencing the duration of any breast feeding for the first 18 months include: house type, place of residence, birthweight, and whether the infant was stunted at 6 months.

  4. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  5. Family therapy with a multiparental/multispousal family.

    PubMed

    al-Krenawi, A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines therapy with a Bedouin-Arab family from the Negev, Israel, which consisted of 69 members: a husband, 8 wives, and 60 siblings. The husband, who lived with his youngest wife, paid little attention to his other wives and their children. There was considerable competition, hostility, and jealousy among the wives; no communication between the co-wives or the children of different wives; and a variety of behavioral and psychosocial problems among family members. I describe the varied strategies and systems involved in family therapy. The main strategies were to establish good relationships among the co-wives and to build a coalition among them, including the youngest wife, through group therapy in a medical clinic. A secondary strategy was using the children's problems to get the husband involved in the therapy. With improvement of the children's functioning, and with reduced intra-subfamily hostility, the husband's relationships with his children and wives improved.

  6. Health and morbidity among Bedouin women in southern Israel: a descriptive literature review of the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we describe health and morbidity characteristics of Bedouin women in southern Israel, based on papers published over the past 20 years. This is a unique population whose customs, tradition, singular circumstances as a population "in transit", and underprivileged socio-economic status are reflected in mental illness, pregnancy course, perinatal morbidity and mortality rates, and acute and chronic disease. Recognition of these characteristics can help the medical team treat various health problems in this population as well as other populations with similar characteristics. PMID:24492991

  7. Health and morbidity among Bedouin women in southern Israel: a descriptive literature review of the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we describe health and morbidity characteristics of Bedouin women in southern Israel, based on papers published over the past 20 years. This is a unique population whose customs, tradition, singular circumstances as a population "in transit", and underprivileged socio-economic status are reflected in mental illness, pregnancy course, perinatal morbidity and mortality rates, and acute and chronic disease. Recognition of these characteristics can help the medical team treat various health problems in this population as well as other populations with similar characteristics.

  8. Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome with bifid hallux, absent tibia, and macrophallus: a report of a Bedouin baby.

    PubMed

    Sabry, M A; Obenbergerova, D; Al-Sawan, R; Saleh, Q A; Farah, S; Al-Awadi, S A; Farag, T I

    1996-02-01

    A male Bedouin baby with the clinical profile of femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is described. The phenotype includes bilateral asymmetrical lower limb hypoplasia/aplasia with short remnants of both femora, absent right tibia, bifid right big toe, dysmorphic facies, thoracic/pelvic abnormalities, macrophallus, and bilateral cryptorchidism. This report re-emphasises the previously described rare association of femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome with preaxial polydactyly and suggests that the clinical spectrum of the syndrome could be stretched further to accommodate other unusual traits, for example, macrophallus and absent tibia. PMID:8929957

  9. Conceptualizations of Waste-Related Implications on Health and Welfare among Elementary School Students in the Negev's Bedouin Arab Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedawi, Wisam; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cwikel, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the manner in which 4th-5th grade children from unrecognized Bedouin settlements in Israel's Negev desert perceive waste and its effects on health and the environment, with an eye towards building a future model for their environmental education. These children participate in local practices with environmental…

  10. The Power of Femininity: Exploring the Gender and Ethnic Experiences of Muslim Women Who Accessed Supervisory Roles in a Bedouin Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quader, Sarab Abu-Rabia; Oplatka, Izhar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims to tell the stories of six female supervisors who have successfully managed to access this high-level position in the Bedouin educational system, putting forward some implications for understanding and exploring the lives and career of women in patriarchal, minority groups. Design/methodology/approach: Six female…

  11. Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

  12. Registration of 'RU9101001'/'Katy' recombinant inbred lines of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cross of RU9101001/'Katy' rice (Oryza sativa L.) was used to develop a mapping population consisting of 238 F9 generation recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) (GSOR100361 to GSOR100600). This population has been used to map major genes that provide resistance to the rice blast pat...

  13. Progress toward the development of diploid recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) offer new opportunities for mapping traits in potato. They also provide an opportunity to evaluate responses to inbreeding in interspecific hybrids. We are developing a set of six RILs, which will comprise a nested association mapping population. The common parent is ...

  14. Reinventing potato as a diploid inbred line-based crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The third most important food crop worldwide, potato, is a tetraploid outcrossing species propagated from tubers. Breeders have long been challenged by polyploidy, heterozygosity, and asexual reproduction. It has been assumed that tetraploidy is essential for high yield, the creation of inbred potat...

  15. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

  16. Bedouin-Arab women's access to antenatal care at the interface of physical and structural barriers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Belmaker, Ilana; Bilenko, Natalya; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, the Israeli Public Health Services have established eight Maternal-and-Child-Health (MCH) stations in unrecognised Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel in order to reduce barriers to healthcare. The goals of this pilot study were: (1) to explore the new MCH stations' impact on antenatal care (ANC) accessibility; and (2) to compare access to ANC between women from villages with MCH stations and women from villages without MCH stations. The study combined quantitative and qualitative methods including structured interviews with 174 MCH service users, review of 158 ANC records and 16 in-depth interviews with Bedouin-Arab women. The establishment of MCH stations in unrecognised villages has improved physical access to ANC and secondarily diminished other barriers related to financial and sociocultural dimensions of women's access to healthcare, thus enhancing women's options for independent healthcare-seeking; yet, limited opening hours, staff shortages and communication problems hamper ANC delivery at the new MCH stations. This pilot study indicates that the MCH stations' establishment in unrecognised villages was a successful intervention, which improved women's access to ANC. Even though current service delivery challenges need to be overcome to achieve the intervention's full potential, its replication should be considered in further villages.

  17. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  18. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W.

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  19. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Miller, Andrew D; Buckles, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-22

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2-33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations.

  20. Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping

    2007-01-01

    Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size. PMID:17611057

  1. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  2. [Parent grouping of 31 elite inbred lines in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhang, Yin-Dong; Yin, Jun-Mei; Wang, De-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Genetic differences were examined among thirty-one elite inbred lines in Capsicum annuum L. Two types of analytic technologies, i.e. SRAP markers and genotypes of traits, were used, and their relative effectiveness was compared. 27 of 30 primer combinations could amplify 310 polymorphic bands among inbred lines, indicating SRAP marker was efficient to detect polymorphism among pepper inbred lines. A dendrogram of 31 inbred lines based on SRAP markers and Yule coefficients could basically separate lines of C. annuum var. grossum and C. annuum var. longum, and reveal the pedigrees of inbred lines. A dendrogram of 31 inbred lines based on genotypes of traits and standardized Euclidean coefficients could separate lines of C. annuum var. grossum and C. annuum var. longum. The SRAP marker genetic distances were correlated with distances based on the genotypes of traits. These results and their application in the development of hot pepper F1 hy-brids were also discussed.

  3. Bardet-Biedl syndrome: Mapping of a new locus to chromosome 3 and fine-mapping of the chromosome 16 linked locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwitek-Black, A.E.; Rokhlina, T.; Nishimura, D.Y.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, post-axial polydactyly, obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism. Other features of this disease include renal and cardiovascular abnormalities and an increased incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The molecular etiology for BBS is not known. We previously linked BBS to chromosome 16q13 in a large inbred Bedouin family, and excluded this locus in a second large inbred Bedouin family. We now report linkage of this second family to markers on chromosome 3q, proving non-allelic, genetic heterogeneity in the Bedouin population. A third large inbred Bedouin family was excluded from the 3q and 16q BBS loci. In addition to the identification of a new BBS locus on chromosome 3, we have identified and utilized additional short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) in the 16q BBS region to narrow the candidate interval to 3 cM. Additional recombinant individuals will allow further refinement of the interval. Identification of genes causing BBS has the potential to provide insight into diverse genetic traits and disease processes including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, retinal degeneration, and abnormal limb, renal and cardiac development.

  4. Registration of the Ki14 × B73 recombinant inbred mapping population of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center released Ki14 × B73 (KB) maize (Zea mays L.) mapping population, a set of 119 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), in March 2007. The mapping population was derived from a biparental cross between inbreds Ki14 (NCRPIS accession Ames 27259) and B73 (...

  5. Two different mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene of a large inbred Amish kindred: power and limits of homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed

    Pannain, S; Weiss, R E; Jackson, C E; Dian, D; Beck, J C; Sheffield, V C; Cox, N; Refetoff, S

    1999-03-01

    Approximately 10% of newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are unable to convert iodide into organic iodine. This iodide organification defect has a prevalence of 1 in 40,000 newborns and may be caused by defects in the thyroid peroxidase enzyme (TPO), the hydrogen peroxide-generating system, the TPO substrate thyroglobulin, or inhibitors of TPO. We identified a high incidence of severe hypothyroidism due to a complete iodide organification defect in the youngest generation of five nuclear families belonging to an inbred Amish kindred. Genealogical records permitted us to trace their origin to an ancestral couple 7-8 generations back and to identify an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Initial studies of homozygosity by descent using two polymorphic markers within the TPO gene showed no linkage to the phenotype. In fact, 4 of 15 affected siblings from 2 of the nuclear families were heterozygous, resulting in homozygosity values of 73% and 53% in affected and unaffected family members, respectively. A genome-wide homozygosity screen using DNA pools from affected and unaffected family members localized the defect to a locus close to the TPO gene. Linkage analysis using 4 additional polymorphic markers within the TPO gene reduced the number of homozygous unaffected siblings to zero without altering the percent homozygosity initially found in the affected. Sequencing of the TPO gene revealed 2 missense mutations, E799K and R648Q. TPO 779K was found in both alleles of the 11 affected homozygotes, both mutations were present in each of the 3 affected compound heterozygotes, and there were no TPO mutations in 1 subject with hypothyroidism of different etiology. These results demonstrate the power of the DNA pooling strategy in the localization of a defective gene and the pitfalls of linkage analysis when 2 relatively rare mutations coexist in an inbred population. PMID:10084596

  6. Conceptualizations of waste-related implications on health and welfare among elementary school students in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedawi, Wisam; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cwikel, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the manner in which 4th-5th grade children from unrecognized Bedouin settlements in Israel's Negev desert perceive waste and its effects on health and the environment, with an eye towards building a future model for their environmental education. These children participate in local practices with environmental repercussions, such as incinerating waste or collecting it for reuse and sale. These lead to injury, exposure to toxic chemicals and chronic disease. Understanding such dangers would not only help these children avoid future environmental and personal harm, but potentially allow them to influence the knowledge, affect and behavior of adults in their household as well. Data was collected by a combination of interviews and observations, with results divided into three main categories: knowledge, affect and behavior. We found that though waste is an integral part of the children's domestic environment, their knowledge of it was only superficial, based in social and personal experience. In terms of affect, children's reactions were ambiguous—demonstrating environmental responsibility whilst simultaneously describing a lack of interest towards environmental preservation. The children described several waste-related everyday behaviors: going to the valley to dump waste, burning or playing with it, making toys from discarded objects, and gathering metals, batteries, and bottles for sale. Together, the three aspects of this study reveal the extent and pervasiveness of waste's impact on these children's lives. They also highlight the areas that should be targeted in future environmental education if positive change is to be achieved.

  7. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity. PMID:23759205

  8. Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an Inbred Rat Substrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A.; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Female Infertility in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying female infertility in humans are only partially understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. As a result, a total of four SNPs were identified after chromosome-wise multiple test correction. The first SNP rs29972765 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 18, about 72 kb upstream of Skor2 (SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2). The second SNP rs30415957 resides in the intron of Plce1 (phospholipase C epsilon 1). The remaining two SNPs (rs30768258 and rs31216810) are close to each other on chromosome 19, in the vicinity of Sorbs1 (sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Sorbs1 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. Our results may represent an opportunity to further understand female infertility in humans.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Female Infertility in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying female infertility in humans are only partially understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. As a result, a total of four SNPs were identified after chromosome-wise multiple test correction. The first SNP rs29972765 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 18, about 72 kb upstream of Skor2 (SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2). The second SNP rs30415957 resides in the intron of Plce1 (phospholipase C epsilon 1). The remaining two SNPs (rs30768258 and rs31216810) are close to each other on chromosome 19, in the vicinity of Sorbs1 (sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Sorbs1 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. Our results may represent an opportunity to further understand female infertility in humans. PMID:27449513

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Female Infertility in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Long; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying female infertility in humans are only partially understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. As a result, a total of four SNPs were identified after chromosome-wise multiple test correction. The first SNP rs29972765 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 18, about 72 kb upstream of Skor2 (SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2). The second SNP rs30415957 resides in the intron of Plce1 (phospholipase C epsilon 1). The remaining two SNPs (rs30768258 and rs31216810) are close to each other on chromosome 19, in the vicinity of Sorbs1 (sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Sorbs1 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. Our results may represent an opportunity to further understand female infertility in humans. PMID:27449513

  12. Susceptibility and resistance of inbred mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Calich, V. L.; Singer-Vermes, L. M.; Siqueira, A. M.; Burger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nine different inbred strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis showed significantly varying patterns of susceptibility. The A/SN strain was found to be the most resistant, while BIOD2/nSn, BIO.A and BIOD2/oSn the most susceptible strains. These susceptibility differences were not dependent on the size of challenge inocula and sex of animals. All strains studied showed a mean survival time proportional to the size of inocula used. Although almost all infected male mice presented a shorter survival time when compared with females, significant mortality differences between sexes were found only in two of the strains studied, namely BALB/c and BIOD2/nSn. The H-2 region did not influence the susceptibility pattern since the A/SN and BIO.A strains share the same H-2 haplotype and were respectively highly resistant and susceptible to P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the presence of C5 and unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide had no influence on the mortality data observed. Specific antibodies were detected only in a small number of animals and titres were consistently low, appearing later in the resistant (A/SN) than in a susceptible strain (BIO.A). Omentum, spleen and liver were the most affected organs in both strains, but the susceptible mice had more granulomatous lesions and earlier dissemination of the fungus. PMID:4063162

  13. The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Simon T; Parks, Brian W; Org, Elin; Norheim, Frode; Che, Nam; Pan, Calvin; Castellani, Lawrence W; Charugundla, Sarada; Dirks, Darwin L; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Neuhaus, Isaac; Gerszten, Robert E; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    To identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, we examined liver steatosis and related clinical and molecular traits in more than 100 unique inbred mouse strains, which were fed a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates. A >30-fold variation in hepatic TG accumulation was observed among the strains. Genome-wide association studies revealed three loci associated with hepatic TG accumulation. Utilizing transcriptomic data from the liver and adipose tissue, we identified several high-confidence candidate genes for hepatic steatosis, including Gde1, a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase not previously implicated in triglyceride metabolism. We confirmed the role of Gde1 by in vivo hepatic over-expression and shRNA knockdown studies. We hypothesize that Gde1 expression increases TG production by contributing to the production of glycerol-3-phosphate. Our multi-level data, including transcript levels, metabolite levels, and gut microbiota composition, provide a framework for understanding genetic and environmental interactions underlying hepatic steatosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05607.001 PMID:26067236

  14. Strain differences in delay discounting using inbred rats

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, C. J.; Mitchell, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    A heightened aversion to delayed rewards is associated with substance abuse and numerous other neuropsychiatric disorders. Many of these disorders are heritable, raising the possibility that delay aversion may also have a significant genetic or heritable component. To examine this possibility, we compared delay discounting in six inbred strains of rats (Brown Norway, Copenhagen, Lewis, Fischer, Noble and Wistar Furth) using the adjusting amount procedure, which provides a measure of the subjective value of delayed rewards. The subjective value of rewards decreased as the delay to receipt increased for all strains. However, a main effect of strain and a strain × delay interaction indicated that some strains were more sensitive to the imposition of delays than others. Fitting a hyperbolic discount equation showed significant strain differences in sensitivity to delay (k). These data indicate that there are significant strain differences in delay discounting. All strains strongly preferred the 10% sucrose solution (the reinforcer in the delay discounting task) over water and the amount of sucrose consumed was correlated with sensitivity to delay. Locomotor activity was not correlated with delay discounting behavior. Additional research will be required to disentangle genetic influences from maternal effects and to determine how these factors influence the underlying association between heightened delay discounting and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19243451

  15. Combining ability of tropical and temperate inbred lines of popcorn.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V Q R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Freitas Júnior, S P; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Moterle, L M; Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, using combining ability of popcorn genotypes to achieve superior hybrids has been unsuccessful because the local genotypes are all members of the same heterotic group. To overcome this constraint, 10 lines (P(1) to P(10)) with different adaptations to tropical or temperate edaphoclimatic environments were used to obtain 45 F(1) hybrids in a complete diallel. These hybrids and three controls were evaluated in two environments in Rio de Janeiro State. Grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), and days to silking (FL) were evaluated in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Significant differences between genotypes (P inbred lines that improved GY were P(3) and P(4), unlike P(8), P(9) and P(10), which improved PE, and P(2), which improved both PE and GY. The additive effects were much more important for PE than for GY. The hybrid combinations gave positive estimates of heterosis for GY but not for PE. PMID:20812195

  16. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (P<0.01) between individual pairs from the inbred lines having different B alleles compared to pairs within the inbred line, while lower stimulation was observed between pairs of the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible. PMID:18075192

  17. Phenotypic variation of fluoride responses between inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Willett, Thomas L; Gu, Xiao-Mei; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sardone, Laura; McShane, Lauren; Grynpas, Marc; Everett, Eric T

    2011-01-01

    Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride (F) can lead to disturbances in bone homeostasis and dental enamel development. We have previously shown strain-specific responses to F in the development of dental fluorosis (DF) and in bone formation/mineralization. The current study was undertaken to further investigate F responsive variations in bone metabolism and to determine possible relationships with DF susceptibility. Seven-week-old male mice from FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ inbred strains were exposed to NaF (0 or 50 ppm as F(-)) in drinking water for 60 days. Sera were collected for F, Ca, Mg, PO(4), iPTH, sRANKL, and ALP levels. Bone marrow cells were subjected to ex vivo cell culture for osteoclast potential and CFU colony assays (CFU-fibroblast, CFU-osteoblast, CFU-erythrocyte/granulocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte, CFU-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte). Femurs and vertebrae were subjected to micro-CT analyses, biomechanical testing, and F, Mg, and Ca content assays. DF was evaluated using quantitative fluorescence and clinical criteria. Strain-specific responses to F were observed for DF, serum studies, ex vivo cell culture studies, and bone quality. Among the strains, there were no patterns or significant correlations between DF severity and the actions of F on bone homeostasis (serum studies, ex vivo assays, or bone quality parameters). The genetic background continues to play a role in the actions of F on tooth enamel development and bone homeostasis. F exposure led to variable phenotypic responses between strains involving dental enamel development and bone metabolism.

  18. Phenotypic Variation of Fluoride Responses between Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Willett, Thomas L.; Gu, Xiao-Mei; Martinez-Mier, E. Angeles; Sardone, Laura; McShane, Lauren; Grynpas, Marc; Everett, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride (F) can lead to disturbances in bone homeostasis and dental enamel development. We have previously shown strain-specific responses to F in the development of dental fluorosis (DF) and in bone formation/mineralization. The current study was undertaken to further investigate F responsive variations in bone metabolism and to determine possible relationships with DF susceptibility. Seven-week-old male mice from FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ inbred strains were exposed to NaF (0 or 50 ppm as F–) in drinking water for 60 days. Sera were collected for F, Ca, Mg, PO4, iPTH, sRANKL, and ALP levels. Bone marrow cells were subjected to ex vivo cell culture for osteoclast potential and CFU colony assays (CFU-fibroblast, CFU-osteoblast, CFU-erythrocyte/granulocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte, CFU-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte). Femurs and vertebrae were subjected to micro-CT analyses, biomechanical testing, and F, Mg, and Ca content assays. DF was evaluated using quantitative fluorescence and clinical criteria. Strain-specific responses to F were observed for DF, serum studies, ex vivo cell culture studies, and bone quality. Among the strains, there were no patterns or significant correlations between DF severity and the actions of F on bone homeostasis (serum studies, ex vivo assays, or bone quality parameters). The genetic background continues to play a role in the actions of F on tooth enamel development and bone homeostasis. F exposure led to variable phenotypic responses between strains involving dental enamel development and bone metabolism. PMID:21555858

  19. Comparison of fracture healing among different inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Michaele B; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative trait locus analysis can be used to identify genes critically involved in biological processes. No such analysis has been applied to identifying genes that control bone fracture healing. To determine the feasibility of such an approach, healing of femur fractures was measured between C57BL/6, DBA/2, and C3H inbred strains of mice. Healing was assessed by radiography and histology and measured by histomorphometry and biomechanical testing. In all strains, radiographic bridging of the fracture was apparent after 3 weeks of healing. Histology showed that healing occurred through endochondral ossification in all strains. Histomorphometric measurements found more bone in the C57BL/6 fracture calluses 7 and 10 days after fracture. In contrast, more cartilage was present after 7 days in the C3H callus, which rapidly declined to levels less than those of C57BL/6 or DBA/2 mice by 14 days after fracture. An endochondral ossification index was calculated by multiplying the callus percent cartilage and bone areas as a measure of endochondral ossification. At 7 and 10 days after fracture, this value was higher in C57BL/6 mice. Using torsional mechanical testing, normalized structural and material properties of the C57BL/6 healing femurs were higher than values from the DBA/2 or C3H mice 4 weeks after fracture. The data indicate that fracture healing proceeds more rapidly in C57BL/6 mice and demonstrate that genetic variability significantly contributes to the process of bone regeneration. Large enough differences exist between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 or C3H mice to permit a quantitative trait locus analysis to identify genes controlling bone regeneration.

  20. Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC2F2 population and comparison with its F2:3 population in popcorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Niu, S Z; Dong, Y B; Cui, D Q; Wang, Y Z; Liu, Y Y; Wei, M G

    2007-06-01

    Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent corn inbred. A second objective was to compare the detection of QTL in the BC2F2 population with results using F(2:3) lines of the same parents. Two hundred and twenty selected BC2F2 families developed from a cross between Dan232 and an elite popcorn inbred N04 were evaluated for six grain yield components under two environments, and genotyped by means of 170 SSR markers. Using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 19 significant QTL were detected. Eighteen QTL had favorable alleles contributed by the dent corn parent Dan232. Sixteen of these favorable QTL alleles were not in the same or near marker intervals with QTL for popping characteristics. Six QTL were also detected in the F(2:3) population. Improved N04 could be developed from 210 and 208 families with higher grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight, respectively, and 35 families with the same or higher popping expansion volume than N04. In addition, near isogenic lines containing detected QTL (QTL-NILs) for grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight could be obtained from 12 families. Our study demonstrated that the AB-QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate favorable QTL alleles from normal corn inbreds and combine QTL detection and popcorn breeding efficiently. PMID:17492267

  1. The ancestor of extant Japanese fancy mice contributed to the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Takada, Toyoyuki; Ebata, Toshinobu; Noguchi, Hideki; Keane, Thomas M; Adams, David J; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Fujisawa, Hironori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Abe, Kuniya; Obata, Yuichi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2013-08-01

    Commonly used classical inbred mouse strains have mosaic genomes with sequences from different subspecific origins. Their genomes are derived predominantly from the Western European subspecies Mus musculus domesticus, with the remaining sequences derived mostly from the Japanese subspecies Mus musculus molossinus. However, it remains unknown how this intersubspecific genome introgression occurred during the establishment of classical inbred strains. In this study, we resequenced the genomes of two M. m. molossinus-derived inbred strains, MSM/Ms and JF1/Ms. MSM/Ms originated from Japanese wild mice, and the ancestry of JF1/Ms was originally found in Europe and then transferred to Japan. We compared the characteristics of these sequences to those of the C57BL/6J reference sequence and the recent data sets from the resequencing of 17 inbred strains in the Mouse Genome Project (MGP), and the results unequivocally show that genome introgression from M. m. molossinus into M. m. domesticus provided the primary framework for the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains. Furthermore, the genomes of C57BL/6J and other classical inbred strains have long consecutive segments with extremely high similarity (>99.998%) to the JF1/Ms strain. In the early 20th century, Japanese waltzing mice with a morphological phenotype resembling that of JF1/Ms mice were often crossed with European fancy mice for early studies of "Mendelism," which suggests that the ancestor of the extant JF1/Ms strain provided the origin of the M. m. molossinus genome in classical inbred strains and largely contributed to its intersubspecific genome diversity.

