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Sample records for incidence pathogenesis risk

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Khan, Shahid A; Toledano, Mireille B; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance. PMID:18666317

  2. [Risk factors and pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Paknys, Gintaras; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its pathogenesis and to introduce the readers to the basic concept of autoimmune thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease are different expressions of a basically similar autoimmune process, and the clinical appearance reflects the spectrum of the immune response in a particular patient. During this response, cytotoxic autoantibodies, stimulatory autoantibodies, blocking autoantibodies, or cell-mediated autoimmunity may be observed. Persons with classic Hashimoto's thyroiditis have serum antibodies reacting with thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. These antibodies (particularly antibodies against thyroid peroxidase) are complement-fixing immunoglobulins and may be cytotoxic. In addition, many patients have cell-mediated immunity directed against thyroid antigens. Cell mediated-immunity is also a feature of experimental thyroiditis induced in animals by injection of thyroid antigen with adjuvants. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is predominantly the clinical expression of cell-mediated immunity leading to destruction of thyroid cells, which in its severest form causes thyroid failure. The significance of genetic component and nongenetic risk factors (pregnancy, drugs, age, sex, infection, and irradiation) in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is also reviewed. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is important in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, although the pattern of inheritance is non-Mendelian and is likely to be influenced by subtle variations in the functions of multiple genes. Nongenetic risk factors (environmental factors) are also etiologically important, because the concordance rate in monozygotic twins is below 1.

  3. Knee osteoarthritis prevalence, risk factors, pathogenesis and features: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) a common disease of aged population and one of the leading causes of disability. Incidence of knee OA is rising by increasing average age of general population. Age, weight, trauma to joint due to repetiting movements in particular squatting and kneeling are common risk factors of knee OA. Several factors including cytokines, leptin, and mechanical forces are pathogenic factors of knee OA. In patients with knee pain attribution of pain to knee OA should be considered with caution. Since a proportion of knee OA are asymptomatic and in a number of patients identification of knee OA is not possible due to low sensitivity of radiographic examination. In this review data presented in regard to prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors. PMID:24024017

  4. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  5. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  6. Periodontal disease pathogenesis: genetic risk factors and paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Beth M; Roberts, Frank A

    2005-03-01

    Periodontitis is a widespread disease caused by oral bacteria and their interaction with lifestyle and genetic risk factors. The focus of periodontal research has expanded over the past few years to include significant progress in the understanding of genetic processes provided by the Human Genome Project. This presentation summarizes recent views on periodontal pathogenesis and the genetic risk factors involved in the disease. Additionally, it describes the paradigm shift in periodontal care, which is evolving from a repair-based to a wellness-based model.

  7. Nephrolithiasis and Risk of Incident Bone Fracture.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Feskanich, Diane; Paik, Julie M; Curhan, Gary C

    2016-05-01

    Higher urine calcium is a common feature of calcium nephrolithiasis and may be associated with lower bone mineral density in individuals with kidney stones. However previous population based studies of kidney stones and the risk of bone fracture demonstrate conflicting results. We examined independent associations between a history of kidney stones and incident fracture. We performed prospective studies using data from the Nurses' Health Study of 107,001 women with 32 years of followup and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study of 50,982 men with 26 years of followup. We excluded premenopausal women, men younger than 45 years and individuals who reported osteoporosis at baseline. Study outcomes were incident wrist (distal radius) or incident hip (proximal femur) fracture due to low or moderate trauma. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for multiple factors, including age, race, body mass index, thiazide use, supplemental calcium and dietary intakes. There were 4,940 wrist and 2,391 hip fractures in women, and 862 wrist and 747 hip fractures in men. All fractures were incident. The multivariable adjusted relative risk of incident wrist fracture in participants with a history of kidney stones compared to participants without kidney stones was 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.34) in women and 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.47) in men. The pooled multivariable adjusted relative risk of wrist fracture was 1.20 (95% CI 1.08-1.33). The multivariable adjusted relative risk of incident hip fracture in participants with kidney stones was 0.96 (95% CI 0.80-1.14) in women and 0.92 (95% CI 0.74-1.14) in men. The pooled multivariable adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 0.94 (95% CI 0.82-1.08). Nephrolithiasis is associated with a significantly higher risk of incident wrist but not hip fracture in women and men. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Risk Model for Lung Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Hoggart, Clive; Brennan, Paul; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Johansson, Mattias; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rasmuson, Torgny; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810–0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737–0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. PMID:22496387

  9. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Brener Dik, Pablo H; Niño Gualdron, Yeimy M; Galletti, María F; Cribioli, Carolina M; Mariani, Gonzalo L

    2017-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common chronic pulmonary sequela among very low birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence in our Neonatal Unit over the past 5 years and analyze associated risk factors. An observational and analytical study was conducted in a retrospective cohort, using data obtained from a prospective database of infants born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its association with several secondary outcome measures were studied. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The incidence of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%, and it was associated with a younger gestational age and lower birth weight. A significant association was observed with surfactant use, mechanical ventilation requirement, and length of mechanical ventilation. Patients with moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus and late-onset sepsis. A lower birth weight (adjusted odds ratio |-#91;aOR|-#93;: 0.99, 95% confidence interval |-#91;CI|-#93;: 0.991-0.997, p< 0.001) and the length of mechanical ventilation (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15, p < 0.01) remained associated following adjustment for other outcome measures. In addition, an association was observed among patients with intrauterine growth restriction born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.68-13.2). The incidence ofbronchopulmonary dysplasia in our unit was associated with a lower birth weight and the length of mechanical ventilation. Among infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth restriction accounted for an additional risk.

  10. Alzheimer's disease risk genes and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Karch, Celeste M; Goate, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    We review the genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their role in AD pathogenesis. More recent advances in understanding of the human genome-technologic advances in methods to analyze millions of polymorphisms in thousands of subjects-have revealed new genes associated with AD risk, including ABCA7, BIN1, CASS4, CD33, CD2AP, CELF1, CLU, CR1, DSG2, EPHA1, FERMT2, HLA-DRB5-DBR1, INPP5D, MS4A, MEF2C, NME8, PICALM, PTK2B, SLC24H4-RIN3, SORL1, and ZCWPW1. Emerging technologies to analyze the entire genome in large data sets have also revealed coding variants that increase AD risk: PLD3 and TREM2. We review the relationship between these AD risk genes and the cellular and neuropathologic features of AD. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the association of these genes with risk for disease will provide the most meaningful targets for therapeutic development to date. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  12. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-02-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

  13. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. PMID:23215650

  14. Plasmodium vivax: clinical spectrum, risk factors and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Nicholas M; Douglas, Nicholas M; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Price, Ric N

    2012-01-01

    Vivax malaria was historically described as 'benign tertian malaria' because individual clinical episodes were less likely to cause severe illness than Plasmodium falciparum. Despite this, Plasmodium vivax was, and remains, responsible for major morbidity and significant mortality in vivax-endemic areas. Single infections causing febrile illness in otherwise healthy individuals rarely progress to severe disease. Nevertheless, in the presence of co-morbidities, P. vivax can cause severe illness and fatal outcomes. Recurrent or chronic infections in endemic areas can cause severe anaemia and malnutrition, particularly in early childhood. Other severe manifestations include acute lung injury, acute kidney injury and uncommonly, coma. Multiorgan failure and shock are described but further studies are needed to investigate the role of bacterial and other co-infections in these syndromes. In pregnancy, P. vivax infection can cause maternal anaemia, miscarriage, low birth weight and congenital malaria. Compared to P. falciparum, P. vivax has a greater capacity to elicit an inflammatory response, resulting in a lower pyrogenic threshold. Conversely, cytoadherence of P. vivax to endothelial cells is less frequent and parasite sequestration is not thought to be a significant cause of severe illness in vivax malaria. With a predilection for young red cells, P. vivax does not result in the high parasite biomass associated with severe disease in P. falciparum, but a four to fivefold greater removal of uninfected red cells from the circulation relative to P. falciparum is associated with a similar risk of severe anaemia. Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe vivax syndromes remain incompletely understood.

  15. Clostridium difficile Infection: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Goudarzi, Hossein; Mehdizadeh Aghdam, Elnaz; Nazeri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of Clostridium difficile infection have increased remarkably in both hospital and community settings during the last two decades. The growth of infection may be caused by multiple factors including inappropriate antibiotic usage, poor standards of environmental cleanliness, changes in infection control practices, large outbreaks of C. difficile infection in hospitals, alteration of circulating strains of C. difficile, and spread of hypervirulent strains. Detection of high-risk populations could be helpful for prompt diagnosis and consequent treatment of patients suffering from C. difficile infection. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are recommended antibiotics for the treatment of initial infection. Current treatments for C. difficile infection consist of supportive care, discontinuing the unnecessary antibiotic, and specific antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, novel approaches include fidaxomicin therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and fecal microbiota transplantation mediated therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown relevant efficacy to overcome C. difficile infection and reduce its recurrence. PMID:24991448

  16. Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Pathogenesis, Incidence, and Current Management

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Bernardo L.

    2017-01-01

    Even when chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can be effectively controlled in the acute phase, it may still occur in the delayed phase. Identifying at-risk patients is complex and requires consideration of clinical, personal, demographic, and behavioral factors. Delayed CINV has a significant detrimental effect on patients’ daily life and is responsible for significant healthcare resource utilization. Patients who do not experience acute CINV are not necessarily exempt from delayed CINV, and healthcare professionals have been shown to underestimate the incidence of delayed CINV. Failure to protect against CINV during the first cycle of chemotherapy is the most significant independent risk factor for delayed CINV during subsequent cycles. Addition of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to antiemetic prophylactic regimens involving a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid helps to ameliorate delayed CINV, particularly vomiting. Netupitant and rolapitant are second-generation neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists that provide effective prophylaxis against delayed chemotherapy-induced vomiting and also have an antinausea benefit. All of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists with the exception of rolapitant inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and a reduced dose of dexamethasone (a CYP3A4 substrate) should be administered with aprepitant or netupitant; by contrast, this is not necessary with rolapitant. Here we review specific challenges associated with delayed CINV, its pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes relative to acute CINV, and its management within the larger context of overall CINV. PMID:28194109

  17. Evaluation of Incident Risks in a Repository for Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grundler, D.; Mariae, D.; Muller, W.; Boetsch, W.; Thiel, J.

    2008-07-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment of the operation phase of a repository for radioactive waste requires the knowledge of incident risks. These are evaluated from generic observations. The present method accounts for the uncertainty (1) of whether an incident occurs, (2) of the incident rate, (3) of the duration of generic observation, and (4) of the duration of operation phase of the repository. It yields a mean risk and its standard deviation from a minimum of generic data, comprising only the number of observed incidents and the duration of the observation, as more comprehensive generic data are seldom available. It was shown that incidents sharing a common generic observation must be either merged together to a total incident or the generic observation must be split up in sub-observations, one for each such incident. The method was tested on the example of the German Konrad repository for low-level waste in a deep geological formation. (authors)

  18. Rosacea: part I. Introduction, categorization, histology, pathogenesis, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Two, Aimee M; Wu, Wiggin; Gallo, Richard L; Hata, Tissa R

    2015-05-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects approximately 16 million Americans. Four distinct subtypes of rosacea have been recognized, with transient and nontransient facial flushing, telangiectasia, and inflammatory papules and pustules being among the more commonly recognized features. Although the exact pathogenesis of rosacea is unknown, dysregulation of the innate immune system, overgrowth of commensal skin organisms, and aberrant neurovascular signaling may all have a role in promoting the clinical features of rosacea.

  19. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  20. The incidence and risk of hip fracture in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, E; Kanis, J A; Trybulec, B; Johansson, H; Borowy, P; Osieleniec, J

    2009-08-01

    This study determined the incidence and probability of hip fractures in Poland based on verified hospital discharge notes from all of Poland. In the over-50-year-old population, hip fracture incidence was found to be 89/100,000 for men and 156/100,000 for women. Poland is among the countries with the lowest hip fracture risk in Europe. It is recommended that intervention thresholds should be based on an assessment of absolute fracture risk. Probability of hip fracture is calculated from the incidence of hip fracture in a given population and the incidence of death. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the absolute risk of hip fracture for men and women in Poland. The study was based on National Health Fund data from all of Poland for the year 2005. Hospital discharge notes reporting an incident fracture were identified from among all those containing a matching ICD code. Lifetime and 10-year fracture probabilities were calculated taking into account the mortality risk and BMD. In 2005, there were 17,625 hip fractures diagnosed in Poland which was 30.2% less than the number of hospital discharge notes containing such a diagnosis in that year. In the over-50-year-old population, hip fracture incidence was found to be 89/100,000 for men and 165/100,000 for women. In the 50-65-year band, hip fracture incidence was higher in men than in women. The remaining lifetime probability of hip fracture at the age of 50 years was 2.0% for men and 4.5% for women which are among the lowest in Europe. Hip fracture incidence and thus the probability of hip fracture risk in Poland is amongst the lowest in Europe. The authors recommend establishing a standard method for determining hip fracture incidence in a given country in order to standardize data.

  1. Copeptin, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Incident Diabetes in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Paul; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H.; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Context: Prior studies suggested a role for the arginine vasopressin (AVP) system in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Prospective studies on the association between copeptin (the C-terminal fragment of AVP hormone) and incident diabetes are limited. Objective: We have examined the association between plasma copeptin and the risk of incident diabetes in older men. Design: The British Regional Heart Study was a prospective study with an average of 13 years follow-up. Setting: General practices in the United Kingdom were studied. Participants: Participants were 3226 men aged 60 to 79 years with no prevalent diabetes. Outcome: We measured 253 patients with incident diabetes. Results: Copeptin was positively and significantly associated with renal dysfunction, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and liver function), C-reactive protein, tissue plasminogen activator, and von Willebrand factor (endothelial dysfunction) but not with plasma glucose. The risk of incident diabetes was significantly elevated only in men in the top fifth of the copeptin distribution (>6.79 pmol/L), and this risk persisted after adjustment for several diabetes risk factors including metabolic risk factors and C-reactive protein (adjusted hazard ratio in the top fifth vs the rest = 1.78 [95% confidence interval, 1.34–2.37]). Risk was markedly attenuated although it remained significant after further adjustment for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and plasma glucose (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.47 [1.11–1.97]). The increased risk was seen even when the analysis was restricted to men with no chronic kidney disease or to men with no impaired fasting glucose (<6.1 mmol/L). Conclusion: Copeptin is associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes in older men. The association is partly mediated through lower insulin sensitivity. The findings suggest a potential role

  2. [Pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Neurobiological risk factors and possible endophenotypes].

    PubMed

    Pászthy, Bea; Törzsök-Sonnevend, Mária

    2014-01-26

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious, chronical state of illness which often starts in childhood or adolescence and has serious consequences on the quality of life. This review focuses on the heterogenity of the disease with emphasis on special diagnostic implications in case of childhood onset. Research findings of the last decade showed that genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities are at least as potent risk factors as psychological, family constellations and sociocultural preferences. The heritability of eating disorders levels those of diseases predominantly influenced by biological factors. The authors give a summary of the most investigated neurobiologic and neurocognitive factors which could be the fundaments of a biological vulnerablilty. To date, no common risk factor could be identified, but some existing adversities can clearly be related to distinct subgroups with the disorder. The concept of endo- and subphenotypes leads to more specific and more efficient methods of therapy in other somatic and psychiatric diseases.

  3. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  4. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  6. Environmental Pollution: A Tangible Risk for NAFLD Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health. PMID:24213605

  7. Environmental pollution: a tangible risk for NAFLD pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-11-07

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health.

  8. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): incidence, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Kano, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome(DiHS), often referred to as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), is a life-threatening multi-organ system reaction induced by drugs and associated with sequential reactivations of herpesviruses. This syndrome has several unique features, creating uncertainty over whether it represents true drug eruption. Areas covered: A literature review of all the cases was made by a Pub Med search. The delayed onset, paradoxical worsening of clinical symptoms after withdrawal of the causative drug and unexplained cross-reactivity to multiple drugs are unique features of this syndrome, which could prompt infection to be an initial consideration. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are expanded at the acute stage but, upon clinical resolution, their function become gradually defective. Because such a gradual loss of Treg function occurring after resolution of DiHS/DRESS could increase the risk of developing autoimmune sequelae, systemic corticosteroids administered during the acute stage may serve to prevent not only tissue damage but also the gradual loss of Treg function by restoring the impaired Treg activity. Expert opinion: Systemic corticosteroids give promising results in terms of not only alleviating a variety of clinical symptoms at the acute stage but also of preventing the generation of autoimmune responses occurring at the resolution stage.

  9. Stroke incidence and risk factors in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Llibre-Guerra, J C; Valhuerdi Cepero, A; Fernández Concepción, O; Llibre-Guerra, J J; Gutiérrez, R F; Llibre-Rodriguez, J J

    2015-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third-leading cause of death and the second-leading cause of disability and dementia. Determine stroke incidence and risk factors in a population of adults aged 65 and over in Cuba (Havana and Matanzas). This prospective longitudinal study, completed between April 2008 and Abril 2011, re-evaluated 2916 elderly adults with an average follow-up time of 4 years. Cases included 2316 living subjects and 600 verbal autopsies. Study variables were age, sex, educational level, self-reported health, and description of chronic diseases and substance abuse. Laboratory tests included genotyping APOE. Stroke was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization definition. We calculated the global incidence rate for stroke, broken down by sex, age group, and risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was 786.2 in 100000 persons/year (95% CI: 672.3-906.4). History of alcohol consumption (HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 3.3-3.7), dementia (HR: 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5) and male sex (HR: 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) were shown to be risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was similar to rates reported in developed countries and lower than that in low- to middle-income countries. Given that diabetes mellitus, heart disease, arterial hypertension, smoking, APOE4, etc. are associated with higher mortality rates, they will require separate analysis in a study of stroke risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Infantile Hemangiomas: An Updated Review on Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chelsey J Forbess; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Guma, Monica; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-04-12

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumors in infants, appearing in early infancy and ultimately regressing with time. Clinical presentation may vary, with a minority of lesions causing impairment of vital function (e.g., respiratory or visual obstruction), permanent scarring, and/or disfigurement. The pathogenesis of IH is complex and poorly understood. Risk factors implicated in their development include preterm birth and placental anomalies. IH presents a myriad of clinical challenges, including correct diagnosis and whether or not to pursue treatment. This article is a review of the current literature regarding pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis of IH. Birth Defects Research, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modifiable Lifestyle Risk Factors and Incident Diabetes in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Effoe, Valery S; Okhomina, Victoria; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Hsueh, Willa A; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-08-14

    The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%) were estimated using Poisson regression modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, and BMI. Outcomes were collected 2005-2012 and data analyzed in 2016. Over 7.6 years, there were 560 incident diabetes cases (mean age=53.3 years, 64% female). An average or optimal compared to poor risk factor categorization was associated with a 21% (IRR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62, 0.99) and 31% (IRR=0.69, 95% CI=0.48, 1.01) lower risk of diabetes. Among participants with BMI <30, IRRs for average or optimal compared to poor categorization were 0.60 (95% CI=0.40, 0.91) and 0.53 (95% CI=0.29, 0.97) versus 0.90 (95% CI=0.67, 1.21) and 0.83 (95% CI=0.51, 1.34) among participants with BMI ≥30. A combination of modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with a lower risk of diabetes among AAs, particularly among those without obesity. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of incident atrial fibrillation in gout: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyoung C; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Recent studies suggest an association between inflammation, hyperuricaemia and AF, but little is known whether gout is associated with AF risk. Using data from a US commercial insurance plan (2004-2013), we conducted a cohort study to evaluate the risk of incident AF in patients with gout versus osteoarthritis. Patients with gout or osteoarthritis were identified with ≥2 diagnoses and ≥1 dispensing for gout or osteoarthritis medications. Incident AF was defined as a new AF diagnosis and a new dispensing for anticoagulants or antiarrhythmics. The risk of incident AF in gout was also compared with the non-gout group. We identified 70 015 patients with gout and 210 045 with osteoarthritis, matched on age, sex and index date. The mean age was 57 years, and 81% were men. Over the mean 2-year follow-up, the incidence rate of AF per 1000 person-years was 7.19 in gout and 5.87 in osteoarthritis. The age, sex and index date-matched HR of AF was 1.23 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.32) in gout versus osteoarthritis. In a multivariable Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, medications and healthcare usage, the HR of AF in gout was 1.13 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.23). When compared with non-gout, the multivariable HR of AF in gout was also increased (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.33). In this large population-based cohort study, gout was associated with a modestly increased risk of incident AF compared with osteoarthritis and non-gout after adjusting for other risk factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Serum phosphorus levels and risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Xie, Yan; Bowe, Benjamin; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Higher serum phosphorous is associated with cerebral small vessel disease, an important driver of cognitive decline and dementia. Whether serum phosphorous, a potentially modifiable parameter, associates with risk of incident dementia is not known. We aimed to examine the association between serum phosphorous and risk of incident dementia and to determine if the association is modified by age. We used the United States Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a longitudinal observational cohort of US veterans without prior history of dementia and with at least one outpatient serum phosphorus between October 2008 and September 2010 and followed them until September 2014. Serum phosphorus was categorized into quintiles: ≤2.9, >2.9 to ≤3.2, >3.2 to ≤3.5, >3.5 to ≤3.9, >3.9 mg/dL. There were 744,235 participants in the overall cohort. Over a median follow-up of 5.07 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4.28, 5.63), adjusted Cox models show that compared to quintile 2, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.05; CI = 1.01–1.10) and quintile 5 (HR = 1.14; CI = 1.09–1.20). In cohort participants ≤60 years old, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (HR = 1.29; CI = 1.12–1.49) and 5 (HR = 1.45; CI = 1.26–1.68). In participants > 60 years old, the risk was not significant in quintile 4, and was attenuated in quintile 5 (HR = 1.10; CI = 1.05–1.16). Formal interaction analyses showed that the association between phosphorous and dementia was more pronounced in those younger than 60, and attenuated in those older than 60 (P for interaction was 0.004 and <0.0001 in quintiles 4 and 5; respectively). We conclude that higher serum phosphorous is associated with increased risk of incident dementia. This association is stronger in younger cohort participants. The identification of serum phosphorous as a risk factor for incident dementia has public health relevance and might inform the

  14. Incidence and risk factors for skin cancer following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rashtak, Shadi; Dierkhising, Ross A; Kremers, Walter K; Peters, Steve G; Cassivi, Stephen D; Otley, Clark C

    2015-01-01

    Relative to other solid-organ transplantations, limited studies characterize skin cancer among lung-transplant recipients. We sought to assess the cumulative incidence, tumor burden, and risk factors for skin cancer among patients with lung transplantation. Medical records of patients at Mayo Clinic who had undergone lung transplantation between 1990 and 2011 were reviewed (N = 166). At 5 and 10 years posttransplantation the cumulative incidence was 31% and 47% for any skin cancer, 28% and 42% for squamous cell carcinoma, 12% and 21% for basal cell carcinoma, and 53% and 86% for death, respectively. Four patients died of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The cumulative incidence for a subsequent skin cancer of the same type 4 years after an initial skin cancer was 85% and 43% for squamous and basal cell carcinoma, respectively. Increasing age, male gender, skin cancer history, and more recent year of transplantation were associated with increased risk of skin cancer posttransplantation. Sirolimus was not associated with decreased risk, nor did voriconazole show an increased risk for skin cancer. Retrospective and tertiary single-center design of the study is a limitation. Skin cancers frequently occur in lung-transplant recipients. The risk of subsequent skin cancer is increased substantially in patients who develop a skin cancer after their transplantation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    PubMed

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment as a Predictor of Caries Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated clinical outcomes following caries risk assessment in large datasets that reflect risk assessments performed during routine practice. OBJECTIVE From clinical records, compare 18-month caries incidence according to baseline caries risk designation. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from electronic records of non-edentulous adult patients who completed an oral examination and caries risk assessment (CRA) at a university instructional clinic from 2007 to 2012 (N=18,004 baseline patients). The primary outcome was the number of new decayed/restored teeth from the initial CRA to the ensuing oral examination, through June 30, 2013 (N=4468 patients with follow-up). We obtained doubly-robust estimates for 18-month caries increment by baseline CRA category (low, moderate, high, extreme), adjusted for patient characteristics (age, sex, payer type, race/ethnicity, number of teeth), provider type, and calendar year. RESULTS Adjusted mean decayed, restored tooth (DFT) increment from baseline to follow-up was greater with each rising category of baseline caries risk, from low (0.94), moderate (1.26), high (1.79), to extreme (3.26). The percentage of patients with any newly affected teeth (DFT increment >0) was similar among low-risk and moderate-risk patients (cumulative incidence ratio, RR: 1.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.23), but was increased relative to low-risk patients among high-risk (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.52), and extreme-risk patients (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS These results lend evidence that baseline caries risk predicts future caries in this setting, supporting the use of caries risk assessment to identify candidate patients for more intensive preventive therapy. PMID:25731155

  17. Reduced Risk of Incident Kidney Cancer from Walking and Running

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test whether incident kidney cancer risk is associated with exercise energy expenditure (i.e., metabolic equivalents, 1 MET) when calculated from distance walked or run. Methods Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) from Cox proportional hazard analyses of self-reported physician-diagnosed incident kidney cancer vs. MET-hours/wk in 91,820 subjects recruited between 1991 and 1993 (7.7 yr follow-up of 42,833 subjects) and between 1998 and 1999 (6.4 yr follow-up of 33,053 subjects) as part of the National Runners' Health Study and between 1998 and 1999 as part of the National Walkers' Health Study (5.7 yr follow-up of 15,934 subjects). Results Fifty-two incident cancers were reported. Age- and sex-adjusted risk declined 1.9% per MET-hour/wk run or walked (HR: 0.981; 95%CI: 0.964 to 0.997, P=0.02). Compared to walking or running below guidelines levels (<7.5 MET-hours/wk), the risk for incident kidney cancer was 61% lower for meeting the guidelines (HR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.11 to 1.08, P=0.07 for 7.5 to 12.5 MET-hours/wk), 67% lower for exercising one to two-times the recommended level (HR: 0.33; 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.72, P=0.005 for 12.6 to 25.1 MET-hours/wk), and 76.3% lower for exercising ≥2-times the recommended level (HR: 0.24; 95%CI: 0.11 to 0.52, P=0.0005 for ≥25.2 MET-hours/wk). Incident kidney cancer risk also increased in association with baseline BMI (P=0.002), smoking (P=0.02), and hypertensive (P=0.007) and diabetes medication use (P=0.01), however, exercise-associated reductions in kidney cancer risk persisted for 12.6 to 25.1 MET-hours/wk (HR: 0.35, P=0.01), and ≥ 25.2 MET-hours/wk (HR: 0.29, P=0.004) vis-à-vis <7.5 MET-hours/wk when also adjusted for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and pack-years smoked. Conclusion Running and walking may reduce incident kidney cancer risk independent of its other known risk factors. PMID:23863620

  18. Reduced risk of incident kidney cancer from walking and running.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to test whether incident kidney cancer risk is associated with exercise energy expenditure (i.e., metabolic equivalents, 1 MET) when calculated from distance walked or run. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from Cox proportional hazard analyses of self-reported physician-diagnosed incident kidney cancer versus MET-hours per week in 91,820 subjects recruited between 1991 and 1993 (7.7 yr follow-up of 42,833 subjects) and between 1998 and 1999 (6.4 yr follow-up of 33,053 subjects) as part of the National Runners' Health Study and between 1998 and 1999 as part of the National Walkers' Health Study (5.7 yr follow-up of 15,934 subjects). Fifty-two incident cancers were reported. Age- and sex-adjusted risk declined 1.9% per MET-hour per week run or walked (HR = 0.981, 95% CI = 0.964-0.997, P = 0.02). Compared with walking or running below guidelines levels (<7.5 MET·h·wk(-1)), the risk for incident kidney cancer was 61% lower for meeting the guidelines (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.11-1.08, P = 0.07 for 7.5-12.5 MET·h·wk(-1)), 67% lower for exercising one to two times the recommended level (HR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.15-0.72, P = 0.005 for 12.6-25.1 MET·h·wk(-1)), and 76.3% lower for exercising two times or more the recommended level (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.11-0.52, P = 0.0005 for ≥ 25.2 MET·h·wk(-1)). Incident kidney cancer risk also increased in association with baseline body mass index (P = 0.002), smoking (P = 0.02), and hypertensive (P = 0.007) and diabetes medication use (P = 0.01); however, exercise-associated reductions in kidney cancer risk persisted for 12.6-25.1 MET·h·wk(-1) (HR = 0.35, P = 0.01) and ≥ 25.2 MET·h·wk(-1) (HR = 0.29, P = 0.004) vis-à-vis <7.5 MET·h·wk(-1) when also adjusted for body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and pack-years smoked. Running and walking may reduce incident kidney cancer risk independent of its other known risk factors.

  19. Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Incident Gout

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Peloquin, Christine E.; Dubreuil, Maureen; Roddy, Edward; Lu, Na; Neogi, Tuhina; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep apnea is associated with hyperuricemia owing to hypoxia-induced nucleotide turnover. We undertook this study to assess the relationship between incident sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout. Methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network in the UK, we identified individuals with a first-ever physician diagnosis of sleep apnea. For each patient with sleep apnea, up to 5 individuals without sleep apnea were matched by sex, age, birth year, and body mass index (within ±0.5 kg/m2). We estimated the incidence rates of gout and examined the relationship between sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, we assessed the rate difference in gout due to sleep apnea using an additive hazard model. Results Among 9,865 patients with newly diagnosed sleep apnea and 43,598 matched individuals without sleep apnea, we identified 270 incident cases of gout over 1 year of followup, resulting in incidence rates of 8.4 per 1,000 person-years and 4.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The crude and multivariable rate ratios of incident gout in patients with sleep apnea were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3, 2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.1), respectively. The corresponding rate differences between patients with sleep apnea and the comparison cohort were 3.6 (95% CI 1.6, 5.6) and 2.8 (95% CI 0.7, 4.9) per 1,000 person-years. The effect of sleep apnea persisted across subgroups. Conclusion This general population–based study indicates that sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased risk of incident gout. Future research should examine the potential benefits of correcting sleep apnea–induced hypoxia on the risk of hyperuricemia and gout flares. PMID:26477891

  20. Incidence and potential risk factors of obesity among Tehranian adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Mirbolouk, Mohammadhassan; Mossadeghkhah, Ali; Barzin, Maryam; Serahati, Sara; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the incidence of obesity and its risk factors among Tehranian adults. In this population-based cohort, non-obese participants, aged ≥20years, were followed for development of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30). Incidence density and cumulative incidence rates of obesity were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential obesity risk factors including: age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference (WC), smoking, marital status, education, and physical activity. A total of 7257 participants (3536 men) were followed for a median of 8years. At baseline, mean age, BMI and WC were 41.3±14.6years, 25.1±2.9kg/m(2) (24.9±3kg/m(2) men and 25.2±3kg/m(2) women), and 84.8±9.8cm (87.06±9.2cm men and 82.6±9.9cm women) respectively. During the follow-up, 1345 participants (876 women) developed obesity contributing to cumulative incidences of 31.3% (CI: 29.9%-32.7%), 38.1% (CI: 36.2%-40.1%), and 23.4% (CI: 21.6%-25.3%) for the whole population, women, and men, respectively. Corresponding incidence density rates per 1000 person-year were 25.9 (CI: 24.5-27.3), 33.67 (CI: 31.5-36.0), and 18.0 (CI: 16.5-19.7), respectively. Highest incidence rates were observed during their 40s and 20s for women and men, respectively. Participants with metabolic syndrome, lower educational level, higher BMI and WC, were at higher risk of obesity development in both sexes. High incidence of obesity was observed among Tehranian adults with higher incidence of obesity in women. Different modifiable variables may act as risk factors for obesity development which should be targeted to control the epidemic of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative Risk and Incidence for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Virginie; Percy, Vanessa; Prior, Heather J

    2017-02-01

    To determine the incidence and associated risk factors of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in a modern population without universal screening. Children with DDH were identified from the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy's Data Repository by the use of International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes as well as physician billing tariffs for surgical procedures for DDH for all children born between 1995 and 2012. To identify the outpatient-treated patients, ultrasound scans and radiographic imaging for DDH were reviewed for 2004-2012. Overall incidence was calculated on the basis of birth rate for the province per year. Relative risks of sex, first born, breech position, clubfoot deformity, multiple gestations, as well as regional health areas were analyzed with χ(2) tests. We identified 1716 cases of DDH of 258 499 newborns. The incidence of DDH was calculated at 6.6/1000 newborns. Late-presenting DDH was detected in 2.2/1000 newborns. Female first-born children, clubfoot deformity, and breech position were associated significantly with an increased risk. Children with DDH born in rural areas of the Northern and Central part of Manitoba presented at a later age than those who are born in the urban areas (P < .0001) CONCLUSION: This study shows the need for improved early detection and awareness at well-baby clinics of risk factors and regional differences for DDH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharyngocutaneous fistula: the incidence and the risk factors.