  2. The effect of labor migration on relations of exchange and subordination among the Rashaayda Bedouin of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, W C

    1987-01-01

    away, and 4) they invested in jewelry, businesses, and 2nd wives. Thus, the Rashaayda developed mutual trust with some of the other pastoral peoples of the region. Exchanges between rural Rashaayda and urban Sudanese emerged (through business and marriage). The infusion of cash into the Rashaayda's economy has also enabled them to respond productively to worsening ecological conditions in Sudan. Finally, economic and political inequalities among still-pastoral Bedouin are today much less pronounced than earlier. PMID:12281017

  3. The effect of labor migration on relations of exchange and subordination among the Rashaayda Bedouin of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, W C

    1987-01-01

    away, and 4) they invested in jewelry, businesses, and 2nd wives. Thus, the Rashaayda developed mutual trust with some of the other pastoral peoples of the region. Exchanges between rural Rashaayda and urban Sudanese emerged (through business and marriage). The infusion of cash into the Rashaayda's economy has also enabled them to respond productively to worsening ecological conditions in Sudan. Finally, economic and political inequalities among still-pastoral Bedouin are today much less pronounced than earlier.

  4. Differential miRNA expression in inherently high- and low-active inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Michelle; Kochan, Kelli J; Riggs, Penny K; Timothy Lightfoot, J

    2015-01-01

    Despite established health benefits of regular exercise, the majority of Americans do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity. While it is known that voluntary activity levels are largely heritable, the genetic mechanisms that regulate activity are not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit transcription by binding to a target gene, inhibiting protein production. The purpose of this study was to investigate differential miRNA expression between inherently high- (C57L/J) and low- (C3H/HeJ) active inbred mice in soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and nucleus accumbens tissues. Expression was initially determined by miRNA microarray analysis, and selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Expression of 13 miRNAs varied between strains in the nucleus accumbens, 20 in soleus, and eight in EDL, by microarray analysis. Two miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR in the nucleus accumbens; miR-466 was downregulated (∼4 fold; P < 0.0004), and miR-342-5p was upregulated (∼115 fold; P < 0.0001) in high-active mice. MiR-466 was downregulated (∼5 fold; P < 0.0001) in the soleus of high-active mice as well. Interestingly, miR-466 is one of several miRNA families with sequence located in intron 10 of Sfmbt2; miRNAs at this locus are thought to drive imprinting of this gene. “Pathways in cancer” and “TGFβ signaling” were the most significant pathways of putative target genes in both the soleus and nucleus accumbens. Our results are the first to consider differential miRNA expression between high- and low-active mice, and suggest that miRNAs may play a role in regulation of physical activity. PMID:26229004

  5. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; González-Abuín, Noemi; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Ana; Pinent, Montserrat; Petretto, Enrico; Blay, Mayte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF) diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity. PMID:27483348

  6. Approaches to Investigating Complex Genetic Traits in a Large-Scale Inbred Mouse Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Berndt, A; Sundberg, B A; Silva, K A; Kennedy, V; Smith, R S; Cooper, T K; Schofield, P N

    2016-03-01

    Inbred mice are a unique model system for studying aging because of the genetic homogeneity within inbred strains, the short life span of mice relative to humans, and the rich array of analytic tools that are available. A large-scale aging study was conducted on 28 inbred strains representing great genetic diversity to determine, via histopathology, the type and diversity of spontaneous diseases that aging mice develop. A total of 20 885 different diagnoses were made, with an average of 12 diagnoses per mouse in the study. Eighteen inbred strains have had their genomes sequenced, and many others have been partially sequenced to provide large repositories of data on genetic variation among the strains. This vast amount of genomic information can be utilized in genome-wide association studies to find candidate genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous diseases. As an illustration, this article presents a genome-wide association study of the genetic associations of age-related intestinal amyloidosis, which implicated 3 candidate genes: translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (Tram1); splicing factor 3b, subunit 5 (Sf3b5); and syntaxin 11 (Stx11). Representative photomicrographs are available on the Mouse Tumor Biology Database and Pathbase to serve as a reference when evaluating inbred mice used in other genetic or experimental studies to rule out strain background lesions. Many of the age-related mouse diseases are similar, if not identical, to human diseases; therefore, the genetic discoveries have direct translational benefit. PMID:26936752

  7. Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, S L; Keener, T J; Gibbs, P H

    1986-01-01

    Animal species differ in their resistance both to infection by Bacillus anthracis and to anthrax toxin. A mouse model was developed to study the basis of the host differences and the pathogenesis of infection. When mice were infected with the virulent B. anthracis strain Vollum 1B, low 50% lethal dose (LD50) values (5 to 30 spores) were found for all 10 strains of inbred mice tested. However, analysis of time-to-death data revealed significant differences among the strains, which could be divided into three groups: most susceptible (A/J and DBA/2J); least susceptible (CBA/J, BALB/cJ, and C57BR/cdJ); and intermediate (the remaining five strains). In contrast, the mice were distinctly susceptible or resistant to lethal infection by the toxigenic, nonencapsulated Sterne vaccine strain. The LD50 for the susceptible A/J and DBA/2J mice was approximately 10(3) spores of the Sterne strain, whereas the remaining eight relatively resistant strains were killed only by 10(6) or more spores. F1 hybrid and backcross studies suggested that resistance to the Sterne strain is determined by a single dominant gene or gene complex. Mice lethally infected with B. anthracis showed an acute course of infection, characterized by extensive gelatinous edema and large concentrations of bacilli in the blood and organs (e.g., 10(9) CFU/g of spleen). The susceptibility of A/J and CBA/J mice to intravenously injected anthrax toxin components appeared to differ from their susceptibility to infection. The toxin LD50 values for both strains were similar. However, CBA/J mice died sooner than did A/J mice, with mean time to death of 0.9 and 3.7 days, respectively, in mice given 4 LD50 of toxin. The mouse model appears to be useful in studies on host resistance to anthrax and on the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:3081444

  8. Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  9. Resolution of genetic map expansion caused by excess heterozygosity in plant recombinant inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E

    2014-10-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  10. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line "Chiifu").

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Joohyun

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein.

  11. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line "Chiifu").

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Joohyun

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  12. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  13. Susceptibility of sunflower inbreds to Melanagromyza minimoides in Argentina and potential association with plant resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-feeding by larvae of Melanagromyza minimoides can substantially reduce yields of late-planted sunflower in South America and its management with insecticides or early-planting has other undesirable costs. Evaluation of inbred lines over three seasons indicated differences in emergence of adult ...

  14. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome: report of 15 cases in an inbred kindred.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, E O; Janovitz, D; de Albuquerque, S C

    1980-01-01

    An inbred kindred with 15 cases of the autosomal recessive Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is reported. The ages of the 12 living affected varied between 3 and 82 years. The main characteristics include polydactyly of the hands and feet and several other skeletal anomalies, oral manifestations, and malformations of the heart in 50% of the living affected. Images PMID:7218275

  15. Hierarchical Modeling and Differential Expression Analysis for RNA-seq Experiments with Inbred and Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental units and uses negative binomial distributions to allow for overdispersion in count responses for split-plot experimental units. Variations in gene length and base content, as well as differences in sequencing intensity across experimental units, are also accounted for. Hierarchical modeling with thoughtful parameterization and prior specification allows for borrowing of information across genes to improve estimation of dispersion parameters, genotype effects, treatment effects, and interaction effects of primary interest. PMID:27110090

  16. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC.

  17. Registration of the LouAu (Louise/IWA8608077) wheat recombinant inbred line mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LouAu (Louise/IWA8608077) is a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line population developed by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service, with Oregon State and Washington State Universities, from a cross between the soft white spring cultivar 'Louise' and ...

  18. Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

  19. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  20. Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

  1. Frequent Harderian gland adenocarcinomas in inbred white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Parnell, Pamela G; Crossland, Janet P; Beattie, Robert M; Dewey, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    In 1997, three lines of inbred Peromyscus leucopus--GS109A, GS16A1, and GS16B--were acquired by the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center. Since then, records have been kept on tumors detected by visible inspection of live animals. The inbred lines GS109A and GS16A1 presented tumors with frequencies substantially higher than that of the other inbred line or of random-bred P. leucopus stock. The average age of detection was 456 +/- 75 days (n = 24) for GS109A and 568 +/- 168 days (n = 12) for GS16A1 respectively. Surprisingly, the majority of the tumors (23 of 24 for GS109A and 8 of 12 for GS16A1) appeared to be Harderian gland lesions. During the same time period only a single tumor, a fibrosarcoma, was noted in the other inbred strain (GS16B), and one Harderian gland tumor was detected in the random bred stock. On the basis of the number of animals born to each group, tumor frequencies were approximately 22.7%, 8.3%, 0.67%, and 0.07%, for GS109A, GS16A1, GS16B, and randombred P. leucopus stock, respectively. The periocular tumors appeared to be highly malignant, with elevated mitotic indices, marked anaplasia, and metastases to regional lymph nodes and lungs. The tumors were readily transplantable to other animals of the same line. Among various other species, malignant Harderian gland tumors are relatively rare.

  2. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    PubMed

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea. PMID:26909914

  3. Immunological variation between inbred laboratory mouse strains: points to consider in phenotyping genetically immunomodified mice.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R S; Clifford, C B; Treuting, P M; Brayton, C

    2012-01-01

    Inbred laboratory mouse strains are highly divergent in their immune response patterns as a result of genetic mutations and polymorphisms. The generation of genetically engineered mice (GEM) has, in the past, used embryonic stem (ES) cells for gene targeting from various 129 substrains followed by backcrossing into more fecund mouse strains. Although common inbred mice are considered "immune competent," many have variations in their immune system-some of which have been described-that may affect the phenotype. Recognition of these immune variations among commonly used inbred mouse strains is essential for the accurate interpretation of expected phenotypes or those that may arise unexpectedly. In GEM developed to study specific components of the immune system, accurate evaluation of immune responses must take into consideration not only the gene of interest but also how the background strain and microbial milieu contribute to the manifestation of findings in these mice. This article discusses points to consider regarding immunological differences between the common inbred laboratory mouse strains, particularly in their use as background strains in GEM.

  4. Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

  5. Registration of RTx430/gaigaoliang sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) moench]recombinant inbred line mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RTx430 x ‘Gaigaoliang’ (PI610727) sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] (Reg. No. MP-__; NSL ____ MAP) recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX and released in 2...

  6. Resistance to Beet Armyworm in a Chickpea Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, a good source of insect resistance, was used to develop a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred line population (CRIL-7) using FLIP 84-92C (kabuli chickpea) and PI 599072, a resistant C. reticulatum accession, as parents. CRIL-7 lines, parents, and checks wer...

  7. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    PubMed

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea.

  8. SEED QUALITY ASSURANCE IN MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAMS: TESTS TO EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN CORN INBREDS AND POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...

  9. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  10. Mapping stripe rust resistance genes in a Brundage x Coda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evalua...

  11. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, T.; Ervin, R. B.; Duan, H.; Bogue, M. A.; Zamboni, W. C.; Cook, S.; Chung, W.; Zou, F.; Tarantino, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  12. Genetic mapping with an inbred line-derived F2 population in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop, for which tetrasomic inheritance and self-incompatibility have limited both genetic discovery and breeding gains. We report here on the creation of the first diploid inbred line-derived F2 population in potato, and demonstrate its utili...

  13. Registration of a rice gene mapping population of Lemont X Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar ‘Lemont’ and indica cultivar ‘Jasmine 85’ was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population ...

  14. Plant Nucleases: VI. GENETIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL VARIABILITY IN RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY IN INBRED AND HYBRID CORN ENDOSPERMS.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C M

    1980-07-01

    The nuclease activity of developing corn endosperms was found to consist mainly of plant RNase I during the period of major deposition of dry weight. The RNase concentrations in most inbred lines and hybrids increased throughout development, but there were large differences among genotypes in the enzyme levels at all stages. Crosses were made among inbreds classified as containing high or low RNase levels. In most cases, the general patterns of enzyme levels during development of the hybrid endosperms were not changed greatly, or showed intermediate levels of activity compared to the inbred parents. When Oh43 was used as a maternal parent, two contrasting developmental patterns were produced by using two low RNase inbreds as pollen parents. There appear to be genetic controls not only on the gross RNase levels, but also on the timing of RNase synthesis and on its stability after the cells mature. Environmental influences on RNase levels in the endosperm were noted one year.At 18 days after pollination, the RNase levels in the endosperm crown were as much as 10 times higher than in the base. By 35 days after pollination, the enzyme levels were generally uniform; at 50 days, the basal tissue usually contained the highest levels. In some genotypes, however, the enzyme levels fell in the crown while they rose in the base. These changes suggest that RNase may be associated with developmental controls that operate as the different portions of the endosperm cease cell division and begin synthesis of starch and zein. PMID:16661371

  15. Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data

  16. Variation characteristics of the nitrate reductase gene of key inbred maize lines and derived lines in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J J; Zhang, X Q; Liu, Y H; Liu, H M; Wang, Y B; Tian, M L; Huang, Y B

    2010-09-14

    Key inbred lines have played a fundamental role in maize genetics and breeding. Research on variation characteristics of key genes from key inbred lines and from derived lines is important for early identification and evaluation of inbred maize lines. The nitrate reductase (NR) gene, which plays a central role in nitrate acquisition, was the target gene for this research. Forty-one inbred maize lines were investigated, including four key inbred lines: Huangzaosi, Mo17, Dan340, and Ye478. Through multiple sequence alignment with the NR gene from B73, used as a control, we found that: 1) the NR gene of most inbred lines from Huangzaosi and from derived lines had two insertion fragments and two replacement fragments; 2) the NR gene of most inbred lines from Mo17 and derived lines had one insertion fragment and one replacement fragment; 3) there were two common variations and eight common SNPs in the NR gene of the four key lines. Huangzaosi and Mo17 also had three common variations compared with the other key lines. Moreover, Mo17 had some unique variations; there were no unique variations in the other key lines, even for SNPs, and 4) phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the NR gene of the derived lines from the same key line had higher sequence homology. Based on the above NR gene variation characteristics and sequence homology of key inbred lines and derived lines, a candidate inbred line can be preliminarily selected and evaluated by marker development and/or sequence alignment of the NR gene.

  17. Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  18. Biotransformation of a /sup 14/C-hydrogenated phenazepam analog in inbred mice in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sozinov, V.A.; Seredenin, S.B.; Golovenko, N.Ya.

    1987-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study excretion of a carbon 14-hydrogenated analog of phenazam (5-0-chlorophenyl-7-bromo-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one), synthesized by the authors, which was found, when compared with phenazepam itself, to induce a much weaker degree of muscle relaxation and ataxia and excretion of its metabolites. Inbred lines of mice were used with different oxidation phenotypes.

  19. Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  20. Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  1. Analysis of the energetic metabolism in cyclic Bedouin goats (Capra hircus): Nychthemeral and seasonal variations of some haematochemical parameters in relation with body and ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mouna; Amirat, Zaina; Khammar, Farida; Khaldoun, Mounira

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined changes in some haematochemical parameters as a function of the different physiological status (cyclic, pregnant and lactating) of goats, but no relevant literature has exhaustively investigated these variations from anestrous to estrous stages in cyclic goats. In this paper, we report nychthemeral and seasonal variations in ambient and body temperatures, and in some haematochemical parameters (glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, creatininemia and uremia) measured during summer, winter and spring, in seven (7) experimental cyclic female Bedouin goats (Capra hircus) living in the Béni-Abbès region (Algerian Sahara desert). Cosinor rhythmometry procedure was used to determine the rhythmic parameters of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters. To determine the effect of time of day on the rhythmicity of the studied parameters, as well as their seasonality, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The results showed that in spite of the nychthemeral profile presented by the ambient temperature for each season, the body temperature remained in a narrow range, thus indicating a successful thermoregulation. The rhythmometry analysis showed a circadian rhythmicity of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters with diurnal acrophases. A statistically significant effect of the time of day was shown on all studied haematochemical parameters, except on creatininemia. It was also found that only uremia, cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia followed the seasonal sexual activity of the studied ruminant. This study demonstrated the good physiological adaptation developed by this breed in response to the harsh climatic conditions of its natural environment. PMID:27503720

  2. Non-parental banding patterns in recombinant inbred line population of maize with SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ramekar, R V; Sa, K J; Woo, S Y; Lee, J K

    2015-01-01

    We observed 3 types of non-parental banding patterns using simple-sequence repeat primers in a recombinant inbred line maize population developed from 2 inbred lines, Mo17 and KW7. We observed alleles that were not present in either of the parents, known as non-parental alleles. Although non-parental alleles are a consequence of genetic variation, they are less common in progenies derived from inbred lines. Generally, when non-parental alleles are encountered during genotyping analysis, they are either deleted from the analysis or considered to be missing data. However, before making a decision regarding how to treat non-parental alleles, it is important to understand the mechanism through which they form. There are a variety of potential reasons for the formation of non-parental bands, including recombination or mutation in the simple-sequence repeat region, residual heterozygosity in parental lines, or chromosomal aberrations resulting from rearrangements and transposons. In this article, we discuss the potential reasons behind the formation of the non-parental alleles observed in our data. PMID:26345769

  3. Cytomorphological and molecular diversity in backcross-derived inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Prabakaran, A J; Dwivedi, Sangam L; Chandra, S

    2008-04-01

    A set of 250 distinct, stable, and uniform backcross-derived inbred lines were developed in sunflower through 5 interspecific cross combinations involving 4 wild diploid annual species (Helianthus argophyllus, H. petiolaris, H. annuus, and H. debilis). The presence of the wild-species genome in these inbred lines was confirmed through higher chromosome associations (tri- and quadrivalents) at diakinesis. Maximum structural rearrangements of chromosomes were observed in lines derived from H. petiolaris. Forty morphologically diverse inbred lines along with 2 controls were subjected to measurements of phenotypic and genetic distance using 118 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of known map location. A total of 204 alleles were identified and the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 5. There were 46 unique alleles and the number of unique alleles was highest in the lines derived from the cross involving H. petiolaris. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.05 to 0.575. The pair-wise comparison values based on genetic dissimilarity estimates computed using molecular marker data varied between 0.143 and 0.486 among the 42 lines. The results indicate that the sunflower gene pool could benefit from introgression of novel alleles from the latent genetic diversity present in the wild species and particularly through exploitation of the diploid annual H. petiolaris.

  4. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains. PMID:21318357

  5. Establishment and characterization of the MSKR inbred strain originated from Japanese wild mice (Mus musculus molossinus).

    PubMed

    Wada, A; Kakizoe-Ishida, Y; Katoh, H; Muguruma, K; Ebukuro, M; Okumoto, M; Tsudzuki, M

    2000-04-01

    A new inbred strain, MSKR, originated from Japanese wild mice was established in April, 1998. The MSKR mice were 60% of the C57BL/6N inbred mice in the 60-day body weight. Tail length/head-body length and hind-foot length/head-body length of the MSKR mice were significantly smaller than those of the C57BL/6N mice (0.896 vs 1.061, 0.189 vs 0.204), but ear length/head-body length of the MSKR mice was significantly larger than that of the C57BL/6N mice (0.143 vs 0.137). The age of the first parturition and size of the first litter were 63.20 +/- 2.71 days and 6.20 +/- 0.37, respectively, at the 20th and 22nd inbreeding generations. Genetic characterization of the MSKR strain was performed using 34 microsatellite markers, 29 biochemical markers, 9 immunogenetic markers, 3 coat color markers, and mitochondrial DNA RFLP-haplotypes. The result indicated that this newly established inbred strain has some different gene constitution from already known molossinus and common laboratory strains.

  6. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas. PMID:26788295

  7. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains.

  8. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  9. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  10. Success and failure among polygamous families: the experience of wives, husbands, and children.

    PubMed

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we interviewed 10 polygamous families, all residing in a Bedouin Arab town in the south of Israel and consisting of 1 husband, 2 wives, and children. Five members were interviewed in each family: first wife, second wife, the oldest child of the first wife, the oldest child of the second wife, and the husband. Five families were considered well-functioning families and five as poorly functioning. Findings suggest that polygamy in both well-functioning and poorly functioning families is painful, particularly for wives. Yet, there are many ways and techniques that enable members of the family to function well. Among them are acceptance of polygamy as God's wish or destiny, equal allocation of resources among both families by the husband, separation between the two households, avoidance of "minor" conflicts and disagreements, maintaining an attitude of respect toward the other wife, and allowing open communication among all siblings, and among children and the other mother. We discuss the need to develop, implement, and evaluate family intervention programs for polygamous families among different communities in the world.

  11. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  12. Comparative quantitative trait locus mapping of maize flowering-related traits in an F2:3 and recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Yi, Q; Hou, X B; Zhang, X G; Zhang, J J; Liu, H M; Hu, Y F; Huang, Y B

    2016-01-01

    Flowering-related traits in maize are affected by complex factors and are important for the improvement of cropping systems in the maize zone. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected using different materials and methods usually vary. In the present study, 266 maize (Zea mays) F2:3 families and 301 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between 08-641 (founding parent from southeast China) and Ye478 (founding parent from China) were evaluated for four flowering-related traits, including days to tasseling (DTT), days to pollen shedding (DPS), days to silking (DTS), and anthesis-silking interval. Sixty-six QTLs controlling the target traits were detected in the F2:3 and RIL populations via single environment analysis and joint analysis across all environments (JAAE). The QTLs explained 0.8-13.47% of the phenotypic variation, with 12 QTLs explaining more than 10%. The results of meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis indicated that 41 QTLs could be integrated into 14 MQTLs. One MQTL included 2.9 QTLs, ranging from two to ten QTLs for one to three traits. QTLs, including MQTL1-1 and MQTL9-1, were detected across the F2:3 and RIL populations via SAE and JAAE. Among the MQTLs, nine QTLs were integrated into MQTL9-1 and affected DTT, DPS, and DTS, with the favored allele being derived from 08-641. MQTL3-2 showed high phenotypic variation and was suitable for fine mapping to determine the genetic mechanisms of flowering. MQTL3-2 could be applied to improve inbred lines using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27420987

  13. Improved generation of germline-competent embryonic stem cell lines from inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Schoonjans, Luc; Kreemers, Veerle; Danloy, Sophie; Moreadith, Randall W; Laroche, Yves; Collen, Désiré

    2003-01-01

    Genetically altered mice may exhibit highly variable phenotypes due to the variation in genetic background, which can only be circumvented by generation of inbred, isogenic gene-targeted and control mice. Here we report that an embryonic stem (ES) cell culture medium conditioned by a rabbit fibroblast cell line transduced with genomic rabbit leukemia inhibitory factor allows efficient derivation and maintenance of ES cell lines from all of 10 inbred mouse strains tested, including some that were presumed to be nonpermissive for ES cell derivation (129/SvEv, 129/SvJ, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6JOla, CBA/CaOla, DBA/2N, DBA/1Ola, C3H/HeN, BALB/c, and FVB/N). Germline transmission was established by blastocyst injection of established ES cell lines after 10 or more passages from all of seven strains tested (129/SvJ, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6JOla, DBA/2N, DBA/1Ola, BALB/c, and FVB/N), by diploid aggregation of ES cell lines from all of four strains tested (129/SvEv, C57BL/6N, CBA/ CaOla, and FVB/N), or by tetraploid aggregation of ES cell lines from all of three strains tested (129/SvEv, C57BL/6N, and CBA/CaOla). Thus, these inbred ES cell lines may constitute useful tools to derive gene-targeted mice and isogenic controls in selected genetic backgrounds.

  14. Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito

    2013-10-01

    In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources.

  15. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  16. Comparative evaluation of two vaccine candidates against experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection in four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Benhnini, Fouad; Chenik, Mehdi; Laouini, Dhafer; Louzir, Hechmi; Cazenave, Pierre André; Dellagi, Koussay

    2009-11-01

    Experimental leishmaniasis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are the most investigated murine models that were used for the preclinical evaluation of Leishmania vaccine candidates. We have previously described two new inbred mouse strains named PWK and MAI issued from feral founders that also support the development of experimental leishmaniasis due to L. major. In this study, we sought to determine whether different mouse inbred strains generate concordant or discordant results when used to evaluate the potential of Leishmania proteins to protect against experimental leishmaniasis. To this end, two Leishmania proteins, namely, LACK (for Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase) and LmPDI (for L. major protein disulfide isomerase) were compared for their capacity to protect against experimental leishmaniasis in PWK, MAI, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. Our data show that the capacity of Leishmania proteins to confer protection depends on the mouse strain used, stressing the important role played by the genetic background in shaping the immune response against the pathogen. These results may have important implications for the preclinical evaluation of candidate Leishmania vaccines: rather than using a single mouse strain, a panel of different inbred strains of various genetic backgrounds should be tested in parallel. The antigen that confers protection in the larger range of inbred strains may have better chances to be also protective in outbred human populations and should be selected for clinical trials.