    PubMed

    Šifrer, Robert; Aničin, Aleksandar; Pohar, Maja Perme; Žargi, Miha; Pukl, Peter; Soklič, Tanja; Strojan, Primož

    2016-10-01

    A pharyngocutaneous fistula is the most common complication following laryngectomy. A wide range of potential risk factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for the fistula at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery in Ljubljana, Slovenia between 2007 and 2012. Charts from patients treated for head and neck cancer by laryngectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Comprehensive clinicopathologic data were collected including potential risk factors related to the patient, disease, surgery and postoperative period. The patients were categorised into the group with the fistula (a study group) and without it (a control group). The incidence of the fistula was calculated and the groups were statistically compared according to potential risk factors using the Chi square test, Fisher exact test, T test, Mann-Whitney U test and binary logistic regression analysis. Hundred fifty-eight patients were included. The incidence of the fistula was 30.4 %. In the primary laryngectomy group the incidence was 22.6 %, whereas in the salvage laryngectomy group 44.6 % (p = 0.006). The independent predictors for the fistula were history of head and neck cancer (p = 0.001), invasion of piriform sinus (p = 0.020) and surgical wound infection (p < 0.001). The timing of surgical wound infection could be of some importance. In the PCF group, it started on the 5th postoperative day, whereas in the control group on the 7th postoperative day (p = 0.063). Decreasing the rate of surgical wound infection could diminish the fistula rate.

  3. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm - 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am - 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients.

  4. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. OBJECTIVE An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. PARTICIPANTS Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. METHODS Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. RESULTS Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm – 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am – 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. CONCLUSION Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients. PMID:24894691

  5. Incidence and risk factors for bumblefoot (pododermatitis) in rehabilitated raptors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lainz, A J; Hird, D W; Kass, P H; Brooks, D L

    1997-08-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 821 raptors of 12 representative species, admitted to the California Raptor Center (CRC), during 1980-1990. The incidence rate for bumblefoot was 52 cases per 100 bird-years at risk. Eagles and hawks (buteos) were more likely to develop bumblefoot, and did so earlier during their captivity than other species. Also, raptors admitted with a limb fracture had the greatest risk (OR = 4.2) of developing bumblefoot than any other condition on entry. Median time from admission to development of bumblefoot was 52 days, and median duration of bumblefoot was 23 days.

  6. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Incident Clinical Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Messer, Karen; Till, Cathee; Thompson, Ian M.; Kristal, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among older men, there remains a notable absence of studies focused on BPH prevention. Objective To determine if finasteride prevents incident clinical BPH in healthy older men. Design, setting, and participants Data for this study are from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. After excluding those with a history of BPH diagnosis or treatment, or an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 at study entry, 9253 men were available for analysis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome was incident clinical BPH, defined as the initiation of medical treatment, surgery, or sustained, clinically significant urinary symptoms (IPSS >14). Finasteride efficacy was estimated using Cox proportional regression models to generate hazards ratios (HRs). Results and limitations Mean length of follow-up was 5.3 yr. The rate of clinical BPH was 19 per 1000 person-years in the placebo arm and 11 per 1000 person-years in the finasteride arm (p < 0.001). In a covariate-adjusted model, finasteride reduced the risk of incident clinical BPH by 40% (HR: 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.69; p < 0.001). The effect of finasteride on incident clinical BPH was attenuated in men with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (pinteraction = 0.04) but otherwise did not differ significantly by physical activity, age, race, current diabetes, or current smoking. The post hoc nature of the analysis is a potential study limitation. Conclusions Finasteride substantially reduces the risk of incident clinical BPH in healthy older men. These results should be considered in formulating recommendations for the use of finasteride to prevent prostate diseases in asymptomatic older men. PMID:22459892

  7. Obstetric anal sphincter injury: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Dudding, Thomas C; Vaizey, Carolynne J; Kamm, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Obstetric sphincter damage is the most common cause of fecal incontinence in women. This review aimed to survey the literature, and reach a consensus, on its incidence, risk factors, and management. This systematic review identified relevant studies from the following sources: Medline, Cochrane database, cross referencing from identified articles, conference abstracts and proceedings, and guidelines published by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (United Kingdom), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (United Kingdom), and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. A total of 451 articles and abstracts were reviewed. There was a wide variation in the reported incidence of anal sphincter muscle injury from childbirth, with the true incidence likely to be approximately 11% of postpartum women. Risk factors for injury included instrumental delivery, prolonged second stage of labor, birth weight greater than 4 kg, fetal occipitoposterior presentation, and episiotomy. First vaginal delivery, induction of labor, epidural anesthesia, early pushing, and active restraint of the fetal head during delivery may be associated with an increased risk of sphincter trauma. The majority of sphincter tears can be identified clinically by a suitably trained clinician. In those with recognized tears at the time of delivery repair should be performed using long-term absorbable sutures. Patients presenting later with fecal incontinence may be managed successfully using antidiarrheal drugs and biofeedback. In those who fail conservative treatment, and who have a substantial sphincter disruption, elective repair may be attempted. The results of primary and elective repair may deteriorate with time. Sacral nerve stimulation may be an appropriate alternative treatment modality. Obstetric anal sphincter damage, and related fecal incontinence, are common. Risk factors for such trauma are well recognized, and should allow for reduction of injury by proactive

  8. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Risk of Incident CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Okada, Hiroshi; Senmaru, Takafumi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Toda, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) is a unique obesity phenotype that apparently protects people from the metabolic complications of obesity. The association between MHO phenotype and incident CKD is unclear. Thus, this study investigated the association between MHO phenotype and incident CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A total of 3136 Japanese participants were enrolled in an 8-year follow-up cohort study in 2001. Metabolically healthy status was assessed by common clinical markers: BP, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2 was defined as obesity. CKD was defined by proteinuria or eGFR of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. To calculate the odds ratio for incident CKD, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The crude incidence proportions of CKD were 2.6% (56 of 2122 participants) in participants with the metabolically healthy nonobesity phenotype, 2.6% (8 of 302) in those with the MHO phenotype, 6.7% (30 of 445) in those with the metabolically abnormal nonobesity phenotype, and 10.9% (29 of 267) in those with the metabolically abnormal obesity phenotype. Compared with metabolically healthy nonobesity phenotype, the odds ratios for incident CKD were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.36 to 1.72; P=0.64) for MHO, 1.44 (95% CI, 0.80 to 2.57; P=0.22) for metabolically abnormal nonobesity, and 2.80 (95% CI, 1.45 to 5.35; P=0.02) for metabolically abnormal obesity phenotype after adjustment for confounders, including age, sex, smoking statues, alcohol use, creatinine, uric acid, systolic BP, HDL cholesterol, and impaired fasting glucose or diabetes. Conclusion MHO phenotype was not associated with higher risk of incident CKD. PMID:25635035

  9. Developing risk management behaviours for nurses through medication incident analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Tran, Duong Thuy; Young, Helen

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define risk management behaviours related to medication safety. Mixed methods were used to analyze 318 nursing related medication incidents reported in an Australian metropolitan hospital. Most incidents did not result in patient harm (93%). Omission of medications was the most frequent often related to patient absences from the unit or nurses failing to sign for medications. Thematic analysis resulted in the Medication Safety Subscales including 29 behavioural statements within three domains-administering medications, storage and management of medications, managing adverse events related to medications. The Medication Safety Subscales can be used by managers, educators and clinicians to reinforce the importance of medication safety. Early action by nurses may reduce patient injury.

  10. Incidence and relative risk of hearing disorders in professional musicians

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Tania; Kreutz, Gunter; Busch, Veronika; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing disorders have been associated with occupational exposure to music. Musicians may benefit from non-amplified and low-intensity music, but may also have high risks of music-induced hearing loss. Aims To compare the incidence of hearing loss (HL) and its subentities in professional musicians with that in the general population. Methods We performed a historical cohort study among insurants between 19 and 66 years who were employed subject to social insurance contributions. The study was conducted with data from three German statutory health insurance providers covering the years 2004–2008 with about 7 million insurants. Incidence rates with 95% CIs of HL and the subentities noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), conductive HL, sensorineural HL, conductive and sensorineural HL, as well as tinnitus were estimated stratified by age, sex and federal state. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate adjusted HRs and two-sided 95% CIs for HL and its subentities. Results More than 3 million insurants were eligible, of whom 2227 were identified as professional musicians (0.07%). During the 4-year observation period, 283 697cases of HL were seen, 238 of them among professional musicians (0.08%), leading to an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.27. The adjusted hazard ratio of musicians was 1.45 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.65) for HL and 3.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 7.20) for NIHL. Conclusions Professional musicians have a high risk of contracting hearing disorders. Use of already available prevention measures should reduce the incidence of HL in professional musicians. PMID:24790053

  11. Metabolic Risk Factors of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications in the Pathology, Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Banerjee, Anindita; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Biswas, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the major cause of dementia among the elderly world-wide, manifests in familial and sporadic forms, and the latter variety accounts for the majority of the patients affected by this disease. The etiopathogenesis of sporadic AD is complex and uncertain. The autopsy studies of AD brain have provided limited understanding of the antemortem pathogenesis of the disease. Experimental AD research with transgenic animal or various cell based models has so far failed to explain the complex and varied spectrum of AD dementia. The review, therefore, emphasizes the importance of AD related risk factors, especially those with metabolic implications, identified from various epidemiological studies, in providing clues to the pathogenesis of this complex disorder. Several metabolic risk factors of AD like hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and type 2 diabetes have been studied extensively both in epidemiology and experimental research, while much less is known about the role of adipokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and vitamin D in this context. Moreover, the results from many of these studies have shown a degree of variability which has hindered our understanding of the role of AD related risk factors in the disease progression. The review also encompasses the recent recommendations regarding clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD and brings out the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity in this area which may have a distinct impact on the outcome of various population-based studies on AD-related risk factors. PMID:26236550

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk for Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Malspeis, Susan; Keyes, Katherine; Costenbader, Karen; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk in a prospective cohort and to characterize the role of smoking in this relationship. Methods A subset (N = 54,224) of the Nurses’ Health Study II, a prospective cohort of female nurses, completed the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a screen for PTSD symptoms. Participants were categorized based on trauma exposure and number of PTSD symptoms. Incident RA cases (N = 239) from 1989 to 2011 were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) between PTSD symptoms and incident RA. To identify the impact of smoking, secondary and subgroup analyses were performed. In all analyses, PTSD and smoking were lagged two years before the development of RA. Results Compared to no history of trauma/PTSD symptoms, the HR for ≥4 PTSD symptoms and incident RA was 1.76 (95% CI 1.16, 2.67) in models adjusted for age, race and socioeconomic status. The risk for RA increased with increasing number of PTSD symptoms (P = 0.01). When smoking was added to the model, the HR for RA remained elevated (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05, 2.43). In a subgroup analysis, excluding women who smoked before PTSD onset, results were unchanged (HR 1.68; 95% CI 1.04, 2.70). Conclusion This study suggests that women with high PTSD symptomatology have an elevated risk for RA, independent of smoking, adding to emerging evidence that stress is an important determinant of physical health. PMID:26239524

  13. Vitamin D Intake and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Kidney stones are a common and painful condition. Longitudinal prospective studies on the association between intake of vitamin D and risk of incident kidney stones are lacking. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective analysis of 193,551 participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and II. Participants were divided into categories of total (<100, 100–199, 200–399, 400–599, 600–999, ≥1,000 IU/day) and supplemental (none, <400, 400–599, 600–999, ≥1,000 IU/day) vitamin D intake. During a follow-up of 3,316,846 person-years, there were 6,576 incident kidney stone events. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, BMI, comorbidities, use of medications and intake of other nutrients. Results After multivariate adjustment, there was no statistically significant association between intake of vitamin D and risk of stones in HPFS (HR for ≥1,000 vs <100 IU/day 1.08, 95% CI 0.80, 1.47, p-value for trend = 0.92) and NHS I (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73, 1.35, p-value for trend = 0.70), whereas there was a suggestion of higher risk in NHS II (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.94, 1.48, p-value for trend = 0.02). Similar results were found for supplemental vitamin D intake. Conclusions Vitamin D intake in typical amounts was not statistically associated with risk of kidney stone formation, though higher risk with higher doses than those studied here cannot be excluded. PMID:27545576

  14. Defining Incidence and Risk Factors of Venous Thromboemolism after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Aslam; Spolverato, Gaya; Kim, Yuhree; Lucas, Donald L.; Lau, Brandyn; Weiss, Matthew; Johnston, Fabian M.; Kheng, Marian; Hirose, Kenzo; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Haut, Elliott; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among patients undergoing hepatic surgery is poorly defined, leading to varied use of VTE prophylaxis among surgeons. We sought to define the incidence of VTE after liver surgery and identify risk factors associated with VTE. Methods Incidence of VTE and associated risk factors within 90 days of hepatic resection between 2006 and 2012 at a major academic center was analyzed. Risk factors for VTE were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 599 patients were included in the study cohort; 30 (5.0 %) had a prior history of VTE. The indications for surgery were malignant (90.8 %) and benign lesions (9.2 %). The majority of patients underwent a minor hepatectomy (<3 Couinaud segments; n =402, 67.1 %) while 195 (32.6 %) patients underwent a major hepatectomy (≥3 Couinaud segments). Three hundred seven (51.3 %) patients were started on VTE chemoprophylaxis preoperatively with 407 (67.8 %) patients receiving VTE chemoprophylaxis within 24 h of surgery. Twenty-eight (4.7 %) patients developed VTE; 20 (3.3 %) had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 11 (1.8 %) had pulmonary embolism (PE), and three (0.5 %) developed both DVTand PE. Among the VTE patients, 23 (82.1 %) had received VTE chemoprophylaxis. On multivariate analyses, history of VTE (odds ratio [OR] 4.51, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.81–17.22, P =0.03), prolonged operative time (OR 1.17 per additional hour, 95 % CI 1.04–1.32, P =0.009), and increased length of stay (LOS) (OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.02–1.12, P =0.01) were independent risk factors for VTE. Conclusion VTE within 90 days of hepatic resection is common, occurring in nearly one in 20 patients. Most VTE events occurred among patients who received current best practice prophylaxis for VTE. More aggressive strategies to identify and reduce the risk of VTE in patients at highest risk of VTE, including those with a history of VTE, extended operative time, and prolonged LOS

  15. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  16. Retinol binding protein 4 and incident diabetes – the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Vivian C.; Pereira, Mark; Pankow, James S.; Ballantyne, Christie; Couper, David; Heiss, Gerardo; Duncan, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been described as a link between impaired glucose uptake in adipocytes and systemic insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine whether RBP4 fasting levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Methods Using a case-cohort design, we followed 543 middle-aged individuals who developed diabetes and 537 who did not over ~9 years within the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Weighted Cox proportional hazards analyses permitted statistical inference of the RBP4 – incident diabetes associations to the entire cohort. Results Women in the highest tertile of RBP4 presented greater risk of developing diabetes (HR=1.74; 95%CI 1.03–2.94) in analyses adjusted for age, ethnicity, study center, parental history of diabetes, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, nonesterified fatty acids, adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL-C. When additionally adjusted for fasting insulin, this association’s significance became borderline (HR=1.68; 95%CI 1.00–2.82). No association between RBP4 levels and incident diabetes was found in men. Conclusion These findings suggest that RBP4 levels may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in women. PMID:24142010

  17. Cancer incidence risks to patients due to hysterosalpingography

    PubMed Central

    Gyekye, Prince K.; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Boadu, Mary; Darko, Emmanuel O.; Yeboah, Johnson; Inkoom, Stephen; Mensah, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer incidence estimates and dosimetry of 120 patients undergoing hysterosalpingography (HSG) without screening at five rural hospitals and with screening using image intensifier-TV at an urban hospital have been studied. Free in air kerma measurements were taken for patient dosimetry. Using PCXMC version 1.5, organ and effective doses to patients were estimated. Incidence of cancer of the ovary, colon, bladder and uterus due to radiation exposure were estimated using biological effects of ionising radiation committee VII excess relative risk models. The effective dose to patients was estimated to be 0.20 ± 0.03 mSv and 0.06 ± 0.01 mSv for procedures with and without screening, respectively. The average number of exposures for both procedures, 2.5, and screening time of 48.1 s were recorded. Screening time contributed majority of the patient doses due to HSG; therefore, it should be optimised as much as possible. Of all the cancers considered, the incidence of cancer of the bladder for patients undergoing HSG procedures is more probable. PMID:22557802

  18. Incidence and risk conditions of ischemic stroke in older adults.

    PubMed

    Satue, E; Vila-Corcoles, A; Ochoa-Gondar, O; de Diego, C; Forcadell, M J; Rodriguez-Blanco, T; Barnes, L; Jariod, M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate incidence and mortality from ischemic stroke in older adults with specific underlying chronic conditions, evaluating the influence of these conditions in developing stroke. Population-based cohort study involving 27,204 individuals ≥60 years old in Southern Catalonia, Spain. All cases of hospitalization from ischemic stroke (confirmed by neuro-imaging) were collected from 01/12/2008 until 30/11/2011. Incidence rates and 30-day mortality were estimated according to age, sex, chronic illnesses, and underlying conditions. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to calculate Hazards Ratio (HR) and estimate the association between baseline conditions and risk of developing stroke. Mean incidence rate reached 453 cases per 100,000 person-years. Maximum rates appeared among individuals with history of prior stroke (2926 per 100,000), atrial fibrillation (1815 per 100,000), coronary artery disease (1104 per 100,000), nursing-home residence (1014 per 100,000), and advanced age ≥80 years (1006 per 100,000). Thirty-day mortality was 13% overall, reaching 21% among patients over 80 years. Age [HR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.07], history of prior stroke (HR: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.96-6.51), history of coronary artery disease (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.21-2.25), atrial fibrillation (HR: 2.96; 95% CI: 2.30-3.81), diabetes mellitus (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23-1.95), and smoking (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.15-2.34) emerged independently associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Incidence and mortality from ischemic stroke remains considerable. Apart from age and history of atherosclerosis (prior stroke or coronary artery disease), atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and smoking were the underlying conditions most strongly associated with an increased risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Measurement in epidemiology: prevalence, incidence, risk, impact measures].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Measurement is essential in epidemiology, and this is why detailed knowledge of the different measures that are estimated in this discipline is necessary, since information interpretation and, most importantly, the decisions made in the care of patients depend on it. This article describes the three main groups of measures in epidemiology: frequency, association and potential impact; examples and instructions for their calculation are also provided. Incidence and prevalence are the most significant frequency measures, and can be obtained when both morbidity and mortality of diseases are studied. In descriptive epidemiology these measures are fundamental and involve studying how the disease is distributed in the population, in particular, the incidence according to the individual, place and time. The measures of association that are used in analytical epidemiology, such as prevalence ratio, odds ratio and relative risk, are also detailed. In addition, attributable risk, population and etiological fractions of exposed subjects and measures of potential impact are addressed. In general, it is important to consider that the relevance of calculating the frequency, association and potential impact measures depends on the study design.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Kelika A.; Roberts, Chelsea P.; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Leon, Segundo R.; Clark, Jesse L.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru. Methods Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02). Results Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05%) were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1–1:1024) with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR) 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001) and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001) were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001), not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035), higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001), unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003), HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001) and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003) were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR) 6.18; P <0.001), men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001), and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008) were significantly associated

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru.

    PubMed

    Park, Hayoung; Konda, Kelika A; Roberts, Chelsea P; Maguiña, Jorge L; Leon, Segundo R; Clark, Jesse L; Coates, Thomas J; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru. Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02). Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05%) were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1-1:1024) with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR) 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001) and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001) were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001), not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035), higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001), unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003), HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001) and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003) were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR) 6.18; P <0.001), men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001), and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008) were significantly associated. We report a high rate of syphilis

  2. Fukushima nuclear incident: the challenges of risk communication.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew G; Pengilley, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the Sanriku coast of Japan, which resulted in multiple tsunamis. The earthquake and tsunami damaged several nuclear power stations, with the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant being the worst affected, which led Japan to declare a State of Nuclear Emergency. As of November 9, 2011, the National Police Agency of Japan reported a death toll of 15 836 people, with 3664 people still reported missing, following the earthquake and tsunami. Australian radiation health advisers were deployed to Tokyo early in the nuclear emergency to assist the Australian Embassy in assessing the radiological threat, to provide risk advice to Embassy staff and Australian citizens in Japan, and to plan for any further deterioration in the nuclear situation. This article explores the challenges of risk assessment, risk communication, and contingency planning for expatriate staff in the worst nuclear incident since Chernobyl, outlines what measures were successful in addressing heightened perceived risks, and identifies areas where further research is required, particularly in a radiological context.

  3. The pervasiveness of interleukin-1 in Alzheimer pathogenesis: a role for specific polymorphisms in disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, W.S.T.; Nicoll, J.A.R.; Grimaldi, L.M.E.; Sheng, J.G.; Mrak, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated as a key molecule in Alzheimer pathogenesis based on findings of an IL-1 overexpression in Alzheimer brain that is directly related to plaque progression and tangle formation, and on findings that IL-1 induces excessive synthesis, translation, and processing of neuronal β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) as well as synthesis of most known plaque-associated proteins. In addition, IL-1 activates astrocytes, with the important consequence of over-expression of the neuritogenic cytokine S100β and overgrowth of dystrophic neurites in neuritic plaques. As further evidence of the importance of IL-1 in Alzheimer pathogenesis, two new genetic studies of inheritance of specific polymorphisms in IL-1 genes in Alzheimer and control patients show that homozygosity for a specific IL-1A gene polymorphism at least triples risk for development of Alzheimer’s disease. This increase is associated with earlier age of onset. Homozygosity for this polymorphism plus another in the IL-1B gene further increases risk. PMID:10959036

  4. Aggregation of Vascular Risk Factors and Risk of Incident Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Jose; Reitz, Christiane; Honig MD, Larry S.; Tang, Ming-Xin; Shea, Steven; Mayeux, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing in the elderly and vascular risk factors may increase its risk. We explored the association of the aggregation of vascular risk factors to AD. Methods we followed 1,138 individuals without dementia at baseline (mean age = 76.2 years) for a mean of 5.5 years. The presence of vascular risk factors was related to incident possible and probable AD. Results Four risk factors, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and current smoking, were associated with a higher risk of AD (p < 0.10) when analyzed individually. The risk of AD increased with the number of risk factors (diabetes + hypertension + heart disease + current smoking). The adjusted HR of probable AD for the presence of 3 or more risk factors was 3.4 (95% CI: 1.8,6.3; p for trend < 0.0001) compared to no risk factors. Diabetes and current smoking were the strongest risk factors in isolation or in clusters, but hypertension and heart disease were also related to a higher risk of AD when clustered with diabetes, smoking, or each other. Conclusions The risk of AD increased with the number of vascular risk factors. Diabetes and current smoking were the strongest risk factors, but clusters including hypertension and heart disease also increased the risk of AD. These associations are unlikely to be explained by misclassification of the outcome given strong associations when only probable AD is considered. PMID:16116114

  5. Aggregation of vascular risk factors and risk of incident Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, J A; Reitz, C; Honig, L S; Tang, M X; Shea, Steven; Mayeux, R

    2005-08-23

    The prevalence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing in the elderly, and vascular risk factors may increase its risk. To explore the association of the aggregation of vascular risk factors with AD. The authors followed 1,138 individuals without dementia at baseline (mean age 76.2) for a mean of 5.5 years. The presence of vascular risk factors was related to incident possible and probable AD. Four risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and current smoking) were associated with a higher risk of AD (p < 0.10) when analyzed individually. The risk of AD increased with the number of risk factors (diabetes + hypertension + heart disease + current smoking). The adjusted hazards ratio of probable AD for the presence of three or more risk factors was 3.4 (95% CI: 1.8, 6.3; p for trend < 0.0001) compared with no risk factors. Diabetes and current smoking were the strongest risk factors in isolation or in clusters, but hypertension and heart disease were also related to a higher risk of AD when clustered with diabetes, smoking, or each other. The risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) increased with the number of vascular risk factors. Diabetes and current smoking were the strongest risk factors, but clusters including hypertension and heart disease also increased the risk of AD. These associations are unlikely to be explained by misclassification of the outcome, given strong associations when only probable AD is considered.

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Postadenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Khami, Maria; Tan, Susan; Glicksman, Jordan Thomas; Husein, Murad

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) postadenoidectomy, posttonsillectomy, and postadenotonsillectomy. Retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care center (2007-2014). Retrospective review of patients who underwent adenoidectomies, tonsillectomies, or adenotonsillectomies by 1 pediatric otolaryngologist. Patient's age, sex, type of surgery, indication for surgery, medical syndromes, tonsil grade, adenoid size, and pre- and postoperative nasal air emissions were obtained. The VPI risk at 3 weeks postoperatively was 13.6% (95% CI: 9.0%, 18.2%) for adenotonsillectomies, 3.2% (95% CI: 1.2%, 7.6%) for adenoidectomies, and 2.2% (95% CI: 2.1%, 6.5%) for tonsillectomies. There was a significantly higher risk of VPI with combined procedures in comparison with adenoidectomies (P = .02) or tonsillectomies alone (P = .03). There was no significant difference in risk of VPI between adenoidectomies and tonsillectomies (P = .78); between surgical indication groups (sleep-disordered breathing vs other; P = .15); or in terms of sex (P = .80), age (P = .11), tonsil grade (P = .96), or adenoid size (P = .15). There was no qualitative difference in postoperative nasal air emissions between patients with and without medical syndromes. Our data are consistent with the literature that most VPI after adenotonsillectomy is temporary in nature and resolves by 5 months postoperatively. Combined procedures were shown to have a significantly higher risk of VPI. Our rates of VPI were much higher than that previously cited and may be indicative of subclinical cases of VPI, which were accounted for due to this study's unique methodology. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Individual and Combined Risk Factors for Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Incident Stroke: An Analysis of 3 Million At-Risk US Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chyou, Janice Y; Hunter, Tina D; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Background The incremental effects of risk factor combinations for atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke are incompletely understood. We sought to quantify the risks of incident AF and stroke for combinations of established risk factors in a large US sample. Methods and Results Patients with no evidence of AF or stroke in 2007 were stratified by combinations of the following risk factors: heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, age 65 to 74, age ≥75, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease. Patients with ≥2 of the first 5 or ≥3 of the first 7, classified as “high-risk,” and an age-matched sample of patients with fewer risk factors, classified as “low-risk,” were followed over 2008–2010 for incident AF and stroke. Annualized incidence rates and risks were quantified for each combination of factors by using Cox regression. Annualized incidence rates for AF, stroke, and both were 3.59%, 3.27%, and 0.62% in 1 851 653 high-risk patients and 1.32%, 1.48%, and 0.18% in 1 156 221 low-risk patients, respectively. Among patients with 1 risk factor, those with age ≥75 had the highest hazards of incident AF and stroke (HR 9.2, 6.9). Among patients with 2 risk factors, those with age ≥75 and heart failure had the highest annualized incidence rates of AF and stroke (10.2%, 5.9%). The combination of age ≥75 and hypertension was prevalent and had the highest incidences of AF and stroke. Conclusions Adults with combinations of known risk factors are at increased risk of incident AF and stroke, but combinations of risk factors are not always additive. PMID:26206736

  8. [Incidence and risk factors for infections from hemodialysis catheters].

    PubMed

    Jean, G

    2001-01-01

    We report here a revue of hemodialysis catheter-related infections data published since 1985. The reported prevalence of bacteremia is 1 to 20% of catheters, and incidence is 0.72 to 9/1000 catheter-days. Local infection is reported in 6 to 63% of catheters and in 1 to 5/1000 catheter-days. Tunneled catheters and implantables chambers reported less infection rate. The most severe complication is endocarditis (4% rate). Death occurs in 8 to 20% of cases. Reported microbial data show that Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is responsible for most infections ahead of non-aureus Staphylococcus. SA skin colonisation is a risk factor for catheter colonisation and the first step of infection. On the other hand, the host immunity impairment in hemodialysis patients seems a significant risk factor. Iron overload, specially after blood transfusions, older age, diabetes mellitus, low serum albumin level, previous history of bacteremia and immunosuppressive treatment have been frequently involved. Other catheter-related factors are time of use, absence of tunnel and use for parenteral nutrition. Nurses plans, dressing type and frequency, nurses work experience are also important. In spite of recent progress in risk factor understanding, hemodialysis-related infection remains frequent. Multicentre studies are necessary to better evaluated care protocols and new catheter material.