  17. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries.

  18. Substrains of Inbred Mice Differ in Their Physical Activity as a Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Coletti, Dario; Berardi, Emanuele; Aulino, Paola; Rossi, Eleonora; Moresi, Viviana; Li, Zhenlin; Adamo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. The latter shows a striking level of voluntary activity, with the average distance run/day reaching up to about 12 kilometers. These runners are not outstanders, but they represent the majority of the population, with important scientific and economic fallouts to be taken into account during experimental planning. Spontaneous activity persists in pathological conditions, such as cancer-associated cachexia. This important amount of physical activity results in a minor muscle adaptation to endurance exercise over a three-week period; indeed, only a nonsignificant increase in NADH transferase+ fibers occurs in this time frame. PMID:23533342

  19. Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Crabbe, John C; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed.

  20. A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes. PMID:22345610

  1. Differential resistance/susceptibility patterns to pneumovirus infection among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dao Bui Tran; Faisca, Pedro; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children under 1 yr of age. It is assumed that host factors influence the severity of the disease presentation and thus the need for hospitalization. As a first step toward the identification of the underlying genes involved, this study was undertaken to establish whether inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the murine counterpart of RSV, which has been shown to accurately mimic the RSV disease of children. With this purpose in mind, double-chamber plethysmography and carbon monoxide uptake data were collected daily for 7 days after inoculation of PVM in six inbred strains of mice. In parallel, histological examinations and lung viral titration were carried out from day 5 to day 7 after inoculation. Pulmonary structure/function values reflected the success of viral replication in the lungs and revealed a pattern of continuous variation, with resistant, intermediate, and susceptible strains. The results suggest that SJL (resistant) and 129/Sv (susceptible) strains should be used in crossing experiments aimed at identifying genes controlling pneumovirus replication by the positional cloning approach. Similarly, crossing experiments using BALB/c or C57BL/6 (resistant) and DBA/2 or 129/Sv (susceptible) will allow the identification of the genes involved in the control of pulmonary inflammation during pneumovirus infection.

  2. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  3. Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B

    2015-08-01

    Genetic and environmental factors interact throughout life and give rise to individual differences, i.e., individuality. The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). Here, we compared robustness between cohorts of isogenic mice of eight different commonly used strains by analyzing to what extent environmental variation contributed to individuality in each of the eight genotypes, using a previously published dataset. Behavior was assessed in the home-cage, providing control over environmental factors, to reveal within-strain variability in numerous spontaneous behaviors. Indeed, despite standardization and in line with previous studies, substantial variability among mice of the same inbred strain was observed. Strikingly, across a multidimensional set of 115 behavioral parameters, several strains consistently ranked high in within-strain variability (DBA/2J, 129S1/Sv A/J and NOD/LtJ), whereas other strains ranked low (C57BL/6J and BALB/c). Strain rankings of within-strain variability in behavior were confirmed in an independent, previously published behavioral dataset using conventional behavioral tests administered to different mice from the same breeding colonies. Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental variation, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to variation in robustness. PMID:26123533

  4. Slc:Wistar outbred rats show close genetic similarity with F344 inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Although Slc:Wistar rats are used widely in biomedical research as outbred rats, close similarities in growth curves, survival rates, and immunological and biochemical phenotypes have been reported between Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. We reported previously that nine genetic variations that were fixed in Slc:Wistar rats had identical genotypes in F344 rats. Here, we examined the genetic characteristics of Slc:Wistar rats using 27 simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers and compared them with other Wistar stocks available in Japan and with some F344 strains. Among 27 SSLP loci, 23 (85%) were fixed in the Slc:Wistar rats, which was the highest among the other Wistar stocks. The 23 fixed loci shared identical genotypes with corresponding loci in F344 rats. Further, the predominant allele types in the unfixed loci had allele frequencies as high as 80%, and these alleles were identical in the F344 rats. When the nine genetic variations reported previously are added, a total of 32 (89%) out of the 36 loci examined were fixed and identical in the Slc:Wistar and F344 rat genomes. These findings indicate the low genetic variation in Slc:Wistar rats and the high genetic similarity between the Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. This study demonstrates the importance of characterizing outbred rats and the need to pay ample attention to the genetic characteristics the Slc:Wistar rats for their proper use.

  5. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize.

  6. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  7. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a model for perennial grasses: transformation and inbred line development.

    PubMed

    Steinwand, Michael A; Young, Hugh A; Bragg, Jennifer N; Tobias, Christian M; Vogel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  8. Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  10. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

  11. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research.

  12. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  13. Fall armyworm and corn earworm resistance in the breeding crosses of maize inbreds with high levels of phytoalexins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop maize germplasm with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of reciprocal breeding crosses was made using maize inbred lines with high levels of kauralexins or zealexins. The evaluation of the breeding crosses for insect resistance utilized the rand...

  14. Evaluation of reproductive characteristics of 21 highly inbred lines of White Leghorns divergently selected for or segregating in tumor resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction performance of 21 inbred experimental lines of White Leghorns were evaluated based on samples of reproduction records over a period of eight consecutive years. Two lines (63 and 72) have been extensively used in studies, especially in research seeking for genetic and epigenetic factors ...

  15. Evaluation of Combining Ability and Grain Quality of Quality Protein Maize Derived from U.S. Public Inbred Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality Protein Maize (QPM) has improved nutritional quality due to the opaque2 mutation as well as hard endosperm conferred by uncharacterized modifier genes. We have developed a series of QPM inbred lines based on crosses between public U.S. Corn Belt-adapted lines with QPM lines developed at the...

  16. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  17. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected.

  18. Identification of QTLs underlying seed micronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed nutrition levels is almost non-existent. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs associated with seed micronutrients accumulation (concentration) in a population of 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that derived fro...

  19. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  20. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    PubMed

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  1. Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

  2. Selection for Heterozygosity Gives Hope to a Wild Population of Inbred Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, Staffan; Andrén, Henrik; Hansson, Bengt; Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Sand, Håkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Åkesson, Mikael; Liberg, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses have questioned the usefulness of heterozygosity estimates as measures of the inbreeding coefficient (f), a finding that may have dramatic consequences for the management of endangered populations. We confirm that f and heterozygosity is poorly correlated in a wild and highly inbred wolf population. Yet, our data show that for each level of f, it was the most heterozygous wolves that established themselves as breeders, a selection process that seems to have decelerated the loss of heterozygosity in the population despite a steady increase of f. The markers contributing to the positive relationship between heterozygosity and breeding success were found to be located on different chromosomes, but there was a substantial amount of linkage disequilibrium in the population, indicating that the markers are reflecting heterozygosity over relatively wide genomic regions. Following our results we recommend that management programs of endangered populations include estimates of both f and heterozygosity, as they may contribute with complementary information about population viability. PMID:17183704

  3. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  4. Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested.

  5. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of agronomic traits in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Hui, G Q; Luo, Q; Sun, Y; Liu, X H

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. In this study, 13 agronomic traits of a recombinant inbred line population that was derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 were investigated in maize: ear diameter, ear length, ear axis diameter, ear weight, plant height, ear height, days to pollen shed (DPS), days to silking (DS), the interval between DPS and DS, 100-kernel weight, kernel test weight, ear kernel weight, and kernel rate. Furthermore, the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of the 13 traits were performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. The results providing the phenotypic data here are needed for the quantitative trait locus mapping of these agronomic traits. PMID:24535873

  6. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself.

  7. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. PMID:26934102

  8. Genetic Dependence of Central Corneal Thickness among Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lively, Geoffrey D.; Jiang, Bing; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Chang, Bo; Petersen, Greg E.; Wang, Kai; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Central corneal thickness (CCT) exhibits broad variability. For unknown reasons, CCT also associates with diseases not typically considered corneal, particularly glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to test the strain dependence of CCT variability among inbred mice and identify cellular and molecular factors associated with differing CCT. Methods. Methodology for measuring murine CCT with ultrasound pachymetry was developed and used to measure CCT among 17 strains of mice. Corneas from three strains with nonoverlapping differences in CCT (C57BLKS/J, C57BL/6J, and SJL/J) were compared by histology, transmission electron microscopy, and expression profiling with gene microarrays. Results. CCT in mice was highly strain dependent. CCT exhibited continuous variation from 89.2 μm in C57BLKS/J to 123.8 μm in SJL/J. Stromal thickness was the major determinant of the varying murine CCT, with epithelial thickness also contributing. Corneal expression levels of many genes differed between strains with differing CCT, but most of these changes did not correlate with the changes observed in previously studied corneal diseases nor did they correlate with genes encoding major structural proteins of the cornea. Conclusions. Murine CCT has been measured with a variety of different techniques, but only among a limited number of different strains. Here, pachymetry was established as an additional tool and used to conduct a broad survey of different strains of inbred mice. These results demonstrated that murine CCT was highly influenced by genetic background and established a baseline for future genetic approaches to further elucidate mechanisms regulating CCT and its disease associations. PMID:19710407

  9. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Jennifer L.; Gladwell, Wesley; Verhein, Kirsten C.; Cho, Hye-Youn; Wess, Jürgen; Suzuki, Oscar; Wiltshire, Tim; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a respiratory condition that affects preterm infants. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility to oxidant stress in neonatal lungs are not completely understood. We evaluated the role of genetic background in response to oxidant stress in the neonatal lung by exposing mice from 36 inbred strains to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 72 h after birth. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was evaluated by using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and pathology. Statistically significant interstrain variation was found for BALF inflammatory cells and protein (heritability estimates range: 33.6–55.7%). Genome-wide association mapping using injury phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7. Comparative mapping of the chromosome 6 QTLs identified Chrm2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, cardiac) as a candidate susceptibility gene, and mouse strains with a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Chrm2 that causes an amino acid substitution (P265L) had significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced inflammation compared to strains without the SNP. Further, hyperoxia-induced lung injury was significantly reduced in neonatal mice with targeted deletion of Chrm2, relative to wild-type controls. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of oxidative lung injury in neonates.—Nichols, J. L., Gladwell, W., Verhein, K. C., Cho, H.-Y., Wess, J., Suzuki, O., Wiltshire, T., Kleeberger, S. R. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice. PMID:24571919

  10. Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP −103 T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862 A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417 T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

  11. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  12. Population genetic evidence for sex-specific dispersal in an inbred social spider.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deborah R; Su, Yong-Chao; Berger-Tal, Reut; Lubin, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal in most group-living species ensures gene flow among groups, but in cooperative social spiders, juvenile dispersal is suppressed and colonies are highly inbred. It has been suggested that such inbred sociality is advantageous in the short term, but likely to lead to extinction or reduced speciation rates in the long run. In this situation, very low levels of dispersal and gene flow among colonies may have unusually important impacts on fitness and persistence of social spiders. We investigated sex-specific differences in dispersal and gene flow among colonies, as reflected in the genetic structure within colonies and populations of the African social spider Stegodyphus dumicola Pocock, 1898 (Eresidae). We used DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA sequence data along with spatial mapping of colonies to compare male and female patterns of relatedness within and among colonies at three study sites. Samples were collected during and shortly after the mating season to detect sex-specific dispersal. Distribution of mtDNA haplotypes was consistent with proliferation of social nests by budding and medium- to long-distance dispersal by ballooning females. Analysis of molecular variance and spatial autocorrelation analyses of AFLPs showed high levels of genetic similarity within colonies, and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that the number of source populations contributing to colonies ranged from one to three. We also showed significant evidence of male dispersal among colonies at one site. These results support the hypothesis that in social spiders, genetic cohesion among populations is maintained by long-distance dispersal of female colony founders. Genetic diversity within colonies is maintained by colony initiation by multiple dispersing females, and adult male dispersal over short distances. Male dispersal may be particularly important in maintaining gene flow among colonies in local populations.

  13. Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes. PMID:21779179

  14. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population.

  15. Population genetic evidence for sex-specific dispersal in an inbred social spider.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deborah R; Su, Yong-Chao; Berger-Tal, Reut; Lubin, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal in most group-living species ensures gene flow among groups, but in cooperative social spiders, juvenile dispersal is suppressed and colonies are highly inbred. It has been suggested that such inbred sociality is advantageous in the short term, but likely to lead to extinction or reduced speciation rates in the long run. In this situation, very low levels of dispersal and gene flow among colonies may have unusually important impacts on fitness and persistence of social spiders. We investigated sex-specific differences in dispersal and gene flow among colonies, as reflected in the genetic structure within colonies and populations of the African social spider Stegodyphus dumicola Pocock, 1898 (Eresidae). We used DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA sequence data along with spatial mapping of colonies to compare male and female patterns of relatedness within and among colonies at three study sites. Samples were collected during and shortly after the mating season to detect sex-specific dispersal. Distribution of mtDNA haplotypes was consistent with proliferation of social nests by budding and medium- to long-distance dispersal by ballooning females. Analysis of molecular variance and spatial autocorrelation analyses of AFLPs showed high levels of genetic similarity within colonies, and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that the number of source populations contributing to colonies ranged from one to three. We also showed significant evidence of male dispersal among colonies at one site. These results support the hypothesis that in social spiders, genetic cohesion among populations is maintained by long-distance dispersal of female colony founders. Genetic diversity within colonies is maintained by colony initiation by multiple dispersing females, and adult male dispersal over short distances. Male dispersal may be particularly important in maintaining gene flow among colonies in local populations. PMID:27551398

  16. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.0·10(-10), 1.3·10(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.3·10(-7), 2.7·10(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  17. Cell Wall Composition and Biomass Recalcitrance Differences Within a Genotypically Diverse Set of Brachypodium distachyon Inbred Lines.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Lavell, Anastasiya A; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E; Karlen, Steven D; Smith, Rebecca A; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F; Sedbrook, John C

    2016-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD and

  18. Cell Wall Composition and Biomass Recalcitrance Differences Within a Genotypically Diverse Set of Brachypodium distachyon Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Lavell, Anastasiya A.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E.; Karlen, Steven D.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD and

  19. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-08-01

    In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated.

  20. Significant improvement in cloning efficiency of an inbred miniature pig by histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; Ross, Jason W; Hao, Yanhong; Spate, Lee D; Walters, Eric M; Samuel, Melissa S; Rieke, August; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2009-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) miniature pig was developed specifically for xenotransplantation and has been extensively used as a large-animal model in many other biomedical experiments. However, the cloning efficiency of this pig is very low (<0.2%), and this has been an obstacle to the promising application of these inbred swine genetics for biomedical research. It has been demonstrated that increased histone acetylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, by applying a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor such as trichostatin A (TSA), significantly enhances the developmental competence in several species. However, some researchers also reported that TSA treatment had various detrimental effects on the in vitro and in vivo development of the SCNT embryos. Herein, we report that treatment with 500 nM 6-(1,3-dioxo-1H, 3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-yl)-hexanoic acid hydroxyamide (termed scriptaid), a novel HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when NIH inbred fetal fibroblast cells (FFCs) were used as donors compared with the untreated group (21% vs. 9%, P < 0.05). Scriptaid treatment resulted in eight pregnancies from 10 embryo transfers (ETs) and 14 healthy NIH miniature pigs from eight litters, while no viable piglets (only three mummies) were obtained from nine ETs in the untreated group. Thus, scriptaid dramatically increased the cloning efficiency when using inbred genetics from 0.0% to 1.3%. In contrast, scriptaid treatment decreased the blastocyst rate in in vitro fertilization embryos (from 37% to 26%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the extremely low cloning efficiency in the NIH miniature pig may be caused by its inbred genetic background and can be improved by alteration of genomic histone acetylation patterns.

  1. SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F; Fischer, Susan M; Digiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J; Benavides, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hr(hr) mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes.

  2. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice: automated home cage observations.

    PubMed

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-08-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129S2/Sv, on locomotor activity. Strains differed in circadian rhythmicity, novelty-induced activity and the time-course of specific behavioural elements. For instance, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed a much faster decrease in activity over time than C3H and 129S2/Sv mice. Principal component analysis revealed two major factors within locomotor activity, which were defined as 'level of activity' and 'velocity/stops'. These factors were able to distinguish strains. Interestingly, mice that displayed high levels of activity in the initial phase of the home cage test were also highly active during an open-field test. Velocity and the number of stops during movement correlated positively with anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The use of an automated home cage observation system yields temporal changes in elements of locomotor activity with an advanced level of spatial resolution. Moreover, it avoids the confounding influence of human intervention and saves time-consuming human observations.

  3. The relationship between nephron number, kidney size and body weight in two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Inga J; Maina, Rita W; Gupta, Indra R

    2010-01-01

    While some reports in humans have shown that nephron number is positively correlated with height, body weight or kidney weight, other studies have not reproduced these findings. To understand the impact of genetic and environmental variation on these relationships, we examined whether nephron number correlates with body weight, kidney planar surface area, or kidney weight in two inbred mouse strains with contrasting kidney sizes but no overt renal pathology: C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J. C3H/HeJ mice had smaller kidneys at birth and larger kidneys by adulthood, however there was no significant difference in nephron number between the two strains. We did observe a correlation between kidney size and body weight at birth and at adulthood for both strains. However, there was no relationship between nephron number and body weight or between nephron number and kidney size. From other studies, it appears that a greater than two-fold variation is required in each of these parameters in order to demonstrate these relationships, suggesting they are highly dependent on scale. Our results are therefore not surprising since there was a less than two-fold variation in each of the parameters examined. In summary, the relationship between nephron number and body or kidney size is most likely to be demonstrated when there is greater phenotypic variation either from genetic and/or environmental factors.

  4. Genetic analysis of health-related secondary metabolites in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, α-⁄γ- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%-35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa.

  5. Susceptibility of inbred mice to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Dal Canto, M C

    1979-10-01

    The present study demonstrated that the clinicopathological expression of the late demyelinating disease due to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus was dependent, at least in part, on the strain of mouse used as host. A range of involvement was observed, with late disease being most severe in the SJL strain, intermediate in the CBA and C3H/He strains, and least in C57BL/6 mice. The lack of clinical signs in seven other inbred strains of mice indicates that their response to chronic infection was similar to C57BL/6 mice. SJL, CBA, C3H/He, and C57BL/6 mice all generated similar levels of neutralizing antibody. A correlation between the severity of late disease and central nervous system virus content was not demonstrated, which indirectly suggests an immunopathological rather than a cytolytic mechanism of myelin injury during the late disease period. Finally, in addition to being more extensive, SJL demyelinating lesions contained a disproportionately large number of macrophages compared with those of similar lesions in CBA and C3H/He mice.

  6. Phylometabonomic Patterns of Adaptation to High Fat Diet Feeding in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fearnside, Jane F.; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Rothwell, Alice R.; Wilder, Steven P.; Cloarec, Olivier; Toye, Ayo; Blancher, Christine; Holmes, Elaine; Tatoud, Roger; Barton, Richard H.; Scott, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Gauguier, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance plays a central role in type 2 diabetes and obesity, which develop as a consequence of genetic and environmental factors. Dietary changes including high fat diet (HFD) feeding promotes insulin resistance in rodent models which present useful systems for studying interactions between genetic background and environmental influences contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. We applied a combination of classical physiological, biochemical and hormonal studies and plasma 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomics to characterize the phenotypic and metabotypic consequences of HFD (40%) feeding in inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6, 129S6, BALB/c, DBA/2, C3H) frequently used in genetic studies. We showed the wide range of phenotypic and metabonomic adaptations to HFD across the five strains and the increased nutrigenomic predisposition of 129S6 and C57BL/6 to insulin resistance and obesity relative to the other strains. In contrast mice of the BALB/c and DBA/2 strains showed relative resistance to HFD-induced glucose intolerance and obesity. Hierarchical metabonomic clustering derived from 1H NMR spectral data of the strains provided a phylometabonomic classification of strain-specific metabolic features and differential responses to HFD which closely match SNP-based phylogenetic relationships between strains. Our results support the concept of genomic clustering of functionally related genes and provide important information for defining biological markers predicting spontaneous susceptibility to insulin resistance and pathological adaptations to fat feeding. PMID:18301746

  7. Differences in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation in trace fear conditioning of two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoo Kyeong; Song, Jae-Chun; Han, Seol-Heui; Cho, Jeiwon; Smith, Dani R; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2010-07-23

    The effects of genetic background on fear trace conditioning were evaluated in relation to phosphorylated levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus using two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2. The male mice received a trace fear conditioning protocol and unpaired control groups were included to assess nonassociative effects on test performance. Both C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice with paired training displayed higher freezing responses during testing than those with unpaired training, respectively. The C57BL/6 mice with paired training also displayed higher freezing responses to the tone-CS during testing than the DBA/2 mice with paired training. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus as an important neural substrate for trace fear conditioning, the engagement of the hippocampus was examined after testing by measuring levels of CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB). The results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were not significantly altered according to the type of training (unpaired vs. paired). However, the hippocampal pCREB levels were significantly higher in the paired training group than the unpaired control group in C57BL/6 mice, but not in DBA/2 mice. These findings indicate that hippocampal pCREB is closely tied to this form of associative conditioning only in C57BL/6 mice and that different neural substrates may support trace conditioning in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. PMID:20501325

  8. Comt1 genotype and expression predicts anxiety and nociceptive sensitivity in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Segall, S K; Nackley, A G; Diatchenko, L; Lariviere, W R; Lu, X; Marron, J S; Grabowski-Boase, L; Walker, J R; Slade, G; Gauthier, J; Bailey, J S; Steffy, B M; Maynard, T M; Tarantino, L M; Wiltshire, T

    2010-11-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that maintains basic biologic functions by inactivating catechol substrates. In humans, polymorphic variance at the COMT locus has been associated with modulation of pain sensitivity and risk for developing psychiatric disorders. A functional haplotype associated with increased pain sensitivity was shown to result in decreased COMT activity by altering mRNA secondary structure-dependent protein translation. However, the exact mechanisms whereby COMT modulates pain sensitivity and behavior remain unclear and can be further studied in animal models. We have assessed Comt1 gene expression levels in multiple brain regions in inbred strains of mice and have discovered that Comt1 is differentially expressed among the strains, and this differential expression is cis-regulated. A B2 short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) was inserted in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Comt1 in 14 strains generating a common haplotype that correlates with gene expression. Experiments using mammalian expression vectors of full-length cDNA clones with and without the SINE element show that strains with the SINE haplotype (+SINE) have greater Comt1 enzymatic activity. +SINE mice also exhibit behavioral differences in anxiety assays and decreased pain sensitivity. These results suggest that a haplotype, defined by a 3'-UTR B2 SINE element, regulates Comt1 expression and some mouse behaviors. PMID:20659173

  9. Ontogeny of blood pressure in the inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive and -resistant rat.

    PubMed

    Kaskel, F J; Devarajan, P; Persan, L; Juno, C J; Wilson, T A; McCaughran, J A

    1988-07-01

    The inbred S/JR rat is characterized by a genetic predisposition to NaCl-induced hypertension. Although mature S/JR but not R/JR rats develop hypertension when fed a high NaCl-containing diet, this effect has not been examined during early neonatal development. S/JR and R/JR dams were maintained on 0.15% (w/w) or 8% (w/w) NaCl diets throughout gestation and lactation. Measurements of mean abdominal aortic blood pressure (MAP) were obtained in anesthetized offspring at 5, 15, and 25 days of age. This was greater in neonatal S/JR rats than R/JR rats at 5, 15, and 25 days of age. A hypertensinogenic effect of 8% NaCl was seen in R/JR at 5 and 15 days. The results indicate that the ontogeny of MAP can be influenced by pre- and postnatal dietary NaCl. More importantly, elevated MAP in the S/JR strain is a distinguishing characteristic evident throughout the neonatal period of development.

  10. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  11. The cellular transfer of immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in inbred rats (Lewis strain)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J. D.; Dineen, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Mesenteric lymph node cells obtained from highly inbred donor rats (Lewis strain), resistant to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, were syngeneically transferred by intravenous injection into previously uninfected recipients. The adoptively immunized recipients were then challenged with either 1500 or 3000 third stage N. brasiliensis larvae on the day of cell transfer. The degree of resistance transferred was assessed by monitoring daily faecal egg output, differential worm burdens on days 6 and 10 of infection and the number of eggs per uterus in gravid worms. The syngeneic transfer of 100 × 106 immune mesenteric lymph node cells invariably resulted in suppression of egg production, a two- to four-fold reduction in the number of eggs per uterus in gravid females and rejection of at least 75 per cent of adult worms by days 6 and 10 of infection. It was also noted that mesenteric lymph node cells obtained from donors on day 15 of a primary infection were more effective than those obtained from donors immunized by multiple infections. Immune cells transferred from donors on day 4 of infection were equally effective with those transferred on day 0. However, immune cells transferred on or after day 10 of infection had little or no effect and this shows that the parasite is less susceptible to an attack mounted by the transferred cells during the later stages of infection. PMID:5062015

  12. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  13. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  14. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  15. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, α-/γ- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa. PMID:23892600

  16. RNA-Seq Based Analysis of Population Structure within the Maize Inbred B73

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several clearly distinct clades were identified among putatively B73 samples. A number of these clades were defined by the presence of clearly defined genomic blocks containing a haplotype which did not match the published B73 reference genome. The overall proportion of the maize genotype where multiple distinct haplotypes were observed across different research groups was approximately 2.3%. In some cases the relationship among B73 samples generated by different research groups recapitulated mentor/mentee relationships within the maize genetics community. PMID:27348435

  17. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF RESPIRATORY LONG-TERM FACILITATION AMONG INBRED RAT STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Herman, T.L.; Bavis, R.W.; Dahlberg, J.M.; Mitchell, A.Z.; Wilkerson, J.E.R.; Golder, F.J.; MacFarlane, P.M.; Watters, J.J.; Behan, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that: 1) long-term facilitation (LTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) varies among three inbred rat strains: Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis rats, and 2) ventral cervical spinal levels of genes important for phrenic LTF (pLTF) vary in association with pLTF magnitude. Lewis and F344, but not BN rats exhibited significant increases in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude 60 min post-AIH that were significantly greater than control experiments without AIH, indicating strain differences in phrenic (98%, 56% and 20%, respectively) and hypoglossal LTF (66%, 77% and 5%, respectively). Ventral spinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and protein levels were higher in F344 and Lewis versus BN, suggesting that higher 5-HT2A receptor levels are associated with greater pLTF. More complex relationships were found for 5-HT7, BDNF and TrkB mRNA. BN had higher 5-HT7 and TrkB mRNA versus F344; BN and Lewis had higher BDNF mRNA levels versus F344. Genetic variations in serotonergic function may underlie strain differences in AIH-induced pLTF. PMID:20036763

  18. Pericarp anatomy and hormone profiles of cypselas in dormant and non-dormant inbred sunflower lines.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Riera, N; Lindstrom, L; Alemano, S; Alvarez, D; Abdala, G; Vigliocco, A

    2015-03-01

    The pericarp anatomy and the effects of storage after harvest, storage temperature and early cypsela imbibition on phytohormone profiles were studied in inbred sunflower lines B123 and B91. On day 0, germination of B123 cypselas was near 0%, indicating dormancy, whereas that of B91 cypselas was near 100%, indicating non-dormancy. The germination of B123 and B91 on day 33 at room temperature (25 °C) storage was similar. Cell wall thickness and sclerification of the pericarp were higher in B123 than B91, suggesting that structural characteristics may contribute to physical dormancy in B123. Jasmonates (JAs), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured in dry and imbibed pericarps. SA content of dry pericarp was higher on day 33 than day 0. SA content during imbibition on day 33 was similar for room and low (-20 °C) storage temperatures. ABA content after 12 h imbibition was similar on days 0 and 33 at low temperature, but it increased on day 33 at room temperature for B123. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was maximal on day 0 for B123, but peaked at day 33 at low temperature for B91. JA was higher on days 0 and 33 at room temperature as compared with low temperature. Our findings indicate that pericarp hormone profiles are affected in the two lines with different dormancy degree depending on storage conditions and imbibition processes. PMID:25272333

  19. [Peculiar features of forming radiation effects in inbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster differing in cytotype].

    PubMed

    Iushkova, E A; Zaĭnullin, V G

    2014-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the sensitivity of inbred wild-type flies differing in the cytotype to the action of low-intensity radiation of different duration was conducted taking into account the integral parameters of survival. The strong dependence of the frequency of radiation-induced DNA damage (in the neutralpH version) to the cells of individuals on the dose of low-intensity radiation and stages of spermatogenesis was established. The hyper-radiosensitivity was found in the individuals of Charolles (R-cytotype), Harwich (P-cytotype), and Oregon-R (H-cytotype) strains irradiated during the early stages of spermatogenesis (spermatogonia-spermatocytes) and containing in their genotype transposons Bari 1, P and hobo, respectively. While drosophila line Canton-S exhibited dysgenetic properties against the background of several cytotypes (E, I and M), the effect of hormesis was identified under the same experimental conditions. With the increase in the dose of low-intensity irradiation, the frequency of the DNA damage either increased (for Canton-S) or reduced (for Harwich and Charolles). At that, the profile of fertility and. survival of wild-type stocks studied was maintained at a significantly high level. The important role of the cytotype and mobile genetic elements responsible for its formation in the modification of the effects of low-intensity γ-radiation is shown. PMID:25764842

  20. Quantitative genetic analysis of copia retrotransposon activity in inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines.

    PubMed Central

    Nuzhdin, S V; Pasyukova, E G; Morozova, E A; Flavell, A J

    1998-01-01

    The rates of transcription and transposition of retrotransposons vary between lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We have studied the genetics of differences in copia retrotransposon activity by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Ninety-eight recombinant inbred lines were constructed from two parental lines exhibiting a 10-fold difference in copia transcript level and a 100-fold difference in transposition rate. The lines were scored for 126 molecular markers, copia transcript level, and rate of copia transposition. Transcript level correlated with copia copy number, and the difference in copia copy number between parental lines accounted for 45.1% of copia transcript-level difference. Most of the remaining difference was accounted for by two transcript-level QTL mapping to cytological positions 27B-30D and 50F-57C on the second chromosome, which accounted for 11.5 and 30.4%, respectively. copia transposition rate was controlled by interacting QTL mapping to the region 27B-48D on the second and 61A-65A and 97D-100A on the third chromosome. The genes controlling copia transcript level are thus not necessarily those involved in controlling copia transposition rate. Segregation of modifying genes, rather than mutations, might explain the variability in copia retrotransposon activity between lines. PMID:9755206

  1. RNA-Seq Based Analysis of Population Structure within the Maize Inbred B73.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhikai; Schnable, James C

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several clearly distinct clades were identified among putatively B73 samples. A number of these clades were defined by the presence of clearly defined genomic blocks containing a haplotype which did not match the published B73 reference genome. The overall proportion of the maize genotype where multiple distinct haplotypes were observed across different research groups was approximately 2.3%. In some cases the relationship among B73 samples generated by different research groups recapitulated mentor/mentee relationships within the maize genetics community. PMID:27348435

  2. MPTP neurotoxicity is highly concordant between the sexes among BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Gelareh; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Jones, Byron C.

    2016-01-01

    Continuing our previous work in which we showed wide-ranging strain differences in MPTP neurotoxicity in male mice among ten BXD recombinant inbred strains, we replicated our work in females from nine of the same strains. Mice received a single s.c. injection of 12.5 mg/kg MPTP or saline. Forty-eight hours later the striatum was dissected for neurochemical analysis. Striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, striatal serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, were analyzed using HPLC. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocytic protein that increases during the astroglial response to neural injury, were measured using ELISA. There were wide genetic variations in the DA, DOPAC, HVA, TH and GFAP responses to MPTP. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA) on the difference values, saline minus MPTP, for DA, DOPAC, HVA and TH and mapped the dominant principal component to a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 at the same location that we observed previously for males. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the sexes for the effect of MPTP on DA, HVA, and TH. Our findings suggest that the systems genetic approach as utilized here can help researchers understand the role of sex in individual differences. The same approach can pave the way to understand and pinpoint the genetic bases for individual differences in pathology attributable to toxicants. Such systems genetics approach has broad implications for elucidating gene-environment contributions to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27182044

  3. Variation of high-molecular-weight secalin subunit composition in Rye (Secale cereale L.) inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Kubicka-Matusiewicz, Helena

    2014-10-29

    In this study, identification and characterization of the rye HMW secalin subunit (HMW-SS) composition in 68 inbred rye (Secale cereale L.) lines was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The HMW-SS were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary using an isoelectric iminodiacetic buffer in combination with poly(ethylene oxide), lauryl sulfobetaine, and acetonitrile as the separation buffer. The separations of the nonalkylated HMW-SS provided very good resolution and high reproducibility. Generally, the x-type rye HMW-SS were more abundant and have longer migration times than the y-type subunits. Both types of rye HMW-SS were separated into the major protein peak and one or two minor peaks. In total, seven x-type HMW-SS, five of which were newly identified subunits, and six y-type subunits, four of which were new, were distinguished on the basis of their CZE migration times. The migration order of the rye HMW-SS using CZE differed considerably from the relative electrophoretic mobilities in the SDS-PAGE gels.

  4. Wheat grain consumption and selection by inbred and outbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    O C, Lottes; A M, Kiszonas; E P, Fuerst; C F, Morris

    2016-10-15

    Food selection and avoidance are driven primarily by orosensory cues. Previous studies with C57BL/6J mice indicated marked differences in selection and consumption of individual grains of different wheat varieties when presented in binary mixtures. The present study examined the patterns of mouse grain selection across four strains of laboratory mice: two inbred, BALB/c and C57BL/6J, and two outbred, Swiss-Webster and CD1. Four pairs of wheat varieties that were known to vary a priori for consumption preference or seed coat ('bran') color were tested. Two variety pairs were near-isogenic (>98% similar) with contrasting red and white seed coat coloration/pigmentation. All four mice strains exhibited similar preferences between wheat variety pairs, whereas consumption was not highly related to mouse body weight. This result indicates a more generalized phenomenon regarding how mice select and then consume individual wheat grains. The study supported the continued use of C57BL/6J as an effective strain model system to study food perception. PMID:27436794

  5. A new inbred strain JF1 established from Japanese fancy mouse carrying the classic piebald allele.

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Moriwaki, K; Uchida, K; Mita, A; Sagai, T; Yonekawa, H; Katoh, H; Miyashita, N; Tsuchiya, K; Nielsen, T J; Shiroishi, T

    1998-01-01

    A new inbred strain JF1 (Japanese Fancy Mouse 1) was established from a strain of fancy mouse. Morphological and genetical analysis indicated that the mouse originated from the Japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus molossinus. JF1 has characteristic coat color, black spots on the white coat, with black eyes. The mutation appeared to be linked to an old mutation piebald (s). Characterization of the causative gene for piebald, endothelin receptor type B (ednrb), demonstrated that the allele in JF1 is same as that of classic piebald allele, suggesting an identical origin of these two mutants. Possibly, classic piebald mutation was introduced from the Japanese tame mouse, which was already reported at the end of the 1700s. We showed that JF1 is a useful strain for mapping of mutant genes on laboratory strains owing to a high level of polymorphisms in microsatellite markers between JF1 and laboratory strains. The clarified genotypes of JF1 for coat color are "aa BB CC DD ss".

  6. Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

  7. An edited linkage map for the AXB and BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Sampson, S B; Higgins, D C; Elliot, R W; Taylor, B A; Lueders, K K; Koza, R A; Paigen, B

    1998-09-01

    We have updated the history of the AXB and BXA recombinant inbred (RI) strains, typed additional loci, and edited the AXB, BXA RI database. Thirteen of the original 51 AXB and BXA RI strains are either extinct or genetically contaminated, leaving 33 living strains available from The Jackson Laboratory. However, we found a high degree of similarity among three sets of strains, indicating that these strains are not independent, which leaves 27 independent RI strains in the set. Accordingly, we modified the database by combining the AXB and BXA RI sets and eliminating strains that were genetically contaminated or extinct with no available DNA. We added 92 newly typed loci, retyped some questionable genotypings, and removed loci with excessive double crossovers or an insufficient number of typed strains. The edited strain distribution pattern (SDP) is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) (http://www. informatics.jax.org/riset.html) and now includes over 700 loci. Each locus is linked to adjacent loci with a LOD score of at least 3.0 with a few described exceptions. We also carried out a second editing designed for the analysis of quantitative trait loci by deleting extinct strains and loci with identical SDPs; this edited database is also available on the WWW.

  8. Aversive effect of tannic acid on drinking behavior in mice of an inbred strain: potential animal model for assessing astringency.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Manuel; Toledo, Héctor; Obreque-Slier, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio O

    2011-11-01

    Astringency, an orosensory sensation associated with dietary tannins, contributes to food appetitiveness/aversiveness. However, astringency perception varies greatly among individuals. This study examined whether genetically homogeneous naïve mice display appetitiveness/aversiveness when provided with tannin-containing drink solutions. Ingestion of serial dilutions of tannic acid (TA) by inbred mice (A/Snell) was assessed by a one-bottle preference test. Drink intake was far predominant at night (circadian rhythm). TA concentration-dependently inhibited daily drink consumption. Overnight consumption of TA solutions (range = 0.5-8 g/L) decreased linearly to zero during the first night and was recovered significantly during subsequent nights. TA also inhibited drink consumption in another two inbred mouse strains. The protein fraction of saliva collected from naive mice was markedly reactive with TA at the concentrations shown to affect drink consumption. Thus, testing for drink ingestion in inbred mice during short-term (overnight) exposure to tannin-containing liquid foods represents an advantageous animal model for assessing astringency.

  9. HPA axis function and drug addictive behaviors: insights from studies with Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Therese A; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    Much research supports a link between stress and its concomitant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses with behavioral sensitivity to psychoactive drugs. Our research demonstrates that Lewis inbred rats more readily acquire drug self-administration than Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rats and, compared to this strain, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis responses to stress exposure. This association appears to conflict with investigations using outbred rats and suggests that the relationship between drug sensitivity and HPA axis responsiveness is more complicated than originally thought. It is essential to better understand this relationship because of its relevance to vulnerability and relapse to drug abuse. Thus, this paper reviews the literature in which these two inbred strains have been compared. We discuss strain differences in HPA axis function, in characteristics of the mesolimbic dopamine system, and in behaviors thought to reflect emotionality. Strain differences in unconditioned and conditioned effects of psychoactive drugs are then reviewed. Next, we discuss the possible role of sex and gonadal hormones on responsiveness to psychoactive drugs in these strains. Finally, a comparison of results obtained from these strains to three other comparator groups (e.g., high and low responders) suggests that a non-monotonic relationship between behavioral sensitivity to drugs and HPA axis responsiveness can explain much of the discrepancies in the literature.

  10. Different levels of Fos immunoreactivity after repeated handling and injection stress in two inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, A E; Wang, Y M; Finn, D A

    1999-05-01

    Expression of Fos and Fos-related antigens was immunohistochemically analyzed in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mice in response to acute or repeated handling and injection stress. Both strains showed a strong induction of Fos and Fos-related antigens in discrete areas of hypothalamus, amygdala, neocortex, septum, and thalamus 2 h after an acute intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. To habituate animals to this procedure, mice were subjected to repeated handling and injections during 2 weeks preceding the experiment. This procedure led to complete habituation of the immediate early gene response to injection stress in stress-responsive brain areas of C57BL/6J mice, such that no significant difference was found between expression of these proteins in brains of saline-injected animals after repeated stress vs. control animals. In contrast, many brain areas of saline-injected DBA/2J mice still showed elevated Fos and Fos-related antigen expression after repeated injections. These results indicate that identical habituation procedures do not necessarily lead to identical levels of gene expression in brains of inbred strains of mice. In turn, they suggest that genetic components for some behavioral and pharmacological traits identified using inbred strains could be related to different rates of habituation to experimental procedures.

  11. Combining Data From Multiple Inbred Line Crosses Improves the Power and Resolution of Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renhua; Lyons, Malcolm A.; Wittenburg, Henning; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Rodent inbred line crosses are widely used to map genetic loci associated with complex traits. This approach has proven to be powerful for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, the resolution of QTL locations, typically ∼20 cM, means that hundreds of genes are implicated as potential candidates. We describe analytical methods based on linear models to combine information available in two or more inbred line crosses. Our strategy is motivated by the hypothesis that common inbred strains of the laboratory mouse are derived from a limited ancestral gene pool and thus QTL detected in multiple crosses are likely to represent shared ancestral polymorphisms. We demonstrate that the combined-cross analysis can improve the power to detect weak QTL, can narrow support intervals for QTL regions, and can be used to separate multiple QTL that colocalize by chance. Moreover, combined-cross analysis can establish the allelic states of a QTL among a set of parental lines, thus providing critical information for narrowing QTL regions by haplotype analysis. PMID:15654110

  12. Cell wall composition and biomass recalcitrance differences within a genotypically diverse set of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    DOE PAGES

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Lavell, Anastasiya A.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E.; Karlen, Steven D.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-05-26

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinantmore » inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD

  13. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected

  14. Quantitative trait loci in Two Soybean Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Segregating for Yield and Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J.; Njiti, V. N.; Meksem, K.; Iqbal, M. J.; Triwitayakorn, K.; Kassem, My. A.; Davis, G. T.; Schmidt, M. E.; Lightfoot, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular makers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) can assist soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeders to combine traits of low heritability, such as yield, with disease resistance. The objective of this study was to identify markers linked to yield QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations ['Essex' x 'Forrest' (ExF; n = 100) and 'Flyer' x 'Hartwig' (FxH; n = 94)] that also segregate for soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance genes (rhg1 and Rhg4). Each population was yield tested in four environments between 1996 and 1999. The resistant parents produced lower yields. Heritability of yield across four environments was 47% for ExF and 57% for FxH. Yield was normally distributed in both populations. High yielding, SCN resistant transgressive segregants were not observed. In the ExF RIL population, 134 microsatellite markers were compared against yield by ANOVA and MAPMAKER QTL. Regions associated with yield were identified by SATT294 on linkage group (LG.) C1 (P = 0.006, R(2) = 10%), SATT440 on LG. I (P = 0.007, R(2) = 10%), and SATT337 on LG. K (P = 0.004, R(2) = 10%). Essex provided the beneficial allele at SATT337. Mean yields among FxH RILs were compared against 33 microsatellite markers from LG. K. In addition 136 markers from randomly selected LGs were compared with extreme phenotypes by bulk segregant analysis. Two regions on LG. K (20 cM apart) associated with yield were identified by SATT326 (P = 0.0004, R(2) = 15%) and SATT539 (P = 0.0008, R(2) = 14%). Flyer provided both beneficial alleles. Both populations revealed a yield QTL in the interval (5 cM) between SATT337 and SATT326. These populations may share a common allele for yield in this region, given that about 40% of Flyer genome derived from Essex.

  15. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  16. Variability in empathic fear response among 11 inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Keum, S; Park, J; Kim, A; Park, J; Kim, K K; Jeong, J; Shin, H-S

    2016-02-01

    Empathy is an important emotional process that involves the ability to recognize and share emotions with others. We have previously developed an observational fear learning (OFL) behavioral assay to measure empathic fear in mice. In the OFL task, a mouse is conditioned for context-dependent fear when it observes a conspecific demonstrator receiving aversive stimuli. In the present study, by comparing 11 different inbred mouse strains that are commonly used in the laboratory, we found that empathic fear response was highly variable between different strains. Five strains--C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NTac, 129S1/SvImJ, 129S4/SvJae and BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf) /J--showed observational fear (OF) responses, whereas AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ and NOD/ShiLtJ mice exhibited low empathic fear response. Importantly, day 2 OF memory was significantly correlated with contextual memory in the classical fear conditioning among the 11 strains. Innate differences in anxiety, locomotor activity, sociability and preference for social novelty were not significantly correlated with OFL. Interestingly, early adolescent C57BL/6J mice exhibited an increase in acquisition of OF. The level of OFL in C57BL/6J strain was not affected by sex or strains of the demonstrator. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that there are naturally occurring OFL-specific genetic variations modulating empathic fear behaviors in mice. The identification of causal genes may uncover novel genetic pathways and underlying neural mechanisms that modulate empathic fear and, ultimately, provide new targets for therapeutic intervention in human mental disorders associated with impaired empathy. PMID:26690560

  17. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  18. Mapping stripe rust resistance in a BrundageXCoda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Case, Austin J; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A; Zemetra, Robert S; Carter, Arron H

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust.

  19. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

    2010-03-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; "ecstasy" (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  20. Chronobiology of alcohol: studies in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Fixaris, Michael C

    2013-02-17

    Human alcoholics display dramatic disruptions of circadian rhythms that may contribute to the maintenance of excessive drinking, thus creating a vicious cycle. While clinical studies cannot establish direct causal mechanisms, recent animal experiments have revealed bidirectional interactions between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake, suggesting that the chronobiological disruptions seen in human alcoholics are mediated in part by alterations in circadian pacemaker function. The present study was designed to further explore these interactions using C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice, two widely employed strains differing in both circadian and alcohol-related phenotypes. Mice were maintained in running-wheel cages with or without free-choice access to ethanol and exposed to a variety of lighting regimens, including standard light-dark cycles, constant darkness, constant light, and a "shift-lag" schedule consisting of repeated light-dark phase shifts. Relative to the standard light-dark cycle, B6 mice showed reduced ethanol intake in both constant darkness and constant light, while D2 mice showed reduced ethanol intake only in constant darkness. In contrast, shift-lag lighting failed to affect ethanol intake in either strain. Access to ethanol altered daily activity patterns in both B6 and D2 mice, and increased activity levels in D2 mice, but had no effects on other circadian parameters. Thus, the overall pattern of results was broadly similar in both strains, and consistent with previous observations that chronic ethanol intake alters circadian activity patterns while environmental perturbation of circadian rhythms modulates voluntary ethanol intake. These results suggest that circadian-based interventions may prove useful in the management of alcohol use disorders.

  1. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  2. Karyotype variability in tropical maize sister inbred lines and hybrids compared with KYS standard line

    PubMed Central

    Mondin, Mateus; Santos-Serejo, Janay A.; Bertäo, Mônica R.; Laborda, Prianda; Pizzaia, Daniel; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA

  3. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas nonpregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  4. Differences in sexual development in inbred and outbred zebrafish (Danio rerio) and implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, A Ross; Bickley, Lisa K; Ryan, Thomas A; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Owen, Stewart F; Sharpe, Alan D; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-05-15

    Outbred laboratory animal strains used in ecotoxicology are intended to represent wild populations. However, breeding history may vary considerably between strains, driving differences in genetic variation and phenotypes used for assessing effects of chemical exposure. We compared a range of phenotypic endpoints in zebrafish from four different "breeding treatments" comprising a Wild Indian Karyotype (WIK) zebrafish strain and a WIK/Wild strain with three levels of inbreeding (F(IT)=n, n+0.25, n+0.375) in a new Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). There were no differences between treatments in terms of egg viability, hatch success or fry survival. However, compared with WIKs, WIK/Wild hybrids were significantly larger in size, with more advanced gonadal (germ cell) development at the end of the test (63 days post fertilisation). Increasing the levels of inbreeding in the related WIK/Wild lines did not affect body size, but there was a significant male-bias (72%) in the most inbred line (F(IT)=n+0.375). Conversely, in the reference WIK strain there was a significant female-bias in the population (80% females). Overall, our results support the use of outbred zebrafish strains in the FSDT, where one of the core endpoints is sex ratio. Despite increased variance (and reduced statistical power) for some endpoints, WIK/Wild outbreds (F(IT)=n) met all acceptance criteria for controls in this test, whereas WIKs failed to comply with tolerance limits for sex ratio (30-70% females). Sexual development was also more advanced in WIK/Wild outbreds (cf. WIKs), providing greater scope for detection of developmental reproductive toxicity following chemical exposure.