  9. Trajectories of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation over a 25-year Follow-up: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Norby, Faye L.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Lin Y.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Timing and trajectories of cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) development in relation to atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been previously described. We assessed trajectories of CVRF and incidence of AF over 25 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods We assessed trajectories of CVRF in 2456 individuals with incident AF and 6414 matched controls. Subsequently, we determined the association of CVRF trajectories with the incidence of AF among 10,559 AF-free individuals (mean age 67, 52% men, 20% blacks). Risk factors were measured during 5 exams between 1987-2013. Cardiovascular events, including incident AF, were continuously ascertained. We modeled the prevalence of risk factors and cardiovascular outcomes in the period before and after AF diagnosis and the corresponding index date for controls using generalized estimating equations. Trajectories in risk factors were identified using latent mixture modeling. The risk of incident AF by trajectory group was examined using Cox models. Results The prevalence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure increased steeply during the time close to AF diagnosis. All CVRFs were elevated in AF cases compared to controls >15 years prior to diagnosis. We identified distinct trajectories for all the assessed CVRFs. In general, individuals with trajectories denoting long-term exposure to CVRFs had increased AF risk even after adjustment for single measurements of the CVRFs. Conclusion AF patients have increased prevalence of CVRF many years before disease diagnosis. This analysis identified diverse trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors, highlighting their different roles in AF pathogenesis. PMID:27550968

  10. Calcium and Phosphorus Regulatory Hormones and Risk of Incident Symptomatic Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there has been no prospective study to date of plasma hormone levels and risk of kidney stones. This study aimed to examine independent associations between plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine and the subsequent risk of incident kidney stones. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was a prospective, nested case-control study of men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed nephrolithiasis at blood draw. During 12 years of follow-up, 356 men developed an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio (n=712 controls) and matched for age, race, and year, month, and time of day of blood collection. Results Baseline plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine were similar in cases and controls. Mean 1,25(OH)2D and median FGF23 levels were higher in cases than controls but differences were small and statistically nonsignificant (45.7 versus 44.2 pg/ml, P=0.07 for 1,25[OH]2D; 47.6 versus 45.1 pg/ml, P=0.08 for FGF23). However, after adjusting for body mass index, diet, plasma factors, and other covariates, the odds ratios of incident symptomatic kidney stones in the highest compared with lowest quartiles were 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.71; P for trend 0.01) for 1,25(OH)2D and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 2.19; P for trend 0.03) for FGF23. There were no significant associations between other plasma factors and kidney stone risk. Conclusions Higher plasma 1,25(OH)2D, even in ranges considered normal, is independently associated with higher risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Although

  11. Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones and risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Curhan, Gary C

    2015-04-07

    Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there has been no prospective study to date of plasma hormone levels and risk of kidney stones. This study aimed to examine independent associations between plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine and the subsequent risk of incident kidney stones. This study was a prospective, nested case-control study of men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed nephrolithiasis at blood draw. During 12 years of follow-up, 356 men developed an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio (n=712 controls) and matched for age, race, and year, month, and time of day of blood collection. Baseline plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine were similar in cases and controls. Mean 1,25(OH)2D and median FGF23 levels were higher in cases than controls but differences were small and statistically nonsignificant (45.7 versus 44.2 pg/ml, P=0.07 for 1,25[OH]2D; 47.6 versus 45.1 pg/ml, P=0.08 for FGF23). However, after adjusting for body mass index, diet, plasma factors, and other covariates, the odds ratios of incident symptomatic kidney stones in the highest compared with lowest quartiles were 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.71; P for trend 0.01) for 1,25(OH)2D and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 2.19; P for trend 0.03) for FGF23. There were no significant associations between other plasma factors and kidney stone risk. Higher plasma 1,25(OH)2D, even in ranges considered normal, is independently associated with higher risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Although of borderline statistical significance, these findings also suggest that higher FGF23 may be

  12. Incidence and risk factors for chronic uveitis following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Kim, Stephen Jae; Chomsky, Amy; Saboori, Mazeyar

    2013-04-01

    To determine the incidence of and associated risk factors for uveitis after cataract surgery. A total of 17,757 eyes were identified and records of 42 eyes that developed uveitis and 2320 eyes that did not were reviewed. Postsurgical uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation for ≥ 6 months after surgery. Forty-two eyes of 35 patients developed uveitis (0.24%). Eleven patients underwent consecutive cataract surgery but developed unilateral uveitis, and intraoperative complications occurred in 55% of uveitic eyes compared to 0% in fellow eyes (p < 0.05). Median duration of inflammation was 8 and 11.5 months in eyes with and without vitrectomy (p < 0.05). Intraocular complications occurred in 44 and 8.3% of eyes that did and did not develop uveitis, respectively (p = 0.01). Postsurgical uveitis developed after approximately 1 in 400 cataract surgeries and occurred more frequently in eyes experiencing intraoperative complications.

  13. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  14. Pathogenesis and risk factors for gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Reina; Iijima, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was thought to be the main cause of gastric cancer, and its eradication showed improvement in gastric inflammation and decreased the risk of gastric cancer. Recently, a number of studies reported the occurrence of gastric cancer after successful eradication. Patients infected with H. pylori, even after eradication, have a higher risk for the occurrence of gastric cancer when compared with uninfected patients. Metachronous gastric cancer occurs frequently following the endoscopic removal of early gastric cancer. These data indicate that metachronous cancer leads to the occurrence of gastric cancer even after successful eradication of H. pylori. The pathogenesis of this metachronous cancer remains unclear. Further research is needed to identify biomarkers to predict the development of metachronous gastric cancer and methods for gastric cancer screening. In this article, we review the role of the H. pylori in carcinogenesis and the histological and endoscopic characteristics and risk factors for metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. Additionally, we discuss recent risk predictions and possible approaches for reducing the risk of metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. PMID:27672424

  15. Changes in Albuminuria and Subsequent Risk of Incident Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; George, Koshy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-09-11

    Albuminuria is a robust predictor of CKD progression. However, little is known about the associations of changes in albuminuria with the risk of kidney events outside the settings of clinical trials. In a nationwide cohort of 56,946 United States veterans with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we examined the associations of 1-year fold changes in albuminuria with subsequent incident CKD (>25% decrease in eGFR reaching <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and rapid eGFR decline (eGFR slope <-5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year) assessed using Cox models and logistic regression, respectively, with adjustment for confounders. The mean age was 64 (SD, 10) years old; 97% were men, and 91% were diabetic. There was a nearly linear association between 1-year fold changes in albuminuria and incident CKD. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of incident CKD associated with more than twofold decrease, 1.25- to twofold decrease, 1.25- to twofold increase, and more than twofold increase (versus <1.25-fold decrease to <1.25-fold increase) in albuminuria were 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.89), 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.00), 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.20), and 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.38), respectively. Qualitatively similar associations were present for rapid eGFR decline (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals for corresponding albuminuria changes: adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.94; adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.07; adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.29; and adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.54 and 1.81, respectively). Relative changes in albuminuria over a 1-year interval were linearly associated with subsequent risk of kidney outcomes. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the observed associations and test whether active interventions to lower

  16. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a well-demarcated or fairly discernible region of low attenuation following specific vascular territory with normal initial CT. Clinical and radiological findings that related to patients' outcome were reviewed and statistically compared. PTCI was observed in 21 (2.1%) patients. Of various parameters, age (p=0.037), initial Glasgow coma scale score (p<0.01), brain herniation (p=0.044), and decompressive craniectomy (p=0.012) were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than patients who do not have PTCI. Duration between accident and PTCI, patterns of TBI and vascular territory of PTCI were not specific. The mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than without PTCI. The development of PTCI is rare after TBI, but it usually results in serious outcome and high mortality. Early recognition for risks and aggressive managements is mandatory to prevent PTCI.

  17. Incidence of High Infertility Risk among Unilateral Cryptorchid Boys.

    PubMed

    Bilius, Vytautas; Verkauskas, Gilvydas; Dasevicius, Darius; Kazlauskas, Vytis; Malcius, Dalius; Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence of progressive damage to germ cell development in boys with cryptorchidism suggests recommending surgery until one year of age. However, despite early and successful orchidopexy, cryptorchid boys with impaired mini-puberty will suffer from infertility. We reviewed changes in the timing of surgery during the past decade and the incidence of unilateral cryptorchid boys with defective mini-puberty. Medical registries were reviewed for all patients who were operated on for cryptorchidism at the main pediatric urological center of the country. The ages of surgery in cases of unilateral cryptorchidism were compared between the years 2000-2001 and 2012-2013. A high risk of infertility was considered when no Ad spermatogonia were found. Two groups were compared: group I--operated on until the age of 1.5 years and group II--older than 1.5 years. The average age at operation decreased from 5.3 to 4.1 years. Forty-six biopsies in boys with unilateral cryptorchidism were made during orchidopexy on undescended testicles. Overall, 44% in group I and 50 % in group II (p > 0.05) had no Ad spermatogonia. The average age of operation for cryptorchidism has decreased, but remains far above the recommended age. The high prevalence of histologically proven risk of infertility underscores the necessity of more education regarding the importance of earlier surgery and the research on hormonal prevention of infertility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Avian necrotic enteritis: experimental models, host immunity, pathogenesis, risk factors, and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jeong, W; Jeoung, H Y; An, D J

    2011-07-01

    The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide has already affected, and will continue to affect, poultry production and animal health. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is being considered among the most important infectious diseases in the current poultry production system globally, with an estimated annual economic loss of more than $2 billion, largely attributable to medical treatments and impaired growth performance. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop rational, alternative, and integrated management strategies not only to control NE, but also to prevent it. In both humans and many warm-blooded animals and birds, NE is caused by Clostridium perfringens, a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium. To accomplish these goals, better understanding of host- and environmentally related factors on the development of NE and potential vaccination strategies against C. perfringens infection will be necessary. Furthermore, a reliable and reproducible NE disease model is needed for characterization of C. perfringens pathogenesis and host protective immunity. This review summarizes recent developments in NE disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for C. perfringens-associated NE in poultry.

  19. [Incidence of singleton macrosomia in Beijing and its risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ren, J H; Wang, C; Wei, Y M; Yang, H X

    2016-06-25

    To evaluate the prevalence of macrosomia in Beijing in 2013 and identify its risk factors. Retrospective six months analysis of 14 188 full-term singleton pregnant women from 15 hospitals with different levels in Beijing in 2013. Each participant's demographic data and medical information were collected individually by questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between variables and the risk of macrosomia. (1)The total prevalence of macrosomia was 7.069% (1 003/14 188) in Beijing in 2013. (2)The prevalence varied between the 15 hospitals, the lowest was 5.36% (89/1 659), while the highest reached 8.80%(46/523). Furthermore, the incidence of macrosomia was 1.284 times (95% CI: 1.114- 1.480, P=0.001) higher in the second graded hospitals than that in the tertiary hospitals. (3) Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that risk factors for macrosomia were maternal height≥160 cm (adjusted OR=1.875, 95% CI: 1.559- 2.256), pre-pregnant body mass index (p-BMI) ≥24.0 kg/m(2) (24.0- 27.9 kg/m(2): adjusted OR=1.696, 95% CI: 1.426- 2.018; p-BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2): adjusted OR=2.393, 95% CI: 1.831- 3.127), gestational weight gain (GWG) ≥15.9 kg (adjusted OR=2.462, 95% CI: 2.125- 2.853), gravidity>1 (adjusted OR=1.408, 95% CI: 1.224- 1.620), gestational weeks≥40 (adjusted OR=2.007, 95%CI: 1.745-2.308) and gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR=1.522, 95%CI: 1.298-1.784). GWG≥15.9 kg, p-BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2) and gestational weeks≥40 were three risk factors that had the strongest associations with macrosomia (all P<0.01). The prevalence of macrosomia in hospitals with different levels is obvious different. Gestational weeks, p-BMI and GWG are three main controllable risk factors for macrosomia, thus should receive more attentions.

  20. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  1. Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) and low serum albumin concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; He, Yong-Ming; Cai, Dong-Ping; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and low serum albumin (LSA) concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) haven’t been studied previously. Cross-sectional study of 1552 cases and 6125 controls was performed for identifying the association of risk factors with first incident AMI and their corresponding population attributable risks (PARs). Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) accounted for up to 92% of PAR for first incident AMI. Effects of these risk factors were different in different sexes across different age categories. Overall, smoking and LSA were the 2 strongest risk factors, together accounting for 64% of PAR for first incident AMI. After multivariable adjustment, Lp(a) and LSA accounted for 19% and 41%, respectively, and together for more than a half (54%) of PAR for first incident AMI. Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) have accounted for an overwhelmingly large proportion of the risk of first incident AMI, indicating most first incident AMI is preventable. The knowledge of risk burdens for first incident AMI incorporating Lp (a) and LSA may be beneficial for further reducing first incident AMI from a new angle. PMID:27748452

  2. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed.

  3. Delirium after cardiac surgery: incidence and risk factors†

    PubMed Central

    Smulter, Nina; Lingehall, Helena Claesson; Gustafson, Yngve; Olofsson, Birgitta; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Delirium after cardiac surgery is a problem with consequences for patients and healthcare. Preventive strategies from known risk factors may reduce the incidence and severity of delirium. The present aim was to explore risk factors behind delirium in older patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS Patients (≥70 years) scheduled for routine cardiac surgery were included (n = 142). The patients were assessed and monitored pre-/postoperatively, and delirium was diagnosed from repeated assessments with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Variables were analysed by uni-/multivariable logistic regression, including both preoperative variables (predisposing) and those extracted during surgery and in the early postoperative period (precipitating). RESULTS Delirium was diagnosed in 78 patients (54.9%). Delirium was independently associated with both predisposing and precipitating factors (P-value, odds ratio, upper/lower confidence interval): age (0.036, 1.1, 1.0/1.2), diabetes (0.032, 3.5, 1.1/11.0), gastritis/ulcer problems (0.050, 4.0, 1.0/16.1), volume load during operation (0.001, 2.8, 1.5/5.1), ventilator time in ICU (0.042, 1.2, 1.0/1.4), highest temperature recorded in ICU (0.044, 2.2, 1.0/4.8) and sodium concentration in ICU (0.038, 1.2, 1.0/1.4). CONCLUSIONS Delirium was common among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Both predisposing and precipitating factors contributed to delirium. When combined, the predictive strength of the model improved. Preventive strategies may be considered, in particular among the precipitating factors. Of interest, delirium was strongly associated with an increased volume load during surgery. PMID:23887126

  4. Renal disease in scleroderma: an update on evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Steen, Virginia D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma. The spectrum of renal complications in systemic sclerosis includes scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), normotensive renal crisis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated glomerulonephritis, penacillamine-associated renal disease, and reduced renal functional reserves manifested by proteinuria, microalbuminuria, or isolated reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise and up-to-date review of the evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis, and management of scleroderma-associated renal disease. Recent findings Although SRC survival has significantly improved, mortality of this complication remains high outside of specialized centers. Recent data demonstrate strong associations between anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies and SRC. Subclinical renal impairment affects approximately 50% of scleroderma patients and may be associated with other vascular manifestations. Subclinical renal involvement rarely progresses to end-stage renal failure; however, recent studies suggest it may predict mortality in patients with other vasculopathic manifestations. Summary Testing for anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies should be incorporated into clinical care to identify patients at high risk for SRC. Recommendations from European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research, and the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium confirm angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as first-line therapy for SRC, and give recommendations for second-line agents. PMID:22955019

  5. Periodontal Disease and Subgingival Microbiota as Contributors for RA Pathogenesis: Modifiable Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Jose U.; Bretz, Walter A.; Abramson, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e., Porphyromonas ginigivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the subject. Recent findings Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention towards understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both RA patients and subjects at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared to that of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of PD treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Summary Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing towards changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis. PMID:24807405

  6. Periodontal disease and subgingival microbiota as contributors for rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis: modifiable risk factors?

    PubMed

    Scher, Jose U; Bretz, Walter A; Abramson, Steven B

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the individuals. Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention toward understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared with those of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of progressive disease treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing toward changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis.

  7. Injuries in professional modern dancers: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina; Weiss, David S; Burchette, Raoul J

    2012-03-01

    Modern (or contemporary) dance has become increasingly popular, yet little has been reported with respect to modern dance injuries and their consequences. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence, risk factors, and management of musculoskeletal injuries in professional modern dancers. A total of 184 dancers in the United States completed an anonymous 17-page questionnaire on their injuries, including extensive details regarding the two most severe injuries that had occurred in the prior 12 months. According to their self-reports, a total of 82% of the dancers had suffered between one and seven injuries. The foot and ankle (40%) was the most common site of injury, followed by the lower back (17%) and the knee (16%). The rate of injuries was 0.59 per 1,000 hours of class and rehearsal. Injured male dancers returned to full dancing after a median of 21 days, while females returned after a median of 18 days. Most dancers missed no performances due to injury. Of the medical consultations sought by dancers for their injuries, 47% were made to physicians, 41% to physical therapists, and 34% to chiropractors. The majority of dancers adhered to the advice given them by consultants (87% of males and 78% of females for the most severe injury). While the majority of injuries were considered work-related (61% of the most severe injury and 69% of the second most severe), few were covered by Workers' Compensation insurance (12% and 5% respectively). These professional modern dancers suffer from a rate of injury similar to other groups of professional dancers. Most dancers return to a partial level of dancing several weeks before attempting full-capacity dancing.

  8. Interaction between Treg Apoptosis Pathways, Treg Function and HLA Risk Evolves during Type 1 Diabetes Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Glisic, Sanja; Jailwala, Parthav

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported increased apoptosis of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in recent-onset Type 1 Diabetes subjects (RO T1D) in the honeymoon phase and in multiple autoantibody-positive (Ab+) subjects, some of which are developing T1D. We have also reported that increased Treg apoptosis was associated with High HLA risk and that it subsided with cessation of honeymoon period. In this report, we present results generated using genetics, genomics, functional cell-based assays and flow cytometry to assess cellular changes at the T-cell level during T1D pathogenesis. We measured ex vivo Treg apoptosis and Treg function, surface markers expression, expression of HLA class II genes, the influence of HLA risk on Treg apoptosis and function, and evaluated contribution of genes reported to be involved in the apoptosis process. This integrated comprehensive approach uncovered important information that can serve as a basis for future studies aimed to modulate Treg cell responsiveness to apoptotic signals in autoimmunity. For example, T1D will progress in those subjects where increased Treg apoptosis is accompanied with decreased Treg function. Furthermore, Tregs from High HLA risk healthy controls had increased Treg apoptosis levels and overexpressed FADD but not Fas/FasL. Tregs from RO T1D subjects in the honeymoon phase were primarily dying through withdrawal of growth hormones with contribution of oxidative stress, mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and employment of TNF-receptor family members. Ab+ subjects, however, expressed high inflammation level, which probably contributed to Treg apoptosis, although other apoptotic pathways were also activated: withdrawal of growth hormones, oxidative stress, mitochondrial apoptosis and Fas/FasL apoptotic pathways. The value of these results lie in potentially different preventive treatment subjects would receive depending on disease progression stage when treated. PMID:22563437

  9. Bone diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: pathogenesis, risk factors and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Tincati, Camilla

    2006-06-01

    Bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis have been recently reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their etiology remains still unknown. The prevalence estimates vary widely among the different studies and can be affected by concomitant factors such as the overlapping of other possible conditions inducing bone loss as lypodystrophy, advanced HIV-disease, advanced age, low body weight or concomitant use of other drugs. All the reports at the moment available in the literature showed a higher than expected prevalence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected subjects both naïve and receiving potent antiretroviral therapy compared to healthy controls. This controversial can suggest a double role played by both antiretroviral drugs and HIV itself due to immune activation and/or cytokines disregulation. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of bone disorders can result in better preventative and therapeutic measures. However, the clinical relevance and the risk of fractures remains undefined in HIV-population. The clinical management of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected subjects is still being evaluated. Addressing potential underlying bone disease risk factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake, use of corticosteroids, advanced age, low body weight), evaluating calcium and vitamin D intake, and performing dual x-ray absorptiometry in HIV-infected individuals who have risk factors for bone disease can be important strategies to prevent osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population. The administration of bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate), with calcium and vitamin D supplementation, may be a reasonable and effective option to treat osteoporosis in these subjects.

  10. Parathyroid hormone and the risk of incident hypertension: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Folsom, Aaron R; Pankow, James S; Selvin, Elizabeth; Michos, Erin D; Alonso, Alvaro; Tang, Weihong; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that parathyroid hormone (PTH) has effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, the rennin-angiotensin system and kidney function, but less is known about its role in the development of hypertension. The distribution of serum PTH also varies by race. Therefore, we examined the relation between PTH and incident hypertension and tested for interaction by race among 7504 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities participants (1264 black, 6240 white, median age 56 years) without initial hypertension in 1990-1992. During a median follow-up of 6 years, 1487 white and 509 black participants developed hypertension. In the overall study population, PTH was not associated with incident hypertension after adjustment for demographics and behavioral risk factors [hazard ratio highest vs. lowest quintiles, 95% confidence interval: 1.11 (0.96-1.28); P for linear trend 0.02]. Although the interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.60), there was some evidence that the PTH-hypertension association differed by race. Among blacks, PTH was positively associated with incident hypertension, independent of demographics, and behavioral risk factors (P for linear trend 0.003). Among whites, PTH was not associated with hypertension risk. Results were similar when comparing participants with elevated versus nonelevated PTH (≥65 vs. <65 pg/ml): hazard ratio in blacks: 1.24 (1.02-1.54); hazard ratio in whites: 0.95 (0.78-1.16). In this large community-based cohort, PTH levels, overall, were not independently associated with the risk of hypertension. However, we found some evidence that PTH may be associated with hypertension in blacks. Future research should continue to explore potential race differences in the PTH-hypertension association.

  11. Baseline risk factors for incidence of blindness in a South Indian population: the chennai eye disease incidence study.

    PubMed

    Vijaya, Lingam; Asokan, Rashima; Panday, Manish; Choudhari, Nikhil S; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Boddupalli, Sachi Devi; Sunil, Govindan T; George, Ronnie

    2014-08-07

    To report the baseline risk factors and causes for incident blindness. Six years after the baseline study, 4419 subjects from the cohort underwent a detailed examination at the base hospital. Incident blindness was defined by World Health Organization criteria as visual acuity of less than 6/120 (3/60) and/or a visual field of less than 10° in the better-seeing eye at the 6-year follow-up, provided that the eye had a visual acuity of better than or equal to 6/120 (3/60) and visual field greater than 10° at baseline. For incident monocular blindness, both eyes should have visual acuity of more than 6/120 (3/60) at baseline and developed visual acuity of less than 6/120 (3/60) in one eye at 6-year follow-up. For incident blindness, 21 participants (0.48%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.7) became blind; significant baseline risk factors were increasing age (P = 0.001), smokeless tobacco use (P < 0.001), and no history of cataract surgery (P = 0.02). Incident monocular blindness was found in 132 participants (3.8%, 95% CI, 3.7-3.8); it was significantly more (P < 0.001) in the rural population (5.4%, 95% CI, 5.4-5.5) than in the urban population (1.9%, 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Baseline risk factors (P < 0.001) were increasing age and rural residence, and no history of cataract surgery was a protective factor (P = 0.03). Increasing age was a significant risk factor for blindness and monocular blindness. No history of cataract surgery was a risk factor for blindness and a protective factor for monocular blindness. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Methodology of AA CRASH: a prospective observational study evaluating the incidence and pathogenesis of adverse post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing motor vehicle collision

    PubMed Central

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Hu, JunMei; Liu, Andrea Y; Soward, April C; Bollen, Kenneth A; Wang, Henry E; Hendry, Phyllis L; Zimny, Erin; Lewandowski, Christopher; Velilla, Marc-Anthony; Damiron, Kathia; Pearson, Claire; Domeier, Robert; Kaushik, Sangeeta; Feldman, James; Rosenberg, Mark; Jones, Jeffrey; Swor, Robert; Rathlev, Niels; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A motor vehicle collision (MVC) is one of the most common life-threatening events experienced by individuals living in the USA. While most individuals recover following MVC, a significant proportion of individuals develop adverse post-traumatic sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder or persistent musculoskeletal pain. Adverse post-traumatic sequelae are common, morbid and costly public health problems in the USA and other industrialised countries. The pathogenesis of these disorders following MVC remains poorly understood. In the USA, available data suggest that African-Americans experience an increased burden of adverse post-traumatic sequelae after MVC compared to European Americans, but to date no studies examining the pathogenesis of these disorders among African-Americans experiencing MVC have been performed. Methods and analysis The African-American CRASH (AA CRASH) study is an NIH-funded, multicentre, prospective study that enrols African-Americans (n=900) who present to the emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of MVC. Participants are enrolled at 13 ED sites in the USA. Individuals who are admitted to the hospital or who report a fracture or tissue injury are excluded. Participants complete a detailed ED interview that includes an assessment of crash history, current post-traumatic symptoms and health status prior to the MVC. Blood samples are also collected in the ED using PAXgene DNA and PAXgene RNA tubes. Serial mixed-mode assessments 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after MVC include an assessment of adverse sequelae, general health status and health service utilisation. The results from this study will provide insights into the incidence and pathogenesis of persistent pain and other post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing MVC. Ethics and dissemination AA CRASH has ethics approval in the USA, and the results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27601501

  13. Listening to Our Gut: Contribution of Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Daniel; Kirsop, Jennifer; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-09-01

    What we understand about diabetes from decades of genetics research is now being supplemented with exciting new evidence based on a better understanding of how one of the biggest "environmental" factors the body is exposed to is influencing the pathogenesis of disease. The recent discovery that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety (namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine) participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease has renewed attention towards the contributions of gut microbiota in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Collectively, animal and human studies reveal that conversion of these nutrient precursors to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) depends on both microbial composition and host factors, and can be induced by dietary exposures. In addition, circulating TMAO levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease risks and various adverse cardio-renal consequences. Our group and others have further demonstrated that circulating TMAO levels are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to healthy controls and gut microbiota-dependent phosphatidylcholine metabolism has been implicated in metabolic dysregulation and insulin resistance in animal models. Therefore, preventive strategies to minimize adverse consequences associated with TMAO generation in the diabetic population are warranted.

  14. PARATHYROID HORMONE AND THE RISK OF INCIDENT HYPERTENSION: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES (ARIC) STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lu; Folsom, Aaron R.; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Michos, Erin D.; Alonso, Alvaro; Tang, Weihong; Lutsey, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that parathyroid hormone (PTH) has effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, the renin-angiotensin system and kidney function, but less is known about its role in the development of hypertension. The distribution of serum PTH also varies by race. Methods and results Therefore, we examined the relation between PTH and incident hypertension and tested for interaction by race among 7,504 ARIC participants (1,264 black, 6,240 white, median age 56 years) without initial hypertension in 1990–1992. During a median follow-up of 6 years, 1,487 white and 509 black participants developed hypertension. In the overall study population, PTH was not associated with incident hypertension after adjustment for demographics and behavioral risk factors [HR highest vs. lowest quintiles, 95%CI: 1.11 (0.96–1.28); P for linear trend 0.02]. Although the interaction was not statistically significant (P= 0.60), there was some evidence that the PTH-hypertension association differed by race. Among blacks, PTH was positively associated with incident hypertension, independent of demographics and behavioral risk factors (P for linear trend 0.003). Among whites, PTH was not associated with hypertension risk. Results were similar when comparing participants with elevated versus non-elevated PTH (≥65 vs. <65 pg/mL): HR in blacks: 1.24 (1.02–1.54); HR in whites: 0.95 (0.78–1.16). Conclusions In this large community-based cohort, PTH levels, overall, were not independently associated with the risk of hypertension. However, we found some evidence that PTH may be associated with hypertension in blacks. Future research should continue to explore potential race differences in the PTH-hypertension association. PMID:26867053

  15. Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: are conventional pharmacological approaches protective for cognitive decline progression?

    PubMed

    Safouris, Apostolos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Boutati, Eleni; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for more than half of cases with cognitive impairment. With numbers of patients expected to rise sharply over the following years in parallel with the ageing of population, there is intense clinical interest in discovering modifiable risk factors that may contribute to the increasing prevalence of AD. Accumulating data from in vitro and epidemiological studies have highlighted the vascular component of AD and raised hope that treatment of vascular risk factors could eventually lead to primary prevention of AD. Among all the possible pathologic processes that have been tested for an association with AD, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia are the most prominent. Here, we will briefly review the data highlighting a potential correlation of these diseases with AD. Then, we will present observational studies and clinical trials that assessed the impact of their respective approved medical therapies on AD incidence. We conclude by providing clinical information for the physician on potentially effective and non-effective medical treatments. Further research is ongoing and time will show whether AD will cease to be considered a pure, non-preventable neurodegenerative process or whether vascular risk factor management may also result in primary AD prevention.

  16. Association between Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood and Incident CKD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Tin, Adrienne; Grams, Morgan E; Ashar, Foram N; Lane, John A; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef; Pankratz, Nathan; Arking, Dan E

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in kidney cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is a surrogate measure of mitochondrial function, and higher mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood has been associated with lower risk of two important risk factors for CKD progression, diabetes and microalbuminuria. We evaluated whether mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood associates with incident CKD in a population-based cohort of middle-aged adults. We estimated mtDNA copy number using 25 high-quality mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms from the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Among 9058 participants, those with higher mtDNA copy number had a lower rate of prevalent diabetes and lower C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell counts. Baseline eGFR did not differ significantly by mtDNA copy number. Over a median follow-up of 19.6 years, 1490 participants developed CKD. Higher mtDNA copy number associated with lower risk of incident CKD (highest versus lowest quartile: hazard ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.75; P<0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and race. After adjusting for additional risk factors of CKD, including prevalent diabetes, hypertension, C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count, this association remained significant (highest versus lowest quartile: hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.87; P<0.001). In conclusion, higher mtDNA copy number associated with lower incidence of CKD independent of traditional risk factors and inflammation biomarker levels in this cohort. Further research on modifiable factors influencing mtDNA copy number may lead to improvement in the prevention and treatment of CKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Cardiovascular lifetime risk predicts incidence of coronary calcification in individuals with low short-term risk: the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Paixao, Andre R M; Ayers, Colby R; Rohatgi, Anand; Das, Sandeep R; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Berry, Jarett D

    2014-11-25

    The absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in middle age is associated with very low short-term risk for coronary events. However, the long-term implications of a CAC score of 0 are uncertain, particularly among individuals with high cardiovascular lifetime risk. We sought to characterize the association between predicted lifetime risk and incident CAC among individuals with low short-term risk. We included 754 Dallas Heart Study participants with serial CAC scans (6.9 years apart) and both low short-term risk and baseline CAC=0. Lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease was estimated according to risk factor burden. Among this group, 365 individuals (48.4%) were at low lifetime risk and 389 (51.6%) at high lifetime risk. High lifetime risk was associated with higher annualized CAC incidence (4.2% versus 2.7%; P < 0.001). Similarly, mean follow-up CAC scores were higher among participants with high lifetime risk (7.8 versus 2.4 Agatston units). After adjustment for age, sex, and race, high lifetime risk remained independently associated with incident CAC (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.27; P=0.01). When assessing risk factor burden at the follow-up visit, 66.7% of CAC incidence observed in the low lifetime risk group occurred among individuals reclassified to a higher short- or long-term risk category. Among individuals with low short-term risk and CAC scores of 0, high lifetime risk is associated with a higher incidence of CAC. These findings highlight the importance of lifetime risk even among individuals with very low short-term risk. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Cardiovascular Lifetime Risk Predicts Incidence of Coronary Calcification in Individuals With Low Short‐Term Risk: The Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Paixao, Andre R. M.; Ayers, Colby R.; Rohatgi, Anand; Das, Sandeep R.; de Lemos, James A.; Khera, Amit; Lloyd‐Jones, Donald; Berry, Jarett D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in middle age is associated with very low short‐term risk for coronary events. However, the long‐term implications of a CAC score of 0 are uncertain, particularly among individuals with high cardiovascular lifetime risk. We sought to characterize the association between predicted lifetime risk and incident CAC among individuals with low short‐term risk. Methods and Results We included 754 Dallas Heart Study participants with serial CAC scans (6.9 years apart) and both low short‐term risk and baseline CAC=0. Lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease was estimated according to risk factor burden. Among this group, 365 individuals (48.4%) were at low lifetime risk and 389 (51.6%) at high lifetime risk. High lifetime risk was associated with higher annualized CAC incidence (4.2% versus 2.7%; P < 0.001). Similarly, mean follow‐up CAC scores were higher among participants with high lifetime risk (7.8 versus 2.4 Agatston units). After adjustment for age, sex, and race, high lifetime risk remained independently associated with incident CAC (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.27; P=0.01). When assessing risk factor burden at the follow‐up visit, 66.7% of CAC incidence observed in the low lifetime risk group occurred among individuals reclassified to a higher short‐ or long‐term risk category. Conclusion Among individuals with low short‐term risk and CAC scores of 0, high lifetime risk is associated with a higher incidence of CAC. These findings highlight the importance of lifetime risk even among individuals with very low short‐term risk. PMID:25424574

  19. Incidence of fever in labor and risk of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Yates, Angela; Zite, Nikki; Smith, Casey; Chernicky, Lindsey; Howard, Bobby

    2017-06-01

    (P = .3). The positive blood cultures in these 4 neonates were 3 group B streptococcus and 1 Enterococcus. The overall rate of early-onset neonatal sepsis in this population of newborns delivered at ≥36 weeks' gestation was 0.82/1000 deliveries. The incidence of an intrapartum fever of ≥38°C in pregnancies at ≥36 weeks' gestation is common at 6.8% and this is consistent with the findings of a few other large retrospective studies. The rate of an intrapartum fever occurs in approximately 1 in 15 women in labor. The risk of neonatal sepsis in newborns delivered of mothers with intrapartum fever or a diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis is low at 0.24%, a rate that is <1 in 400. The recommendation for universal laboratory work, cultures, and antibiotic treatment pending culture results for this newborn population needs further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents and impact of an online electronic reporting system.