  5. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. PMID:19958391

  6. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  7. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Loos, Maarten; Staal, Jorn; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability. PMID:24198771

  8. Gene expression analyses in maize inbreds and hybrids with varying levels of heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Gardiner, Jack M; Oldre, Aaron G; Haun, William J; Chandler, Vicki L; Springer, Nathan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrid progeny relative to the parental phenotypes. Maize exhibits heterosis for a wide range of traits, however the magnitude of heterosis is highly variable depending on the choice of parents and the trait(s) measured. We have used expression profiling to determine whether the level, or types, of non-additive gene expression vary in maize hybrids with different levels of genetic diversity or heterosis. Results We observed that the distributions of better parent heterosis among a series of 25 maize hybrids generally do not exhibit significant correlations between different traits. Expression profiling analyses for six of these hybrids, chosen to represent diversity in genotypes and heterosis responses, revealed a correlation between genetic diversity and transcriptional variation. The majority of differentially expressed genes in each of the six different hybrids exhibited additive expression patterns, and ~25% exhibited statistically significant non-additive expression profiles. Among the non-additive profiles, ~80% exhibited hybrid expression levels between the parental levels, ~20% exhibited hybrid expression levels at the parental levels and ~1% exhibited hybrid levels outside the parental range. Conclusion We have found that maize inbred genetic diversity is correlated with transcriptional variation. However, sampling of seedling tissues indicated that the frequencies of additive and non-additive expression patterns are very similar across a range of hybrid lines. These findings suggest that heterosis is probably not a consequence of higher levels of additive or non-additive expression, but may be related to transcriptional variation between parents. The lack of correlation between better parent heterosis levels for different traits suggests that transcriptional diversity at specific sets of genes may influence heterosis for different traits. PMID:18402703

  9. New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

  10. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development. PMID:23316442

  11. Opioid-dependent regulation of high and low fear responses in two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Cieslak, Przemyslaw Eligiusz; Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Agnieszka; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the susceptibility or resilience to trauma-related disorders remain incompletely understood. Opioids modulate emotional learning, but the roles of specific receptors are unclear. Here, we aimed to analyze the contribution of the opioid system to fear responses in two inbred mouse strains exhibiting distinct behavioral phenotypes. SWR/J and C57BL/6J mice were subjected to five consecutive electric footshocks (1mA each), and the contextual freezing time was measured. Stress-induced alterations in gene expression were analyzed in the amygdala and the hippocampus. In both strains, the fear response was modulated using pharmacological tools. SWR/J mice did not develop conditioned fear but exhibited increased transcriptional expression of Pdyn and Penk in the amygdala region. Blocking opioid receptors prior to the footshocks using naltrexone (2 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg) increased the freezing responses in these animals. The C57BL/6J strain displayed high conditioned fear, although no alteration in the mRNA abundance of genes encoding opioid precursors was observed. Double-injection of morphine (20 mg/kg) following stress and upon context re-exposure prevented the enhancement of freezing. Moreover, selective delta and kappa agonists caused a reduction in conditioned fear responses. To summarize, the increased expression of the Pdyn and Penk genes corresponded to reduced intensity of fear responses. Blockade of the endogenous opioid system restored freezing behavior in stress-resistant animals. The pharmacological stimulation of the kappa and delta opioid receptors in stress-susceptible individuals may alleviate fear. Thus, subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists may protect against the development of trauma-related disorders.

  12. Ethanol self-administration in Maudsley reactive and Maudsley nonreactive inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nelson; Mitchell, Pamela S; Campbell, Santiba D; Samson, Herman H

    2002-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate ethanol self-administration in inbred Maudsley rats, which were selected for differences in stress susceptibility and which often differ in their home cage ethanol consumption. Adult, male, Maudsley reactive (MR/Har) and Maudsley nonreactive (MNRA/Har) rats were tested in a standard protocol for the sucrose-substitution procedure for the initiation of self-administration of ethanol in an operant setting. Before and after initiation for self-administration in the operant setting, rats were tested for home cage consumption of 10% (vol./vol.) ethanol in a two-bottle test for 14 consecutive days. During the sucrose-substitution procedure, MNRA/Har rats consumed more sucrose and ethanol than did MR/Har rats. In addition, MNRA/Har rats self-administered a greater amount of ethanol during a concentration manipulation with the use of a fixed ratio (FR) 4 response requirement. However, both strains self-administered low amounts of 10% ethanol (MNRA/Har, 0.15 g/kg/day; MR/Har, 0.08 g/kg/day) after concentration manipulation compared with those observed in outbred rats and alcohol-preferring rats tested under identical conditions in other studies. Both MR/Har and MNRA/Har rats markedly increased their ethanol intake in the home cage after the initiation protocol, but there was no difference between MR/Har and MNRA/Har on that measure. The failure of MR/Har rats to self-administer ethanol was inconsistent with their home cage drinking in other studies, and this is distinctly different from the self-administration pattern of high-alcohol-drinking rat lines tested in this paradigm.

  13. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics.

  14. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  15. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  16. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  17. Maize peroxidase Px5 has a highly conserved sequence in inbreds resistant to mycotoxin producing fungi which enhances fungal and insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin presence in maize causes health and economic issues for humans and animals. Although many studies have investigated expression differences of genes putatively governing resistance to producing fungi, few have confirmed a resistance role, or examined putative resistance gene structure in more than a couple of inbreds. The pericarp expression of maize Px5 has previously been associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus growth and insects in a set of inbreds. Genes from 14 different inbreds that included ones with resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum and/or mycotoxin production were cloned using high fidelity enzymes, and sequenced. The sequence of Px5 from all resistant inbreds was identical, except for a single base change in two inbreds, only one of which affected the amino acid sequence. Conversely, the Px5 sequence from several susceptible inbreds had several base variations, some of which affected amino acid sequence that would potentially alter secondary structure, and thus enzyme function. The sequence of the maize peroxidase Px5 common to inbreds resistant to mycotoxigenic fungi was overexpressed in maize callus. Callus transformants overexpressing the gene caused significant reductions in growth for fall armyworms, corn earworms, and F. graminearum compared to transformant callus with a β-glucuronidase gene. This study demonstrates rarer transcripts of potential resistance genes overlooked by expression screens can be identified by sequence comparisons. A role in pest resistance can be verified by callus expression of the candidate genes, which can thereby justify larger scale transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the resistance gene for further evaluation. PMID:26659597

  18. Genetic linkage analysis in 26 families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.F.; Bruford, E.A.; Mansfield, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polydactyly, obesity, hypogonadism, retinitis pigmentosa, renal anomalies and mental retardation. Clinical heterogeneity is quite marked both within and between families. Linkage has been reported between Bardet-Biedl syndrome and the D16408 marker in chromosomal region 16q21 in an extended Bedouin kindred and, more recently, in a subset of 17 out of 31 families using the PYGM/D11S913 markers in chromosomal region 11q13. We have analyzed linkage to the 16q21 and 11q13 regions and used markers covering chromosomes 2, 3, 17 and 18 in a set of 26 Bardet-Biedl families, each containing at least two affected individuals, with a total of 57 affected members. Evidence of linkage to the D11S527 locus has been identified assuming linkage homogeneity with a lod score of 2.72 at a recombination fraction of 0.11 (95% limits 0.03-0.25).

  19. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize.

  20. Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5′TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5′TE and crtRB1-3′TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2 = 0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N = 20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in β-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N = 106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5

  1. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    PubMed Central

    Fusari, Corina M; Lia, Verónica V; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A; Paniego, Norma B

    2008-01-01

    Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD) and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and short insertion and/or deletions (indels) to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056), as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88). Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2), with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1). Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data) than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance). Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop improvement

  2. Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.

    1980-01-01

    Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

  3. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  4. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  5. Asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.

    1991-01-01

    More than 100 asteroid families are presented in Williams. Several examples of cratering events are known including family numbers 150, 162, 169, and 189. These are recognizable as many small fragments adjacent to and to one side (in three dimensions) of a much larger cratered body. Family numbers 138 and 140 are adjacent in proper element space. In population they are an intermediate step between the long recognizable families and the more frequent less populated families. Family number 164 is the fifth most populous family in the belt. All members are faint and nothing is known of the physical properties.

  6. The Relationship between PROP and Ethanol Preferences: An Evaluation of 4 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    White, Theresa L.; Dishaw, Laura V.; Sheehe, Paul R.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol’s taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol’s taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other

  7. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  8. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brian J; Davis, Richard C; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C; Hazen, Stanley L; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-12-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  9. Identification of Drought Tolerant Mechanisms in Maize Seedlings Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Recombination Inbred Lines.

    PubMed

    Min, Haowei; Chen, Chengxuan; Wei, Shaowei; Shang, Xiaoling; Sun, Meiyun; Xia, Ran; Liu, Xiangguo; Hao, Dongyun; Chen, Huabang; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zea mays is an important crop that is sensitive to drought stress, but survival rates and growth status remain strong in some drought-tolerant lines under stress conditions. Under drought conditions, many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism, are suppressed, while little is known about how the transcripts of genes respond to drought stress in the genome-wide rang in the seedling stage. In our study, the transcriptome profiles of two maize recombination inbred lines (drought-tolerant RIL70 and drought-sensitive RIL93) were analyzed at different drought stages to elucidate the dynamic mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in maize seedlings during drought conditions. Different numbers of differentially expressed genes presented in the different stages of drought stress in the two RILs, for the numbers of RIL93 vs. RIL70 were: 9 vs. 358, 477 vs. 103, and 5207 vs. 152 respectively in DT1, DT2, and DT5. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that in the initial drought-stressed stage, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and transmembrane transport biological processes were overrepresented in RIL70 compared to RIL93. On the contrary, differentially expressed genes profiles presented at 2 and 5 day-treatments, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in response to stress, protein folding, oxidation-reduction, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, were overrepresented in RIL93 compared to RIL70. In addition, the transcription of genes encoding key members of the cell cycle and cell division processes were blocked, but ABA- and programmed cell death-related processes responded positively in RIL93. In contrast, the expression of cell cycle genes, ABA- and programmed cell death-related genes was relatively stable in RIL70. The results we obtained supported the working hypothesis that signaling events associated with turgor homeostasis, as established by

  10. Repeated subacute ozone exposure of inbred mice: Airway inflammation and ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, N.C.; Tankersley, C.G.; Zhang, L.Y.

    1994-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effects of repeated subacute ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure on pulmonary inflammation and ventilation in two inbred strains of mice differentially susceptible to a single O{sub 3} exposure. Susceptible C57BL/6J(B6) and resistant C3H/HeJ (C3) mice were exposed to 0.3 ppm O{sub 3} for 48 and 72 h and, after 14 days recovery, both strains were reexposed. Airway inflammation and lung injury were assessed by counting inflammatory cells and measuring total protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) returns. Minute ventilation [V{sub E,} the product of breathing frequency (f), and tidal volume (V{sub T})] was measured prior to and immediately following each exposure. After the initial exposure, B6 mice developed greater O{sub 3}-induced increases in total protein, inflammatory cell influx, and LDH activity compared to C3 mice. In normal air, V{sub E} was also significantly elevated in B6, but not C3, mice after O{sub 3}. The hypercapnic f of B6 and hypercapnic V{sub T} of C3 mice were significantly altered after O{sub 3} exposure. Reexposure to O{sub 3} caused a smaller increase in the numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and BAL protein in both strains, and no changes in LDH activity. However, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes significantly increased in B6 and C3 mice as compared to the initial O{sub 3} exposure. In both strains, the ventilatory responses to normal air or hypercapnia were largely reproducible after O{sub 3} reexposure. Results indicated that differential susceptibility to O{sub 3}-induced inflammation was maintained in B6 and C3 mice with O{sub 3} reexposure although the magnitude of the difference was reduced. Results also suggest that the ventilatory responses to O{sub 3} in B6 and C3 mice were reproducible with reexposure, and that airway inflammation and ventilation were not codependent. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Identification of Drought Tolerant Mechanisms in Maize Seedlings Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Recombination Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Min, Haowei; Chen, Chengxuan; Wei, Shaowei; Shang, Xiaoling; Sun, Meiyun; Xia, Ran; Liu, Xiangguo; Hao, Dongyun; Chen, Huabang; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zea mays is an important crop that is sensitive to drought stress, but survival rates and growth status remain strong in some drought-tolerant lines under stress conditions. Under drought conditions, many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism, are suppressed, while little is known about how the transcripts of genes respond to drought stress in the genome-wide rang in the seedling stage. In our study, the transcriptome profiles of two maize recombination inbred lines (drought-tolerant RIL70 and drought-sensitive RIL93) were analyzed at different drought stages to elucidate the dynamic mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in maize seedlings during drought conditions. Different numbers of differentially expressed genes presented in the different stages of drought stress in the two RILs, for the numbers of RIL93 vs. RIL70 were: 9 vs. 358, 477 vs. 103, and 5207 vs. 152 respectively in DT1, DT2, and DT5. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that in the initial drought-stressed stage, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and transmembrane transport biological processes were overrepresented in RIL70 compared to RIL93. On the contrary, differentially expressed genes profiles presented at 2 and 5 day-treatments, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in response to stress, protein folding, oxidation-reduction, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, were overrepresented in RIL93 compared to RIL70. In addition, the transcription of genes encoding key members of the cell cycle and cell division processes were blocked, but ABA- and programmed cell death-related processes responded positively in RIL93. In contrast, the expression of cell cycle genes, ABA- and programmed cell death-related genes was relatively stable in RIL70. The results we obtained supported the working hypothesis that signaling events associated with turgor homeostasis, as established by

  12. Physical Activity and Food Consumption in High- and Low-Active Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Alan P.; Curtis, Tamera S.; Turner, Michael J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of innate activity level and running wheel access on food consumption in high-active (SWR/J) low-active (DBA/2J) mice. Methods Two strains of inbred mice were used in this study due to their high activity level (SWR/J) and low activity level (DBA/2J). The mice were housed in individual cages, and half of the mice in each strain had free access to running wheels in their cages, while the other mice received no running wheel. All mice consumed standard chow and water ad libitum for 13 weeks during the study period. Running-wheel activity (daily), food consumption (bi-weekly), and body mass (weekly) were recorded. Results SWR/J runners consumed more food (6.0±0.4g/day) than SWR/J non-runners (4.7±0.2g/day; p=0.03), DBA/2J runners (4.6±0.2g/day; p=0.02), and DBA/2J non-runners (4.2±0.2g/day; p=0.006). SWR/J non-runners consumed more food than DBA/2J non-runners (p=0.03). Average daily distance and duration were significantly greater for the SWR/J runners (6.4±0.7km/day and 333.6±40.5min/day, respectively) compared to the DBA/2J runners (1.6±0.4km/day and 91.3±23.0min/day, respectively). There was a significant correlation between food consumption and distance (r=0.74, p<0.001), duration (r=0.68, p<0.001), and speed (r=0.58, p<0.001), respectively, in all mice. However, when considering the individuals strains, the relationship between running-wheel activity and food consumption was only statistically significant for the SWR/J mice. Conclusion Higher running-wheel activity in mice was associated with increased food consumption in the SWR/J mice but not the DBA/2J mice. In DBA/2J mice the addition of a running wheel did not result in increased food consumption, suggesting energy expenditure of non-wheel cage activity in the control DBA/2J mice was similar to the energy expenditure of the wheel activity since body mass was similar between the two groups. PMID:20216465

  13. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  14. Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

  15. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  16. Genetic control of mammalian meiotic recombination. I. Variation in exchange frequencies among males from inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kara E; Cherry, Jonathan P; Lynn, Audrey; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry J

    2002-09-01

    Genetic background effects on the frequency of meiotic recombination have long been suspected in mice but never demonstrated in a systematic manner, especially in inbred strains. We used a recently described immunostaining technique to assess meiotic exchange patterns in male mice. We found that among four different inbred strains--CAST/Ei, A/J, C57BL/6, and SPRET/Ei--the mean number of meiotic exchanges per cell and, thus, the recombination rates in these genetic backgrounds were significantly different. These frequencies ranged from a low of 21.5 exchanges in CAST/Ei to a high of 24.9 in SPRET/Ei. We also found that, as expected, these crossover events were nonrandomly distributed and displayed positive interference. However, we found no evidence for significant differences in the patterns of crossover positioning between strains with different exchange frequencies. From our observations of >10,000 autosomal synaptonemal complexes, we conclude that achiasmate bivalents arise in the male mouse at a frequency of 0.1%. Thus, special mechanisms that segregate achiasmate chromosomes are unlikely to be an important component of mammalian male meiosis.

  17. A quantitative analysis of the effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on fixed ratio responding in inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of inbred mouse strains have shown reinforcer-strain interactions that may potentially mask differences among strains in memory performance. The present research examined the effects of two qualitatively different reinforcers (heterogeneous mix of flavored pellets and sweetened-condensed milk) on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement in three inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, & DBA/2). Responses rates for all strains were a bitonic (inverted U) function of the size of the fixed-ratio schedule and were generally higher when responding was maintained by milk. For the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 and to a lesser extent the BALB/c, milk primarily increased response rates at moderate fixed ratios, but not at the largest fixed ratios tested. A formal model of ratio-schedule performance, Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR), was applied to the response rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, the differences in response rates maintained by pellets and milk were mostly due to changes in motoric processes as indicated by changes in the minimum response time (δ) produced by each reinforcer type and not specific activation (a), a model term that represents value and is correlated with reinforcer magnitude and the break point obtained under progressive ratio schedules. In addition, MPR also revealed that, although affected by reinforcer type, a parameter interpreted as the rate of saturation of working memory (λ), differed among the strains. PMID:23357283

  18. Allelic heterogeneity in inbred populations: the Saudi experience with Alström syndrome as an illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Aldahmesh, Mohamed A; Abu-Safieh, Leen; Khan, Arif O; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Shaheen, Ranad; Rajab, Mohammed; Monies, Dorota; Meyer, Brian F; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2009-02-15

    The increased frequency of rare autosomal recessive conditions in genetically isolated populations is a well-established phenomenon. This genetic isolation is invoked as an explanation when one particular mutation is the sole or most frequent mutation observed in a given population and is referred to as the founder effect. This trend of allelic homogeneity is contrasted by an opposite trend when the consanguinity factor is in play. Independent of endogamy at the population level, a consanguineous union is sufficient to render homozygous a percentage of the genome that is directly correlated with the degree of consanguinity. Assuming the gene in question has a normal mutation rate, the resulting homozygosity will inevitably include different defective alleles of that gene. By reporting four novel alleles, we use Alström disease to exemplify the interesting observation of allelic heterogeneity for a very rare autosomal recessive disorder in a highly inbred population. While we frequently assume founder effect in inbred populations, this report should serve to remind us of the powerful effect of the consanguinity factor, a common confounding variable among some of those populations.

  19. Efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in Mhc heterozygous chickens: Mhc congenic x inbred line F1 matings.

    PubMed

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that Mhc (B) heterozygous chickens differ in efficacy of response to several Marek's disease (MD) vaccines. Four types of B2 heterozygotes, in addition to B2B2 homozygotes, were developed by crossing 15.B congenic males to inbred line 7(1) (B2B2) hens. The five types of F1 chicks were intermingled in isolators and vaccinated with one of four types of MD vaccine before inoculation with the very virulent Md5 strain of MD herpesvirus. The F1 chickens differ in development of protective immunity following MD vaccination from two perspectives. First, chickens of a particular Mhc genotype were protected better by some vaccines than others. Second, individual vaccine preparations protected some Mhc genotypes more effectively. We conclude that some MD vaccines are more appropriate than others for certain B-haplotypes when chickens are heterozygous for the Mhc. The value of using Mhc-congenic x inbred line F1 animals for studies concerning the influence of the Mhc on vaccinal immunity is discussed.

  20. A robust statistical method to detect null alleles in microsatellite and SNP datasets in both panmictic and inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Girard, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Null alleles are common technical artifacts in genetic-based analysis. Powerful methods enabling their detection in either panmictic or inbred populations have been proposed. However, none of these methods appears unbiased in both types of mating systems, necessitating a priori knowledge of the inbreeding level of the population under study. To counter this problem, I propose to use the software FDist2 to detect the atypical fixation indices that characterize markers with null alleles. The rational behind this approach and the parameter settings are explained. The power of the method for various sample sizes, degrees of inbreeding and null allele frequencies is evaluated using simulated microsatellite and SNP datasets and then compared to two other null allele detection methods. The results clearly show the robustness of the method proposed here as well as its greater accuracy in both panmictic and inbred populations for both types of marker. By allowing a proper detection of null alleles for a wide range of mating systems and markers, this new method is particularly appealing for numerous genetic studies using co-dominant loci. PMID:21381434

  1. Establishment from Shope carcinoma induced in an inbred rabbit of culture cell lines with various potentials for differentiation and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Seto, A; Isono, T; Inoue, M; Yamade, I; Ogawa, K

    1991-08-01

    Shope papillomas induced by cottontail rabbit papilloma-virus (CRPV) in domestic rabbits frequently regress spontaneously or, failing to do so, convert into squamous cell carcinomas at a high rate. This papilloma-carcinoma complex in rabbits provides an experimental model for human papillo-mavirus-associated malignancies. The aim of this study was to prepare an experimental system in inbred rabbits by establishing culture cell lines of the tumor. Squamous cell carcinoma developed from a Shope papilloma that had been induced 6 months previously by inoculating CRPV into an inbred B/J rabbit. By in vitro culturing of the tumor cells, cell lines with potentials for terminal differentiation and tumorigenicity were established. Cloning yielded sublines that varied in these potentials and possessed episomal and integrated CRPV genomes as revealed by Southern hybridization in both one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Major CRPV-specific transcripts were similarly observed both in well-differentiated and in poorly differentiated sublines. Immunofluorescence with syngeneic rabbit antibody against tumor-specific antigens localized such antigens mainly in the nuclei of the cells of these sublines. This experimental system allows experiments that were not feasible in randomly bred rabbits. PMID:1649230

  2. Genetic diversity, population structure, and association mapping of agronomic traits in waxy and normal maize inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Sa, K J; Park, J Y; Choi, S H; Kim, B W; Park, K J; Lee, J K

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium is a prerequisite for the association mapping of complex traits in a target population. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of 40 waxy and 40 normal inbred maize lines were investigated using 10 morphological traits and 200 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Based on a population structure analysis, the 80 maize inbred lines were divided into three groups: I, II, and admixed. Significant marker-trait associations were identified between the markers and the 10 morphological traits, which were studied according to the model used to confirm the association. Using a general linear model, the lowest R(2) value (9.03) was detected in umc1139, which was associated with ear number, and the highest (43.97) was in umc1858, which was associated with plant height. Using a mixed linear model, the lowest R(2) value (18.74) was in umc1279, which was associated with ear weight; the highest (27.66) was in umc1858, which was associated with 100-kernel weight. The SSR markers identified in the present study may serve as useful molecular markers for selecting important yield and agronomic traits. These results will be useful for marker-assisted selection in maize breeding programs, to help breeders choose parental lines and markers for crosses.

  3. Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

  4. Familial gigantism.

    PubMed

    Herder, Wouter W de

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  5. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  6. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  7. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  8. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  9. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

  10. Quantitative trait loci analysis of fiber quality traits using a random-mated recombinant inbred population in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 11 diverse Upland cotton cultivars as parents, a random-mated recombinant inbred (RI) population consisting of 550 RI lines was developed after 6 cycles of random-mating and 6 generations of self-pollination. The 550 RILs were planted in triplicates for three years in Mississippi State, MS, US...

  11. Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Doubled Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding crosses from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project between exotic accessions and elite Corn Belt Dent inbreds provide a unique opportunity for broadening the genetic base of the United States maize crop by incorporating favorable exotic alleles in elite genetic backgrounds. Genet...

  12. Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

  13. A SNP genetic linkage map based on the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line (RIL) population identified QTL for seed Isoflavone contents in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide for its protein, oil as well as the health beneficial phytoestrogens or isoflavone. This study reports a relatively dense SNP-Based genetic map based on ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and quantitative t...

  14. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  15. Identification of full-length proviral DNA of porcine endogenous retrovirus from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyuan; Lv, Maomin; Xu, Shu; Wu, Jianmin; Tian, Kegong; Zhang, Jingang

    2010-07-01

    Existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) hinders pigs to be used in clinical xenotransplantation to alleviate the shortage of human transplants. Chinese miniature pigs are potential organ donors for xenotransplantation in China. However, so far, an adequate level of information on the molecular characteristics of PERV from Chinese miniature pigs has not been available. We described here the cloning and characterization of full-length proviral DNA of PERV from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred (WZSP). Full-length nucleotide sequences of PERV-WZSP and other PERVs were aligned and phylogenetic tree was constructed from deduced amino-acid sequences of env. The results demonstrated that the full-length proviral DNA of PERV-WZSP belongs to gammaretrovirus and shares high similarity with other PERVs. Sequence analysis also suggested that different patterns of LTR existed in the same porcine germ line and partial PERV-C sequence may recombine with PERV-A sequence in LTR.

  16. MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, elicits circling behavior in the genetically inbred Balb/c mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Burket, Jessica A; Cannon, William R; Jacome, Luis F; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2010-11-20

    The Balb/c mouse is behaviorally hypersensitive to effects of MK-801 (dizocilpine), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, and displays impaired sociability. In the current investigation, MK-801-elicited circling behavior in the genetically inbred Balb/c mouse strain that was either not or only minimally observed in similarly treated outbred Swiss-Webster mice. The ability of compounds to attenuate the intensity of MK-801-elicited circling behavior in the Balb/c mouse strain may serve as a preclinical screening paradigm for identifying effective NMDA receptor agonist interventions in the intact animal; ideally, these compounds would have therapeutic value in neuropsychiatric disorders associated with impaired sociability, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis among parental inbred and crosses reveals the role of dominance gene expression in heterosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Rongni; Li, Qianqian; Bao, Haigang; Wu, Changxin

    2016-01-01

    We observed heteroses for body weight in Drosophila melanogaster after generating hybrids from three inbred lines. To better understand the mechanism for this phenomenon at the mRNA level, we compared the mRNA profiles of the parental and hybrid lines using high-throughput RNA-seq. A total of 5877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found and about 92% of these exhibited parental expression level dominance. Genes in the dominance category were functionally characterized using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the gene classifications offered by the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium. The analysis identified genes associated with crucial processes such as development and growth in all three crosses. Functional assignments involving aminoglycan metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism are significantly overrepresented amongst the 215 common dominance DEGs. We conclude that dominance DEGs are important in heteroses in Drosophila melanogaster and contribute specifically to body weight heterosis. PMID:26928435

  18. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life. PMID:2517284

  19. Starvation resistance and tissue-specific gene expression of stress-related genes in a naturally inbred ant population

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Nick; Pulliainen, Unni; Sundström, Liselotte; Freitak, Dalial

    2016-01-01

    Starvation is one of the most common and severe stressors in nature. Not only does it lead to death if not alleviated, it also forces the starved individual to allocate resources only to the most essential processes. This creates energetic trade-offs which can lead to many secondary challenges for the individual. These energetic trade-offs could be exacerbated in inbred individuals, which have been suggested to have a less efficient metabolism. Here, we studied the effect of inbreeding on starvation resistance in a natural population of Formica exsecta ants, with a focus on survival and tissue-specific expression of stress, metabolism and immunity-related genes. Starvation led to large tissue-specific changes in gene expression, but inbreeding had little effect on most of the genes studied. Our results illustrate the importance of studying stress responses in different tissues instead of entire organisms. PMID:27152219

  20. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life.

  1. Starvation resistance and tissue-specific gene expression of stress-related genes in a naturally inbred ant population.

    PubMed

    Bos, Nick; Pulliainen, Unni; Sundström, Liselotte; Freitak, Dalial

    2016-04-01

    Starvation is one of the most common and severe stressors in nature. Not only does it lead to death if not alleviated, it also forces the starved individual to allocate resources only to the most essential processes. This creates energetic trade-offs which can lead to many secondary challenges for the individual. These energetic trade-offs could be exacerbated in inbred individuals, which have been suggested to have a less efficient metabolism. Here, we studied the effect of inbreeding on starvation resistance in a natural population of Formica exsecta ants, with a focus on survival and tissue-specific expression of stress, metabolism and immunity-related genes. Starvation led to large tissue-specific changes in gene expression, but inbreeding had little effect on most of the genes studied. Our results illustrate the importance of studying stress responses in different tissues instead of entire organisms. PMID:27152219

  2. High-resolution genetic maps of Lotus japonicus and L. burttii based on re-sequencing of recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from bi-parental populations are stable genetic resources, which are widely used for constructing genetic linkage maps. These genetic maps are essential for QTL mapping and can aid contig and scaffold anchoring in the final stages of genome assembly. In this study, two Lotus sp. RIL populations, Lotus japonicus MG-20 × Gifu and Gifu × L. burttii, were characterized by Illumina re-sequencing. Genotyping of 187 MG-20 × Gifu RILs at 87,140 marker positions and 96 Gifu × L. burttii RILs at 357,973 marker positions allowed us to accurately identify 1,929 recombination breakpoints in the MG-20 × Gifu RILs and 1,044 breakpoints in the Gifu × L. burttii population. The resulting high-density genetic maps now facilitate high-accuracy QTL mapping, identification of reference genome mis-assemblies, and characterization of structural variants. PMID:27374610

  3. Structure and expression of maize phytochrome family homeologs.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2004-07-01

    To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251

  4. Structure and expression of maize phytochrome family homeologs.

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2004-01-01

    To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251

  5. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Lawley, Trevor D.; Holmes, Susan P.; Monack, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals. PMID:26565698

  6. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    PubMed

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  7. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Theodore M; Munger, Steven D; Boughter, John D

    2005-01-01

    Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) and denatonium benzoate (DB). Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs). Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive) and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive); approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation. PMID:15938754

  8. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  9. Oestrous synchronization, ovarian superovulation and intraspecific transfers from a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Arlaud, J J; Baker, L; Williams, R L; French, A J

    2010-12-01

    The inbred SLA miniature pig is a unique animal model developed for organ transplantation studies and pre-clinical experimental purposes. Reported oestrous synchronization and superovulation treatments were examined in two SLA haplotypes (AA and DD) to allow collection of embryos for both practical embryo transfer and experimental technologies from a closed breeding colony. Pre-puberal miniature pigs were poor responders to oestrous synchronization treatments, while post-puberal sows were equivalent to commercial sows. Following superovulation, the ovulation number (corpora .hemorrhagica) was higher (p < 0.05) in the cycling sows when compared with non-cycling sows. Ovulations were equivalent to commercial pre-puberal gilts and non-cycling sows (p > 0.05). No difference in ovulation number between haplotypes was observed, which differs from the previous report (DD>AA). Collection of zygotes for pronuclear injection was the highest in the non-cycling post-puberal miniature pig group (p < 0.05), although significantly lower when compared with the commercial pig treatment groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia in our colony was equivalent to rates observed in commercial pigs. Pronuclear visualization following centrifugation was the highest in the non-cycling miniature sow group and approximates to about 25% of ovulations and about half the rate observed in the commercial pigs (50%). Miniature pig embryos transferred between SLA haplotypes and transfer of DD embryos to commercial pigs resulted in live births at a higher efficiency than previously reported. This study demonstrates the feasibility of undertaking assisted reproductive technologies in a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs without compromise to the breeding programmes.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Kidney Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, inter-species and -individual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. We hypothesized that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, we observed inter-strain differences in TCE metabolite levels in the kidney. In addition, we found that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In sub-chronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and kidney toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ, but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, we show that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain-dependent. PMID:25424545

  11. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Isaac G.; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A.; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P.; Buller, Robert M.; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID

  12. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    PubMed

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C J

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  13. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Vivek M; Ansah, T; Blaha, C,; Cook, Melloni N.; Hamre, Kristin M.; Lariviere, William R; Matthews, Douglas B; Goldowitz, Daniel; Chesler, Elissa J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  14. Distinct genetic signatures for variability in total and free serum thyroxine levels in four sets of recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

    2011-03-01

    C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing "genetic signatures" for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be "buried" in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations.

  15. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses

  16. Development and characterization of a new inbred transgenic rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sonia; Wang, Xing-Hua; Yannarelli, Gustavo; Dayan, Victor; Berger, Thorsten; Zocche, Larissa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand

    2014-10-01

    The inbred rat is a suitable model for studying human disease and because of its larger size is more amenable to complex surgical manipulation than the mouse. While the rodent fulfills many of the criteria for transplantation research, an important requirement is the ability to mark and track donors cells and assess organ viability. However, tracking ability is limited by the availability of transgenic (Tg) rats that express suitable luminescent or fluorescent proteins. Red fluorescent protein cloned from Discosoma coral (DsRed) has several advantages over other fluorescent proteins, including in vivo detection in the whole animal and ex vivo visualization in organs as there is no interference with autofluorescence. We generated and characterized a novel inbred Tg Lewis rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric (DsRed mono) fluorescent protein under the control of a ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 promoter. DsRed mono Tg rats ubiquitously expressed the marker gene as detected by RT-PCR but the protein was expressed at varying levels in different organs. Conventional skin grafting experiments showed acceptance of DsRed monomeric Tg rat skin on wild-type rats for more than 30 days. Cardiac transplantation of DsRed monomeric Tg rat hearts into wild-type recipients further showed graft acceptance and long-term organ viability (>6 months). The DsRed monomeric Tg rat provides marked cells and/or organs that can be followed for long periods without immune rejection and therefore is a suitable model to investigate cell tracking and organ transplantation. PMID:25011565

  17. Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi. PMID

  18. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice.

    PubMed

    Sakala, Isaac G; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P; Buller, Robert M; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-12-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID

  19. Genetic correlates of gene expression in recombinant inbred strains: a relational model system to explore neurobehavioral phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chesler, Elissa J; Wang, Jintao; Lu, Lu; Qu, Yanhua; Manly, Kenneth F; Williams, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Full genome sequencing, high-density genotyping, expanding sets of microarray assays, and systematic phenotyping of neuroanatomical and behavioral traits are producing a wealth of data on the mouse central nervous system (CNS). These disparate resources are still poorly integrated. One solution is to acquire these data using a common reference population of isogenic lines of mice, providing a point of integration between the data types. Recombinant inbred (RI) mice, derived through inbreeding of progeny from an inbred cross, are a powerful tool for complex trait mapping and analysis of the challenging phenotypes of neuroscientific interest. These isogenic RI lines are a retrievable genetic resource that can be repeatedly studied using a wide variety of assays. Diverse data sets can be related through fixed and known genomes, using tools such as the interactive web-based system for complex trait analysis, www.WebQTL.org. In this report, we demonstrate the use of WebQTL to explore complex interactions among a wide variety of traits--from mRNA transcripts to the impressive behavioral and pharmacological variation among RI strains. The relational approach exploiting a common set of strains facilitates study of multiple effects of single genes (pleiotropy) without a priori hypotheses required. Here we demonstrate the power of this technique through genetic correlation of gene expression with a database of neurobehavioral phenotypes collected in these strains of mice through more than 20 years of experimentation. By repeatedly studying the same panel of mice, early data can be re-examined in light of technological advances unforeseen at the time of their initial collection.

  20. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  1. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  2. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  3. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  4. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  5. FAMILY EMPIDIDAE.

    PubMed

    Rafael, José Albertino; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Empididae is one of the biggest families of Diptera with around 3,000 known species. The family is poorly known in Colombia, with only six species reported and this work provides information on their distribution. No endemic genera or species have been recorded to date from Colombia. PMID:27395282

  6. Family Theory and Family Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

  7. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  8. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; White, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = -0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment. PMID:26587785

  9. High-throughput sequencing reveals differing immune responses in the intestinal mucosa of two inbred lines afflicted with necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Truong, Anh Duc; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-08-15

    We investigated the necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcripts of immune-related genes in the intestinal mucosa of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 and line 7.2, which share the same MHC haplotype and show different levels of NE susceptibility using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. NE was induced by the previously described co-infection model using Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens. The RNA-Seq generated over 38 million sequence reads for Marek's disease (MD)-resistant line 6.3 and over 40 million reads for the MD-susceptible line 7.2. Alignment of these sequences with the Gallus gallus genome database revealed the expression of over 29,900 gene transcripts induced by NE in these two lines, among which 7,841 genes were significantly upregulated and 2,919 genes were downregulated in line 6.3 chickens and 6,043 genes were significantly upregulated and 2,764 genes were downregulated in NE-induced line 7.2 compared with their uninfected controls. Analysis of 560 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the gene ontology database revealed annotations for 246 biological processes, 215 molecular functions, and 81 cellular components. Among the 53 cytokines and 96 cytokine receptors, 15 cytokines and 29 cytokine receptors were highly expressed in line 6.3, whereas the expression of 15 cytokines and 15 cytokine receptors was higher in line 7.2 than in line 6.3 (fold change ≥ 2, p<0.01). In a hierarchical cluster analysis of novel mRNAs, the novel mRNA transcriptome showed higher expression in line 6.3 than in line 7.2, which is consistent with the expression profile of immune-related target genes. In qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analysis, all the genes examined showed similar responses to NE (correlation coefficient R=0.85-0.89, p<0.01) in both lines 6.3 and 7.2. This study is the first report describing NE-induced DEGs and novel transcriptomes using RNA-seq data from two inbred chicken lines showing different levels of NE

  10. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; White, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = -0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment.

  11. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  12. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

  13. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat and rich in unsaturated fat may help to control your LDL level. People with a family history of this condition, particularly if both parents carry the defective ...

  14. Tomorrow's Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    Author states that "...the traditional form of family which has been the norm in recent times in the West will persist, but will be forced to "move over" to accommodate other forms of domestic life." (Author)

  15. FAMILY PIOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Pérez, Sandra; Grisales, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Piophilidae is a little family poorly known in Colombia, with only Piophila casei (L.) and Stearibia nigriceps Meigen reported so far. This catalogue expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country. PMID:27395294

  16. FAMILY BIBIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-06-14

    The Bibionidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha with four genera and 17 species known from Colombia. This work expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country.

  17. FAMILY RHAGIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles Morphy D; Carmo, Daniel D D

    2016-01-01

    The family Rhagionidae is one of the oldest Brachyeran lineages. Its monophyly is still uncertain. There are four rhagionid genera distributed in Neotropical Region but only three species of Chrysopilus are found in Colombia. PMID:27395270

  18. FAMILY PLATYSTOMATIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli

    2016-01-01

    Platystomatidae (Signal Flies) are one of the largest families of Tephritoidea, with about 1200 species and four subfamilies, worldwide distributed. However, Platystomatidae are not well represented in the New World, and in the Neotropical Region only four genera and 26 species, belonging to Platystomatinae, are recorded. The family is a group understudied in Colombia and only one species is recorded to the country. PMID:27395295

  19. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers.

  20. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  1. Heterosis in early maize ear inflorescence development: a genome-wide transcription analysis for two maize inbred lines and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

    2014-08-11

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in

  2. Heterosis in Early Maize Ear Inflorescence Development: A Genome-Wide Transcription Analysis for Two Maize Inbred Lines and Their Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in

  3. Improved in vitro fertilization and development by use of modified human tubal fluid and applicability of pronucleate embryos for cryopreservation by rapid freezing in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Kito, Seiji; Hayao, Tatsuo; Noguchi-Kawasaki, Yoshiko; Ohta, Yuki; Hideki, Uhara; Tateno, Shintaro

    2004-10-01

    We examined in vitro fertilizability and development of 10 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, C57BL/10, C57BL/10.D2/newSn, C57BL/10-Thy1.1, C57BL/10.Br/Sn, C3H/He, RFM/Ms, STS/A, BALB/c-nu and C.B-17/Icr), and the viability of frozen-thawed in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos after embryo transfer (ET). In seven strains, fertilizability was significantly greater in modified human tubal fluid (mHTF) compared with modified Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution (TYH medium). The TYH medium supported almost no fertilization in four strains. More than 80% of IVF embryos developed to the blastocyst stage by 120 h in potassium-enhanced simplex optimization medium (KSOM). Reciprocal fertilization between C57BL/6J and BALB/c-nu gametes in TYH medium yielded poor fertilization o f BALB/c-nu due to spermatozoal deficiencies. Increased concentrations of bovine serum albumin and spermatozoa during capacitation and Percoll washing did not drastically affect fertilization. The mHTF, but not TYH medium, supported BALB/c-nu spermatozoa penetration into the zona pellucida irrespective of capacitation media. In vitro fertilized embryos frozen-thawed rapidly were transferred to surrogate mothers at the two-cell stage. Compared with that of unfrozen controls, rapid freezing had no significant effect on fetus development except in C57BL/10.D2/newSn mice. These results suggest that mHTF medium is superior with respect to IVF of inbred mice, and that KSOM adequately supports in vitro fertilized embryo development in inbred mice. The data also indicate that rapid freezing of pronucleate embryos following IVF is suitable for cryopreservation and embryo banking of inbred mice and for the production of genetically modified mice. PMID:15575371

  4. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  5. Recombinant Inbred Strain and Interspecific Backcross Analysis of Molecular Markers Flanking the Murine Agouti Coat Color Locus

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Buchberg, A. M.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant inbred strain and interspecific backcross mice were used to create a molecular genetic linkage map of the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. The orientation and distance of the Ada, Emv-13, Emv-15, Hck-1, Il-1a, Pck-1, Psp, Src-1 and Svp-1 loci from the β(2)-microglobulin locus and the agouti locus were established. Our mapping results have provided the identification of molecular markers both proximal and distal to the agouti locus. The recombinants obtained provide valuable resources for determining the direction of chromosome walking experiments designed to clone sequences at the agouti locus. Comparisons between the mouse and human genome maps suggest that the human homolog of the agouti locus resides on human chromosome 20q. Three loci not present on mouse chromosome 2 were also identified and were provisionally named Psp-2, Hck-2 and Hck-3. The Psp-2 locus maps to mouse chromosome 14. The Hck-2 locus maps near the centromere of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lyn locus. The Hck-3 locus maps near the distal end of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lck locus. PMID:2759422

  6. Differential hippocampal neuron density between inbred Roman high- (low anxious) and low-avoidance (high anxious) rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, A; Castillo-Ruiz, M M; Put, T; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2012-07-26

    The inbred Roman low- (RLA-I) and high-avoidance (RHA-I) rats used in this study were initially selected and bred for extremely poor vs. rapid acquisition of active two-way avoidance behavior in the shuttle box. As a result of the selection for divergent avoidance acquisition, clear behavioral differences have been found between RHA and RLA rats in a variety of tasks related to anxiety and conflict. In rats of these two strains/lines previous brain studies have been performed, specifically in the striatum, the mesencephalic dopaminergic areas and the prefrontal cortex, as these brain areas are the classical ones for their critical role in sensitization and may play a role in the well-characterized anxiety response. In this study we analyzed, in RHA and RLA groups (N=5 each), the density of NeuN neurons counterstained with toluidine blue in the cingulate cortex (subdivision 1) and the hippocampus (CA1, CA2 and CA3). A statistical difference was found in the density of neurons of CA1 and CA2 (p=0.047 in both) and in the total density of the hippocampus (p=0.009). Contrary to our expectations, significant strain differences for the density of neurons in the cingulate cortex were not found. The relationship between those differences in the hippocampus and the between-strain differences in anxiety and in learning processes depending on anxiety are discussed. PMID:22698586

  7. Leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cells augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, E P; Hagen, K

    1985-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK-) hybrid cells, an established murine leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cell line, augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice, as determined by the plaque assay method. The intraperitoneal injection of viable hybrid cells or of growth medium conditioned by the cells leads to an increase both in the total number as well as the proportion of cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. CSF-1, (M-CSF), is detected by radioimmunoassay in the medium conditioned by the hybrid and LM(TK-) cells, but not ASL-1 parental cells. Prior treatment of the conditioned medium with CSF-1 antiserum reduces its capacity to augment the antibody response, and its proliferative stimulus on cells from the marrow indicating that CSF-1 may be at least partly responsible for the adjuvant effect observed. The intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing viable CSF-1 producing hybrid cells, like the cells themselves, also leads to an increase in the number of spleen cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. PMID:3908292

  8. Different rankings of inbred mouse strains on the Morris maze and a refined 4-arm water escape task.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Cooper, Sean F; Crabbe, John C

    2005-11-30

    The submerged platform or Morris water escape task is widely used to study genetic variation in spatial learning and memory, but interpretation is sometimes difficult because of wall hugging, jumping off the platform, floating or non-spatial swim strategies. We modified the task by introducing four wide arms into the circular tank and adding features that reduced, eliminated, or compensated for several competing behaviors. Three versions of the 4-arm task were evaluated in detail, and the third version yielded good results for six of eight inbred strains. Furthermore, the 4-arm task could be scored adequately without computerized video tracking. Although performance on the 4-arm task was generally superior to the Morris maze, the extent of the improvement was strain dependent. Two strains with retinal degeneration (C3H/HeJ, FVB/NJ) performed poorly on both the Morris and 4-arm mazes, whereas C57BL/6J and DBA/2J did well on both mazes. A/J performed poorly on the Morris task but became very proficient on the 4-arm maze, despite its strong tendency to hug the walls of the tank. The BALB/cByJ strain, on the other hand, exhibited the best probe trial performance on the Morris maze but was very slow in acquiring the 4-arm task. We conclude that no single task can reveal the full richness of spatially guided behavior in a wide range of mouse genotypes. PMID:16191444

  9. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of maize inbred carrying nicosulfuron-tolerant and nicosulfuron-susceptible alleles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Xian; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guiqi; Li, Moran

    2015-03-13

    Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays.

  10. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  11. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  12. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  13. Association mapping for chilling tolerance in elite flint and dent maize inbred lines evaluated in growth chamber and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Strigens, Alexander; Freitag, Niclas M; Gilbert, Xavier; Grieder, Christoph; Riedelsheimer, Christian; Schrag, Tobias A; Messmer, Rainer; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2013-10-01

    Chilling sensitivity of maize is a strong limitation for its cultivation in the cooler areas of the northern and southern hemisphere because reduced growth in early stages impairs on later biomass accumulation. Efficient breeding for chilling tolerance is hampered by both the complex physiological response of maize to chilling temperatures and the difficulty to accurately measure chilling tolerance in the field under fluctuating climatic conditions. For this research, we used genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify genes underlying chilling tolerance under both controlled and field conditions in a broad germplasm collection of 375 maize inbred lines genotyped with 56 110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We identified 19 highly significant association signals explaining between 5.7 and 52.5% of the phenotypic variance observed for early growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The allelic effect of several SNPs identified for early growth was associated with temperature and incident radiation. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signalling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. The frequent involvement of candidate genes into signalling or gene expression regulation underlines the complex response of photosynthetic performance and early growth to climatic conditions, and supports pleiotropism as a major cause of co-locations of quantitative trait loci for these highly polygenic traits.

  14. Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible.

  15. Faecal shedding and intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica in in-bred chickens: the effect of host-genetic background.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, P. A.; Bumstead, N.; Marston, K.; Lovell, M. A.; Wigley, P.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable and reproducible differences were observed in the amount and duration of faecal excretion when in-bred lines of chickens were infected orally with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium at 6 weeks of age after being given a gut flora preparation when newly hatched. Similar but less pronounced results were observed with S. Enteritidis or S. Infantis. Differences in the viable numbers of the inoculated bacteria in caecal contents were detectable within 24 h of inoculation. No major differences were seen in Salmonella-specific serum IgA or IgG titres. Small differences were seen in the numbers of circulating heterophilic cells. Caecal contents taken from the more resistant lines immediately prior to challenge appeared to be no more inhibitory for Salmonella in vivo than contents taken from susceptible lines. The more resistant lines showed a slightly higher rate of intestinal flow, as indicated by the rate of production of faecal droppings, although there was no difference in the rate of emptying of the caeca. In an F1 generation resistance was dominant and not sex-linked. There was no MHC linkage or any association with SAL1, the gene implicated in resistance to systemic salmonellosis in chickens, or NRAMP1. PMID:14979597

  16. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  17. Genome-Wide QTL Mapping for Wheat Processing Quality Parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hui; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Zhai, Shengnan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zhiyong; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), and Mixolab parameters using the wheat 90 and 660 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90 and 660 K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1046 and 5550 markers from the 90 and 660 K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat. PMID:27486464

  18. Genetic segregation of spontaneous erosive arthritis and generalized autoimmune disease in the BXD2 recombinant inbred strain of mice.

    PubMed

    Mountz, J D; Yang, P; Wu, Q; Zhou, J; Tousson, A; Fitzgerald, A; Allen, J; Wang, X; Cartner, S; Grizzle, W E; Yi, N; Lu, L; Williams, R W; Hsu, H-C

    2005-02-01

    The BXD2 strain of mice is one of approximately 80 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains derived from an intercross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) strains. We have discovered that adult BXD2 mice spontaneously develop generalized autoimmune disease, including glomerulonephritis (GN), increased serum titres of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-DNA antibody, and a spontaneous erosive arthritis characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, and bone and cartilage erosion. The features of lupus and arthritis developed by the BXD2 mice segregate in F2 mice generated by crossing BXD2 mice with the parental B6 and D2 strains. Genetic linkage analysis of the serum levels of anti-DNA and RF by using the BXD RI strains shows that the serum titers of anti-DNA and RF were influenced by a genetic locus on mouse chromosome (Chr) 2 near the marker D2Mit412 (78 cm, 163 Mb) and on Chr 4 near D4Mit146 (53.6 cm, 109 Mb), respectively. Both loci are close to the B-cell hyperactivity, lupus or GN susceptibility loci that have been identified previously. The results of our study suggest that the BXD2 strain of mice is a novel model for complex autoimmune disease that will be useful in identifying the mechanisms critical for the immunopathogenesis and genetic segregation of lupus and erosive arthritis.