    PubMed

    Chang, David W; Cheetham, Lynn; te Marvelde, Luc; Bressel, Mathias; Kron, Tomas; Gill, Suki; Tai, Keen Hun; Ball, David; Rose, William; Silva, Linas; Foroudi, Farshad

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the rate, type, significance, trends and the potential risk factors associated with radiotherapy incidents in a large academic department. Data for all radiotherapy activities from July 2001 to January 2011 were reviewed from radiotherapy incident reporting forms. Patient and treatment data were obtained from the radiotherapy record and verification database (MOSAIQ) and the patient database (HOSPRO). Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine variables associated with radiotherapy incidents. In that time, 65,376 courses of radiotherapy were delivered with a reported incident rate of 2.64 per 100 courses. The rate of incidents per course increased (1.96 per 100 courses to 3.52 per 100 courses, p<0.001) whereas the proportion of reported incidents resulting in >5% deviation in dose (10.50 to 2.75%, p<0.001) had decreased after the introduction of an online electronic reporting system. The following variables were associated with an increased rate of incidents: afternoon treatment time, paediatric patients, males, inpatients, palliative plans, head-and-neck, skin, sarcoma and haematological malignancies. In general, complex plans were associated with higher incidence rates. Radiotherapy incidents were infrequent and most did not result in significant dose deviation. A number of risk factors were identified and these could be used to highlight high-risk cases in the future. Introduction of an online electronic reporting system resulted in a significant increase in the number of incidents being reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact, will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  2. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  3. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jim T

    2007-01-01

    Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the) major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident) with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks. PMID:17407581

  4. Incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in African Americans with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Ayokanmi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Desvorieux, Moise; Pankow, James S.; Taylor, Herman

    2002-01-01

    To determine the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with conventional and less well-established risk factors in African Americans with diabetes, we studied 741 African Americans aged 45 to 64 years with diabetes, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Risk factors were measured from 1987 to 1989, and incident CVD (n = 143 coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke events) was ascertained through 1998. The crude incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of CVD was 22.5 (11.9 for CHD and 12.0 for stroke). After multivariate adjustments, total cholesterol, prevalent hypertension and current smoking were significantly and positively associated with incident CVD among these African Americans with diabetes. Among the non-conventional risk factors, serum creatinine, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and white blood cell count were positively and serum albumin negatively and independently associated with CVD incidence. Adjusted relative risks for highest versus lowest tertiles of these risk factors ranged from 1.77 to 2.13. This study confirms that the major risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking) are important determinants of CVD in African Americans with diabetes. In addition, several blood markers of hemostasis or inflammatory response and elevated serum creatinine also proved to be CVD risk factors in African Americans with diabetes. PMID:12510702

  5. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the P<0.05). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Deployment Related Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Alliance on Mental Illness estimates that up to 33% of qualified individuals are turned down for a job due to a psychiatric label (Williamson & Mulhall...RISK OF INCIDENT MENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS AMONG AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CREWMEMBERS by Jennifer P. Howland September 2015 Thesis Advisor...DATE September 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEPLOYMENT RELATED RISK OF INCIDENT MENTAL HEALTH

  7. Decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with greater risk of cam morphology.

    PubMed

    Morris, W Z; Fowers, C A; Yuh, R T; Gebhart, J J; Salata, M J; Liu, R W

    2016-09-01

    The spinopelvic relationship (including pelvic incidence) has been shown to influence pelvic orientation, but its potential association with femoroacetabular impingement has not been thoroughly explored. The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with increased risk of cam morphology. Two matching cohorts were created from a collection of cadaveric specimens with known pelvic incidences: 50 subjects with the highest pelvic incidence (all subjects > 60°) and 50 subjects with the lowest pelvic incidence (all subjects < 35°). Femoral version, acetabular version, and alpha angles were directly measured from each specimen bilaterally. Cam morphology was defined as alpha angle > 55°. Differences between the two cohorts were analysed with a Student's t-test and the difference in incidence of cam morphology was assessed using a chi-squared test. The significance level for all tests was set at p < 0.05. Cam morphology was identified in 47/100 (47%) femurs in the cohort with pelvic incidence < 35° and in only 25/100 (25%) femurs in the cohort with pelvic incidence > 60° (p = 0.002). The mean alpha angle was also greater in the cohort with pelvic incidence < 35° (mean 53.7°, sd 10.7° versus mean 49.7°, sd 10.6°; p = 0.008). Decreased pelvic incidence is associated with development of cam morphology. We propose a novel theory wherein subjects with decreased pelvic incidence compensate during gait (to maintain optimal sagittal balance) through anterior pelvic tilt, creating artificial anterior acetabular overcoverage and recurrent impingement that increases risk for cam morphology.Cite this article: W. Z. Morris, C. A. Fowers, R. T. Yuh, J. J. Gebhart, M. J. Salata, R. W. Liu. Decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with greater risk of cam morphology. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:387-392. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0028.R1. © 2016 Morris et al.

  8. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  10. Illegal pedestrian crossing at signalised intersections: incidence and relative risk.

    PubMed

    King, Mark J; Soole, David; Ghafourian, Ameneh

    2009-05-01

    Illegal pedestrian behaviour is common and is reported as a factor in many pedestrian crashes. Since walking is being promoted for its health and environmental benefits, minimisation of its associated risks is of interest. The risk associated with illegal road crossing is unclear, and better information would assist in setting a rationale for enforcement and priorities for public education. An observation survey of pedestrian behaviour was conducted at signalised intersections in the Brisbane CBD (Queensland, Australia) on typical workdays, using behavioural categories that were identifiable in police crash reports. The survey confirmed high levels of crossing against the lights, or close enough to the lights that they should legally have been used. Measures of exposure for crossing legally, against the lights, and close to the lights were generated by weighting the observation data. Relative risk ratios were calculated for these categories using crash data from the observation sites and adjacent midblocks. Crossing against the lights and crossing close to the lights both exhibited a crash risk per crossing event approximately eight times that of legal crossing at signalised intersections. The implications of these results for enforcement and education are discussed, along with the limitations of the study.

  11. Pegfilgrastim-Induced Bone Pain: A Review on Incidence, Risk Factors, and Evidence-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Donald C; Pellegrino, Annie E

    2017-09-01

    To review the incidence, risk factors, and management of pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain (PIBP). PubMed was searched from 1980 to March 31, 2017, using the terms pegfilgrastim and bone pain. English-language, human studies and reviews assessing the incidence, risk factors, and management of PIBP were incorporated. A total of 3 randomized, prospective studies and 2 retrospective studies evaluated pharmacological management of PIBP. Naproxen compared with placebo demonstrated a reduction in the degree, incidence, and duration of bone pain secondary to pegfilgrastim. Loratadine was not effective in reducing the incidence of bone pain prophylactically, but a retrospective study evaluating dual antihistamine blockade with loratadine and famotidine demonstrated a decreased incidence in bone pain when administered before pegfilgrastim. Naproxen is effective at managing PIBP. Although commonly used, antihistamines have a paucity of data supporting their use. Dose reductions of pegfilgrastim and opioids may also be potential management options; however, data supporting these treatment modalities are scarce.

  12. Carnitine deficiency: Risk factors and incidence in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Kawabe, Mika; Takehara, Makoto; Iwano, Sachiko; Kuwabara, Kozue; Kikuchi, Chiya; Wakamoto, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Takehiko; Suzuki, Yuka; Ishii, Eiichi

    2015-09-01

    Carnitine deficiency is relatively common in epilepsy; risk factors reportedly include combination antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with valproic acid (VPA), young age, intellectual disability, diet and enteral or parenteral feeding. Few studies have examined the correlation between each risk factor and carnitine deficiency in children with epilepsy. We examined the influence of these risk factors on carnitine deficiency, and identified a formula to estimate plasma free carnitine concentration in children with epilepsy. Sixty-five children with epilepsy and 26 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured using an enzyme cycling assay, and correlations were sought with patients' other clinical characteristics. Carnitine deficiency was found in approximately 17% of patients with epilepsy and was significantly associated with carnitine-free enteral formula only by tube feeding, number of AEDs taken (independent of VPA use), body weight (BW), body height and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that carnitine concentration (in μmol/L) could be accurately estimated from a formula that does not require blood testing: 42.44+0.14×(BW in kg)-18.16×(feeding)-3.19×(number of AEDs), where feeding was allocated a score of 1 for carnitine-free enteral formula only by tube feeding and 0 for taking food orally (R(2)=0.504, P<0.001). Carnitine-free enteral formula only by tube feeding, multiple AED treatment and low BW are risk factors for carnitine deficiency in children with epilepsy. l-carnitine should be administered to children at risk of deficiency to avoid complications. Treatment decisions can be informed using an estimation formula that does not require blood tests. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone and prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of pathogenesis and oncologic risk.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jason E; Billups, Kevin L; Partin, Alan W

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in male development and health. Likewise, androgen deficiency, or hypogonadism, is associated with a variety of symptoms including decreased energy, diminished libido and erectile dysfunction, among others. Male androgen levels steadily decline with age, and, in a subset of symptomatic older men, can result in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Over the last decade, increased awareness of hypogonadism among patients and providers has led to a significant rise in the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism, and especially in LOH. Accompanying the rise in TRT are concerns of potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular risks and the promotion of prostate cancer. The 'androgen hypothesis' asserts that prostate cancer development and progression is driven by androgens, and thus TRT has the theoretical potential to drive prostate cancer development and progression. In this review, we examine existing data surrounding testosterone and prostate cancer. There is significant evidence that androgens promote prostate cancer in experimental systems. However, there is no clear evidence that elevations in endogenous testosterone levels promote the development of prostate cancer in humans. As a result of experimental and historical data on the progression of prostate cancer following TRT, there has been widespread belief that TRT will promote disease progression in prostate cancer patients. Despite these fears, there are a growing number of studies demonstrating no increase in prostate cancer incidence among men on TRT. Furthermore, in studies involving a small number of patients, there has been no discernable increase in disease progression in prostate cancer patients on TRT. While data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are absent, TRT in select prostate cancer patients is likely safe. In the end, the use of TRT in prostate cancer patients is still considered experimental and should only be offered

  14. Testosterone and prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of pathogenesis and oncologic risk

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Jason E.; Billups, Kevin L.; Partin, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in male development and health. Likewise, androgen deficiency, or hypogonadism, is associated with a variety of symptoms including decreased energy, diminished libido and erectile dysfunction, among others. Male androgen levels steadily decline with age, and, in a subset of symptomatic older men, can result in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Over the last decade, increased awareness of hypogonadism among patients and providers has led to a significant rise in the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism, and especially in LOH. Accompanying the rise in TRT are concerns of potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular risks and the promotion of prostate cancer. The ‘androgen hypothesis’ asserts that prostate cancer development and progression is driven by androgens, and thus TRT has the theoretical potential to drive prostate cancer development and progression. In this review, we examine existing data surrounding testosterone and prostate cancer. There is significant evidence that androgens promote prostate cancer in experimental systems. However, there is no clear evidence that elevations in endogenous testosterone levels promote the development of prostate cancer in humans. As a result of experimental and historical data on the progression of prostate cancer following TRT, there has been widespread belief that TRT will promote disease progression in prostate cancer patients. Despite these fears, there are a growing number of studies demonstrating no increase in prostate cancer incidence among men on TRT. Furthermore, in studies involving a small number of patients, there has been no discernable increase in disease progression in prostate cancer patients on TRT. While data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are absent, TRT in select prostate cancer patients is likely safe. In the end, the use of TRT in prostate cancer patients is still considered experimental and should only be

  15. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Workers at Mayak PA: The Difference in Radiation Risk between Incidence and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Simonetto, Cristoforo; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Pikulina, Maria V.; Eidemüller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A detailed analysis of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) for the cohort of workers at Mayak Production Association (PA) is presented. This cohort is especially suitable for the analysis of radiation induced circulatory diseases, due to the detailed medical surveillance and information on several risk factors. The risk after external, typically protracted, gamma exposure is analysed, accounting for potential additional internal alpha exposure. Three different endpoints have been investigated: incidence and mortality from all cerebrovascular diseases and incidence of stroke. Particular emphasis was given to the form of the dose-response relationship and the time dependence of the radiation induced risk. Young attained age was observed to be an important, aggravating modifier of radiation risk for incidence of CeVD and stroke. For incidence of CeVD, our analysis supports a dose response sub-linear for low doses. Finally, the excess relative risk per dose was confirmed to be significantly higher for incidence of CeVD compared to CeVD mortality and incidence of stroke. Arguments are presented for this difference to be based on a true biological effect. PMID:25933038

  16. Dysphagia in individuals with tetraplegia: incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Shem, Kazuko; Castillo, Kathleen; Wong, Sandra; Chang, James

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Dysphagia following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) can increase risk for pulmonary complications that may delay the rehabilitative process. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dysphagia after cervical SCI. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Individuals with cervical SCI within 31 days of injury underwent a bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) followed by a videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) within 72 hours of the BSE. Subjects were diagnosed as having dysphagia if they had positive findings in either BSE or VFSS. Results Twenty-nine patients (7 female and 22 male) were enrolled. Of these, 21 (72%) had high cervical tetraplegia (C4 or higher) and 8 (38%) had lower cervical tetraplegia. A tracheostomy was present in 18 (62%) patients; 15 (52%) subjects were on ventilators. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 12 (41%) subjects. Dysphagia was noted in 62% of the subjects with tracheostomy and 53% of the subjects on the ventilator, but only tracheostomy resulted in a statistically significant association with dysphagia (P = 0.047). All three subjects who had nasogastric tubes were diagnosed with dysphagia (P = 0.029). The relationships between dysphagia and gender, high versus low tetraplegia, presence of halo or collar, head injury, and ventilator use were not statistically significant, but age was a significant risk factor (P = 0.028). Conclusions Dysphagia is present in about 41% of individuals with acute tetraplegia. Only age, tracheostomy, and nasogastric tubes were identified as significant risk factors for dysphagia for individuals with tetraplegia. No relationship between dysphagia and level of SCI, spine surgery, collar, and ventilator use was found to exist. PMID:21528631

  17. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakai, K; Fujii, H; Ishimura, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishi, S

    Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is related to graft function, but pre-transplantation risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism have not been evaluated in detail. We enrolled 86 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism characterized by the following: 1) serum parathyroid hormone levels >65 pg/mL and serum calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL at 1 year after kidney transplantation; 2) parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation; and 3) reintroduction of cinacalcet after kidney transplantation. Compared with other patients, these 9 patients had significantly longer duration of dialysis therapy (186 ± 74 mo vs 57 ± 78 mo) and more frequent treatment with cinacalcet during dialysis (89% vs 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis vintage, calcium phosphate products, and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation were independent risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed 72 months as the cutoff value of dialysis vintage and 55 as the cutoff value of calcium phosphate products. In conclusion, dialysis vintage >6 years, calcium phosphate products >55 (mg/dL)(2), and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation are strong predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. High-risk patients should be evaluated for parathyroid enlargement, and parathyroidectomy must be considered before kidney transplantation.

  19. Risk factors and underlying cardiovascular diseases in incident ESRD patients.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Attilio; Marcelli, Daniele; D'Andrea, Antonello; Cice, Gennaro; D'Isa, Salvatore; Cappabianca, Fabio; Pacchiano, Giulia; D'Amato, Roberta; Oggero, Anna Rita; Bonanno, Domenico; Pergamo, Ornella; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of CVD on admission to hemodialysis. Data were collected in 31 Italian clinics belonging to a clinic network using a prospective database (EuCliD), the main purpose of which is the support of quality assurance. Six hundred and thirty-six patients, mean age 63.9+/-15.4 years, admitted between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2003, were separated into two groups on the basis of presence of CVD and observed for a median follow-up period of 16 months. In the CVD group, patients were significantly older and the percentage of diabetics and smokers was significantly greater than in the CVD-free group. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of uremia-related risk factors. According to logistic regression analysis evaluating the impact of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, only smoking habit (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.25-2.79) and diabetes (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.95) were associated with a higher relative risk for the presence of CVD at baseline. At the time of admission, CVD was present in 27% of patients. The following de novo development of CVD was observed: hypertensive disease (0.28 new cases/100 pt-years), ischemic heart disease (0.71 new cases/100 pt-years), other forms of heart disease (1.57 new cases/100 pt-years), disease of arteries, arterioles, etc. (1.85 new cases/100 pt-years) and cerebrovascular disease (0.71 new cases/100 pt-years). The rate of developing de novo CVD events was 3.70 per 100 patient-years. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is already high at admission to dialysis. Despite the care provided to dialysis patients, a significant proportion of patients develop de novo CVD.

  20. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.

  1. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  2. Smoking as a risk factor for thyroid volume progression and incident goiter in a region with improved iodine supply.

    PubMed

    Ittermann, Till; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; John, Ulrich; Thamm, Michael; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry

    2008-12-01

    The role of smoking in the pathogenesis of thyroid enlargement is currently under debate. It has been hypothesized that the effect of smoking on increased thyroid volume is larger in regions with than in regions without iodine deficiency. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association of smoking with thyroid volume progression and incident goiter for different age-strata in a region with improved iodine supply. The population-based Study of Health in Pomerania compromised 3300 subjects with complete 5-year examination follow-up. Data from 2484 participants without known history of thyroid disorder or thyroid medication were analyzed. Thyroid size was evaluated by ultrasound. Determinants of thyroid volume progression and incident goiter, i.e., newly occurred goiter between baseline and follow-up, were analyzed by linear and logistic regression respectively. Participants aged 20-39 years who were current smokers at baseline and at follow-up had a lower risk of incident goiter (odds ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15; 0.71; P=0.005). In this subpopulation, age was inversely related to thyroid volume progression. In subjects aged 60-79 years, smoking at baseline and follow-up was a risk factor for thyroid volume progression (beta: 3.37; 95% CI: 0.84; 5.89; P=0.009). After exclusion of individuals who had actual goiter in ultrasound at baseline, this association disappeared. We conclude that the inverse association between smoking and goiter in young adults and the lacking association of smoking with goiter and thyroid volume progression in adult non-goitrous subjects indicate that smoking has a declining impact on thyroid growth in the study region. Our findings mirror the improved iodine supply of Northeast Germany.

  3. Risk Factors for Incident Chronic Insomnia: A General Population Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Singareddy, Ravi; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The few population-based, prospective studies that have examined risk factors of incident insomnia were limited by small sample size, short follow-up, and lack of data on medical disorders or polysomnography. We prospectively examined the associations between demographics, behavioral factors, psychiatric and medical disorders, and polysomnography with incident chronic insomnia. Methods From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Sleep Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Only subjects without chronic insomnia at baseline (n=1246) were included in this study. Structured medical and psychiatric history, personality testing, and 8-hour polysomnography were obtained at baseline. Structured sleep history was obtained at baseline and follow-up. Results Incidence of chronic insomnia was 9.3%, with a higher incidence in women (12.9%) than in men (6.2%). Younger age (20–35 years), non-white ethnicity, and obesity increased the risk of chronic insomnia. Poor sleep and mental health were stronger predictors of incident chronic insomnia compared to physical health. Higher scores in MMPI-2, indicating maladaptive personality traits, and excessive use of coffee at baseline predicted incident chronic insomnia. Polysomnographic variables, such as short sleep duration or sleep apnea, did not predict incident chronic insomnia. Conclusion Mental health, poor sleep, and obesity, but not sleep apnea, are significant risk factors for incident chronic insomnia. Focusing on these more vulnerable groups and addressing the modifiable risk factors may help reduce the incident of chronic insomnia, a common and chronic sleep disorder associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. PMID:22425576

  4. Serum and Dietary Potassium and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ranee; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Shafi, Tariq; Selvin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Cheryl; Pankow, James S.; Miller, Edgar; Brancati, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Background Serum potassium levels affect insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, and hypokalemia associated with diuretic use has been associated with dysglycemia. We hypothesized that adults with lower serum potassium levels and lower dietary potassium intake are at higher risk for incident diabetes, independent of diuretic use. Methods We analyzed data from 12,209 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, an on-going prospective cohort study beginning in 1986, with 9 years of in-person follow-up and 17 years of telephone follow-up. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated the relative hazard (RH) of incident diabetes associated with baseline serum potassium levels. Results During 9 years of in-person follow-up, 1475 participants developed incident diabetes. In multivariate analyses, we found an inverse association between serum potassium and risk of incident diabetes. Compared to those with a high-normal serum potassium (5.0-5.5 mEq/l), adults with serum potassium levels of < 4.0, 4.0-<4.5, and 4.5-<5.0, (mEq/L) had adjusted relative hazards (RH) (95% CI) of incident diabetes of 1.64 (1.29-2.08), 1.64 (1.34-2.01), and 1.39 (1.14-1.71) respectively. An increased risk persisted during an additional 8 years of telephone follow-up based on self-report with RHs of 1.2-1.3 for those with a serum potassium less than 5.0 mEq/L. Dietary potassium intake was significantly associated with risk of incident diabetes in unadjusted models but not in multivariate models. Conclusions Serum potassium is an independent predictor of incident diabetes in this cohort. Further study is needed to determine if modification of serum potassium could reduce the subsequent risk of diabetes. PMID:20975023

  5. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  6. Risk analysis of colorectal cancer incidence by gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Che; Chang, Yu-Tien; Jian, Chen-En; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Liu, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yao, Chung-Tay

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide. Several studies have performed microarray data analyses for cancer classification and prognostic analyses. Microarray assays also enable the identification of gene signatures for molecular characterization and treatment prediction. Objective Microarray gene expression data from the online Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to to distinguish colorectal cancer from normal colon tissue samples. Methods We collected microarray data from the GEO database to establish colorectal cancer microarray gene expression datasets for a combined analysis. Using the Prediction Analysis for Microarrays (PAM) method and the GSEA MSigDB resource, we analyzed the 14,698 genes that were identified through an examination of their expression values between normal and tumor tissues. Results Ten genes (ABCG2, AQP8, SPIB, CA7, CLDN8, SCNN1B, SLC30A10, CD177, PADI2, and TGFBI) were found to be good indicators of the candidate genes that correlate with CRC. From these selected genes, an average of six significant genes were obtained using the PAM method, with an accuracy rate of 95%. The results demonstrate the potential of utilizing a model with the PAM method for data mining. After a detailed review of the published reports, the results confirmed that the screened candidate genes are good indicators for cancer risk analysis using the PAM method. Conclusions Six genes were selected with 95% accuracy to effectively classify normal and colorectal cancer tissues. We hope that these results will provide the basis for new research projects in clinical practice that aim to rapidly assess colorectal cancer risk using microarray gene expression analysis. PMID:28229027

  7. Incidence and Residual Risk of HIV, HBV and HCV Infections Among Blood Donors in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Saber, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Abasian, Ali; Jamali, Mostafa; SalekMoghadam, Ebadollah; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Mirrezaie, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of residual risk is essential to monitor and improve blood safety. Our epidemiologic knowledge in the Iranian donor population regarding transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs), is confined to a few studies based on prevalence rate. There are no reports on residual risk of TTIs in Iran. In present survey, a software database of donor records of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC) was used to estimate the incidence and residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, by applying the incidence rate/window period (IR-WP) model. A total of 1,207,155 repeat donations was included in the analysis and represented a mean of 8.4 donations per donor over 6 years. The incidence amongst repeat donors was estimated by dividing the number of confirmed seroconverting donors by the total number of person-years at risk. The residual risk was calculated using the incidence/window period model. Incidence rate and residual risk for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were calculated for total (2005-2010) and two consecutive periods (2005-2007 and 2008-2010) of the study. According to the IR-WP model, overall residual risk for HIV and HCV in the total study period was 0.4 and 12.5 per million units, respectively and for HBV 4.57/100,000 donations. The incidence and residual risk of TTIs, calculated on TBTC's blood supply was low and comparable with developed countries for HIV infection but high for HCV and HBV infections. Blood safety may therefore be better managed by applying other techniques like nucleic acid amplification tests.

  8. Rates and risk factors for progression to incident dementia vary by age in a population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Wen; Snitz, Beth E.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; McDade, Eric; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rate of progression from normal cognition or mild impairment to dementia, and to identify potential risk and protective factors for incident dementia, based on age at dementia onset in a prospective study of a population-based cohort (n = 1,982) aged 65 years and older. Methods: Following the cohort annually for up to 5 years, we estimated incidence of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≥1) among individuals previously normal or mildly impaired (Clinical Dementia Rating 0 or 0.5). In the whole cohort, and also stratified by median onset age, we examined several vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory variables as potential risk factors for developing dementia, using interval-censored survival models. Results: Based on 67 incident cases of dementia, incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) was 10.0 overall, 5.8 in those with median onset age of 87 years or younger, and 31.5 in those with onset age after 87 years. Adjusting for demographics, the risk of incident dementia with onset age of 87 years or younger (n = 33) was significantly increased by baseline smoking, stroke, low systolic blood pressure, and APOE*4 genotype, and reduced by current alcohol use. Among those with dementia with onset after 87 years (n = 34), no risk or protective factor was significant. Conclusion: Risk and protective factors were only found for incident dementia with onset before the median onset age of 87 years, and not for those with later onset. Either unexplored risk factors explain the continued increase in incidence with age, or unknown protective factors are allowing some individuals to delay onset into very old age. PMID:25471390

  9. New Developments in the Classification, Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, Natural History, and Treatment of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Yannis M.; Shuai, Yuanlu; Fang, Wangyi

    2017-01-01

    For years, branch retinal vein occlusion is still a controversial disease in many aspects. An increasing amount of data is available regarding classification, pathogenesis, risk factors, natural history, and therapy of branch retinal vein occlusion. Some of the conclusions may even change our impression of branch retinal vein occlusion. It will be beneficial for our doctors to get a deeper understanding of this disease and improve the treatment skills. The aims of this review is to collect the information above and report new ideas especially from the past a few years. PMID:28386476

  10. Using incident response trees as a tool for risk management of online financial services.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Dan

    2014-09-01

    The article introduces the use of probabilistic risk assessment for modeling the incident response process of online financial services. The main contribution is the creation of incident response trees, using event tree analysis, which provides us with a visual tool and a systematic way to estimate the probability of a successful incident response process against the currently known risk landscape, making it possible to measure the balance between front-end and back-end security measures. The model is presented using an illustrative example, and is then applied to the incident response process of a Swedish bank. Access to relevant data is verified and the applicability and usability of the proposed model is verified using one year of historical data. Potential advantages and possible shortcomings are discussed, referring to both the design phase and the operational phase, and future work is presented.

  11. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  12. Severe edentulism is a major risk factor influencing stroke incidence in rural Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project).

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Del Brutto, Victor J

    2017-02-01

    Background There is no information on stroke incidence in rural areas of Latin America, where living conditions and cardiovascular risk factors are different from urban centers. Aim Using a population-based prospective cohort study design, we aimed to assess risk factors influencing stroke incidence in community-dwelling adults living in rural Ecuador. Methods First-ever strokes occurring from 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016, in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, were identified from yearly door-to-door surveys and other overlapping sources. Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and the length of observation time per subject were used to estimate stroke incidence rate ratio as well as factors influencing such incidence. Results Of 807 stroke-free individuals prospectively enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, follow-up was achieved in 718 (89%), contributing 2,499 years of follow-up (average 3.48 ± 0.95 years). Overall stroke incidence rate was 2.97 per 100 person-years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.73-4.2), which increased to 4.77 (95% CI: 1.61-14.1) when only persons aged ≥57 years were considered. Poisson regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, showed that high blood pressure (IRR: 5.24; 95% CI: 2.55-7.93) and severe edentulism (IRR: 5.06; 95% CI: 2.28-7.85) were the factors independently increasing stroke incidence. Conclusions Stroke incidence in this rural setting is comparable to that reported from the developed world. Besides age and high blood pressure, severe edentulism is a major factor independently predicting incident strokes. Public awareness of the consequences of poor dental care might reduce stroke incidence in rural settings.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Solid Organ Transplantation1

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Subramanian, Aruna K.; Cameron, Andrew M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Solid organ transplant recipients commonly are infected with hepatitis viruses, are immunosuppressed, and have other potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors. Methods We studied de novo HCC incidence arising after transplant using U.S. registry data (223,660 recipients, 1987–2005). We used proportional hazards regression to identify HCC risk factors and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare HCC risk to that in the general population. Results Based on 74 cases reported by transplant centers to the registry, HCC incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 person-years among kidney, heart, and lung (non-liver) recipients and 25 per 100,000 person-years among liver recipients. HCC incidence among non-liver recipients was independently associated with hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) (hazard ratio [HR] 9.7, 95%CI 2.8–33), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR 6.9, 95%CI 2.5–19), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.8, 1.2–6.6). Among liver recipients, HCC incidence was associated with advancing age (p<0.001), male sex (HR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4–16), HCV infection (HR 3.1, 1.3–7.2), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.7, 1.2–6.2). Among non-liver recipients, overall HCC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR 0.8) but elevated among those with HCV (3.4) or HBsAg (6.5). HCC incidence among liver transplant recipients was elevated overall (SIR 3.4) and especially among those with HCV (5.0) or diabetes mellitus (6.2). Conclusions HCC incidence is elevated among liver transplant recipients and subsets of non-liver recipients. These risk factors indicate the need for improved control of viral hepatitis following solid organ transplantation. PMID:18813102

  14. Maxillofacial injuries sustained during soccer: incidence, severity and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Papakosta, Veronica; Koumoura, Fanny; Mourouzis, Constantinos

    2008-04-01

    A very popular sport worldwide, soccer generates a great number of maxillofacial injuries, mainly fractures, resulting in esthetic or functional problems. The aim of this retrospective study was to contribute to the knowledge of soccer-related maxillofacial injuries, and call attention to the risk factors that favor these injuries. A total of 108 patients, who attended hospital because of maxillofacial injuries during soccer within a period of 8 years, were included in this study. The relationship of the patients with soccer, the type, the site, the severity, the mechanism of the injuries and the applied treatment were analyzed. The injured were all males, and were principally amateurs. Around 89.8% of the patients suffered maxillofacial fractures while 10.2% presented only soft tissue injuries; 13.9% had multiple fractures; 50% of the maxillofacial fractures concerned the zygomatic complex and 38.2% the mandible where the majority occurred at the angle. The prevailing mechanism was the direct impact of players. Head to head impact outnumbered. Elbow to head impact caused contusions of the temporomandibular joint. Kick to head impact was the main cause of multiple fractures. The treatment of fractures was mainly surgical (68.2%). These findings support the fact that maxillofacial injuries sustained during soccer tend to be severe, demanding surgical treatment. The mandibular angle is in danger due to the usual existence of impacted and semi-impacted third molars. There should be a preventive intervention on the above contributors, and mainly coaches and sports physicians should be properly informed about the specificity of the maxillofacial injuries.