  19. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  20. Genome-Wide QTL Mapping for Wheat Processing Quality Parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 Recombinant Inbred Line Population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Zhai, Shengnan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zhiyong; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), and Mixolab parameters using the wheat 90 and 660 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90 and 660 K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1046 and 5550 markers from the 90 and 660 K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat. PMID:27486464

  1. FAMILY HYBOTIDAE.

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; De Freitas-Silva, Rafael Augusto Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Hybotidae is a diverse family of the order Diptera, suborder Brachycera, superfamily Empidoidea. Hybotid flies are generally yellow to black, are morphologically diverse, and are distributed worldwide. The monophyly of the family is based on: palpifer and fore tibial gland present, laterotergite bare and R4+5 unbranched. Hybotids are mainly predators and are usually found on the vegetation, logs and other surfaces, or in flight during displacement and forage. This catalogue, based on the study of specimens and available literature records, summarizes and updates the information on the Colombian fauna of Hybotidae, which includes 19 species distributed in six genera. PMID:27395283

  2. Selank and short peptides of the tuftsin family in the regulation of adaptive behavior in stress.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, M M; Kozlovskii, I I; Val'dman, E A; Seredenin, S B

    2003-11-01

    White laboratory male rats, inbred male C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, and male Wistar rats, all previously divided on the basis of the type of emotional reactivity, were used to compare the effects of ten peptide compounds of the tuftsin family and Selank on the behavioral manifestations of emotional stress created by a conflict situation. Peptides were shown to have positive emotional effects and antistress actions. Individual physiologically significant effects were seen, due to the molecular structures of the study peptides and/or their degradation fragments. The results demonstrate the potential for the synthesis of peptide compounds with predictable directions of pharmacological actions and safe for wide use.

  3. Familial leukemias.

    PubMed

    Wiernik, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    Familial leukemia has been described for more than 50 years but only recently have modern genetic techniques allowed for the investigation of the genome. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic sites that appear to relate to susceptibility to leukemia in certain families and occasionally to susceptibility to a specific leukemia in general. Many questions remain, including susceptibility to what? An oncogenic virus? An environmental chemical? Mutation of another gene induced by a heritable mutation-promoting gene?.Clinically important facts have been learned. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is by far the most common familial leukemia. Patients with CLL have approximately a 10% chance of a first-degree relative developing CLL, and even a greater chance of one developing monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis which may be an asymptomatic forme fruste of the neoplasm. Furthermore, there may be an increased incidence of breast cancer in familial CLL pedigrees which raises the question of a common etiology for neoplasms in general, or at least a previously unrecognized relationship among them.

  4. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  5. FAMILY SCIARIDAE.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Sciaridae are a widely distributed family with high number of species. They are known as black fungus gnats due to their dark color and feeding activity. This catalogue presents 17 species from Colombia distributed in eight genera, and for each species the geographical distribution is provided.

  6. FAMILY CECIDOMYIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Maia, Valéria Cid

    2016-01-01

    This large family is poorly known in Colombia, where only 44 species have been recorded in 20 genera. All of them are included in Cecidomyiinae, which is the most diverse subfamily of gall midges in number of species and feeding habits, including phytophagous, predaceous and fungivorous species. Most of them are galler. The other subfamilies have never been recorded in this country.

  7. FAMILY SCATHOPHAGIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Grisales, Diana; Nihei, Silvio S

    2016-01-01

    Scathophagidae (Diptera, Calyptratae) is an uncommon group of flies. In Colombia there was no scientific record of this family until now. In this paper we report for the first time the genus Scatogera and the species S. primogenita Albuquerque, collected over 3000m. and previously collected in Ecuador. PMID:27395319

  8. Family Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family caregiving. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  9. FAMILY SCIARIDAE.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Sciaridae are a widely distributed family with high number of species. They are known as black fungus gnats due to their dark color and feeding activity. This catalogue presents 17 species from Colombia distributed in eight genera, and for each species the geographical distribution is provided. PMID:27395255

  10. FAMILY CECIDOMYIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Maia, Valéria Cid

    2016-01-01

    This large family is poorly known in Colombia, where only 44 species have been recorded in 20 genera. All of them are included in Cecidomyiinae, which is the most diverse subfamily of gall midges in number of species and feeding habits, including phytophagous, predaceous and fungivorous species. Most of them are galler. The other subfamilies have never been recorded in this country. PMID:27395254

  11. FAMILY ROPALOMERIDAE.

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Ropalomeridae is a small family with most species distributed in the Neotropical Region, from Mexico to Argentina, and only one Nearctic species. In Colombia, eight species distributed in four genera have been found. This catalogue, based on the study of specimens and available literature records, summarizes and updates the information on the Colombian fauna. PMID:27395300

  12. FAMILY RICHARDIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Richardiidae are a family of "acalyptrate" Diptera represented by ca. 180 species distributed in the New World, mostly in the Neotropical region. The species that occur in Colombia have received little attention from taxonomists, and the great majority of them are known only from their type localities. Currently, 14 genera and 23 species are known to occur in the country. PMID:27395297

  13. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  14. Absence of cystic fibrosis mutations in a large Asian population sample and occurrence of a homozygous S549N mutation in an inbred Pakistani family.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, A; Richardson, R J; Boohene, J; Jackson, A; Nelson, R; Bhattacharya, S S

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of cystic fibrosis is very rare in the Asian population. Carriers of the mutations most commonly found in Caucasians were not detected in a large Asian population sample of almost 900 chromosomes. However, an affected Pakistani child born to consanguineous parents was further investigated and shown to be homozygous for the mutation S549N (G-->A). Molecular and clinical data are presented which may improve our understanding of the phenotypic effects of the S549N mutation in the CFTR gene. Images PMID:7680378

  15. Genotyping of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses from a Family of Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gary; Wood, James; Suling, Kristen; Arn, Scott; Sachs, David H.; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Patience, Clive

    2004-01-01

    The identification of animals in an inbred miniature swine herd that consistently fail to produce replication- competent humantropic porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has prompted studies on the biology of PERV in transmitter and nontransmitter animals. We analyzed PERV RNA transcript profiles in a family of inbred miniature swine (SLAd/d haplotype) in which individual members differed in their capacity to generate humantropic and ecotropic (i.e., pigtropic) virus. We identified unique HaeIII and HpaII gag restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms in blood cells; these were found only in animals that produced humantropic PERV. These HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP profiles proved to be components of humantropic PERV as they were transmitted to 293 human target cells in vitro. The humantropic HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP genotypes in the family of study were not present in other miniature swine in the herd that produced humantropic PERV, indicating that these RFLP profiles relate specifically to this family's lineage. PMID:14671113

  16. Sheltering Behavior and Locomotor Activity in 11 Genetically Diverse Common Inbred Mouse Strains Using Home-Cage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

  17. Chemically-induced formation of an inhibitor of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in inbred mice with iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A G; Francis, J E

    1987-01-01

    An inhibitor of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.37) was demonstrated in heat-treated extracts of livers from C57BL/10ScSn mice with iron overload after a single dose (100 mg/kg; 350 mumol/kg) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Inhibition was not due to accumulated uroporphyrin since this could be removed by a SEP-PAK C18 cartridge without affecting inhibitor activity. The presence of the inhibitor could be first demonstrated 2 weeks after mice received HCB and before major elevation of hepatic porphyrin levels. Maximum inhibitory potential was reached at about 8 weeks and was still detected 25 weeks after the chemical, thus paralleling the depression of enzyme activity reported previously [Smith, Francis, Kay, Greig & Stewart (1986) Biochem. J. 238, 871-878]. The inhibitor was not detected following treatment of mice with either iron or HCB alone or after the decarboxylase activity was destroyed in vitro by the combination of uroporphyrin and light. The formation of the inhibitor by inbred mouse strains nominally Ah-responsive (C57BL/6J, C57BL/10ScSn, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, CBA/J and A/J) and Ah-nonresponsive (SWR, AKR, 129, SJL, LP and DBA/2) did not correlate fully with their reported Ah-phenotype. There was a correlation amongst the Ah-responsive strains only, with hepatic ethoxyphenoxazone de-ethylase activity induced in parallel experiments by treatment with beta-naphthoflavone. De-ethylase activity induced by HCB, however, was considerably less than that with beta-naphthoflavone, which has not been reported as porphyrogenic. Other polyhalogenated chemicals, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,4,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl and hexabromobenzene, also caused the formation of the inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. PMID:3675556

  18. Strain Differences in Behavioral Inhibition in a Go/No-go Task Demonstrated Using 15 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gubner, Noah R.; Wilhelm, Clare J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of impulsivity have been associated with a number of substance abuse disorders including alcohol abuse. Research has not yet revealed whether these high levels predate the development of alcohol abuse. Methods The current study examined impulsivity in 15 inbred strains of mice (A/HeJ, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, C58/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and 129P3/J) using a Go/No-go task, which was designed to measure a subject’s ability to inhibit a behavior. Numerous aspects of response to ethanol and other drugs of abuse have been examined in these strains. Results There were significant strain differences in the number of responses made during the No-go signal (false alarms) and the extent to which strains responded differentially during the Go and No-go signals (d′). The rate of responding prior to the cue did not differ among strains, although there was a statistically significant correlation between false alarms and precue responding that was not related to basal activity level. Interstrain correlations suggested that false alarms and rate of responding were associated with strain differences in ethanol-related traits from the published literature. Conclusions The results of this study do support a link between innate level of impulsivity and response to ethanol and are consistent with a genetic basis for some measures of behavioral inhibition. PMID:20491731

  19. Retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: natural history of infection and differing susceptibility of inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Hartley, J W; Fredrickson, T N; Yetter, R A; Makino, M; Morse, H C

    1989-03-01

    C57BL mice (Fv-1b) develop a severe immunodeficiency disease following inoculation as adults with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus which contains B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLVs and a putative defective genome which may be the proximal cause of disease. The stages of development of this disease were defined for C57BL mice on the basis of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; histopathological changes consistent with B-cell activation; and alterations in expression of cell surface antigens affected by proliferation of T cells, B cells, and macrophages. By using this disease profile as a standard, the response of adult mice of various inbred strains and selected F1 hybrids was compared. We show that although the strains which are highly sensitive are of the Fv-1b genotype (i.e., permissive for B-tropic MuLVs), certain Fv-1b strains, e.g., BALB/c and A/J, are resistant to murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, whereas certain Fv-1n strains (permissive for N-tropic MuLVs but restrictive for B-tropic MuLVs), notably P/N, BDP, and AKR, show moderate sensitivity and (C57BL/6 x CBA/N)F1 mice (Fv-1n/b and thus dually restrictive) are of relatively high susceptibility. The results of virus recovery tests suggest that apparently anomalous sensitivity, based on predicted Fv-1 restriction, may reflect MuLV induction and/or mutation to provide a helper virus for which the host is permissive.

  20. Retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: natural history of infection and differing susceptibility of inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, J W; Fredrickson, T N; Yetter, R A; Makino, M; Morse, H C

    1989-01-01

    C57BL mice (Fv-1b) develop a severe immunodeficiency disease following inoculation as adults with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus which contains B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLVs and a putative defective genome which may be the proximal cause of disease. The stages of development of this disease were defined for C57BL mice on the basis of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; histopathological changes consistent with B-cell activation; and alterations in expression of cell surface antigens affected by proliferation of T cells, B cells, and macrophages. By using this disease profile as a standard, the response of adult mice of various inbred strains and selected F1 hybrids was compared. We show that although the strains which are highly sensitive are of the Fv-1b genotype (i.e., permissive for B-tropic MuLVs), certain Fv-1b strains, e.g., BALB/c and A/J, are resistant to murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, whereas certain Fv-1n strains (permissive for N-tropic MuLVs but restrictive for B-tropic MuLVs), notably P/N, BDP, and AKR, show moderate sensitivity and (C57BL/6 x CBA/N)F1 mice (Fv-1n/b and thus dually restrictive) are of relatively high susceptibility. The results of virus recovery tests suggest that apparently anomalous sensitivity, based on predicted Fv-1 restriction, may reflect MuLV induction and/or mutation to provide a helper virus for which the host is permissive. Images PMID:2536830

  1. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

    PubMed

    Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B

    2014-01-01

    Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

  2. Learning, memory and search strategies of inbred mouse strains with different visual abilities in the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Savoie, Vicki; Brown, Richard E

    2011-01-20

    Visuo-spatial learning and memory were assessed in male and female mice of 13 inbred strains on a small diameter mouse version of the Barnes maze surrounded by a wall and intra-maze visual cues. Mice completed acquisition and reversal training to assess learning, followed by a probe test to assess memory for the spatial location of the escape hole. The C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ strains showed better learning performance than the other strains. A/J and 129/SvImJ strains showed poor learning performance, which may be due to their low rates of exploration. No differences in memory were found between strains in the probe test. Males showed better learning performance than females in the DBA/2J and C3H/HeJ strains, but there were no sex differences in the other strains. However, mice may not have used visuo-spatial cues to locate the escape hole in this maze, as (1) all strains primarily used the non-spatial serial/thigmotaxic search strategy, (2) no strains showed a reversal effect when the escape hole location was moved, and (3) learning and memory performance were not correlated with measures of visual ability. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicated that mice with good visual ability performed better than mice with poor visual ability, but the effect sizes were small. The small diameter of the maze and the presence of a wall around the edge of the maze may promote thigmotaxis in mice, increasing the use of a non-visual search strategy, thereby reducing the influence of vision on performance and decreasing the sensitivity of this maze design to detect strain differences in visuo-spatial learning and memory. These results indicate that the design of the Barnes maze has a significant effect on learning and memory processes.

  3. Localization of genes influencing ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in BXD recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L

    1995-07-01

    Genetic differences in ethanol's ability to induce conditioned place preference were studied in 20 BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J progenitor strains. Male mice from each strain were exposed to a Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a distinctive floor stimulus (CS+) was paired four times with ethanol (2 g/kg). A different floor stimulus (CS-) was paired with saline. Control mice were injected only with saline. Floor preference testing without ethanol revealed significant genetic differences in conditioned place preference, with some strains spending nearly 80% time on the ethanol-paired floor while others spent only 50% (i.e., no preference). Control mice showed genetic differences in unconditioned preference for the floor cues, but unconditioned preference was not genetically correlated with conditioned preference. There were also substantial genetic differences in ethanol-stimulated activity, but contrary to psychomotor stimulant theory, ethanol-induced activity on conditioning trials was not positively correlated with strength of conditioned place preference. However, there was a significant negative genetic correlation (r = -0.42) between test session activity and preference. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses showed strong associations (P < 0.01) between conditioned place preference and marker loci on chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 18 and 19. Weaker associations (0.01 < P < 0.05) were identified on several other chromosomes. Analysis also yielded several significant QTL for unconditioned preference, ethanol-stimulated activity, and sensitization. Overall, these data support the conclusion that genotype influences ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, presumably via genetic differences in sensitivity to ethanol's rewarding effects. Moreover, several chromosomal regions containing candidate genes of potential relevance to ethanol-induced conditioned place preference have been identified.

  4. Altered accumulation and subcellular disposition of testicular cadmium in inbred mice resistant to cadmium-induced testicular necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chellman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rodent testis is one of the most sensitive mammalian tissues to the toxic effects of acutely administered Cd. However, numerous inbred mouse strains are resistant to Cd-induced testicular damage, even at lethal Cd doses; the mechanism of this resistance has not been determined. Therefore, testes of mice susceptible (129/J) or resistant (A/J) to Cd-induced damage were examined for possible differences in the accumulation and subcellular disposition of Cd. Twenty-four hours after subcutaneous injection of mice with 30 ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg, 129/J testes showed extensive interstitial hemorrhage and seminiferous tubule necrosis, while A/J testes appeared histologically normal. Testicular Cd accumulation was 5-6 times less in A/J mice than in 129/J mice at all time points examined. Chromatography of testicular cytosol on Sephadex G-75 Superfine revealed four Cd-binding peaks. Both 15 min and 6 hr after dosing, A/J testes had 14% more of the total tissue Cd bound to the 14,500 MW protein (Cd-BP III), compared to 129/J testes, Cd-BP III behaved like metallothionein during gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Additional mice were injected i.v. with 10 (129/J) or 45 (A/J) ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg to achieve equal testicular Cd concentrations (approx. 4 nmoles Cd/g testis). Twenty-four hours later, 129/J testes were necrotic while A/J testes showed no microscopic evidence of damage. Therefore, resistance of A/J testes to Cd is not determined solely by decreased Cd accumulation, but is associated with increased binding of testicular Cd to Cd-BP III.

  5. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika; Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

    2009-07-01

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl(2), sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. PMID:19479238

  6. Functional gene expression differences between inbred alcohol-preferring and —non-prerats in five brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Kimpel, Mark W.; Strother, Wendy N.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are innate differences in gene expression in selected CNS regions between inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and —non-preferring (iNP) rats. Gene expression was determined in the nucleus accumbens (ACB), amygdala (AMYG), frontal cortex (FC), caudate-putamen (CPU), and hippocampus (HIPP) of alcohol-naïve adult male iP and iNP rats, using Affymetrix Rat Genome U34A microarrays (n = 6/strain). Using Linear Modeling for Microarray Analysis with a false discovery rate threshold of 0.1, there were 16 genes with differential expression in the ACB, 54 in the AMYG, 8 in the FC, 24 in the CPU, and 21 in the HIPP. When examining the main effect of strain across regions, 296 genes were differentially expressed. Although the relatively small number of genes found significant within individual regions precluded a powerful analysis for over-represented Gene Ontology categories, the much larger list resulting from the main effect of strain analysis produced 17 over-represented categories (P <.05), including axon guidance, gliogenesis, negative regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of synapse structure function, and transmission of nerve impulse. Co-citation analysis and graphing of significant genes revealed a network involved in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) transmitter system. Correlation of all significant genes with those located within previously established rat alcohol QTLs revealed that of the total of 313 significant genes, 71 are located within such QTLs. The many regional and overall gene expression differences between the iP and iNP rat lines may contribute to the divergent alcohol drinking phenotypes of these rats. PMID:17517326

  7. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  8. FAMILY BOMBYLIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-01-01

    Bombyliidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 4,500 recognized species worldwide. Their species vary from robust to thin, and may be small to large (2-20mm) and looks like bees or wasps. They also present great variation in color. Adults can often be seen either resting and sunning themselves on trails, rocks or twigs or feeding on flowering plants as they are nectar feeders. All reared bee flies are predators or parasitoids of arthropods. The Colombian fauna of bombyliids comprises at the moment 22 species, and 12 genera, of which, six are endemic species. Nonetheless, this number may be much higher, as Colombia is a megadiverse country and there are not many specimens of this family deposited in collections all over the world. PMID:27395279

  9. Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen and LDL apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with FH. It is important to increase awareness of this disorder in physicians and patients in order to reduce the burden of this disorder. PMID:25939291

  10. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Ricky D.; Barry, Arden R.; Pearson, Glen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Quality of evidence A PubMed search was conducted (inception to July 2014) for articles on pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis, and management of FH, supplemented with hand searches of bibliographies of guidelines and reviews. A supporting level of evidence for each recommendation was categorized as level I (randomized controlled trial or systematic review of randomized controlled trials), level II (observational study), or level III (expert opinion). The best available evidence is mostly level II or III. Main message Familial hypercholesterolemia affects 1 in 500 Canadians. Risk of a coronary event is high in these patients and is underestimated by risk calculators (eg, Framingham). Clinicians should screen patients according to guidelines and suspect FH in any patient with a premature cardiovascular event, physical stigmata of hypercholesterolemia, or an elevated plasma lipid level. Physicians should diagnose FH using either the Simon Broome or Dutch Lipid Network criteria. Management of heterozygous FH includes reducing low-density lipoprotein levels by 50% or more from baseline with high-dose statins and other lipid-lowering agents. Clinicians should refer any patient with homozygous FH to a specialized centre. Conclusion Familial hypercholesterolemia represents an important cause of premature cardiovascular disease in Canadians. Early identification and aggressive treatment of individuals with FH reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26796832

  11. Evolutionary conservation of the mouse apolipoprotein e-c1-c2 gene cluster: Structure and genetic variability in inbred mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, M.J.V.; Hofker, M.H.; Eck, M.M. van; Frants, R.R. ); Havekes, L.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The human apolipoprotein E (APOE), APOC1, pseudo APOC1 (APOC1[prime]), and APOC2 genes are clustered within 48 kb on the long arm of chromosome 19. A mouse Apoe cDNA probe was used to isolate overlapping cosmid clones from a cosmid library of the C57BL/Rij inbred mouse strain. These clones were investigated for the presence of the Apocl and Apoc2 genes by heterologous hybridization. Our results show that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is conserved in the mouse. In line with evolutionary data, the mouse lacks the equivalent of APOC1[prime]. These data were confirmed using a mouse Apoc2 cDNA clone, and surprisingly the CDNA clone isolated here was 965 bp in size, which is on average 450 bp longer than other APOC2 cDNAs described so far. Correspondingly, the Apoc2 gene occupies an unusually large genomic region, due to an extended 5[prime] end. Interestingly, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in the third intron of the human APOC2 gene shows a high sequence homology and is located at the identical position in the mouse gene. Despite the high copy number of this VNTR (27 or 34 copies) only two variants were found among 11 different inbred strains. With the aid of six restriction fragment length variations in this gene cluster only two different haplotypes could be deduced, indicating that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is highly conserved in the inbred strains that were studied. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Different attentional abilities among inbred mice strains using virtual object recognition task (VORT): SNAP25⁺/⁻ mice as a model of attentional deficit.

    PubMed

    Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Matteoli, Michela; Sala M, Mariaelvina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are characterized by attentional deficits. In the present study we first applied the virtual object recognition test (VORT), where 3D objects were replaced with highly discriminated geometrical shapes and presented on two 3.5-inch widescreen displays, in different inbred mice strains (C57BL/6N, DBA/2J, BALB/cJ), in comparison with the standard object recognition test (NOR). In both NOR and VORT, there was a progressive decay of performance in terms of reduced discrimination index from 5 min to 72 h of inter-trial delay in all strains. However, BALB/cJ inbred mice showed a better long lasting performance than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J, when tested in NOR. In VORT, BALB/cJ showed the best performance. Total exploration time was always higher in BALB/cJ than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6N were less explorative strain than DBA/2J and BALB/cJ mice. When VORT was applied to SNAP-25(+/-) mice, an impairment in both NOR and VORT was shown. However, when moving shapes were applied, these heterozygous mice improved their performance, suggesting that the introduction of motion is a strong cue that makes the task more valuable to study attention deficits. Taken together, these data indicate that VORT provides a useful and rapid tool to identify the attentional deficit in different inbred strains and genetically modified mice, enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models.

  13. Identification and characterization of a repertoire of genes differentially expressed in developing top ear shoots between a superior hybrid and its parental inbreds in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Scheuring, Chantel F; Wei, Gang; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Meiping; Huang, James J; Zhou, Xin; Galbraith, David W; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production; however, little is known about the genes controlling trait heterosis. The shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 748 genes differentially expressed (DG) in the developing top ear shoots between a maize heterotic F1 hybrid (Mo17 × B73) and its parental inbreds identified using maize microarrays containing 28,608 unigene features. Of the 748 DG, over 600 were new for the inbred and hybrid combination. The DG were enriched for 35 of the total 213 maize gene ontology (GO) terms, including those describing photosynthesis, respiration, DNA replication, metabolism, and hormone biosynthesis. From the DG, we identified six genes involved in glycolysis, three genes in the citrate cycle, and four genes in the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle. We mapped 533 of the 748 DG to the maize B73 genome, 298 (55.9 %) of which mapped to the QTL intervals of 11 maize ear traits. Moreover, we compared the repertoire of the DG with that of 14-day seedlings of the same inbred and hybrid combination. Only approximately 5 % of the DG was shared between the two organs and developmental stages. Furthermore, we mapped 417 (55.7 %) of the 748 maize DG to the QTL intervals of 26 rice yield-related traits. Therefore, this study provides a repertoire of genes useful for identification of genes involved in maize ear trait heterosis and information for a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis in maize.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of response to low temperature reveals candidate genes determining divergent cold-sensitivity of maize inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Sobkowiak, Alicja; Jończyk, Maciej; Jarochowska, Emilia; Biecek, Przemysław; Trzcinska-Danielewicz, Joanna; Leipner, Jörg; Fronk, Jan; Sowiński, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Maize, despite being thermophyllic due to its tropical origin, demonstrates high intraspecific diversity in cold-tolerance. To search for molecular mechanisms of this diversity, transcriptomic response to cold was studied in two inbred lines of contrasting cold-tolerance. Microarray analysis was followed by extensive statistical elaboration of data, literature data mining, and gene ontology-based classification. The lines used had been bred earlier specifically for determination of QTLs for cold-performance of photosynthesis. This allowed direct comparison of present transcriptomic data with the earlier QTL mapping results. Cold-treated (14 h at 8/6 °C) maize seedlings of cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 and cold-sensitive ETH-DL3 lines at V3 stage showed strong, consistent response of the third leaf transcriptome: several thousand probes showed similar, statistically significant change in both lines, while only tens responded differently in the two lines. The most striking difference between the responses of the two lines to cold was the induction of expression of ca. twenty genes encoding membrane/cell wall proteins exclusively in the cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 line. The common response comprised mainly repression of numerous genes related to photosynthesis and induction of genes related to basic biological activity: transcription, regulation of gene expression, protein phosphorylation, cell wall organization. Among the genes showing differential response, several were close to the QTL regions identified in earlier studies with the same inbred lines and associated with biometrical, physiological or biochemical parameters. These transcripts, including two apparently non-protein-coding ones, are particularly attractive candidates for future studies on mechanisms determining divergent cold-tolerance of inbred maize lines.