  15. Aortic Stiffness and the Risk of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Beiser, Alexa; Himali, Jayandra J; Tsao, Connie; Satizabal, Claudia L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha; Mitchell, Gary F

    2016-09-01

    Aortic stiffening increases the transfers of high pressure and flow pulsatility to small cerebral vessels potentially causing the accumulation of vascular brain injury. Our aim was to investigate the prospective association of aortic stiffness with the risks of incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia. We studied 1101 dementia-free Framingham Offspring study participants (mean age, 69±6 years; 54% women). Aortic stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity using applanation tonometry and modeled as a linear variable and the top 2 quintiles (>11.4 m/s). Outcomes were the 10-year risk of incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia, including clinically characterized Alzheimer disease. We observed 106, 77, and 59 events of mild cognitive impairment, all-cause dementia, and clinical Alzheimer disease, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, higher continuous aortic stiffness predicted an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73]), all-cause dementia (hazard ratio, 1.45 [95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.87]), and Alzheimer disease (hazard ratio, 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.87]). In risk factor-adjusted statistical models, aortic stiffness remained a significant predictor of mild cognitive impairment but not incident dementia. In nondiabetic patients, the top 2 quintiles of aortic stiffness were associated with a higher risk of incident all-cause dementia across all statistical models. Aortic stiffness was an independent predictor of incident mild cognitive impairment in the whole sample and with incident dementia in nondiabetic patients. Our findings suggest aortic stiffness as a potentially modifiable risk factor for clinical cognitive impairment and dementia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Nutritional risk, nutritional status and incident disability in older adults. The FRADEA study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reig, M; Gómez-Arnedo, L; Alfonso-Silguero, S A; Juncos-Martínez, G; Romero, L; Abizanda, P

    2014-03-01

    To analyze if body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as measures of nutritional status, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) as a nutritional risk measure are associated with increased risk of incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) in a population based cohort of Spanish older adults. Concurrent cohort study. Albacete City, Spain. 678 subjects over age 70 from the FRADEA Study (Frailty and Dependence in Albacete). BMI, WC and MNA-SF were recorded at the basal visit of the FRADEA Study. Incident disability in BADL was defined as loss of the ability to perform bathing, grooming, dressing, toilet use, or feeding from basal to follow-up visit, using the Barthel index. The association between nutritional status and nutritional risk with incident BADL disability was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, basal function, comorbidity, cognitive decline, depression risk and frailty status. Each point less of MNA-SF (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31) and MNA-SF<14 (OR 2.33, 95%CI 1.39-3.89), but not MNA-SF<12 (OR 1.47, 95%CI 0.89-2.42) had a greater adjusted risk of incident disability in BADL. Neither BMI (OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.97-1.06) nor WC (OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.99-1.03) were associated. Weight loss (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.08-2.83) and mobility impairment (OR 3.35, 95%CI 1.67-6.73) remained as adjusted predictors of incident BADL disability, while anorexia almost reached the significance (OR 1.65, 95%CI 0.94-2.87). Nutritional risk measured with the MNA-SF is associated with incident disability in BADL in older adults, while nutritional status measured with BMI or WC is not.

  17. A Systems View of Risk Factors for Knee Osteoarthritis Reveals Insights into the Pathogenesis of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andriacchi, Thomas P; Favre, Julien; Erhart-Hledik, JC; Chu, Constance R

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) remains a critical yet unsolved multifaceted problem. To address the multifaceted nature of OA a systems model was developed to consolidate a number of observations on the biological, mechanical and structural components of OA and identify features common to the primary risk factors for OA (aging, obesity and joint trauma) that are present prior to the development of clinical OA. This analysis supports a unified view of the pathogenesis of OA such that the risk for developing OA emerges when one of the components of the disease (e.g. mechanical) becomes abnormal, and it is the interaction with the other components (e.g. biological and/or structural) that influences the ultimate convergence to cartilage breakdown and progression to clinical OA. The model, applied in a stimulus-response format, demonstrated that a mechanical stimulus at baseline can enhance the sensitivity of a biomarker to predict cartilage thinning in a five year follow-up in patients with knee OA. The systems approach provides new insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and offers the basis for developing multidisciplinary studies to address early detection and treatment at a stage in the disease where disease modification has the greatest potential for a successful outcome. PMID:25224078

  18. Incident Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Men and Women Veterans After Return From Deployment.

    PubMed

    Haskell, Sally G; Brandt, Cynthia; Burg, Matthew; Bastian, Lori; Driscoll, Mary; Goulet, Joseph; Mattocks, Kristin; Dziura, James

    2017-10-03

    Stressors associated with military service and reintegration may impact psychologic well-being and behaviors that result in increased incidence rates for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Using electronic health record data from the Veterans Health Administration we sought to measure the incidence of newly diagnosed CV risk factors and how these incident risks were moderated by race and mental health conditions. A cohort study including Veterans whose end of last deployment was between October 1, 2001 and July 31, 2014. A total of 267,305 Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn Veterans were present. Incident risk factors (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or coronary artery disease), identified through new International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes or measurement recordings at primary care visits. The rate of developing at least 1 risk factor or coronary artery disease was 240 and 151 per 1000 person-years in men and women, respectively. Except for obesity, women were significantly less likely to develop any other CV risk factor compared with men (Crude hazard ratios ranging from 0.44 to 0.82). The impact of sex on hypertension (P<0.001) and obesity (P<0.001) was modified by race and the impact of sex on the combined event of any risk factor (P=0.007) and obesity (P<0.001) was modified by depression. Compared with men, women Veterans were more likely to become obese after return from deployment, but less likely to develop any other risk . For black women, the protective effect of female sex on the combined event (any risk factor), and hypertension was lessened compared with white women. The increased risk of obesity for women was greater in black women, and those with depression.

  19. [The critical incident reporting system as an instrument of risk management for better patient safety].

    PubMed

    Panzica, M; Krettek, C; Cartes, M

    2011-09-01

    The probability that an inpatient will be harmed by a medical procedure is at least 3% of all patients. As a consequence, hospital risk management has become a central management task in the health care sector. The critical incident reporting system (CIRS) as a voluntary instrument for reporting (near) incidents plays a key role in the implementation of a risk management system. The goal of the CIRS is to register system errors without assigning guilt or meting out punishment and at the same time increasing the number of voluntary reports.

  20. Decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with greater risk of cam morphology

    PubMed Central

    Fowers, C. A.; Yuh, R. T.; Gebhart, J. J.; Salata, M. J.; Liu, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The spinopelvic relationship (including pelvic incidence) has been shown to influence pelvic orientation, but its potential association with femoroacetabular impingement has not been thoroughly explored. The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with increased risk of cam morphology. Methods Two matching cohorts were created from a collection of cadaveric specimens with known pelvic incidences: 50 subjects with the highest pelvic incidence (all subjects > 60°) and 50 subjects with the lowest pelvic incidence (all subjects < 35°). Femoral version, acetabular version, and alpha angles were directly measured from each specimen bilaterally. Cam morphology was defined as alpha angle > 55°. Differences between the two cohorts were analysed with a Student’s t-test and the difference in incidence of cam morphology was assessed using a chi-squared test. The significance level for all tests was set at p < 0.05. Results Cam morphology was identified in 47/100 (47%) femurs in the cohort with pelvic incidence < 35° and in only 25/100 (25%) femurs in the cohort with pelvic incidence > 60° (p = 0.002). The mean alpha angle was also greater in the cohort with pelvic incidence < 35° (mean 53.7°, sd 10.7° versus mean 49.7°, sd 10.6°; p = 0.008). Conclusions Decreased pelvic incidence is associated with development of cam morphology. We propose a novel theory wherein subjects with decreased pelvic incidence compensate during gait (to maintain optimal sagittal balance) through anterior pelvic tilt, creating artificial anterior acetabular overcoverage and recurrent impingement that increases risk for cam morphology. Cite this article: W. Z. Morris, C. A. Fowers, R. T. Yuh, J. J. Gebhart, M. J. Salata, R. W. Liu. Decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with greater risk of cam morphology. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:387–392. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0028.R1. PMID:27650107

  1. Incidence and risk factors for late-life depression in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gureje, O; Oladeji, B; Abiona, T

    2011-09-01

    We present the incidence and risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) among community-dwelling elderly Nigerians. A cohort study of persons aged ≥ 65 years residing in eight contiguous Yoruba-speaking states in south-west and north-central Nigeria was conducted between November 2003 and December 2007. Of the 2149 baseline sample, 1408 (66%) were successfully followed up after approximately 39 months. Face-to-face in-home assessments were conducted with the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3) and diagnosis was based on the DSM-IV. Incident MDD was determined in the group with no prior lifetime history of MDD at baseline and who were free of dementia at follow-up (n=892). During the follow-up period, 308 persons had developed incident MDD, representing a rate of 104.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 93.3-116.6] per 1000 person-years. Compared to males, the age-adjusted hazard for females was 1.63 (95% CI 1.30-2.06). Lifetime or current subsyndromal symptoms of depression at baseline did not increase the risk of incident MDD. Among females, but not males, rural residence and poor social network were risk factors for incident MDD. Physical health status at baseline did not predict new onset of MDD. The finding of a high incidence of MDD among elderly Nigerians complements earlier reports of a high prevalence of the disorder in this understudied population. Social factors, in particular those relating to social isolation, constitute a risk for incident MDD.

  2. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyon K; Curhan, Gary

    2010-10-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect the risk of gout via various mechanisms, but prospective data on the relation between coffee intake and the risk of incident gout are limited. Over a 26-y period, we prospectively examined the relation between coffee intake and risk of incident gout in 89,433 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study. We assessed the consumption of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine in participants every 2-4 y through validated questionnaires. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the survey criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for gout. During the 26 y of follow-up, we documented 896 confirmed incident cases of gout. There was an inverse association between higher coffee intake and the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee-consumption categories [ie, 0, 1-237, 238-947, and ≥948 mL coffee/d (237 mL = one 8-ounce cup)] were 1.00, 0.97, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; P for trend < 0.0001), respectively. For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, 1-237, and ≥237 mL decaffeinated coffee/d) were 1.00, 1.02, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; P for trend = 0.02), respectively. There was an inverse association between total caffeine from all sources and the risk of gout; the multivariate RR of the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.68; P for trend <0.0001). These prospective data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout in women.

  3. Incidence of online health information search: a useful proxy for public health risk perception.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L

    2013-06-17

    Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers' search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public's attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population's environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population's general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables-the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008

  4. Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes: lessons from natural history studies of high-risk individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nokoff, Natalie; Rewers, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by known genetic risk factors with T cell–mediated infiltration and destruction of the beta cells within pancreatic islets. Autoantibodies are the most significant preclinical marker of T1D, and birth cohort studies have provided important insights into the natural history of autoimmunity and T1D. While HLA remains the strongest genetic risk factor, a number of novel gene variants associated with T1D have been found through genome-wide studies, some of which have been linked to suspected environmental risk factors. Multiple environmental factors that have been suggested to play a role in the development of T1D await confirmation. Current risk-stratification models for T1D take into account genetic risk factors and autoantibodies. In the future, metabolic profiles, epigenetics, as well as environmental risk factors may be included in such models. PMID:23360422

  5. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women: risk factors, etiology, pathogenesis and prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Guglietta, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women, often as a recurrent disease. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common pathotype of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) found among patients with UTI. The human intestinal can act as a reservoir of UPEC, with the female urethra being infected by fecal material containing UPEC. Adhesion of bacteria to the epithelial cells of urogenital mucosa is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of UTI. Alternative nonantibiotic based approaches, such as mechanical barrier protection of the intestinal mucosa have been proposed to reduce bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelium, bacteria proliferation and decrease of the load of UPEC in the intestinal lumen and in the fecal material.

  6. Obesity, insulin resistance and incident small vessel disease on MRI: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Andrea L. C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Mosley, Thomas H.; Bezerra, Daniel C; Knopman, David S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Jack, Clifford R.; Coker, Laura H.; Alonso, Alvaro; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Windham, Beverly G.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The term “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) describes the clustering of risk factors found in many individuals with obesity. Due to their pathophysiology, we hypothesized that two features of MetS, central obesity and insulin resistance (IR), would be associated with cerebrovascular changes on MRI, and specifically with incident lacunar disease and not white matter hyperintensity progression (WMH). Methods Risk factors were defined at study baseline in 934 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who completed two brain MRIs approximately ten years apart. WMH progression and incident lacunes between the two MRIs were determined. An IR score for each participant was created using principal component analysis of 11 risk factors, including (among others): insulin, HOMA-IR, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. MetS (presence/absence), using standard clinical definitions, and IR score at the first MRI, were independent variables, evaluated in multivariate logistic regression to determine odds of WMH progression (Q5 vs. Q1–4) and incident lacunes. Results MetS (adjusted OR 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 3.05) and IR score (adjusted OR per 1-standard deviation increase: 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68) were associated with incident lacunes but not with WMH progression. Insulin, HOMA-IR and BMI were not associated with incident lacunes or WMH progression in separate models. Conclusions The IR score and central obesity are associated with incident lacunar disease but not WMH progression in individuals. Central obesity and IR may be important risk factors to target to prevent lacunar disease. PMID:26451022

  7. Breast Cancer Risk – From Genetics to Molecular Understanding of Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fasching, P. A.; Ekici, A. B.; Wachter, D. L.; Hein, A.; Bayer, C. M.; Häberle, L.; Loehberg, C. R.; Schneider, M.; Jud, S. M.; Heusinger, K.; Rübner, M.; Rauh, C.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Hartmann, A.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Several advancements over the last decade have triggered the developments in the field of breast cancer risk research. One of them is the availability of the human genome sequence along with cheap genotyping possibilities. Another is the globalization of research, which has led to the growth of research collaboration into large international consortia that facilitate the pooling of clinical and genotype data of hundreds of thousands of patients and healthy control individuals. This review concerns with the recent developments in breast cancer risk research and focuses on the discovery of new genetic breast cancer risk factors and their meaning in the context of established non-genetic risk factors. Finally the clinical application is highly dependent on the accuracy of breast cancer risk prediction models, not only for all breast cancer patients, but also for molecular subtypes, preferably for those which are associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Recently risk prediction incorporates all possible risk factors, which include epidemiological risk factors, mammographic density and genetic risk factors. PMID:24771903

  8. [Incidence of wheezing and associated risk factors in the first 6 months of life of a cohort in Valencia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Pérez Tarazona, S; Alfonso Diego, J; Amat Madramany, A; Chofre Escrihuela, L; Lucas Sáez, E; Bou Monterde, R

    2010-01-01

    To determine the incidence of wheezing at 6 months of life in the town of Alzira (Valencia, Spain), and to analyse associated risk factors. We included 636 newborns in a longitudinal birth cohort study between March 2007 and November 2008. Data were collected from hospital and primary care medical records and from questionnaires sent at 6 months post-natal. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to examine the risk factors associated with wheezing. At 6 months, 25.2% of infants had had 1 or more episodes of wheezing, whereas 5.6% had had 3 or more episodes. Emergency visits were reported in 11.6% of the infants, treatment with oral corticosteroids in 6.6% and admission to hospital in 4%. Independent risk factors for wheezing were male sex (relative risk [RR]: 2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.5 to 2.9), younger gestational age (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.2), season of birth between July and September (RR: 3.5, 95% CI: 2.0 to 5.9) and between October and December (RR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.6), younger maternal age (RR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.1), having siblings (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.5), exposure to smoke (RR: 1.4, 95% CI: 12.0 to 2.0) and history of maternal asthma (RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.0). Breast feeding for at least 3 months (RR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8) and having immigrant parents (RR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.9) were protective against wheezing. A high cumulative incidence of wheezing in the first 6 months of life was found in our population, in comparison with data reported in other cohort studies. Estimated risk factors were generally in accordance with those described by other authors. Having siblings and season of birth between July and September were the most important risk factors, reflecting the role of viral infections in the pathogenesis of wheezing in early childhood. Copyright (c) 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Stampfer, Meir J; Curhan, Gary C

    2004-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney stones. Because the metabolism of many dietary factors, such as calcium, may change with age, the relation between diet and kidney stones may be different in older adults. Uncertainty also remains about the association between many dietary factors, such as vitamin C, magnesium, and animal protein, and the risk of kidney stone formation. To examine the association between dietary factors and the risk of incident, symptomatic kidney stones in men and to determine whether these associations vary with age, a prospective cohort study was conducted of 45,619 men without a history of nephrolithiasis. Self-administered food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet every 4 yr. A total of 1473 incident symptomatic kidney stones were documented during 477,700 person-years of follow-up. For men aged <60 yr, the multivariate relative risk (RR) for stone formation in the highest quintile of dietary calcium as compared with the lowest quintile was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.87; P = 0.01 for trend). By contrast, there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation in men aged 60 yr or older. The multivariate RR for men who consumed 1000 mg or greater of vitamin C per day compared with those who consumed less than the recommended dietary allowance of 90 mg/d was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.80; P = 0.01 for trend). Other dietary factors showed the following multivariate RR among men in the highest quintile of intake compared with those in the lowest: magnesium, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89; P = 0.01 for trend); potassium, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.68; P < 0.001 for trend); and fluid, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.85; P < 0.001 for trend). Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2) (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.81; P = 0.03 for trend). Sodium, phosphorus, sucrose, phytate, vitamin B(6), vitamin D, and supplemental calcium were not independently

  10. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease.

  11. Incidence of Skin Tears and Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Strazzieri-Pulido, Kelly Cristina; Peres, Giovana Ribau Picolo; Campanili, Ticiane Carolina Gonçalves Faustino; de Gouveia Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição

    Skin tears are traumatic wounds resulting from friction and shearing forces. Clinical practice strongly indicates that skin tears are a prevalent problem but their incidence is not well established in the literature. This systematic literature review identified and evaluated the available literature on the incidence and risk factors for skin tears in adults and the elderly. Inclusion criteria were epidemiological studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese languages from January 1990 through June 2014 and available in full text. Study quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and the Guidelines for Critically Appraising Studies of Prevalence or Incidence of a Health Problem. Five studies reporting incidence of skin tears met the selection criteria. Reported incidence rates of skin tears ranged from 2.23% to 92% in long-term care facilities and varied from 2.1% among men to 4.6% among women living in the community. The most prevalent risk factor for skin tears was old age, followed by impaired mobility, falls and accidental injuries, previous skin tears, cognitive deficit/dementia, dependence in transfers, and upper limbs. Further epidemiological studies on skin tears are necessary to elucidate the cause of these injuries and identify the profile of people at risk for skin tears, contributing to the development and implementation of appropriate preventive interventions.

  12. Sickle cell trait and incident ischemic stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    PubMed

    Caughey, Melissa C; Loehr, Laura R; Key, Nigel S; Derebail, Vimal K; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Grove, Megan L; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Numerous case reports describe stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) in the absence of traditional risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. To date, no prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this association. A population-based sample of blacks (n=3497; mean age=54 years; female=62%) was followed from 1987 to 2011 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, contributing a total of 65 371 person-years. Hazard ratios and incidence rate differences for ischemic stroke were estimated, contrasting SCT to homozygous hemoglobin A. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, total cholesterol, atrial fibrillation, and coronary heart disease. SCT was identified in 223 (6.4%) participants. During a median follow-up of 22 years, 401 subjects experienced incident stroke (89% ischemic). Incident ischemic stroke was more frequent among those with SCT (13%) than those with homozygous hemoglobin A (10%). SCT was associated with an ischemic stroke hazard ratio of 1.4 (1.0-2.0) and an incidence rate difference amounting to 1.9 (0.4-3.8) extra strokes per 1000 person-years. We observed an increased risk of ischemic stroke in blacks with SCT. Further investigation of the incidence and pathophysiology of stroke in patients with SCT is warranted. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis in Omani Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sharef, Sharef W.; Al-Sinani, Siham; Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Reyes, Zenaida S.; Al-Ryiami, Hilal; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Al-Mamari, Watfa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is one of the most challenging complications of prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) in neonates. There is a lack of research investigating its incidence in newborn infants in Oman and the Arab region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of PNAC and its risk factors in Omani neonates. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January and April 2014. All neonates who received PN for ≥14 days during a four-year period (June 2009 to May 2013) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Results: A total of 1,857 neonates were admitted to the NICU over the study period and 135 neonates (7.3%) received PN for ≥14 days. Determining the incidence of PNAC was only possible in 97 neonates; of these, 38 (39%) had PNAC. The main risk factors associated with PNAC were duration of PN, duration of enteral starvation, gastrointestinal surgeries, blood transfusions and sepsis. Neonates with PNAC had a slightly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in comparison to those without PNAC. Conclusion: This study found a PNAC incidence of 39% in Omani neonates. There were several significant risk factors for PNAC in Omani neonates; however, after logistic regression analysis, only total PN duration remained statistically significant. Preventive strategies should be implemented in NICUs so as to avoid future chronic liver disease in this population. PMID:26052457

  14. Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on the Risk of Incident Respiratory Failure: A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a nationwide cohort study to investigate the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the risk of incident respiratory failure. Methods From the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 11 533 patients newly diagnosed with SLE and 46 132 controls without SLE who were randomly selected through frequency-matching according to age, sex, and index year. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of incident respiratory failure, which was compared between the 2 cohorts through a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident respiratory failure was 5.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.15–6.52) for the SLE cohort after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Both men (aHR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.67–4.43) and women (aHR = 6.79, 95% CI = 5.93–7.77) had a significantly higher rate of incident respiratory failure in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Both men and women aged <35 years (aHR = 31.2, 95% CI = 21.6–45.2), 35–65 years; (aHR = 6.19, 95% CI = 5.09–7.54) and ≥65 years (aHR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.92–2.87) had a higher risk of incident respiratory failure in the SLE cohort. Moreover, the risk of incident respiratory failure was higher in the SLE cohort than the non-SLE cohort, for subjects with (aHR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.22–3.15) or without (aHR = 9.08, 95% CI = 7.72–10.7) pre-existing comorbidities. In the SLE cohort, subjects with >24 outpatient visits and hospitalizations per year had a higher incident respiratory failure risk (aHR = 21.7, 95% CI = 18.0–26.1) compared with the non-SLE cohort. Conclusion Patients with SLE are associated with an increased risk of incident respiratory failure, regardless of their age, sex, and pre-existing comorbidities; especially medical services with higher frequency. PMID:27654828

  15. Risk assessment for incident heart failure in individuals with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Rienstra, Michiel; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Sun, Jenny X.; Moser, Carlee B.; Levy, Daniel; Pencina, Michael J.; Fontes, João D.; Magnani, Jared W.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Tadros, Thomas M.; Wang, Thomas J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong risk factor for heart failure (HF); HF onset in patients with AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors that predict HF in individuals with AF in the community are not well established. Methods and results We examined clinical variables related to the 10-year incidence of HF in 725 individuals (mean 73.3 years, 45% women) with documented AF in the Framingham Heart Study. Event rates for incident HF (n = 161, 48% in women) were comparable in women (4.30 per 100 person-years) and men (3.34 per 100 person-years). Age, body mass index, ECG LV hypertrophy, diabetes, significant murmur, and history of myocardial infarction were positively associated with incident HF in multivariable models (C-statistic 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.75). We developed a risk algorithm for estimating absolute risk of HF in AF patients with good model fit and calibration (adjusted calibration χ2 statistic 7.29; Pχ2 = 0.61). Applying the algorithm, 47.6% of HF events occurred in the top tertile in men compared with 13.1% in the bottom tertile, and 58.4% in women in the upper tertile compared with 18.2% in the lowest category. For HF type, women had a non-significantly higher incidence of HF with preserved EF compared with men. Conclusions We describe advancing age, LV hypertrophy, body mass index, diabetes, significant heart murmur, and history of myocardial infarction as clinical predictors of incident HF in individuals with AF. A risk algorithm may help identify individuals with AF at high risk of developing HF. PMID:23594831

  16. Falls in critical care: a local review to identify incidence and risk.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Carter, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Patient falls are the most common adverse event in hospitals, resulting in devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences. Therefore the emphasis on falls assessment and prevention is a key priority. Within hospitals those reported at greatest risk of falls are older patients with little known about the factors within critical care. At a local level, a practice development project was identified to review risk factors contributing to falls in critical care. To identify the incidence of falls within adult critical care and the risk factors most likely to contribute to a fall. Reported falls incidents were reviewed retrospectively using a local incident reporting system, over a 2-year period from four critical care units. Forty-two incidents were reviewed indicating a low rate of injury and low rate of occurrence (0·99 falls/1000 bed days). The median age of fallers was 58 years and the most common risk factor for falls was confusion or agitation, followed by patients attempting to mobilize against advice. Critically ill patients were less likely to fall and were more likely to be younger than patients falling on an acute care ward. Neuroscience/trauma critically ill patients were more likely to fall than general critically ill patients; this was expected to be because of the increased presence of confusion or agitation in this group. The local system used to report falls produced difficulties in identifying risk factors in a consistent way. Although limitations exist, this review has enabled the development of more suitable local critical care falls risk factor assessment and interventions to minimize the risk of falling. Fall rates, related injuries and circumstances of falls vary considerably among acute care and critical care specialities. Future work should concentrate on better falls reporting systems and further research should include validating risk factors for critical care falls. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Mélanie; Mérette, Chantal; Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Baillargeon, Lucie; Morin, Charles M

    2009-08-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, there is little information about its incidence and risk factors. This study estimated the incidence of insomnia and examined potential risk factors in a cohort of good sleepers followed over a one-year period. Participants were 464 good sleepers who completed 3 postal evaluations over a one-year period (i.e., baseline, 6 months, and 12 months). Questionnaires assessed sleep, psychological and personality variables, stressful life events and coping skills, and health-related quality of life. Participants were categorized into 3 subgroups: (a) good sleepers (i.e., participants who remained good sleepers at the 3 assessments), (b) insomnia symptoms incident cases (i.e., developed insomnia symptoms either at 6- or 12-month follow-up), and (c) insomnia syndrome incident cases (i.e., developed an insomnia syndrome either at 6- or 12- month follow-up). One-year incidence rates were 30.7% for insomnia symptoms and 7.4% for insomnia syndrome. These rates decreased to 28.8% and 3.9% for those without prior lifetime episode of insomnia. Compared to good sleepers and insomnia symptoms incident cases, insomnia syndrome incident cases presented a premorbid psychological vulnerability to insomnia, characterized by higher depressive and anxiety symptoms, lower extraversion, higher arousability, and poorer self-rated mental health at baseline. They also presented a higher level of bodily pain and a poorer general health. Five variables were associated with a new onset of an insomnia syndrome: previous episode of insomnia, positive family history of insomnia, higher arousability predisposition, poorer self-rated general health, and higher bodily pain. The one-year insomnia incidence rate was very high and several psychological and health factors were associated with new onset insomnia. Improved knowledge about the nature of these predisposing factors would be helpful to guide the development of effective public health prevention and

  18. [Infectious complications of long term intravenous devices: incidence, risk factors, diagnostic tools].

    PubMed

    Douard, M C; Ardoin, C; Payri, L; Tarot, J P

    1999-03-01

    Implantable venous ports and Hickman central venous catheters are widely used in patients with cancer, blood disorders, or HIV infection, both for in-hospital care and at home. Infectious complications are among the common causes for readmission in these patients. The present review discusses the incidence, risk factors, and diagnostic tools for infectious complications associated with long-term venous access devices.

  19. Density of calcium in the ascending thoracic aorta and risk of incident cardiovascular disease events.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Isac C; McClelland, Robyn L; Michos, Erin D; Allison, Matthew A; Forbang, Nketi I; Longstreth, W T; Post, Wendy S; Wong, Nathan D; Budoff, Matthew J; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The volume and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) both independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond standard risk factors, with CAC density inversely associated with incident CVD after accounting for CAC volume. We tested the hypothesis that ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) volume and density predict incident CVD events independently of CAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of participants without clinical CVD at baseline. ATAC and CAC were measured from baseline cardiac computed tomography (CT). Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations of ATAC volume and density with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events and CVD events, after adjustment for standard CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Among 6811 participants, 234 (3.4%) had prevalent ATAC and 3395 (49.8%) had prevalent CAC. Over 10.3 years, 355 CHD and 562 CVD events occurred. One-standard deviation higher ATAC density was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.29-0.79], p<0.01) and CVD (HR 0.56 [0.37-0.84], p<0.01) after full adjustment. ATAC volume was not associated with outcomes after full adjustment. ATAC was uncommon in a cohort free of clinical CVD at baseline. However, ATAC density was inversely associated with incident CHD and CVD after adjustment for CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence and risk predictors for osteonecrosis of the jaw in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Kos, Marcin

    2015-04-25

    The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in oncologic patients and to determine risk predictors with respect to this condition. This retrospective review included 197 oncologic patients treated from January 2005 to December 2010 with administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) as part of management. Sex, age, type of cancer diagnosed, period of substantial disease, oral surgery, type of bisphosphonate, number of doses, and cases of BRONJ diagnosis were recorded. The cumulative incidence and incidence rate of BRONJ were calculated. The factors that influenced BRONJ were assessed with multivariate logistic regression and with estimations of 95% confidence intervals and odd ratios. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. The BRONJ appeared in 9.64% of patients. The BRONJ incidence rate was 1 in 28 patients per year of BP treatment. Logistic regression showed that the odds of osteonecrosis increased 1.0172-fold with each given dose of BP. The BRONJ risk with zoledronate was 5-fold higher than that with pamidronate or ibandronate. The risk of BRONJ increased by 40-fold after dental surgery. Period of BP administration and type of BP used are important risk predictors for the development of BRONJ in oncologic patients treated with intravenous administration of these drugs. Patient-related factors are dental or periodontal events connected with need for oral surgery.