  15. Evaluation of the Morpho-physiology characteristics of maize inbred lines introduced from CIMMYT to identify the best candidates for planting in acidic soil in Jasinga, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, K.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Syukur, M.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2016-08-01

    Technological developments and climate change have affected crop planting strategies. For example, maize production has expanded to sub-optimal lands, including acidic soil common in areas like Indonesia. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally in acidic soils to determine their adaptability and tolerance mechanisms. Breeds CLA 46 and NEI 9008 were found to be excellent candidates for acidic soil due to their ASI, high number of grains per year, and suitable dry seed weight.

  16. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group) were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet dramatically increased (> 9-fold) the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 40%, 31%, and 19% in liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 15%, 16%, 20% and 14% in plasma, liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet also decreased phytosterol levels by 29% to 54% in plasma and tissues (P < 0.05). Both the phytosterol and phytostanol diets produced significant decreases in the ratios of cholesterol to phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney. Rats that consumed the phytosterol or phytostanol diets displayed significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to rats that consumed the control diet (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet increased renal

  17. FAMILY MYCETOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-06-14

    The Mycetophilidae include small fungus-gnats which life cycle is associated with fungi, especially of the larvae. The known diversity of the family in the Neotropical region is 1,145 species, but only some very few papers have been published on the Colombian species of Mycetophilidae, with records for the genera Docosia Winnertz, Paraleia Tonnoir, and Dziedzickia Johannsen. This catalogue gathers the information available on mycetophilids from Colombia, including genera and some species that for the first time are mentioned to occur in the country-as Leiella unicincta Edwards and Leiella zonalis Edwards.

  18. Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27′ (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20′ (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher

  19. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society. PMID:22515464

  20. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  1. Comparison of miRNAs and Their Targets in Seed Development between Two Maize Inbred Lines by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Min; Yang, Min-Kai; Yang, Rong-Wu; Lu, Gui-Hua; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environment. For identifying and comparing miRNAs and their targets in seed development between two maize inbred lines (i.e. PH6WC and PH4CV), two sRNAs and two degradome libraries were constructed. Through high-throughput sequencing and miRNA identification, 55 conserved and 24 novel unique miRNA sequences were identified in two sRNA libraries; moreover, through degradome sequencing and analysis, 137 target transcripts corresponding to 38 unique miRNA sequences were identified in two degradome libraries. Subsequently, 16 significantly differentially expressed miRNA sequences were verified by qRT-PCR, in which 9 verified sequences obviously target 30 transcripts mainly involved with regulation in flowering and development in embryo. Therefore, the results suggested that some miRNAs (e.g. miR156, miR171, miR396 and miR444) related reproductive development might differentially express in seed development between the PH6WC and PH4CV maize inbred lines in this present study. PMID:27463682

  2. Primary epithelial tumour in the right atrium of the heart and inferior vena cava in NZR/gd inbred rats; pathology of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Goodall, C M; Christie, G S; Hurley, J V

    1975-08-01

    In NZR/Gd inbred albino rats, tumours occurred in the right atrium or inferior vena cava of approximately 20 per cent. of untreated animals, of both sexes, over the age of 1 yr. The tumours were centred in the wall of the right atrium in 15 cases, and in the inferior vena cava in another three cases; they appeared to be primary in these sites. The tumours were slowly growing, but eventually malignant. Light- and electron-microscopic study showed the tumours were composed of epithelial alveoli imbedded in a collagenous connective tissue containing spindle cells and thin-walled blood capillaries. The epithelium varied from flat to low columnar, and often secreted mucoid material into the lumina, or sometimes into surrounding tissue. This tumour, for which the name atrio-caval epithelial mesothelioma is suggested, very closely resembles a rare epithelial tumour of the right atrium previously described in humans under a variety of names. An underlying embryological anomaly had been postulated in these tumours in humans, and the occurrence of pathologically similar lesions in high incidence in hearts of NZR/Gd inbred rats should help test the hypothesis of genetic and developmental causes in the genesis of this rare cardiac neoplasm.

  3. Expression analysis of stress-related genes in kernels of different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with different resistance to aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six "cross-talking" genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  4. The Family Hero in Black Alcoholism Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisbane, Francis L.

    1989-01-01

    Uses data from 20 case studies of Black adult female children of alcoholic parents to discuss Family Hero role often assumed by oldest or only female child in Black alcoholism families. Explains how female-dominated survival role of Family Hero in Black families is significantly more related to racial and cultural factors than numbers alone may…

  5. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  6. Whole Family: Whole Child. Broken Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVaul, Sue; Davis, John U.

    A literature review on the family environments of gifted students found that gifted children are more likely to be living in intact families than in divorced families. Children of single parents were more likely to be low-achieving, tardy, absent, truant, discipline problems, suspended, expelled, and dropouts than students in two-parent families.…

  7. Final Evaluation Report: Family to Family Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen; Meyer, David P.

    This evaluation report of the Family to Family Program assesses parental attitudes towards their Family to Family experience and the functioning of their emotionally impaired children. It reviews issues of goal achievement; the impact on the targeted problem; service population demographics; and sustainability. Related topics include…

  8. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  9. Reclaiming Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John

    2012-01-01

    The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

  10. Arthrogryposis multiplex with deafness, inguinal hernias, and early death: a family report of a probably autosomal recessive trait.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Christian; Bührer, Christoph; Burwinkel, Barbara; Wirtenberger, Michael; Hoehn, Thomas; Hübner, Christoph; van Landeghem, Frank K H; Stoltenburg, Gisela; Obladen, Michael

    2005-08-30

    We report on three male newborn infants of a highly inbred Lebanese family presenting with a characteristic phenotype: arthrogryposis multiplex, deafness, large inguinal hernia, hiccup-like diaphragmatic contractions, and inability to suck, requiring nasogastric gavage feeding. All three boys died from respiratory failure during the first 3 months of life. Intra vitam or post mortem examinations revealed myopathic changes and elevated glycogen content of muscle tissue. This new syndrome is probably transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode, although X-linked inheritance cannot be excluded.

  11. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

  12. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  13. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  14. Family Literacy and ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses family literacy and English as a Second Language, focusing on types of family literacy programs, issues in family literacy, and future directions in family literacy. Highlights one program and lists the components of three approaches to family literacy: intervention prevention, multiple literacies, and social change. (Author/VWL)

  15. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  16. Determination of resistance spectra of the Pi-ta and Pi-k genes to US races of Magnaporthe oryzae causing rice blast in a recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes to ten common races of Magnaporthe oryzae were mapped using an F10 recombinant inbred line population of a cross of a tropical japonica cultivar Katy with a breeding line RU9101001. Katy was found to confer resistance to all common races IA-45, IB-1, IB-45, IB-49, IB-54, IC-17,...

  17. Analysis of Endosperm Sugars in a Sweet Corn Inbred (Illinois 677a) Which Contains the Sugary Enhancer (se) Gene and Comparison of se with Other Corn Genotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jane E.; Dickinson, David B.; Rhodes, Ashby M.

    1979-01-01

    The endosperm sugars of a new corn (Zea mays L.) mutant, sugary enhancer (se), were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography and were compared with sugars of other genotypes. Illinois 677a, a sugary (su) inbred containing the se gene, was high in sucrose and was distinguished from all of the other genotypes by its high maltose content. During kernel development, the maltose content of IL677a increased to 3.28% dry weight at 40 days postpollination and remained high at the dry mature stage, whereas `Silver Queen,' a high quality sugary (su) hybrid not possessing the se gene, showed no such trend in maltose accumulation. Sucrose, fructose, and glucose decreased during kernel development in `Silver Queen' and IL677a from 19 days postpollination until the dry mature stage. The slow drying characteristic and the reduced starch content previously reported for maturing seeds of IL677a may be related to the maltose accumulation reported here. PMID:16660739

  18. Analysis of Endosperm Sugars in a Sweet Corn Inbred (Illinois 677a) Which Contains the Sugary Enhancer (se) Gene and Comparison of se with Other Corn Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J E; Dickinson, D B; Rhodes, A M

    1979-03-01

    The endosperm sugars of a new corn (Zea mays L.) mutant, sugary enhancer (se), were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography and were compared with sugars of other genotypes. Illinois 677a, a sugary (su) inbred containing the se gene, was high in sucrose and was distinguished from all of the other genotypes by its high maltose content. During kernel development, the maltose content of IL677a increased to 3.28% dry weight at 40 days postpollination and remained high at the dry mature stage, whereas ;Silver Queen,' a high quality sugary (su) hybrid not possessing the se gene, showed no such trend in maltose accumulation. Sucrose, fructose, and glucose decreased during kernel development in ;Silver Queen' and IL677a from 19 days postpollination until the dry mature stage. The slow drying characteristic and the reduced starch content previously reported for maturing seeds of IL677a may be related to the maltose accumulation reported here. PMID:16660739

  19. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  20. Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies Dcc as an Essential Factor in the Innervation of the Peripheral Vestibular System in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Pezhman; Myint, Anthony; Kim, Young J; Ge, Marshall X; Lavinsky, Joel; Ho, Maria K; Crow, Amanda L; Cruz, Charlene; Monges-Hernadez, Maya; Wang, Juemei; Hartiala, Jaana; Zhang, Li I; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J; Ohyama, Takahiro; Friedman, Rick A

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr. 18 (peak SNP rs29632020), one gene, deleted in colorectal carcinoma (Dcc) has a well-established role in nervous system development. An in-depth analysis of Dcc-deficient mice demonstrated elevation in mean VsEP threshold for Dcc (+/-) mice (-11.86 dB) compared to wild-type (-9.68 dB) littermates. Synaptic ribbon studies revealed Dcc (-/-) (P0) and Dcc (+/-) (6-week-old) mice showed lower density of the presynaptic marker (CtBP2) as compared to wild-type controls. Vestibular ganglion cell counts of Dcc (-/-) (P0) was lower than controls. Whole-mount preparations showed abnormal innervation of the utricle, saccule, and crista ampullaris at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5. Postnatal studies were limited by the perinatal lethality in Dcc (-/-) mice. Expression analyses using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed Dcc expression in the mouse vestibular ganglion (E15.5), and utricle and crista ampullaris (6-week-old), respectively. In summary, we report the first GWAS for vestibular functional variation in inbred mice and provide evidence for the role of Dcc in the normal innervation of the peripheral vestibular system. PMID:27539716

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes at two key endosperm development stages using two maize inbreds with large and small grain and integration with detected QTL for grain weight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Y; Li, J Z; Li, Y L; Wei, M G; Cui, Q X; Wang, Q L

    2010-08-01

    Maize endosperm accounts for more than 80% of the grain weight. Cell division and grain filling are the two key stages for endosperm development. Previous studies showed that gene expression during differential stages in endosperm development is greatly different. However, information on systematic identification and characterization of the differentially expressed genes between the two stages are limited. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to generate four subtracted cDNA libraries for the two stages using two maize inbreds with large and small grain. Totally, 4,784 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced and 902 were non-redundant, which consisted of 344 unique ESTs. Among them 192 had high sequence similarity to the GenBank entries and represent diverse of functional categories, such as metabolism, cell growth/division, transcription, signal transduction, protein destination/storage, protein synthesis and others. The expression patterns of 75.7% SSH-derived cDNAs were confirmed by reverse Northern blot and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and exhibited the similar results (75.0%). Genes differentially expressed between two key stages for the two inbreds were involved in diverse physiological process pathway, which might be responsible for the formation of grain weight. 43.8% (70 of the 160 unique ESTs) of the identified ESTs were assigned to 39 chromosome bins distributed over all ten maize chromosomes. Eleven ESTs were found to co-localize with previous detected QTLs for grain weight, which might be considered as the candidate genes of grain weight for further study.

  2. A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and selection of reduced recombinant inbred line subsets for fast mapping.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Bonnet, Julien; Boudet, Christine; Signoret, Patrick; Nagy, István; Lanteri, Sergio; Palloix, Alain; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was constructed from a population of 297 recombinant inbred lines. The parents were the large-fruited inbred cultivar 'Yolo Wonder' and the hot pepper line 'Criollo de Morelos 334', which is heavily used as a source of resistance to a number of diseases. A set of 587 markers (507 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 40 simple sequence repeats, 19 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 17 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms, and 4 sequence tagged sites) were used to generate the map; of these, 489 were assembled into 49 linkage groups (LGs), including 14 LGs with 10 to 60 markers per LG and 35 with 2 to 9 markers per LG. The framework map covered 1857 cM with an average intermarker distance of 5.71 cM. Twenty-three LGs, composed of 69% of the markers and covering 1553 cM, were assigned to 1 of the 12 haploid pepper chromosomes, leaving 26 LGs (304 cM) unassigned. The chromosome framework map built with 250 markers led to a high level of mapping confidence and an average intermarker distance of 6.54 cM. By applying MapPop software, it was possible to select smaller subsets of 141 or 93 most informative individuals with a view to reducing the time and cost of further mapping and phenotyping. To define the smallest number of individuals sufficient for assigning any new marker to a chromosome, subsets from 12 to 45 individuals and a set of 13 markers distributed over all 12 chromosomes were screened. In most cases, the markers were correctly assigned to their expected chromosome, but the accuracy of the map position decreased as the number of individuals was reduced. PMID:17546071

  3. 1 + 1 = 3: Development and validation of a SNP-based algorithm to identify genetic contributions from three distinct inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Gorham, James D; Ranson, Matthew S; Smith, Janebeth C; Gorham, Beverly J; Muirhead, Kristen-Ashley

    2012-12-01

    State-of-the-art, genome-wide assessment of mouse genetic background uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR. As SNP analysis can use multiplex testing, it is amenable to high-throughput analysis and is the preferred method for shared resource facilities that offer genetic background assessment of mouse genomes. However, a typical individual SNP query yields only two alleles (A vs. B), limiting the application of this methodology to distinguishing contributions from no more than two inbred mouse strains. By contrast, simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis yields multiple alleles but is not amenable to high-throughput testing. We sought to devise a SNP-based technique to identify donor strain origins when three distinct mouse strains potentially contribute to the genetic makeup of an individual mouse. A computational approach was used to devise a three-strain analysis (3SA) algorithm that would permit identification of three genetic backgrounds while still using a binary-output SNP platform. A panel of 15 mosaic mice with contributions from BALB/c, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2 genetic backgrounds was bred and analyzed using a genome-wide SNP panel using 1449 markers. The 3SA algorithm was applied and then validated using SSLP. The 3SA algorithm assigned 85% of 1449 SNPs as informative for the C57Bl/6, BALB/c, or DBA/2 backgrounds, respectively. Testing the panel of 15 F2 mice, the 3SA algorithm predicted donor strain origins genome-wide. Donor strain origins predicted by the 3SA algorithm correlated perfectly with results from individual SSLP markers located on five different chromosomes (n=70 tests). We have established and validated an analysis algorithm based on binary SNP data that can successfully identify the donor strain origins of chromosomal regions in mice that are bred from three distinct inbred mouse strains. PMID:23204929

  4. Improving Family Communications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  5. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  6. Family Reunion Health Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone (Continued) 1. Send a Kidney Health Message Hi Family, I came across this information and thought ... mails to family members. Before the Reunion 1. Hi family! Taking care of your kidneys is important. ...

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. Developing Strengths in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ted

    1976-01-01

    There are few descriptions of growth experiences for total families. This paper describes one such model. It expresses the conviction that families need opportunities to come together with other families to identify strengths, sharpen communication skills, and establish goals. (Author)

  9. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  10. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families. PMID:22515459

  11. Refined mapping of the gene causing Familial Mediterranean fever, by linkage and homozygosity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Gruberg, L.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Pras, M.; Kastner, D.L. ); Shen, Y.; Holman, K.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. ); Ramsburg, M.; Dean, M. ); Amos, C.I. )

    1993-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by attacks of fever and serosal inflammation; the biochemical basis is unknown. The authors recently reported linkage of the gene causing FMF (designated [open quotes]MEF[close quotes]) to two markers on chromosome 16p. To map MEF more precisely, they have now tested nine 16p markers. Two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, as well as a study of recombinant haplotypes, placed MEF between D16S94 and D16S80, a genetic interval of about 9 cM. They also examined rates of homozygosity for markers in this region, among offspring of consanguineous marriages. For eight of nine markers, the rate of homozygosity among 26 affected inbred individuals was higher than that among their 20 unaffected sibs. Localizing MEF more precisely on the basis of homozygosity rates alone would be difficult, for two reasons: First, the FMF carrier frequency increases the chance that inbred offspring could have the disease without being homozygous by descent at MEF. Second, several of the markers in this region are relatively nonpolymorphic, with a high rate of homozygosity, regardless of their chromosomal location. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Making Time for Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Covey's "7 Habits of Effective Families," noting that time plays an important part in each habit. Discusses several important "time" issues for families: time to plan for time, time for awareness of quality time, time to have two-way communication, time for family moments, and time to reflect. Includes suggestions for family activities in…

  13. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  14. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

  15. Gavin Families. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Paul Neufeld; And Others

    The Family Literacy Project at the Dr. Charles E. Gavin School in Chicago Heights, Illinois, brings together a community college adult education program, an early childhood program, and a local school district. This report of the Prairie State College Family Literacy Project assesses the needs for family literacy among the families in the Gavin…

  16. Student Victimization by Peers: Comparison between Bedouin and Non-Bedouin Arab Students in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2008-01-01

    School violence is a social phenomenon that has been a great source of concern for the educational system and for parents. The results of the current study are part of a comprehensive study conducted among a nationally representative sample of students in Israel (Benbenishty, 2003). This study examines the issue of peer victimization among Arab…

  17. Familial Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenmann, A; Arad, I; Simcha, A; Schaap, T

    1976-01-01

    A family is described in which both a father and son are affected with Ebstein's anomaly, while several other family members manifest different cardiac malformations. Five additional instances of familial Ebstein's anomaly were found in the literature and compared with our family. Inspection of possible modes of inheritance in this group of families suggests that Ebstein's anomaly is probably inherited as a polygenic character with a threshold phenomenon. PMID:1018315

  18. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E. Irmak; Basak, A. Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling.

  19. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Semiha; Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E Irmak; Gundogdu Eken, Aslı; Basak, A Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling. PMID:27668106

  20. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E. Irmak; Basak, A. Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling. PMID:27668106

  1. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers.

  2. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers. PMID:11491437

  3. Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A

    2010-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits.

  4. BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S+S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S+S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S+S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S+S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S+S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose.

  5. A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. Results The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (π) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P < 0.01). Association mapping revealed that a single nucleotide change from cytosine (C) to thymine (T) in the ZmIPT2 coding region, which converted a proline residue into a serine residue, was significantly associated with hundred kernel weight (HKW) in three environments (P <0.05), and explained 4.76% of the total phenotypic variation. In vitro characterization suggests that the dimethylallyl diphospate (DMAPP) IPT activity of ZmIPT2-T is higher than that of ZmIPT2-C, as the amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) consumed by ZmIPT2-T were 5.48-, 2.70-, and 1.87-fold, respectively, greater than those consumed by ZmIPT2-C. The effects of artificial selection on the ZmIPT2 coding region were evaluated using Tajima’s D tests across six subgroups of Chinese maize germplasm, with the most frequent favorable allele identified in subgroup PB (Partner B). Conclusions These results showed that ZmIPT2, which is associated with kernel weight, was subjected to artificial selection during the maize breeding process. ZmIPT2-T had

  6. Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A

    2010-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits. PMID:19856174

  7. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele) and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele). These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Results Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. Conclusions The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone. Identifying the genes

  8. Putting the "family" back into family therapy.

    PubMed

    Breunlin, Douglas C; Jacobsen, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the field of family therapy by drawing a distinction between two forms of practice: Whole Family Therapy (WFT), defined as treating the whole family, and Relational Family Therapy (RFT), defined as working with a subsystem of the family or an individual while retaining a systemic lens. Our thesis is that the practice of WFT has been in decline for some time and steps must be taken to keep it from becoming a defunct practice. We consider the trajectory of WFT and RFT throughout the development of family therapy through reference to the people, the literature, training, and practice patterns associated with family therapy. We remind the reader of the many benefits of WFT and suggest that today WFT is likely to be practiced in conjunction with RFT and individual therapy. Since training of family therapists today is largely located in degree-granting programs, we identify constraints to including WFT in such programs. We conclude by offering suggestions that can enhance a program's ability to train students in WFT.

  9. Family Synergy, A Variant Family Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFollette, Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This article describes "Family Synergy" which is a non-profit organization for people interested in or exploring nontraditional marriage and family forms. It acts as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and also provides a supportive community for people actually exploring these new lifestyles. (Author)

  10. Families and Family Study in International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert N.

    2004-01-01

    Many changes are occurring in the world's families. Some observers feel that the changes are destructive, whereas others see them as leading to new opportunities and understanding. Issues in international family studies include regional limitations and the various aspects of doing research cross-culturally. Knowledge regarding certain categories…

  11. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  12. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  13. Familial myeloproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, H S

    1998-12-01

    The occurrence of one or more myeloproliferative disease (MPD) syndromes in 42 families is described. MPD appeared in a single generation in 10 families, two generations in 30 families and three generations in two families. In contrast to sparse case reports of familial polycythaemia vera, familial essential thrombocythaemia, or familial agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, in which all the involved members presented with the same MPD, 21 of the 42 families in the present series had members who presented with different MPD variants. The occurrence of multiple disease phenotypes in 'MPD families' is entirely consistent with the accepted theory of MPD as a disease arising from clonal expansion of a pluripotential haematopoietic precursor cell (PHPC) that retains its pluripotentiality and produces an array of inter-related syndromes, each named for the predominant haematic cell type involved in the proliferation. Changes in disease phenotype during the course of MPD and 'hybrid' phenotypes at the time of diagnosis are common. This report challenges the previously accepted belief that PV and other MPD variants are sporadic and randomly-occurring, and that familial occurrence of MPD is rare. The ability to identify 'MPD families' by surveying a large population of patients with MPD through the Internet, as was done in this study, and heightened awareness of familial occurrence and its phenotypic heterogeneity, should facilitate further characterization of the mode of inheritance in familial MPD and the nature of the gene mutations responsible for the dysregulation of haematopoiesis.

  14. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  15. Evaluation of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Because children of mentally disordered parents have an increased risk of becoming subjects of mental disorder and psychological problems, adult psychiatry has increasingly paid attention to the patients' parental skills. This study includes 31 families with children younger than 18 years of age where the parents were admitted to family therapy in an open psychiatric ward. The average number of sessions was seven, and the diagnoses of severe stress and of adjustment disorder were the most common. The aim of the study was to measure changes in the family climate during the period of therapy. The instrument used was the Family Environment Scale (FES), a self-rating questionnaire that measures the parents' experience of family environment. The change of family environment is related to its influence on children's well-being and development. The study finds that family therapy has resulted in positive changes of the parents' experience of the family climate.

  16. Normative Family Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcai, Avner

    1981-01-01

    Describes the sequentially developmental life stages of healthy, normal families. Provides an exposition of these developmental stages and forms as a guide or normative framework within which to test for dysfunction and pathology in the family process. (Author/JAC)

  17. MSUD Family Support Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  18. Assessing postpartum family functioning.

    PubMed

    Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

    1988-09-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals.

  19. Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

    1988-01-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

  20. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...