  1. Risk of incident diabetes in patients with gout: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seoyoung C.; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with hyperuricemia or gout often have metabolic syndrome. Few prospective studies examined the risk of incident diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with gout, and no data exist whether the DM risk in gout differs by sex. Methods Using data from a US commercial insurance plan (2003–2012), we conducted a cohort study to examine the overall and sex-specific incidence rate (IR) of DM in patients aged ≥40 years with gout compared to those with osteoarthritis. Incident DM was defined based on a diagnosis of DM and a dispensing for anti-diabetic drugs. We tested the sex-specific effect of gout on DM risk. Results The study cohort consisted of 54,075 gout and 162,225 osteoarthritis patients, matched on age, sex and index date. The mean age was 56.2 years and 84.8% were men. Over a mean follow-up of 1.9 years, the IR of DM was 1.91 per 100 person-years in gout and 1.12 per 100 person-years in osteoarthritis patients. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, medications, and health care utilization, gout was associated with an increased risk of DM (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45, 95%CI 1.37–1.54) for both sexes. The impact of gout on the risk of incident DM was greater in women (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.51–2.09) than men (HR 1.41, 95%CI 1.33–1.50) with a significant interaction between sex and gout (p=0.0009). Conclusion Gout was associated with an increased risk of developing DM compared with osteoarthritis after adjusting for potential confounders, and the risk associated with gout was higher among women than men. PMID:25332119

  2. Serum and dietary potassium and risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ranee; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Shafi, Tariq; Selvin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Cheryl; Pankow, James S; Miller, Edgar; Brancati, Frederick

    2010-10-25

    Serum potassium levels affect insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells, and hypokalemia associated with diuretic use has been associated with dysglycemia. We hypothesized that adults with lower serum potassium levels and lower dietary potassium intake are at higher risk for incident diabetes mellitus (DM), independent of diuretic use. We analyzed data from 12 209 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, beginning in 1986, with 9 years of in-person follow-up and 17 years of telephone follow-up. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) of incident DM associated with baseline serum potassium levels. During 9 years of in-person follow-up, 1475 participants developed incident DM. In multivariate analyses, we found an inverse association between serum potassium and risk of incident DM. Compared with those with a high-normal serum potassium level (5.0-5.5 mEq/L), adults with serum potassium levels lower than 4.0 mEq/L, 4.0 to lower than 4.5 mEq/L, and 4.5 to lower than 5.0 mEq/L had an adjusted HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) of incident DM of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29-2.08), 1.64 (95% CI, 1.34-2.01), and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.14-1.71), respectively. An increased risk persisted during an additional 8 years of telephone follow-up based on self-report with HRs of 1.2 to 1.3 for those with a serum potassium level lower than 5.0 mEq/L. Dietary potassium intake was significantly associated with risk of incident DM in unadjusted models but not in multivariate models. Serum potassium level is an independent predictor of incident DM in this cohort. Further study is needed to determine if modification of serum potassium could reduce the subsequent risk of DM.

  3. Meta-analysis of incidence and risk of peripheral neuropathy associated with intravenous bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ling; Ye, Xianghua; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Junyan; Zhao, Qiong

    2015-09-01

    Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor which has demonstrated activity against recurrent or newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma. Peripheral neuropathy has been described with this agent, although the overall incidence and relative risk remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with the use of intravenous bortezomib in MM and lymphoma and to compare the relative risk compared with placebo. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, and meeting proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included prospective phase 2 and 3 clinical trials with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy associated with intravenous bortezomib in patients with MM and lymphoma. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, relative risks (RRs), and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Altogether, 34 clinical trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 6492 patients. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy (all grades) was 33.9 % (95 % CI, 29.9-38.5 %) and that of high-grade events was 8.1 % (95 % CI, 6.9-9.4 %). The relative risks of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy compared to placebo were increased for all-grade (RR = 4.89; 95 % CI, 2.52-9.51) and high-grade (RR = 4.53; 95 % CI, 2.04-10.07) peripheral neuropathy (for randomized controlled trials only). Our analysis was also stratified by different underlying diseases, and patients with lymphoma had an increased incidence of all-grade peripheral neuropathy than those with MM when treated with intravenous bortezomib. Treatment with intravenous bortezomib is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Change in serum albumin concentration is inversely and independently associated with risk of incident metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Hong, Yong Joo; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Low serum albumin concentration is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. However, high serum albumin level appears to be linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to dissect the relative contributions of baseline and change in serum albumin concentration to the risk of incident metabolic syndrome. This was a 5-year (63,060 person-years) retrospective longitudinal study of 12,567 participants without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in a health screening program. The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to baseline and change in serum albumin concentration. A total of 2582 incident cases of metabolic syndrome developed. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS increased with increasing quartile of baseline serum albumin level compared with those in the lowest quartile, in a fully adjusted model (p for trend = 0.013). The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of incident MetS comparing the second, third, and fourth quartiles to the first quartile of change in serum albumin level were 0.478 (0.421-0.544), 0.353 (0.307-0.405), and 0.262 (0.224-0.305) in the fully adjusted model, respectively (p for trend <0.001). Percent change in serum albumin concentration inversely correlated with percent change in serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=-3.5444, p<0.001). Although a higher baseline level of serum albumin was linked to increased risk of incident metabolic syndrome, increase in serum albumin concentration might be a protective factor against the risk of MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, APOE ε4, and the risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Anna; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Bartley, Mairead M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Sochor, Ondrej; Machulda, Mary M.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Knopman, David S.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Mielke, Michelle M.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population-based interaction between a biological variable (APOE ε4), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the risk of incident dementia among subjects with prevalent mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We prospectively followed 332 participants with prevalent MCI (aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging for a median of 3 years. The diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria, after reviewing neurologic, cognitive, and other pertinent data. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were determined at baseline using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models, with age as a time scale, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Models were adjusted for sex, education, and medical comorbidity. Results: Baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy significantly increased the risk of incident dementia. We observed additive interactions between APOE ε4 and depression (joint effect HR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.24–3.91; test for additive interaction, p < 0.001); and between APOE ε4 and apathy (joint effect HR = 1.93; 95% CI = 0.93–3.98; test for additive interaction, p = 0.031). Anxiety, irritability, and appetite/eating were not associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Conclusions: Among prevalent MCI cases, baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy elevated the risk of incident dementia. There was a synergistic interaction between depression or apathy and APOE ε4 in further elevating the risk of incident dementia. PMID:25653291

  6. Multiple primary tumours: incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Stefano; Terracini, Lea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Zanetti, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Estimating the risk of developing subsequent primary tumours in a population is difficult since the occurrence probability is conditioned to the survival probability. Methods We proposed to apply Markov models studying the transition intensities from first to second tumour with the Aalen-Johansen (AJ) estimators, as usually done in competing risk models. In a simulation study we applied the proposed method in different settings with constant or varying underlying intensities and applying age standardisation. In addition, we illustrated the method with data on breast cancer from the Piedmont Cancer Registry. Results The simulation study showed that the person-years approach led to a sensibly wider bias than the AJ estimators. The largest bias was observed assuming constantly increasing incidence rates. However, this situation is rather uncommon dealing with subsequent tumours incidence. In 9233 cases with breast cancer occurred in women resident in Turin, Italy, between 1985 and 1998 we observed a significant increased risk of 1.91 for subsequent cancer of corpus uteri, estimated with the age-standardised Aalen-Johansen incidence ratio (AJ-IRstand), and a significant increased risk of 1.29 for cancer possibly related to the radiotherapy of breast cancer. The peak of occurrence of those cancers was observed after 8 years of follow-up. Conclusion The increased risk of a cancer of the corpus uteri, also observed in other studies, is usually interpreted as the common shared risk factors such as low parity, early menarche and late onset of menopause. We also grouped together those cancers possibly associated to a previous local radiotherapy: the cumulative risk at 14 years is still not significant, however the AJ estimators showed a significant risk peak between the eighth and the ninth year. Finally, the proposed approach has been shown to be reliable and informative under several aspects. It allowed for a correct estimation of the risk, and for investigating

  7. Community-based estimates of incidence and risk factors for childhood pneumonia in Western Sydney.

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C. R.; McIntyre, P. B.; Cagney, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to estimate the community incidence and risk factors for all-cause pneumonia in children in Western Sydney, Australia. A cross-sectional randomized computer-assisted telephone interview was conducted in July 2000, in Western Sydney. Parents of 2020 children aged between 5 and 14 years were interviewed about their child's respiratory health since birth. No verification of reported diagnosis was available. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for pneumonia. A lifetime diagnosis of pneumonia was reported in 137/2020 (68%) children, giving an estimated incidence in the study sample of 7.6/1000 person-years. Radiological confirmation was reported in 85% (117/137). Hospitalization was reported in 41% (56/137) and antibiotic therapy in 93% (127/137) of cases. Using logistic regression modelling, statistically significant associations with pneumonia were a reported history of either asthma, bronchitis or other lung problems and health problems affecting other systems. In most cases, the diagnosis of asthma preceded the diagnosis of pneumonia. The community incidence of all causes of pneumonia is not well enumerated, either in adults or in children. This study provides community-based incidence data. The incidence of hospitalization for pneumonia in this study is comparable to estimates from studies in comparable populations, suggesting that retrospective parental report for memorable events is likely to be valid. We found a relationship between pneumonia and childhood respiratory diseases such as asthma, which has implications for targeted vaccination strategies. PMID:14959775

  8. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Carvalho, Anderson Santos; Brito, Maria Goretti Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire) scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener) was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68) was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI) and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI). There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease.

  9. The incidence and risk factors of meningitis after major craniotomy in China: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bingyan; Yu, Shenglei; Sun, Feng; Ruan, Qiaoling; Zhang, Wenhong; Shao, Lingyun; Chen, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis after neurosurgery can result in severe morbidity and high mortality. Incidence varies among regions and limited data are focused on meningitis after major craniotomy. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and microbiological spectrum of postcraniotomy meningitis in a large clinical center of Neurosurgery in China. Patients who underwent neurosurgeries at the Department of Neurosurgery in Huashan Hospital, the largest neurosurgery center in Asia and the Pacific, between 1st January and 31st December, 2008 were selected. Individuals with only shunts, burr holes, stereotactic surgery, transsphenoidal or spinal surgery were excluded. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and data on risk factors were extracted and evaluated for meningitis. A total of 65 meningitides were identified among 755 cases in the study, with an incidence of 8.60%. The risk of meningitis was increased by the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; P = 0.009), the use of external ventricular drainage (OR, 4.30; P = 0.003) and the use of lumbar drainage (OR, 17.23; P<0.001). The isolated microorganisms included Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus sp, Streptococcus intermedius and Klebsiella pneumonia. Meningitis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality after major craniotomy. Diabetic patients or those with cerebral spinal fluid shunts carry significant high risk of infection. Thus, identification of the risk factors as soon as possible will help physicians to improve patient care.

  10. Regional variation in celiac disease risk within Sweden revealed by the nationwide prospective incidence register.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Cecilia; Stenlund, Hans; Hörnell, Agneta; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2009-02-01

    To determine if there is any regional celiac disease (CD) risk variation in the Swedish childhood population. Prospective nationwide Swedish incidence register of CD in children 0-15 years of age, with the present analysis covering the period from 1998 to 2003. ESPGHAN diagnostic criteria for CD were used. Regions were classified according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics. The incidence rate for each region, gender, age group and year of diagnosis was calculated. A regional variation in CD risk was demonstrated. The childhood populations in 'West Sweden' and 'Småland and the islands', situated in the southern part of the country, had a significantly higher incidence rate compared to in 'North Middle Sweden' and 'Stockholm', situated in the central part. This regional variation was not explained by variations in risk by gender, age at diagnosis or year of diagnosis. The Swedish regional variation in CD risk supports multifactorial disease aetiology. Continued efforts are warranted to define factors, besides gluten exposure, that modulate CD risk.

  11. Risk factors for incident Alzheimer's disease in African Americans and Yoruba.

    PubMed

    Ogunniyi, A; Hall, K S; Gureje, O; Baiyewu, O; Gao, S; Unverzagt, F W; Smith-Gamble, V; Evans, R E; Dickens, J; Musick, B S; Hendrie, H C

    2006-09-01

    The incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was found to be 2 times lower in Yoruba than in African Americans. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with increased risk of incident AD in the two communities. A two-stage design with initial screening using the CSI'D followed by neuropsychological test battery, relations' interview and physician assessment in a sub-sample.NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were met for AD. The risk factor variables assessed included demographic, lifestyle, medical and family history items. In the Yoruba, AD was associated with age (OR = 1.07) and female gender (OR = 2.93). In African Americans, age (OR = 1.09) and rural living (OR = 2.08) were the significant risk factors, while alcohol was protective (OR = 0.49). Age was a significant risk factor for AD at both sites. The higher risk of incident AD in the Yoruba female, and in African Americans who resided in rural areas in childhood were similar with the prevalence cases. Alcohol emerged a protective factor in African Americans. More studies are required, including biological measurements, to adequately explain the differences in rates.

  12. Depression and Risk of Incident Asthma in Adults. The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Pamela J.; Sood, Akshay; Jacobs, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is associated with depression, but the temporality of the association has not been established. Objectives: To examine the association between prevalent elevated depressive symptoms and incident asthma, and between prevalent asthma and incident elevated depressive symptoms in a cohort of young and middle-aged adults. Methods: We examined the longitudinal association between asthma and depressive symptoms bidirectionally in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. First, 3,614 participants, free of asthma, were classified by elevated depressive symptoms at the CARDIA Year-5 exam (n = 856 elevated vs. 2,758 not elevated; ages 23–35 yr) and followed for 20 years to incident asthma. Then, 3,016 participants, free of elevated depressive symptoms, were classified by self-reported current asthma status (n = 188 prevalent vs. 2,828 not prevalent) at the CARDIA Year-5 exam and followed for 20 years until onset of elevated depressive symptoms. Measurements and Main Results: The relative hazard of incident asthma among those with elevated depressive symptoms was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02–1.56) after adjustment for covariates. When depressive status was modeled as the total number of reports of elevated depressive symptoms before the onset of asthma, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.15 (95% CI = 1.02–1.29). The hazard of incident elevated depressive symptoms for those with asthma was no different than the hazard in those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.70–1.20). Conclusions: This longitudinal observational study points to depression as a marker of risk for incident adult-onset asthma. On the other hand, prevalent asthma is not associated with incident adult-onset depression. PMID:24456492

  13. Plasma Leptin Levels and Risk of Incident Cancer: Results from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arjun; Herman, Yehuda; Ayers, Colby; Beg, Muhammad S; Lakoski, Susan G; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Johnson, David H; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin dysregulation has been postulated to affect cancer risk through its effects on obesity and inflammation. Epidemiological data evaluating this relationship are conflicting and studies in non-white cohorts is lacking. Therefore, we examined the association of leptin with the risk of incident cancer in the multiethnic Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Participants enrolled in the DHS without prevalent cancer and with baseline leptin measurements were included. Incident cancer cases were identified through a systematic linkage of the DHS and the Texas Cancer Registry. Leptin was evaluated both as a continuous variable and in sex-specific quartiles. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to examine the association between leptin levels with incident cancer after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, alcohol use, family history of malignancy, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and C-reactive protein. Among 2,919 participants (median age 44 years; 54% women; 70% nonwhite; median BMI 29.4 kg/m2), 190 (6.5%) developed cancer after median follow- up of 12 years. Median leptin levels were 12.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.8-29.5) ng/ml in the incident cancer group vs. 12.3 (IQR 5.4-26.4) ng/ml those without an incident cancer (p = 0.34). Leptin was not associated with cancer incidence in multivariable analysis (unit standard deviation increase in log-transformed leptin, hazard ratio 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.16; p = 0.60). No association was observed in analyses stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, or obesity status. In this study of a predominantly minority population, no association between premorbid leptin levels and cancer incidence was demonstrated. Despite preclinical rationale and positive findings in other studies, this association may not replicate across all racial/ethnic populations.

  14. Incidence and risk factors associated with meniscal injuries among active-duty US military service members.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer C; Burks, Robert; Owens, Brett D; Sturdivant, Rodney X; Svoboda, Steven J; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based studies have examined the incidence of meniscal injuries, and limited information is available on the influence of patient's demographic and occupational factors. To examine the incidence of meniscal injuries and the influence of demographic and occupational factors among active-duty US service members between 1998 and 2006. Cohort study. Using the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) codes 836.0 (medial meniscus), 836.1 (lateral meniscus), and 836.2 (meniscus unspecified), we extracted injury data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all acute meniscal injuries among active-duty military personnel. Active-duty military personnel serving in all branches of military service during the study period. Incidence rate (IR) per 1000 person-years at risk and crude and adjusted rates by strata for age, sex, race, rank, and service. During the study period, 100201 acute meniscal injuries and 12115606 person-years at risk for injury were documented. The overall IR was 8.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.22, 8.32) per 1000 person-years. Main effects were noted for all demographic and occupational variables (P < .001), indicating that age, sex, race, rank, and service were associated with the incidence of meniscal injuries. Men were almost 20% more likely to experience an acute meniscal injury than were women (incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.20). The rate of meniscal injury increased with age; those older than 40 years of age experienced injuries more than 4 times as often as those under 20 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 4.25, 95% CI=4.08,4.42). The incidence of meniscal injury was substantially higher in this study than in previously reported studies. Male sex, increasing age, and service in the Army or Marine Corps were factors associated with meniscal injuries.

  15. Habitual chocolate consumption and the risk of incident heart failure among healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C S; Loke, Y K; Welch, A A; Luben, R N; Lentjes, M A H; Boekholdt, S M; Pfister, R; Mamas, M A; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Myint, P K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of incident heart failure in a UK general population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this association. We used data from a prospective population-based study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Chocolate intake was quantified based on a food frequency questionnaire obtained at baseline (1993-1997) and incident heart failure was ascertained up to March 2009. We supplemented the primary data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which evaluated risk of incident heart failure with chocolate consumption. A total of 20,922 participants (53% women; mean age 58 ± 9 years) were included of whom 1101 developed heart failure during the follow up (mean 12.5 ± 2.7 years, total person years 262,291 years). After adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors, we found 19% relative reduction in heart failure incidence in the top (up to 100 g/d) compared to the bottom quintile of chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-0.98) but the results were no longer significant after controlling for comorbidities (HR 0.87 95%CI 0.71-1.06). Additional adjustment for potential mediators did not attenuate the results further. We identified five relevant studies including the current study (N = 75,408). The pooled results showed non-significant 19% relative risk reduction of heart failure incidence with higher chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-1.01). Our results suggest that higher chocolate intake is not associated with subsequent incident heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changing Impact of Modifiable Risk Factors on the Incidence of Major Outcomes of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel G.; Secrest, Aaron M.; Ellis, Demetrius; Becker, Dorothy J.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of type 1 diabetes complications appears to be decreasing, but relative contributions of risk factors are unclear. We thus estimated the effect of modifiable risk factors on the incidence of a composite end point, major outcomes of diabetes (MOD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study was used to derive two cohorts based on diabetes diagnosis year (1960–1969 and 1970–1980). Baseline exam data in the current analysis for the 1960s group were collected in 1986–1988 and for the 1970s in 1996–1998. Each group was followed for 8 years for MOD incidence (diabetes-related death, myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure/blockage ≥50%, stroke, end-stage renal disease, blindness, and amputation). Assessed risk factors include the following: HbA1c, hypertension, microalbuminuria, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Accelerated failure time models were used to estimate the acceleration factor. RESULTS MOD incidence decreased in the 1970s cohort (15.8% [95% CI 11.6–21.4]) compared with the 1960s (22.6% [17.0–29.1]) over the 8-year follow-up (P = 0.06). Hypertension and microalbuminuria were associated with significantly accelerated MOD incidence in both cohorts (P < 0.01 for both). High HbA1c (P = 0.0005), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.01), and current smoking (P = 0.003) significantly accelerated the incidence of MOD in the 1960s but not 1970s cohort. BMI was not associated with MOD in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that hypertension and microalbuminuria remain important predictors of complications that are not being adequately addressed. PMID:24170748

  17. Vitreous haemorrhage: a population-based study of the incidence and risk factors in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Yu; Cheang, Wai-Man; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the epidemiology and incidence of vitreous hemorrhage and to evaluate risk factors for patients with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in Taiwan. METHODS A retrospective population-based study. Analyzing a sample of one million subjects from all enrollees of the Taiwan Health Insurance programme. All data were obtained from the Taiwan Health Insurance Research Database, which contained patient sex, date of birth, all records of clinical visits and hospitalizations, and diagnosis codes as included in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The main outcome measures were the incidence and risk factors of VH. RESULT From 2001 to 2010, the database claim 4379 newly diagnosed cases were identified with VH. The average incidence of VH in Taiwan was 4.8 cases per ten-thousand person-years generally and increased with time especially in subjects who aged between 40 and 59y and when the VH was associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathies or retinal vein occlusions. A definitely upward trends in the incidence of VH from 2001 to 2010 were noted (P-value for increasing trend <0.001). Univariate Cox's regression analysis pointed out that older age (for 40-59, P<0.001, HR=9.39; for ≥60, P<0.001, HR=11.39), male gender (P=0.03, HR=1.07) and subjects who had been prescribed anti-coagulation drug included aspirin, warfarin and clopidogrel (P<0.001, HR=2.20) were significant risk factors for suffering from VH. CONCLUSION The incidence of VH is estimated being 4.8 cases per 10 000 person-years in Taiwan. Age, male gender and having been prescribed anti-coagulation drugs are associated with the incidence of VH. PMID:28393040

  18. Potassium intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, L. A.; Yeh, H. C.; Anderson, C. A.; Daviglus, M. L.; Liu, K.; Brancati, F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Serum potassium has been found to be a significant predictor of diabetes risk, but the effect of dietary potassium on diabetes risk is not clear. We sought to determine if dietary potassium is associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in young adults. Methods We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Potassium intake was measured by (1) an average of three 24 h urinary potassium collections at the 5-year study visit, and (2) the CARDIA dietary assessment instrument at baseline. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were ascertained on the basis of use of diabetes medication and laboratory measurements. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including intake of fruit and vegetables and other dietary factors. Results Of 1,066 participants with urinary potassium measurements, 99 (9.3%) developed diabetes over 15 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, adults in the lowest urinary potassium quintile were more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as their counterparts in the highest quintile (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.08, 5.59). Of 4,754 participants with dietary history measurements, 373 (7.8%) developed diabetes over 20 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, African-Americans had a significantly increased risk of diabetes with lower potassium intake, which was not found in whites. Conclusions/interpretation Low dietary potassium is associated with increased risk of incident diabetes in African-Americans. Randomised clinical trials are needed to determine if potassium supplementation, from either dietary or pharmacological sources, could reduce the risk of diabetes, particularly in higher-risk populations. PMID:22322920

  19. High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T and the Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Filion, Kristian B.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Eberg, Maria; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Loehr, Laura R.; Nambi, Vijay; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Structural changes in the heart are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). An association between cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), a marker of myocardial cell damage measured with a high sensitivity assay, and the risk of AF could have implications for AF risk stratification. Objective To estimate the association between hs-cTnT and the risk of incident AF in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective cohort of middle-aged adults from 4 U.S. communities. Methods Study included 10,584 participants (mean age 62.7 years) free of AF in 1996-98 and followed through 2008. AF was defined using ICD codes from hospitalizations and death certificates. Participants with undetectable hs-cTnT levels (58%) were assigned the lower limit of measurement (5 ng/L). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to examine the discriminative ability of hs-cTnT for 10-year AF risk prediction (categories: <5%, 5-15%, and >15%). Results A total of 920 incident AF cases were observed over 109,227 person-years. After adjustment, a 1-standard deviation difference in ln(hs-cTnT) was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% CI=1.10-1.23). Compared with those with undetectable levels, participants with hs-cTnT ≥14 ng/L had a HR of 1.78 (95% CI=1.43-2.24). Addition of hs-cTnT to known AF predictors did not increase the c-statistic appreciably (0.756 vs 0.758) or improve risk stratification (NRI=0.4%, 95% CI=−1.4%-2.3%). Conclusions Hs-cTnT level is associated with an increased incidence rate of AF but did not improve risk stratification. PMID:25497245

  20. Potassium intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Colangelo, L A; Yeh, H C; Anderson, C A; Daviglus, M L; Liu, K; Brancati, F L

    2012-05-01

    Serum potassium has been found to be a significant predictor of diabetes risk, but the effect of dietary potassium on diabetes risk is not clear. We sought to determine if dietary potassium is associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in young adults. We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Potassium intake was measured by (1) an average of three 24 h urinary potassium collections at the 5-year study visit, and (2) the CARDIA dietary assessment instrument at baseline. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were ascertained on the basis of use of diabetes medication and laboratory measurements. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including intake of fruit and vegetables and other dietary factors. Of 1,066 participants with urinary potassium measurements, 99 (9.3%) developed diabetes over 15 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, adults in the lowest urinary potassium quintile were more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as their counterparts in the highest quintile (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.08, 5.59). Of 4,754 participants with dietary history measurements, 373 (7.8%) developed diabetes over 20 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, African-Americans had a significantly increased risk of diabetes with lower potassium intake, which was not found in whites. Low dietary potassium is associated with increased risk of incident diabetes in African-Americans. Randomised clinical trials are needed to determine if potassium supplementation, from either dietary or pharmacological sources, could reduce the risk of diabetes, particularly in higher-risk populations.

  1. The Risk of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progression to Dementia Considering Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Tzeyu L.; Su, Dejun; Siahpush, Mohammad; Murman, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background It remains unclear how demographic and clinical characteristics are related to the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by its subtypes. Moreover, the contribution of the subtypes of incident MCI to the progression to dementia remains puzzling. Methods We used data collected by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center. Our analysis sample included cognitively normal subjects at baseline. The associations were examined using competing-risks survival regression models and Cox proportional hazards models. Results About 16.3% of subjects developed incident MCI of whom 15.8% progressed to Alz­heimer disease (overall mean follow-up of 4.3 years). The risk of incident amnestic MCI (aMCI) was greater in subjects with 1 copy (subhazard ratio [SHR]: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00–1.50) or 2 copies (SHR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.49–3.05) of the APOE ε4 allele than in those who had no ε4 allele. Multiple-domain aMCI patients were more likely to progress to dementia than single-domain aMCI patients (hazard ratio: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.28–3.58). Conclusions Cognitively normal subjects with an APOE ε4 allele had a higher likelihood of developing aMCI and the MCI subtype was associated with the dementia subtype. Our findings provide important information about practical indicators for the prediction of cognitive decline. PMID:28413413

  2. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyon K; Willett, Walter; Curhan, Gary

    2007-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect the risk of gout via various mechanisms. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between coffee intake and the risk of incident gout in a large cohort of men. Over a 12-year period, we studied 45,869 men with no history of gout at baseline. Intake of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine was assessed every 4 years through validated questionnaires. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout. We documented 757 confirmed incident cases of gout. Increasing coffee intake was inversely associated with the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee consumption categories (0, <1, 1-3, 4-5, and > or = 6 cups per day) were 1.00, 0.97, 0.92, 0.60 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.41-0.87), and 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.88), respectively (P for trend = 0.009). For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, <1, 1-3, and > or = 4 cups per day) were 1.00, 0.83, 0.67 (95% CI 0.54-0.82), and 0.73 (95% CI 0.46-1.17), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Total caffeine from all sources and tea intake were not associated with the risk of gout. These prospective data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout.

  3. Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-10-01

    Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent for modifiable risk factors, including body mass index, fluid intake, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) style diet, dietary calcium intake and sugar sweetened beverage intake. We used data on the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study) cohort and the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) I and II cohorts. Information was obtained from validated questionnaires. Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the association of each risk factor with the development of incident kidney stones and calculate the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent. The study included 192,126 participants who contributed a total of 3,259,313 person-years of followup, during which an incident kidney stone developed in 6,449 participants. All modifiable risk factors were independently associated with incident stones in each cohort. The population attributable fraction ranged from 4.4% for a higher intake of sugar sweetened beverages to 26.0% for a lower fluid intake. The population attributable fraction for all 5 risk factors combined was 57.0% in HPFS, 55.2% in NHS I and 55.1% in NHS II. The number needed to prevent during 10 years ranged from 67 for lower fluid intake to 556 for lower dietary calcium intake. Five modifiable risk factors accounted for more than 50% of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Assuming a causal relation, our estimates suggest that preventive measures aimed at reducing those factors could substantially decrease the burden of kidney stones in the general population. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Incident CKD and Progression to ESRD.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Bowe, Benjamin; Li, Tingting; Xian, Hong; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Al-Aly, Ziyad

    2016-10-01

    The association between proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use and risk of acute interstitial nephritis has been described. However, whether exposure to PPI associates with incident CKD, CKD progression, or ESRD is not known. We used Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a primary cohort of new users of PPI (n=173,321) and new users of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers; n=20,270) and followed these patients over 5 years to ascertain renal outcomes. In adjusted Cox survival models, the PPI group, compared with the H2 blockers group, had an increased risk of incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and of incident CKD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.18 to 1.26; and HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.34, respectively). Patients treated with PPI also had a significantly elevated risk of doubling of serum creatinine level (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.65), of eGFR decline >30% (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.37), and of ESRD (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.18). Furthermore, we detected a graded association between duration of PPI exposure and risk of renal outcomes among those exposed to PPI for 31-90, 91-180, 181-360, and 361-720 days compared with those exposed for ≤30 days. Examination of risk of renal outcomes in 1:1 propensity score-matched cohorts of patients taking H2 blockers versus patients taking PPI and patients taking PPI versus controls yielded consistent results. Our results suggest that PPI exposure associates with increased risk of incident CKD, CKD progression, and ESRD.

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors of Insomnia in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Mélanie; Mérette, Chantal; Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Baillargeon, Lucie; Morin, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, there is little information about its incidence and risk factors. This study estimated the incidence of insomnia and examined potential risk factors in a cohort of good sleepers followed over a one-year period. Methods. Participants were 464 good sleepers who completed 3 postal evaluations over a one-year period (i.e., baseline, 6 months, and 12 months). Questionnaires assessed sleep, psychological and personality variables, stressful life events and coping skills, and health-related quality of life. Participants were categorized into 3 subgroups: (a) good sleepers (i.e., participants who remained good sleepers at the 3 assessments), (b) insomnia symptoms incident cases (i.e., developed insomnia symptoms either at 6- or 12-month follow-up), and (c) insomnia syndrome incident cases (i.e., developed an insomnia syndrome either at 6- or 12- month follow-up). Results: One-year incidence rates were 30.7% for insomnia symptoms and 7.4% for insomnia syndrome. These rates decreased to 28.8% and 3.9% for those without prior lifetime episode of insomnia. Compared to good sleepers and insomnia symptoms incident cases, insomnia syndrome incident cases presented a premorbid psychological vulnerability to insomnia, characterized by higher depressive and anxiety symptoms, lower extraversion, higher arousability, and poorer self-rated mental health at baseline. They also presented a higher level of bodily pain and a poorer general health. Five variables were associated with a new onset of an insomnia syndrome: previous episode of insomnia, positive family history of insomnia, higher arousability predisposition, poorer self-rated general health, and higher bodily pain. Conclusion: The one-year insomnia incidence rate was very high and several psychological and health factors were associated with new onset insomnia. Improved knowledge about the nature of these predisposing factors would be helpful to guide the development of

  6. Relation between Neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: Risk factors and pathogenesis of disease.

    PubMed

    Klauck, Vanderlei; Machado, Gustavo; Pazinato, Rafael; Radavelli, Willian M; Santos, Daiane S; Berwaguer, Jean Carlo; Braunig, Patricia; Vogel, Fernanda F; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    Neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by Neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against N. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. Animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. Sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFA) in order to detect antibodies against N. caninum, and animals were considered positive if ≥ IFA 1:200. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to verify probable risk factors for neosporosis and their cause-effect relation. Serological results showed that 43.8% of the animals were seropositives for N. caninum. The univariate statistical analysis found a significant relation between neoporosis and age. The number of pregnancies and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk were found as associated risk factors for the disease either by univariate or by multivariate analyses. The cause-effect model found a possible relation between reproductive problems and positive serology for neosporosis (P = 0.06). Therefore, it was concluded that approximately 44% of dairy cows with history of abortion were seropositives for N. caninum and that age and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk are risk factors for parasite infection in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  8. Fish Intake and the Risk of Incident Heart Failure: The Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Rashad J.; Greenland, Philip; Martin, Lisa; Oberman, Albert; Tinker, Lesley; Robinson, Jennifer; Larson, Joseph; Horn, Linda Van; Lloyd-Jones, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether fish or the fatty acids they contain are independently associated with risk for incident heart failure (HF) among postmenopausal women is unclear. Methods and Results The baseline Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) cohort consisted of 93,676 women aged 50–79 of diverse ethnicity and background of which 84,493 were eligible for analyses. Intakes of baked/broiled fish, fried fish and omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA)), and trans fatty acid (TFA) were determined from the WHI food frequency questionnaire. Baked/broiled fish consumption was divided into 5 frequency categories: <1/mo (referent), 1–3/mo, 1–2/wk, 3–4/wk, ≥5/wk. Fried fish intake was grouped into 3 frequency categories: <1/mo (referent), 2) 1–3/mo, and 3) ≥1/wk. Associations between fish or fatty acid intake and incident HF were determined using Cox models adjusting for HF risk factors and dietary factors. Baked/broiled fish consumption (≥5 servings/wk at baseline) was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95) for incident HF. In contrast, fried fish consumption (≥1 serving/wk at baseline) was associated with a HR of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.84) for incident HF. No significant associations were found between EPA+DHA, ALA, or TFA intake and incident HF. Conclusions Increased baked/broiled fish intake may lower HF risk, while increased fried fish intake may increase HF risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:21610249

  9. Non-native language use and risk of incident dementia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amy E; Hall, Charles B; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive reserve is invoked to explain the protective effects of education and cognitively-stimulating activities against all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For non-native English speakers (n-NES), speaking English may be a cognitive activity associated with lower dementia risk. We hypothesized that n-NES have lower risk of incident dementia/AD and that educational level might modify this relationship. Participants took part in the Einstein Aging Study (Bronx, NY), a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. All (n = 1779) spoke fluent English and self-reported birthplace and whether English was their first language. n-NES additionally reported mother tongue, age of English acquisition, and current percentile-use of a non-English language. Nested Cox proportional hazards models progressively adjusted for gender, race, education, and immigrant and marital status estimated hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia/AD as a function of n-NES status. 390 (22%) participants were n-NES. 126 incident dementia cases occurred during 4174 person-years of follow-up (median 1.44; range 0-16); 101 individuals met criteria for probable/possible AD. There was no statistically-significant association between n-NES status and incident dementia in the fully-adjusted model (HR 1.26; 95% CI 0.76-2.09; p = 0.36). Results were similar for AD. Stratification of education into three groups revealed increased risk of dementia for n-NES with ≥ 16 years of education (HR 3.97; 95% CI 1.62-9.75; p = 0.003). We conclude that n-NES status does not appear to have an independent protective effect against incident dementia/AD, and that n-NES status may contribute to risk of dementia in an education-dependent manner.

  10. Non-Native Language Use and Risk of Incident Dementia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Amy E.; Hall, Charles B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive reserve is invoked to explain the protective effects of education and cognitively-stimulating activities against all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For non-native English speakers (n-NES), speaking English may be a cognitive activity associated with lower dementia risk. We hypothesized that n-NES have lower risk of incident dementia/AD and that educational level might modify this relationship. Participants took part in the Einstein Aging Study (Bronx, NY), a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. All (n = 1779) spoke fluent English and self-reported birthplace and whether English was their first language. n-NES additionally reported mother tongue, age of English acquisition, and current percentile-use of a non-English language. Nested Cox proportional hazards models progressively adjusted for gender, race, education, and immigrant and marital status estimated hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia/AD as a function of n-NES status. 390 (22%) participants were n-NES. 126 incident dementia cases occurred during 4174 person-years of follow-up (median 1.44; range 0–16); 101 individuals met criteria for probable/possible AD. There was no statistically-significant association between n-NES status and incident dementia in the fully-adjusted model (HR 1.26; 95% CI 0.76–2.09; p = 0.36). Results were similar for AD. Stratification of education into three groups revealed increased risk of dementia for n-NES with ≥16 years of education (HR 3.97; 95% CI 1.62–9.75; p = 0.003). We conclude that n-NES status does not appear to have an independent protective effect against incident dementia/AD, and that n-NES status may contribute to risk of dementia in an education-dependent manner. PMID:22232011

  11. Ischemic Heart Disease in Workers at Mayak PA: Latency of Incidence Risk after Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simonetto, Cristoforo; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Kaiser, Jan C.; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Eidemüller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA). This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16) while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established. PMID:24828606

  12. Ischemic heart disease in workers at Mayak PA: latency of incidence risk after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Simonetto, Cristoforo; Azizova, Tamara V; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S; Kaiser, Jan C; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Eidemüller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA). This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16) [Formula: see text] while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established.

  13. Incidence and risk factors for pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Nele; Toppets, Adinda; Defloor, Tom; Bernaerts, Kris; Milisen, Koen; Van Den Berghe, Greet

    2009-05-01

    To determine the incidence of pressure ulcers occurring at least 48 hours after admission and risk factors for pressure ulcers grade 2-4 in a long-stay surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population. The incidence of pressure ulcers in intensive care units is larger than in non-intensive environments. Prospective descriptive research design. Using pressure ulcers grade 2-4 as an outcome measure, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors. Data were obtained on a daily basis in a surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital Leuven between November 2003-March 2004. A total of 520 long-stay (>or= 24 hours) intensive care patients were included. Cumulative incidence of pressure ulcers grade 2-4 was 20.1%. The following variables were positively associated with pressure ulcers grade 2-4: history of vascular disease, treatment with Dopamine or Dobutamine, intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) or continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH), mechanical ventilation. Also preventive measures were statistically positively associated with pressure ulcers grade 2-4: turning, floating heels, alternating mattresses, adequate prevention. The use of sedatives, body temperature above 38.5 degrees C and sitting in chair where negatively associated with pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are statistically associated with different risk factors and preventive measures. The identified risk factors are eligible to be included in a new risk assessment scale for patients admitted to intensive care units. The novel insights have implications for risk assessment for patients in intensive care units. Patients admitted to intensive care units have other risk factors for pressure ulcers which are eligible to be included in a new risk assessment scale.

  14. "Nonfunctional" Adrenal Tumors and the Risk for Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Steele, Amy; Adler, Gail K; Turchin, Alexander; Vaidya, Anand

    2016-10-18

    Benign adrenal tumors are commonly discovered on abdominal imaging. Most are classified as nonfunctional and are considered to pose no health risk, but some are considered functional because they secrete hormones that increase risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the hypothesis that nonfunctional adrenal tumors (NFATs) increase risk for cardiometabolic outcomes compared with absence of adrenal tumors. Cohort study. Integrated hospital system. Participants with benign NFATs ("exposed"; n = 166) and those with no adrenal tumor ("unexposed"; n = 740), with at least 3 years of follow-up. Medical records were reviewed from the time of abdominal imaging for development of incident outcomes (hypertension, composite diabetes [prediabetes or type 2 diabetes], hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular events, and chronic kidney disease) (mean, 7.7 years). Primary analyses evaluated independent associations between exposure status and incident outcomes by using adjusted generalized linear models. Secondary analyses evaluated relationships between NFATs and cortisol physiology. Participants with NFATs had significantly higher risk for incident composite diabetes than those without adrenal tumors (30 of 110 [27.3%] vs. 72 of 615 [11.7%] participants; absolute risk, 15.6% [95% CI, 6.9% to 24.3%]; adjusted risk ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.17 to 2.98]). No significant associations between NFATs and other outcomes were observed. Higher "normal" postdexamethasone cortisol levels (≤50 nmol/L) were associated with larger NFAT size and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Potential bias in the selection of participants and ascertainment of outcomes. Participants with NFATs had a significantly higher risk for diabetes than those without adrenal tumors. These results should prompt a reassessment of whether the classification of benign adrenal tumors as "nonfunctional" adequately reflects the continuum of hormone secretion and metabolic risk they may harbor. National Institutes of

  15. Prospective risk analysis prior to retrospective incident reporting and analysis as a means to enhance incident reporting behaviour: a quasi-experimental field study.

    PubMed

    Kessels-Habraken, Marieke; De Jonge, Jan; Van der Schaaf, Tjerk; Rutte, Christel

    2010-05-01

    Hospitals can apply prospective and retrospective methods to reduce the large number of medical errors. Retrospective methods are used to identify errors after they occur and to facilitate learning. Prospective methods aim to determine, assess and minimise risks before incidents happen. This paper questions whether the order of implementation of those two methods influences the resultant impact on incident reporting behaviour. From November 2007 until June 2008, twelve wards of two Dutch general hospitals participated in a quasi-experimental reversed-treatment non-equivalent control group design. The six units of Hospital 1 first conducted a prospective analysis, after which a sophisticated incident reporting and analysis system was implemented. On the six units of Hospital 2 the two methods were implemented in reverse order. Data from the incident reporting and analysis system and from a questionnaire were used to assess between-hospital differences regarding the number of reported incidents, the spectrum of reported incident types, and the profession of reporters. The results show that carrying out a prospective analysis first can improve incident reporting behaviour in terms of a wider spectrum of reported incident types and a larger proportion of incidents reported by doctors. However, the proposed order does not necessarily yield a larger number of reported incidents. This study fills an important gap in safety management research regarding the order of the implementation of prospective and retrospective methods, and contributes to literature on incident reporting. This research also builds on the network theory of social contagion. The results might indicate that health care employees can disseminate their risk perceptions through communication with their direct colleagues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Late-Onset Alzheimer Risk Variants in Memory Decline, Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Crook, Julia E.; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G.; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Lucas, John A.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Machulda, Mary M.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) identified risk variants. We assessed the association of nine variants with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD). Methods Older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville, were assessed for associations of genetic variants with memory decline (n=2,262) using linear mixed models and for incident MCI/LOAD (n=2,674) with Cox proportional hazards models. Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a single weighted risk score. Results APOE-ε4 was significantly associated with worse memory at baseline (β=-0.88, p=2.78E-03) and increased rate of 5-year decline (β=-1.43, p=3.71E-06) with highly significant overall effect on memory (p=3.88E-09). CLU-locus risk allele rs11136000-G was associated with worse memory at baseline (β=-0.51, p=0.012), but not with increased rate of decline. CLU allele was also associated with incident MCI/LOAD (hazard ratio=HR=1.14, p=0.049) in sensitivity analysis. MS4A6A-locus risk allele rs610932-C was associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD in primary analysis (HR=1.17, p=0.016) and had suggestive association with lower baseline memory (β=-0.35, p=0.08). PICALM-locus risk allele rs3851179-G had nominally significant HR in both primary and sensitivity analysis, but with a protective estimate. LOAD risk alleles ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in the subset of subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. Risk scores excluding APOE were not significant, whereas APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. Conclusions The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Given the significant associations observed with APOE-ε4, discovery of the biologically

  17. Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and Wales: incidence, outcome, and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Radford, C F; Minassian, D C; Dart, J K G

    2002-01-01

    AUTHOR:e-mail address please Aim: To determine the incidence, regional variation in frequency, outcome, and risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in England and Wales. Methods: AK cases presenting from 1 October 1997 to 30 September 1999 were identified by the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit active reporting system. Clinical and patient postal questionnaire data were analysed. Results: 106 reported cases met study criteria. The annual incidence for the 2 years was 1.26 and 1.13 per million adults and, for contact lens (CL) wearers, 21.14 and 17.53 per million. There was marked regional variation in incidence (0 to 85.13 per million adult CL wearers), with CL wearers in the south having a ninefold increased risk of AK compared with those resident in the north (95% confidence limits: 2.2–38.9, p<0.0001), and a threefold increased risk with hard as opposed to soft domestic water (95% confidence limits: 1.73 to 6.58, p<0.001). Treatment and outcome data were similar to those previously reported. 93/106 (88%) patients were CL wearers. Among these, 46/77 (60%) were disinfecting irregularly, and 20/63 (32%) had been swimming in CLs. One step hydrogen peroxide and chlorine release soft CL (SCL) disinfection systems were significantly over-represented among the cases. Among SCL users, one or more previously established risk factors for AK were identified in 50/55 (91%) patients. Conclusions: The incidence was considerably higher than most previous estimates, and was static. The geographical variation in incidence may be partly related to the increase in risk associated with hard water. The fact that water quality can have such an effect on the risk of AK suggests that many CL wearers must be letting tapwater come into contact with their lenses or storage cases. Improved education for CL wearers and practitioners about hygiene practice and the variable efficacy of contact lens systems could be expected to reduce the incidence of this disease. PMID:11973250

  18. Breast Cancer in Australian Indigenous Women: Incidence, Mortality, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Kriscia A; Garvey, Gail; Entee, Mark Mc; Rickard, Mary; Brennan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous people of Australia face significant health gaps compared with the general population, with lower life expectancies, higher rates of death, and chronic illness occurring more often than in non-indigenous Australians. Cancer is the second largest contributor to the burden of disease with breast cancer being the most common invasive cancer diagnosed for females. Despite a lower breast cancer incidence compared with non-indigenous women, fatalities occur at an elevated rate and breast cancers have an earlier age of onset. For indigenous women there are also more advanced and distant tumours at diagnosis, fewer hospitalisations for breast cancer, and lower participation in breast screening. Concomitantly there are demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with breast cancer risks that are heavily represented within Indigenous communities. The aim of this two-part narrative review is to examine the available evidence on breast cancer and its risk factors in Australian Indigenous women. Part One presents a summary of the latest incidence, survival and mortality data. Part Two presents the risk factors most strongly associated with breast cancer including age, place of residence, family risk, genetics, reproductive history, tobacco use, alcohol intake, physical activity, participation in screening and breast density. With increasing emphasis on personalized health care, a clear understanding of breast cancer incidence, survival, mortality, and causal agents within the Indigenous population is required if breast cancer prevention and management is to be optimized for Indigenous Australians. PMID:28545182

  19. Breast Cancer in Australian Indigenous Women: Incidence, Mortality, and Risk Factors

    PubMed

    Tapia, Kriscia A; Garvey, Gail; Mc Entee, Mark; Rickard, Mary; Brennan, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Indigenous people of Australia face significant health gaps compared with the general population, with lower life expectancies, higher rates of death, and chronic illness occurring more often than in non-indigenous Australians. Cancer is the second largest contributor to the burden of disease with breast cancer being the most common invasive cancer diagnosed for females. Despite a lower breast cancer incidence compared with non-indigenous women, fatalities occur at an elevated rate and breast cancers have an earlier age of onset. For indigenous women there are also more advanced and distant tumours at diagnosis, fewer hospitalisations for breast cancer, and lower participation in breast screening. Concomitantly there are demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with breast cancer risks that are heavily represented within Indigenous communities. The aim of this two-part narrative review is to examine the available evidence on breast cancer and its risk factors in Australian Indigenous women. Part One presents a summary of the latest incidence, survival and mortality data. Part Two presents the risk factors most strongly associated with breast cancer including age, place of residence, family risk, genetics, reproductive history, tobacco use, alcohol intake, physical activity, participation in screening and breast density. With increasing emphasis on personalized health care, a clear understanding of breast cancer incidence, survival, mortality, and causal agents within the Indigenous population is required if breast cancer prevention and management is to be optimized for Indigenous Australians. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of sclerosis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Storer, Barry E; Petersdorf, Effie W; Nelson, J Lee; Lee, Stephanie J; Carpenter, Paul A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Hansen, John A; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2013-06-20

    Sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can result in disability after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. We assessed the incidence and risk factors of sclerosis and its association with transplant outcomes among 977 consecutive patients treated with systemic immunosuppression for chronic GVHD. Sclerosis was defined when cutaneous sclerosis, fasciitis, or joint contracture was first documented in the medical record. Seventy (7%) patients presented with sclerosis at the time of initial systemic treatment for chronic GVHD, and the cumulative incidence of sclerosis increased to 20% at 3 years. Factors associated with an increased risk of sclerosis included the use of a mobilized blood cell graft and a conditioning regimen with > 450 cGy total body irradiation. Factors associated with a decreased risk of sclerosis included the use of an HLA-mismatched donor and a major ABO-mismatched donor. Development of sclerosis was associated with longer time to withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment but not with risks of overall mortality, nonrelapse mortality, or recurrent malignancy. We found a substantial incidence of sclerosis in patients with chronic GVHD. Development of sclerosis can cause disability but does not affect mortality or recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic GVHD.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for Bell's palsy in Laredo, Texas: 1974-1982.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, N A; Annegers, J F

    1993-01-01

    Incidence rates of Bell's palsy in the predominantly Mexican-American population of Laredo, Texas, USA, are higher than those reported elsewhere, reaching 23.5 per 100,000 among males and 32.7 per 100,000 among females. During childbearing years (15-44) the risk of Bell's palsy was greater for women than for men (incidence density ratio 2.0; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.1). No evidence for seasonality or epidemicity was obtained. Using prevalence estimates from community surveys in south Texas or the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Survey, standardized prevalence ratios (SPR) calculated for hypertension revealed a 10 or 20% increased risk for women and a 50 or 60% increased risk for men. SPRs calculated for diabetes among men with Bell's palsy were twice that expected, while risks of 60% or 90% were noted for women. The increased incidence of Bell's palsy observed in Laredo appears to be due to the high prevalence of diabetes in Mexican-Americans and, to a lesser extent, uncontrolled hypertension.

  2. Gut microbiota, lipopolysaccharides, and innate immunity in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Manco, Melania; Putignani, Lorenza; Bottazzo, Gian Franco

    2010-12-01

    Compelling evidence supports the concepts that gut microbiota actively promotes weight gain and fat accumulation and sustains, indirectly, a condition of low-grade inflammation, thus enhancing the cardiovascular risk. Fewer Bacteroidetes and more Firmicutes seem to characterize the gut microbiota of obese people as compared with that of lean individuals. This difference translates into an increased efficiency of microbiota of obese individuals in harvesting energy from otherwise indigestible carbohydrates. Furthermore, the microbiota also seems able to favor fat accumulation. Indeed, studies performed in germ-free animals have demonstrated that conventionalization of sterile intestine with gut microbiota is associated with an enhanced expression of various lipogenic genes in different tissues, i.e., hepatic, adipose, and muscle tissues. Finally, the microbiota favors systemic exposure to the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), large glycolipids derived from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. LPSs can cause a condition of "metabolic endotoxemia" characterized by low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, and augmented cardiovascular risk. LPSs are a powerful trigger for the innate immune system response. Upon binding to the Toll-like receptor 4 and its coreceptors, LPSs trigger a cascade of responses ultimately resulting in the release of proinflammatory molecules that interfere with modulation of glucose and insulin metabolism, promote development and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque, and favor progression of fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis. This review gives a comprehensive breakdown of the interaction among gut microbiota, LPSs, and the innate immune system in the development of obesity and promotion of an individual's cardiovascular risk.

  3. Spatial modelling and risk factors of malaria incidence in northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2007-05-01

    Identifying areas of high risk is crucial for providing targeted antimalarial interventions. This study used ecological spatial regression models to profile spatial variation of malaria risk and analysed possible association of disease risk with environmental factors at sub-district level in northern Malawi. Using malaria incidence data collected between January 2002 and December 2003, we applied and compared Bayesian Poisson regression models assuming different spatial structures. For each model we adjusted for environmental covariates initially identified through bivariate non-spatial models. The model with both spatially structured and unstructured heterogeneity provided a better fit, guided by the model comparison criteria. Malaria incidence was associated with altitude, precipitation and soil water holding capacity. The risk increased with altitude (relative risk (RR): 1.092, 95% interval: 1.020, 1.169) and precipitation (RR: 1.031, 95% interval: 0.950, 1.120). At medium level of SWHC relative to low level, the risk was reduced (RR: 0.521, 95% interval: 0.298, 0.912), while at high level of SWHC relative to low level the risk was raised (RR: 1.649, 95% interval: 1.041, 2.612). Compared to the commonly used standardised incidence ratios, the model-based approach provided homogenous and easy to interpret risk estimates. Generally, the smoothed map showed less spatial variation in risk, with slightly higher estimates of malaria risk (RR>1) in low-lying areas mostly situated along the lakeshore regions, in particular in Karonga and Nkhatabay districts, and low risk (RR<1) in high-lying areas along Nyika plateau and Vwaza highlands. The results suggest that the spatial variation in malaria risk in the region is a combination of various environmental factors, both observed and unobserved, and the map only highlights the overall effect of these factors. The results also identified areas of increased risk, where further epidemiological investigations can be carried

  4. The incidence and risk of osteoporosis in patients with anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hong-Jhe, Chen; Chin-Yuan, Kuo; Ming-Shium, Tu; Fu-Wei, Wang; Ru-Yih, Chen; Kuang-Chieh, Hsueh; Hsiang-Ju, Pan; Ming-Yueh, Chou; Pan-Ming, Chen; Chih-Chuan, Pan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety disorder (AD) and the subsequent development of osteoporosis. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort analysis according to the data in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan. We included 7098 patients in both the AD and no-anxiety cohort who were matched according to age and sex between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. The incidence rate and the risk ratios (RRs) of subsequent new-onset osteoporosis were calculated for both cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of AD. The Kaplan–Meier method was applied to estimate the cumulative osteoporosis incidence curves. The AD cohort consisted of 7098 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised the same matched control patients without anxiety. The risk of osteoporosis was higher in the AD cohort than in the comparison cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed osteoporosis remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0–1, 1–5, 5–10, ≥10years). Patients with AD were 1.79 times more likely to get osteoporosis than those without AD. We also observed a significant increase in osteoporotic risk in AD patients who are comorbid with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease. The incidence of osteoporosis in Taiwan is associated with an a priori AD history. The risk ratios are the highest for osteoporosis within 1 year of AD diagnosis, but the risk remains statistically significant for >1 year. Clinicians should pay particular attention to osteoporotic comorbidities in AD patients. PMID:27661037

  5. Impact of urbanisation and altitude on the incidence of, and risk factors for, hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background Most of the data regarding the burden of hypertension in low-income and middle-income countries comes from cross-sectional surveys instead of longitudinal studies. We estimated the incidence of, and risk factors for, hypertension in four study sites with different degree of urbanisation and altitude. Methods Data from the CRONICAS Cohort Study, conducted in urban, semiurban and rural areas in Peru, was used. An age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of participants was taken from the most updated census available in each site. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or self-report physician diagnosis and current treatment. The exposures were study site and altitude as well as modifiable risk factors. Incidence, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), 95% CIs and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were estimated using generalised linear models. Results Information from 3237 participants, mean age 55.8 (SD±12.7) years, 48.4% males, was analysed. Overall baseline prevalence of hypertension was 19.7% (95% CI 18.4% to 21.1%). A total of 375 new cases of hypertension were recorded, including 5266 person-years of follow-up, with an incidence of 7.12 (95% CI 6.44 to 7.88) per 100 person-years. Individuals from semiurban site were at higher risk of hypertension compared with highly urbanised areas (IRR=1.76; 95% CI 1.39 to 2.23); however, those from high-altitude sites had a reduced risk (IRR=0.74; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.95). Obesity was the leading risk factor for hypertension with a great variation according to study site with PAF ranging from 12.5% to 42.4%. Conclusions Our results suggest heterogeneity in the progression towards hypertension depending on urbanisation and site altitude. PMID:28115473

  6. Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Alonso, Alvaro; Michos, Erin D; Loehr, Laura R; Astor, Brad C; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R

    2014-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, particularly among the elderly. Magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are micronutrients traditionally viewed in relation to bone health or chronic kidney disease. However, they also may be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease through a broad range of physiologic roles. With the use of data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, we tested the hypotheses that the incidence of HF is greater among individuals with low serum magnesium and those with high serum phosphorus and calcium. A total of 14,709 African Americans (27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45-64 y at baseline (1987-1989)] were observed through 2009. Proportional hazards regression was used to explore associations between biomarkers and incident HF. Serum calcium was corrected for serum albumin. Models were adjusted for demographics, behaviors, and physiologic characteristics. A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43]. Results were not modified by race, sex, or kidney function and were similar when incident coronary heart disease was included as a time-varying covariate. Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort. Whether these biomarkers will be useful candidates for HF risk prediction or targets for prevention remains to be seen. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Breast cancer in lesbians and bisexual women: systematic review of incidence, prevalence and risk studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The UK Parliamentary Enquiry and USA Institute of Medicine state that lesbians may be at a higher risk of breast cancer but there is insufficient information. Lesbians and bisexual (LB) women have behavioural risk-factors at higher rates compared to heterosexuals such as increased alcohol intake and higher stress levels. Conversely, breast cancer rates are higher in more affluent women yet income levels in LB women are relatively low. This systematic review investigated all evidence on whether there is, or likely to be, higher rates of breast cancer in LB women. Methods Cochrane library (CDSR, CENTRAL, HTA, DARE, NHSEED), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CAB abstracts, Web of Science (SCI, SSCI), SIGLE and Social Care Online databases were searched to October 2013. Unpublished research and specific lesbian, gay and bisexual websites were checked, as were citation lists of relevant papers. Included were studies in LB populations reporting breast cancer incidence or prevalence rates, risk model results or risk-factor estimates. Inclusions, data-extraction and quality assessment were by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion. Results Searches found 198 references. No incidence rates were found. Nine studies gave prevalence estimates - two showed higher, four showed no differences, one showed mixed results depending on definitions, one had no comparison group and one gave no sample size. All studies were small with poor methodological and/or reporting quality. One incidence modelling study suggested a higher rate. Four risk modelling studies were found, one Rosner-Colditz and three Gail models. Three suggested higher and one lower rate in LB compared to heterosexual women. Six risk-factor estimates suggested higher risk and one no difference between LB and heterosexual women. Conclusions The only realistic way to establish rates in LB women would be to collect sexual orientation within routine statistics, including cancer registry data, or from

  8. Breast cancer in lesbians and bisexual women: systematic review of incidence, prevalence and risk studies.

    PubMed

    Meads, Catherine; Moore, David

    2013-12-05

    The UK Parliamentary Enquiry and USA Institute of Medicine state that lesbians may be at a higher risk of breast cancer but there is insufficient information. Lesbians and bisexual (LB) women have behavioural risk-factors at higher rates compared to heterosexuals such as increased alcohol intake and higher stress levels. Conversely, breast cancer rates are higher in more affluent women yet income levels in LB women are relatively low. This systematic review investigated all evidence on whether there is, or likely to be, higher rates of breast cancer in LB women. Cochrane library (CDSR, CENTRAL, HTA, DARE, NHSEED), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CAB abstracts, Web of Science (SCI, SSCI), SIGLE and Social Care Online databases were searched to October 2013. Unpublished research and specific lesbian, gay and bisexual websites were checked, as were citation lists of relevant papers. Included were studies in LB populations reporting breast cancer incidence or prevalence rates, risk model results or risk-factor estimates. Inclusions, data-extraction and quality assessment were by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion. Searches found 198 references. No incidence rates were found. Nine studies gave prevalence estimates - two showed higher, four showed no differences, one showed mixed results depending on definitions, one had no comparison group and one gave no sample size. All studies were small with poor methodological and/or reporting quality. One incidence modelling study suggested a higher rate.Four risk modelling studies were found, one Rosner-Colditz and three Gail models. Three suggested higher and one lower rate in LB compared to heterosexual women. Six risk-factor estimates suggested higher risk and one no difference between LB and heterosexual women. The only realistic way to establish rates in LB women would be to collect sexual orientation within routine statistics, including cancer registry data, or from large cohort studies.

  9. Incidence and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas Latinos: implications for prevention research.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Weiss, Nancy S; Holden, Alan E C; Suarez, Lucina; Cooper, Sharon P; Munoz, Edgar; Naylor, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in the U.S. despite a decline in cancer overall. Latinos have higher rates of HCC than the general population according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Not included in SEER, Texas Latinos make up one-fifth of the U.S. Latino population. To determine whether HCC incidence differs among U.S. and Texas Latinos, this descriptive study compares HCC incidence from 1995 through 2006 among three Latino populations: U.S. SEER, Texas overall and a South Texas subset. To identify lines of prevention research, we compare prevalence of known HCC risk factors among these Latino groups. Data were collected from the U.S. SEER Program, Texas Cancer Registry and Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS). Annual age-specific and age-adjusted HCC incidence rates, annual percent changes (APCs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as well as prevalence of obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Of the three Latino groups compared, South Texas Latinos had the highest age-adjusted HCC incidence rates and SEER Latinos had the lowest (10.6/100,000 (10.1-11.1) and 7.5/100,000 (7.2-7.7), respectively). HCC incidence significantly increased over time (APCs>0) among Latinos in all three geographic groups. Between 1995 and 2006, there was an increase in obesity among all three populations, and obesity was highest among South Texas Latinos. Diabetes increased among U.S. Latinos, and Latino women in South Texas had significantly higher diabetes prevalence than U.S. Latino women. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use were similar among groups. The incidence of HCC among Latinos in South Texas is higher than elsewhere in the United States. Higher rates of HCC among Texas and South Texas Latinos may be associated with greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes, risk factors for HCC that are amenable to intervention.

  10. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John H M; Fuller, Colin W; Kemp, Simon P T; Reddin, Dave B

    2006-08-01

    The incidence of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union is high, but evidence-based information on risk factors and injury-prevention strategies in this sport is limited. To define the incidence, severity, and risk factors associated with hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union and to determine whether the use of hamstring strengthening and stretching exercises reduces the incidence and severity of these injuries. Cohort study (prevention); Level of evidence, 3. Team clinicians reported all hamstring muscle injuries on a weekly basis and provided details of the location, diagnosis, severity, and mechanism of each injury; loss of time from training and match play was used as the definition of an injury. Players' match and training exposures were recorded on a weekly basis. The incidence of hamstring muscle injuries was 0.27 per 1000 player training hours and 5.6 per 1000 player match hours. Injuries, on average, resulted in 17 days of lost time, with recurrent injuries (23%) significantly more severe (25 days lost) than new injuries (14 days lost). Second-row forwards sustained the fewest (2.4 injuries/1000 player hours) and the least severe (7 days lost) match injuries. Running activities accounted for 68% of hamstring muscle injuries, but injuries resulting from kicking were the most severe (36 days lost). Players undertaking Nordic hamstring exercises in addition to conventional stretching and strengthening exercises had lower incidences and severities of injury during training and competition. The Nordic hamstring strengthening exercise may reduce the incidence and severity of hamstring muscle injuries sustained during training and competition.

  11. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses’ Health Study123

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect the risk of gout via various mechanisms, but prospective data on the relation between coffee intake and the risk of incident gout are limited. Design: Over a 26-y period, we prospectively examined the relation between coffee intake and risk of incident gout in 89,433 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. We assessed the consumption of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine in participants every 2–4 y through validated questionnaires. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the survey criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for gout. Results: During the 26 y of follow-up, we documented 896 confirmed incident cases of gout. There was an inverse association between higher coffee intake and the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee-consumption categories [ie, 0, 1–237, 238–947, and ≥948 mL coffee/d (237 mL = one 8-ounce cup)] were 1.00, 0.97, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; P for trend < 0.0001), respectively. For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, 1–237, and ≥237 mL decaffeinated coffee/d) were 1.00, 1.02, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; P for trend = 0.02), respectively. There was an inverse association between total caffeine from all sources and the risk of gout; the multivariate RR of the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.68; P for trend <0.0001). Conclusion: These prospective data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout in women. PMID:20739424

  12. The Incidence and Risk of Celiac Disease in a Healthy US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Murray, Joseph A.; Porter, Chad K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Celiac disease (CD) is an increasingly common disease that may affect as many as 1% of the North American population. Recent population-based data suggest a substantial increase in the prevalence of CD over the last several decades. Several factors are hypothesized as possible disease triggers including intercurrent illnesses, such as gastroenteritis, surgeries, and trauma. We used the active duty US military, a unique healthy worker population with essentially complete medical diagnostic coding, as an opportunity to describe trends in CD and deployment-related risk factors. METHODS Using electronic medical encounter data (1999–2008) on active duty US military (over 13.7 million person-years), a matched, nested case–control study describing the epidemiology and risk determinants of CD (based on ≥2 ICD-9 medical encounters) was conducted. Incidence and duration of CD-related medical care were estimated, and conditional logistic regression was utilized to evaluate CD risk following infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) occurring within 3 years before CD diagnosis while controlling for other risk factors. RESULTS A total of 455 incident cases of CD were identified and age, gender, and time matched to 1,820 controls. The incidence of CD increased five-fold from 1.3 per 100,000 in 1999 to 6.5 per 100,000 in 2008, with the highest rates of increase among those over 34 years of age (average annual increase of 0.8 cases per 100,000). A total of 172 IGE episodes, predominately of “viral etiology” (60.5%), were documented. In multivariate models, a significant association between IGE and CD was found (Odds ratio (OR): 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43, 2.97). Risk generally increased with temporal proximity to, and non-viral etiology of, exposure. Other notable risk factors for CD in multivariate models were Caucasian race (OR: 3.1, P < 0.001), non-Army service (OR: 1.5, P = 0.001), and greater than a high-school education (OR: 1.3, P = 0

  13. Incidence and risk of seizures in Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yung-Yang; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-09-01

    The reported incidence and risk factors mediating seizures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extremely inconsistent and relevant data is lacking in Asia. We investigated the incidence rate and risk of seizures in AD and in a large, nationwide cohort from Han Chinese. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on the data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. To reduce selection bias, we applied propensity scores, wherein 981 patients with AD were matched to 3835 non-AD controls from a pool of 1000,000 randomly sampled cohort dataset. This approach was based on age, sex, comorbidities and previous brain conditions. Incidence rate, cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated. During the 10-year follow-up period (mean follow-up time, 4.02 years), 44 out of 937 AD patients (4.7%) developed seizures. The incidence rate in the AD cohort (11.9 per 1000 person-years) was higher than that in the matched cohort (5.7 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.83, p=0.005). The mean duration from the diagnosis of AD to the occurrence of seizure is 3.6 years. The Cox regression analysis revealed that AD itself is a significant predictor after adjustment for confounders (HR=2.01, 95% CI, 1.40-2.90, p<0.001). Moreover, age is an independent predictor, with an adjusted HR of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05, p=0.019). In conclusion, seizure occurrence in AD is more common than in the matched cohort. Notably, advanced age carries a higher risk for development of seizures in patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial Differences in Gout Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Janet W.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Law, Andrew; Kao, Linda; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef; Baer, Alan N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined racial differences in gout incidence among black and white participants in a longitudinal, population-based cohort and tested whether racial differences were explained by higher levels of serum urate. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a prospective, US population–based cohort study of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing annual follow-up through 2012. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident gout by race among 11,963 men and women using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The cohort was 23.6% black. The incidence rate of gout was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (15.5/10,000 person-years for black men, 12.0/10,000 person-years for black women, 9.4/10,000 person-years for white men, and 5.0/10,000 person-years for white women; P < 0.001). Black participants had an increased risk of incident gout (for women, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.56). Upon further adjustment for uric acid levels, there was modest attenuation of the association of race with incident gout (for women, adjusted HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00) compared with white participants. In this US population–based cohort, black women and black men were at increased risk of developing gout during middle and older ages compared with whites, which appears, particularly in men, to be partly related to higher urate levels in middle-aged blacks. PMID:24335384

  15. Incidence and risk factors of intracranial aneurysm: A national cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Ahn, Soyeon; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan

    2016-10-01

    Background Estimations of the intracranial aneurysm incidence require long-term follow-up of a relatively large at-risk population; as a result, the incidence remains largely unknown. Aims To investigate the national incidence of intracranial aneurysm in a Korean population. Methods After excluding 18,604 potential subjects with a previous history of stroke (I6x.x), 998,216 subjects were included in this observational cohort. The primary endpoint was the earliest date of diagnosis of either unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA; I67.1) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; I60.x). We collected anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, laboratory data, and smoking, drinking, and physical exercise habits of 132,355 subjects for whom healthcare screening data were available. Factors influencing intracranial aneurysm were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression. Results The overall observation size was 8,792,214 person-years. During follow-up, 4346 subjects were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm (SAH, 1960; UIA, 2386). The crude incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 49.4/100,000 person-years. The hazard ratio for women was 1.56 ( p < 0.01), and older subjects had an increased hazard ratio. Subjects with hypertension had an approximately 1.5-fold higher risk of intracranial aneurysm. A history of heart disease and family history of stroke were associated with respective hazard ratios of 2.08 and 1.77. Conclusions In this Korean population study, the standardized incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 52.2/100,000 person-years. Older age, female sex, hypertension, history of heart disease, and family history of stroke were independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm.

  16. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and the Subsequent Risk of Incident Dysglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Sun, Cong; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Pezic, Angela; Venn, Alison; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Dunstan, David W.; Barr, Elizabeth L.M.; Blair, Steven N.; Cochrane, Jenny; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Dwyer, Terence

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) in 2000 and change in PA over 5 years with subsequent risk of dysglycemia by 2005. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study in Tasmania, Australia, analyzed 458 adults with normal glucose tolerance and a mean (SD) age of 49.7 (12.1) years in 2000. Variables assessed in 2000 and 2005 included PA, by pedometer and questionnaire, nutrient intake, and other lifestyle factors. Incident dysglycemia was defined as the development of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance revealed by oral glucose tolerance testing in 2005, without type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Incident dysglycemia developed in 26 participants during the 5-year period. Higher daily steps in 2000 were independently associated with a lower 5-year risk of incident dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.77–0.97] per 1,000-step increment). Higher daily steps in 2005, after controlling for baseline steps in 2000 (thus reflecting change in steps over 5 years), were not associated with incident dysglycemia (AOR 1.02 [0.92–1.14]). Higher daily steps in 2000 were also associated with lower fasting blood glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose by 2005. Further adjustment for BMI or waist circumference did not remove these associations. CONCLUSIONS Among community-dwelling adults, a higher rate of daily steps is associated with a reduced risk of incident dysglycemia. This effect appears to be not fully mediated through reduced adiposity. PMID:21562319

  17. TCF7L2 type 2 diabetes risk variant, lifestyle factors, and incidence of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Isabel; Wallström, Peter; Hindy, George; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Bjartell, Anders; Sonestedt, Emily; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    Variation in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), the strongest genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), may play a role in prostate cancer (PCa) depending on lifestyle factors. The aims of this study were to determine if TCF7L2 rs7903146 is associated with risk of PCa and if the association is modified by lifestyle factors independently of T2D status. We prospectively followed 8,558 men in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study from baseline 1991-1996 until end of 2009. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between rs7903146 T2D-risk allele (T) and PCa. Effect modification by incident T2D status, fasting glucose levels, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors were tested. During follow-up 855 incident PCa cases were registered. We observed a non-significant tendency for the TCF7L2 variant to associate with higher risk of PCa, which was unaffected by adjustment for incident T2D (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.60; P = 0.079) but more pronounced among subjects who developed T2D (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 0.88, 4.14; P = 0.064). In a sub-sample of hyperglycemic men we observed an increased risk of PCa among T-allele carriers (HR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.22, 6.04; P = 0.014; P(interaction)  = 0.056). T-allele carriers with higher number of lifestyle risk factors had an increased risk of PCa (P(interaction)  = 0.006). We found no independent association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 and PCa risk. However, among hyperglycemic men we observed that the risk allele may increase risk of PCa. The association between rs7903146 and PCa risk may also be modified by lifestyle factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Risk of Cataract Incidence in a Cohort of Mayak PA Workers following Chronic Occupational Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bragin, Evgeny V.; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Bannikova, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study of cataract incidence in a cohort of Mayak Production Association workers first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948–1982 and followed up till the end of 2008 (22,377 workers). Principal advantages of the study are the large size of the cohort, long-term follow-up and sufficient statistical power, available results of annual eye examinations over the entire follow-up period and detailed information on non-radiation confounders. Individual measured doses from external γ-rays and neutrons used in the analyses were provided by the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). Relative risk (RR) and excess relative risk (ERR) per unit dose (Gy) were calculated based on maximum likelihood using the AMFIT module of the EPICURE software. The RR of cataract incidence was found to be the highest in workers exposed at doses above 2.0 Gy. A significant linear association of cataract incidence with cumulative dose from external γ-rays was found with ERR/Gy equal to 0.28 (95% confidence intervals: 0.20, 0.37). The results obtained varied slightly with inclusion of additional adjustments for non-radiation factors (smoking index, hypertension, glaucoma and body mass index). Adjusting for the dose from neutrons gave a considerable increase in ERR/Gy for cataract incidence. PMID:27723789

  19. Incidence and risk factors for human papillomavirus infections in young female online daters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sharon; Stern, Joshua E; Feng, Qinghua; Hughes, James P; Hawes, Stephen E; Winer, Rachel L

    2017-11-01

    Risk factors for incident human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are undefined in young women who use internet dating Web sites. From 2010-2012 we followed 18- to 24-year-old female internet daters (N = 164) triannually for a mean of 1 year. Women collected and returned self-collected vaginal samples for HPV genotyping and health and behavior questionnaires. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to estimate incidence of clinically relevant HPV infection (high-risk HPV, HPV-6, or HPV-11) and generalized estimating equations and Firth logistic regression to identify associated risk factors. At enrollment, women reported a median lifetime number of six male sex partners, and 36% reported a history of HPV vaccination. The 12-month cumulative incidence of clinically relevant HPV was 32.9% (95%CI: 26.0-41.0%). Reporting a recent male sex partner met via the internet versus not was not significantly associated with incident HPV (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.53-1.55). In multivariate analysis adjusted for lifetime number of partners, reporting new and/or multiple partners in the past 6 months was positively associated with incident HPV (OR = 6.38, 95%CI: 1.56-26.02, compared to reporting no recent partners). In a separate model, self-reporting ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine was inversely associated with vaccine-type HPV (6/11/16/18) (OR = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.05-0.86), but the association was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjusting for sexual history (OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.09-1.43). While recent high-risk sexual behavior was associated with incident HPV, sex with partners met via the internet was not associated with increased HPV risk in young female internet daters. Although not statistically significant after adjusting for sexual history, HPV vaccination showed substantial protection against vaccine-type HPV infection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: focus on genetic risk factors and identification of genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Lucas, Gavin; Elosua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. CAD events are caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, the effects of which are mainly mediated through cardiovascular risk factors. The techniques used to study the genetic basis of these diseases have evolved from linkage studies to candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies. Linkage studies have been able to identify genetic variants associated with monogenic diseases, whereas genome-wide association studies have been more successful in determining genetic variants associated with complex diseases. Currently, genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 40 loci that explain 6% of the heritability of CAD. The application of this knowledge to clinical practice is challenging, but can be achieved using various strategies, such as genetic variants to identify new therapeutic targets, personal genetic information to improve disease risk prediction, and pharmacogenomics. The main aim of this narrative review is to provide a general overview of our current understanding of the genetics of coronary artery disease and its potential clinical utility. PMID:24520200

  1. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).

  2. Cognitive simulation of incident risks in the structure of loading and transport enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, S. V.; Pristupa, Yu D.; Pavlova, L. D.; Fryanov, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    Organizational and technical system of a manufacturing enterprise was identified, which includes three subsystems: main production, industrial and social infrastructure. Based on the results of cognitive modeling, significant system concepts were identified that reduce the risks of incidents. The internal control influences formed in accordance with level of competence of heads of services, departments, sections, dispatchers, acting on the basis of regulations, job profiles. The second concept influencing the enterprise management system is personnel, which is assessed by the compliance of competencies of crane operators, loader operators, slingers, loaders, and acceptance/delivery agents to job responsibilities and labor functions. At a low level of professional competencies, the personnel does not fully comply with job duties and labor functions, the risk of an incident is maximal. The application of cognitive modeling allows us to identify the essential elements that ensure stable functioning of the system as a whole.

  3. A Critical Review of the Incidence and Risk Factors for Finger Injuries in Rock Climbing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Johnson, Mark I

    Rock climbing is a popular sporting activity and indoor sport climbing has been accepted for inclusion in the 2020 Olympic Games. The aim of this article is to critically review research on the incidence and risk factors associated with injuries during rock climbing. A semisystematic approach in reviewing literature on incidence and prevalence was applied. Articles were identified after searches of the following electronic databases: Discover, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect. Despite methodological shortcomings of the studies contained within the review, the frequency of climbing-related injuries is high and can be challenging to diagnose. The fingers are the most common site of injury with previous injury a significant risk factor for reinjury. The annular pulleys of the fingers are the most commonly injured structure and evidence suggests epiphyseal fractures in adolescent sport climbers is increasing. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for climbing-related finger injuries is proposed.

  4. [Risk of the incidence of urinary tract diseases in industrial centers of the Maritime Territory].

    PubMed

    Kiku, P F; Veremchuk, L V; Viazova, A V

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to establish whether there is a relationship of the incidence of urinary diseases (UD) in the population of industrial towns in the Primorye Territory to the water basin. This evaluation was based on the principles of calculation and on the analysis of epidemiological and ecological risks. The environment in the Primorye Territory was found to be dangerous to human health and to affect the spread of UD; with varying social and natural conditions, specific features and amounts of discharged pollutants, the ecological risk exceeds the epidemiological one; there is a high association of the incidence of UD in the port towns and industrial centers where the enterprises of coal mining, chemical, and non-ferrous metallurgic industries are located.

  5. SY 04-2 LONG-TERM CVD RISK PREDICTION IN LOW-INCIDENCE EUROPEAN POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence. Second, younger individuals and women are likely to be classified in the "low 10-year risk" category despite the presence of risk factors.The latest European and American guidelines have eventually introduced the assessment of long-term risk of disease as additional tool to improve risk communication and increase risk awareness. Long-term risk scores were first developed in the US and in the UK, i.e. in high-risk populations. In low-incidence populations, these models may have poor calibration and discrimination ability, as shown for the Framingham equation. Therefore, our research team developed and validated a 20-year risk score for the Italian population. As part of a collaborative study with the Italian Health Institute, we pooled 7 population-based cohorts of middle-aged individuals recruited in Northern and in Central Italy in mid 1980 s and early 1990 s following a similar protocol with standardized MONICA procedures. Overall, more than 10500 men and women 35-69 years old and free of CVD at baseline, who developed 830 first major atherosclerotic events (coronary heart disease or ischemic strokes) during a median 17 years of follow-up. The score was based on traditional risk factors (age, blood lipids, systolic blood pressure and treatment, smoking and diabetes). In addition, social status and family history of coronary heart disease did improve risk prediction, at least in men. Finally we showed

  6. Risk factors for incident dementia after stroke. Role of hypoxic and ischemic disorders.

    PubMed

    Moroney, J T; Bagiella, E; Desmond, D W; Paik, M C; Stern, Y; Tatemichi, T K

    1996-08-01

    Stroke significantly increases the risk of dementia in the elderly, yet the risk factors for incident dementia after ischemic stroke are not well understood. We attempted to determine whether hypoxic-ischemic (HI) disorders, which may result from comorbid medical conditions (eg. seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, pneumonia), would be an independent risk factor for the development of new dementia after stroke. We prospectively followed 185 initially nondemented patients with ischemic stroke (age, 70.3 +/- 7.7 years) for a maximum of 52.8 months. We diagnosed the presence of dementia at annual examinations based on neuropsychological testing and modified DSM-III-R criteria. HI disorders were identified by record review or examination during hospitalization. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine the cumulative proportion of patients with and without HI disorders who survived free of dementia and used Cox models to estimate the relative risk of dementia associated with HI disorders. The cumulative proportion (+/- SE) surviving without dementia was 51.7 +/- 10.9% in the HI group versus 78.2 +/- 4.3% in the non-HI group after 52.8 months of observation. The relative risk of incident dementia associated with HI events was 4.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 9.6) after we adjusted for demographic factors, recurrent stroke, and baseline cognitive function. We conclude that HI disorders may be a significant independent risk factor for incident dementia after stroke, even after adjustment for other recognized predictors of cognitive decline. Recognition of HI cerebral damage as a possible pathogenic mechanism for dementia after stroke may allow targeted therapeutic interventions to prevent subsequent cognitive deterioration.

  7. Incidence, Risks, and Sequelae of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in Pediatric Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Korah, Mariam P.; Esiashvili, Natia; Mazewski, Claire M.; Hudgins, Roger J.; Tighiouart, Mourad; Janss, Anna J.; Schwaibold, Frederick P.; Crocker, Ian R.; Curran, Walter J.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risks, severity, and sequelae of posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in children with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 2007, 63 children with medulloblastoma at Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta were treated with craniectomy followed by radiation. Fifty-one patients were assigned to a standard-risk group, and 12 patients were assigned to a high-risk group. Five patients had <1.5-cm{sup 2} residual tumor, 4 had >=1.5-cm{sup 2} residual tumor, and the remainder had no residual tumor. Eleven patients had disseminated disease. Patients received craniospinal irradiation at a typical dose of 23.4 Gy or 36 Gy for standard- or high-risk disease, respectively. The posterior fossa was given a total dose of 54 or 55.8 Gy. Nearly all patients received chemotherapy following cooperative group protocols. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. PFS developed in 18 patients (29%). On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion, midline tumor location, younger age, and the absence of radiographic residual tumor were found to be predictors of PFS; the last two variables remained significant on multivariate analysis. From 1990 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007, the proportions of patients with no radiographic residual tumor were 77% and 94%, respectively. During the same eras, the proportions of patients with PFS were 17% and 39%. Only 4 patients had complete recovery at last follow-up. Conclusions: The incidence of PFS increased in the latter study period and is proportional to more aggressive surgery. Children with midline tumors exhibiting brainstem invasion are at increased risk. With the increased incidence of PFS and the permanent morbidity in many patients, the risks and benefits of complete tumor removal in all patients need to be reexamined.

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Zenaida Soriano; Al-Mulaabed, Sharef Waadallah; Bataclan, Flordeliz; Montemayor, Cheryl; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Zuhaibi, Sanaa; Al-Waili, Huda; Al-Wahibi, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and the maternal/neonatal risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, compared to other countries. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of premature neonates born with gestational age (GA) 24–32 weeks at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, from January 2007 to December 2010. Maternal and neonatal in-hospital course was retrieved. The incidence of ROP was reported. Risk factors analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: A total of 171 neonates (57% males, 43% females) were included for analysis. The incidence of ROP (any stage) was 69/171 (40.4%). Infants with ROP had significantly lower GA (27.7±2 weeks) compared to non-ROP group (30.2±1.7 weeks), P < 0.001),P < 0.001) and significantly lower birth weight (BW) (948 ± 242 g in ROP group vs. 1348 ± 283 g in non-ROP group;P < 0.001). Other significant risk factors associated with ROP were: small for GA, respiratory distress syndrome, requirement for ventilation, duration of ventilation or oxygen therapy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hyperglycemia, late onset sepsis (clinical or proven), necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, seizures, and number of blood transfusions. There was no significant difference in maternal characteristics between the ROP and non-ROP groups except that mothers of infants with ROP were found to be significantly younger. Logistic regression analysis revealed early GA, low BW, duration of Oxygen therapy, and late-onset clinical or proven sepsis as independent risk factors. Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis

  9. Incidence, Risk Factors, Management, and Complications of Rectal Injuries During Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Philipp; Linnemannstöns, Anna; Chun, Felix; Schlomm, Thorsten; Pompe, Raisa; Budäus, Lars; Rosenbaum, Clemens; Ludwig, Tim; Dahlem, Roland; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Tilki, Derya; Steuber, Thomas

    2017-02-07

    Rectal injury (RI) during radical prostatectomy (RP) is a severe complication. So far, only limited data describing the incidence, risk factors, management, and complications of RI are available. In an analysis of data for 24178 patients, we identified 113/24076 patients (0.47%) undergoing open or robotic RP and 7/102 patients (6.86%) after salvage RP who experienced an RI. Besides salvage RP, local tumor stage, Gleason grade, lymph node status, and surgical experience, but not surgical approach (robotic vs open), could be identified as risk factors for RI in univariate and multivariate analysis. Intraoperative management of RI comprised closure with two to three layers. In 13/109 patients (11.9%), a diverting colostomy/ileostomy was carried out. Some 12% of men with closure of an RI developed a recto-anastomosis fistula, and 57% of those who had an additional diverting enterostomy. Thus, the overall incidence of recto-anastomosis fistula after RP was <0.1%. The extent of rectal laceration, prior radiation, and intraoperative signs of rectal infiltration were associated with the development of a subsequent recto-anastomosis fistula. Some 83% of patients with a recto-anastomosis fistula needed further intervention. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, management, and complications of rectal injury during radical prostatectomy. Overall, the incidence of rectal injury and subsequent development of recto-anastomosis fistulas is low unless the patient has significant risk factors. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    A body of research links dietary intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and possibly sleep patterns with colorectal cancer risk. However, little research has examined the association of the combination of these lifestyle factors with incidence of colorectal cancer, especially in non-western populations. A protective lifestyle factor index of these 6 aforementioned factors was created and examined in relation to risk of developing colorectal cancer. This study is a prospective observational study of 50,466 Chinese men and women in Singapore aged 45–74 during enrollment in the Singapore Chinese Health Study in 1993–1998 and followed up through 2007. The main outcome measures were standardized rates and hazard ratios of incident colorectal cancer. The protective levels of each lifestyle factor were independently associated with reduced age- and sex-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer. When all the factors were combined into a single protective lifestyle factor index, there was a strong, monotonic decrease in incidence rate of colon cancer with an increasing score. Relative to participants with an index score of 0–3, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of colon cancer for an index score of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9/10 were 0.58 (0.35–0.95), 0.56 (0.36–0.86), 0.50 (0.33–0.76), 0.43 (0.28–0.66), 0.39 (0.25–0.63), and 0.25 (0.12–0.54) (P for trend <0.0001). The results were consistent by sex. Conversely, there was no association with rectal cancer risk. An increasing protective lifestyle factor index score is associated with a marked decreased risk of developing colon cancer in Chinese men and women. PMID:23275007

  11. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  12. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (<12.4 g/dL) and highest (>14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gane, E M; Michaleff, Z A; Cottrell, M A; McPhail, S M; Hatton, A L; Panizza, B J; O'Leary, S P

    2017-07-01

    Shoulder pain and dysfunction may occur following neck dissection among people being treated for head and neck cancer. This systematic review aims to examine the prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection and identify risk factors for these post-operative complications. Electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane) were searched for articles including adults undergoing neck dissection for head and neck cancer. Studies that reported prevalence, incidence or risk factors for an outcome of the shoulder or neck were eligible and assessed using the Critical Review Form - Quantitative Studies. Seventy-five articles were included in the final review. Prevalence rates for shoulder pain were slightly higher after RND (range, 10-100%) compared with MRND (range, 0-100%) and SND (range, 9-25%). The incidence of reduced shoulder active range of motion depended on surgery type (range, 5-20%). The prevalence of reduced neck active range of motion after neck dissection was 1-13%. Type of neck dissection was a risk factor for shoulder pain, reduced function and health-related quality of life. The prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection varies by type of surgery performed and measure of dysfunction used. Pre-operative education for patients undergoing neck dissection should acknowledge the potential for post-operative shoulder and neck problems to occur and inform patients that accessory nerve preservation lowers, but does not eliminate, the risk of developing musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Peritoneal Metastases from Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Incidence, Risk Factors and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Madani, Ariana; Thomassen, Irene; van Gestel, Yvette R B M; van der Bilt, Jarmila D W; Haak, Harm R; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Lemmens, Valery E P P

    2017-08-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare neoplasms and data on peritoneal metastases (PM) from these tumors are scarce. The aim of this study was to present population-based data on the incidence, risk factors, and survival of synchronous PM in GEP-NETs. Data from all patients diagnosed with a GEP-NET during 2007-2013 were collected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated and risk factors for developing PM were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Survival was investigated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. A total of 4114 patients were diagnosed with a GEP-NET. PM were diagnosed in 234 patients (19% of patients with metastasized disease, representing 6% of all GEP-NETs). The incidence of patients diagnosed with PM was 1.6:1,000,000 persons per year. Risk factors for developing PM were higher age (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0) and primary tumor location in the small intestine (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1-5.7) or colon (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4). Small intestinal NETs with PM had the best survival, while appendiceal NETs with PM had the poorest survival (5-year survival rates of 67 and 7%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that survival in patients with PM was worse compared with patients without metastases; however, the presence of PM among all metastasized patients was not associated with worse survival. This nationwide population-based study provides relevant insight into the incidence and risk factors of PM in GEP-NETs, and reveals detailed site-specific data on the presence of PM and survival data that may contribute to develop individualized treatment strategies in patients with these heterogeneous neoplasms.

  15. [Incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Jin, Nan; Li, Ge; Li, Hui; Chen, Ling; Leng, Bing

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China and identify the high-risk population. Six databases including Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database (WF), PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for publications documenting the incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among general population in Chinese adults. Eligible studies were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria for meta-analysis using Stata software and RevMan software. Twenty-one published studies were finally included. The results showed that the incidence of prehypertension was 37% in Chinese adults. The pooled SMD (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.37 (0.29-0.46) for body mass index, 0.20 (0.12-0.27) for fasting blood glucose (FPG), 0.17 (0.15-0.19) for total cholesterol (TC), 0.22 (0.17-0.27) for triglyceride (TG), 0.13 (0.10-0.15) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and -0.07 (-0.16-0.02) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For smoking, drinking and family history of hypertension, the pooled OR (95% CI) were 1.44 (1.40-1.47), 1.60 (1.44-1.79), and 1.19 (1.04-1.35), respectively. The incidence of prehypertension among adults in mainland China is relatively high, especially in males. BMI, FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, smoking, drinking and family history of hypertension are positively related to prehypertension, and early intervention is recommended to reverse these modifiable risk factors.

  16. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  17. An Introduction to the Mission Risk Diagnostic for Incident Management Capabilities (MRD-IMC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    An Introduction to the Mission Risk Diagnostic for Incident Management Capabilities (MRD- IMC ) Christopher Alberts Audrey Dorofee Robin...1.2 Overview of the MRD- IMC 2 1.3 Purpose 3 1.4 Audience 3 1.5 Structure of This Technical Note 4 2 Identify Mission and Objective(s) 5 3...Identify Drivers 6 4 Analyze Drivers 8 5 Applying the MRD- IMC 10 6 Summary and Future Directions 11 Appendix: MRD- IMC Workbook 12 Glossary 36

  18. Codeine Shopping Behavior in a Retrospective Cohort of Chronic Noncancer Pain Patients: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Chenaf, Chouki; Kabore, Jean-Luc; Delorme, Jessica; Pereira, Bruno; Mulliez, Aurélien; Roche, Lucie; Eschalier, Alain; Delage, Noémie; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Codeine is a widely used opioid analgesic but studies on its misuse in chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) are still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of codeine shopping behavior in CNCP patients and to identify the associated risk factors. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study from the French health insurance claims database from 2004 to 2014. The main outcome was the one-year incidence of codeine shopping behavior defined as ≥1 day of overlapping prescriptions written by ≥2 different prescribers and filled in ≥3 different pharmacies. A total of 1,958 CNCP patients treated with codeine were included, with a mean age of 62.7 ± 16.1 years, 36.8% men. The 1-year incidence rate of codeine shopping behavior was 4.03% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.07-5.28). In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with shopping behavior were younger age (≤40 years) (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.29; 95% CI, 4.28-12.42), mental health disorders (HR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.08-4.67), concurrent use of anxiolytic benzodiazepines (HR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.55-6.26), and previous use of strong opioids (HR = 2.94; 95% CI, 1.24-6.98). The incidence of codeine shopping behavior in CNCP patients was 4% and risk factors identified were shared with those of opioid abuse. Shopping behavior for codeine was not infrequent in CNCP patients. The risk factors identified in this study are similar to those identified for opioid abuse in other studies. Appropriate use of codeine from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spironolactone use and risk of incident cancers: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morant, Steven V.; Wei, Li; Thompson, Alastair M.; MacDonald, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Spironolactone is widely used to treat heart failure, hypertension and liver disease with increased usage in recent years. Spironolactone has endocrine effects that could influence cancer risks and historical reports suggest possible links with increased risk of certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence. Methods A pharmacoepidemiological propensity score‐matched cohort study was performed to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse time to first diagnosis of each prespecified cancer and hazard ratios for spironolactone exposure are presented. The setting for the study was UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The participants were 74 272 patients exposed to spironolactone between 1986 and 2013, matched 1:2 with unexposed controls. The prespecified primary outcomes were the first incidence of ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, colorectal, prostate, renal cell, pharyngeal and thyroid cancers, and myelomonoblastic/‐cytic leukaemias. Secondary outcomes were the remaining 27 types of cancer. Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of any cancer associated with spironolactone use. Spironolactone use was associated with a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.80, P < 0.001). Conclusions In this study, spironolactone use was associated with a lower incidence of prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men in the UK. The possible mechanisms and clinical implications merit further investigation. PMID:27735065

  20. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined 10 649 adult recipients of a primary transplant performed at 26 centers across the United States in the Transplant Skin Cancer Network during 1 of 2 calendar years (either 2003 or 2008) identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Recipients of all organs except intestine were included, and the follow-up periods were 5 and 10 years. Incident skin cancer was determined through detailed medical record review. Data on predictors were obtained from the OPTN database. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer overall and for SCC, MM, and MCC were calculated per 100 000 person-years. Potential risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer were tested using multivariate Cox regression analysis to yield adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 10 649 organ transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51 [12] years; 3873 women [36%] and 6776 men [64%]) contributed 59 923 years of follow-up. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer was 1437 per 100 000 person-years. Specific subtype rates for SCC, MM, and MCC were 812, 75, and 2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer included pretransplant skin cancer (HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.26-6.73), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.81), white race (HR, 9.04; 95% CI, 6.20-13.18), age at transplant 50 years or older (HR, 2

  1. Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Scammon, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public

  2. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: evidence-based analysis of incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Zenteno, José F; Ronquillo, Lizbeth Hernández; Wiebe, Samuel

    2005-06-01

    To provide an evidence-based analysis of the risk factors and incidence of SUDEP, and to assess methodological aspects and sources of variation in studies dealing with SUDEP. An expert in library resources and electronic databases comprehensively searched Medline, Index Medicus, and the Cochrane library. We included case-control or cohort studies focusing on SUDEP in children or adults, published in the English language. Two reviewers independently applied study eligibility criteria and extracted data, resolving disagreements through discussion. Of 404 citations identified, 83 potentially eligible articles were reviewed in full text and 36 studies fulfilled eligibility criteria (29 cohort and 8 case-control studies). In studies using non-SUDEP deaths as controls the most consistent risk factors were a seizure preceding death, and subtherapeutic antiepileptic drug levels. In studies that used persons living with epilepsy as controls the main risk factors for SUDEP were youth, high seizure frequency, high number of antiepileptic drugs and long duration of epilepsy. The annual incidence of SUDEP ranged from 0 to 10:1000. It was highest in studies of candidates for epilepsy surgery and epilepsy referral centers (2.2:1000-10:1000), intermediate in studies including patients with mental retardation (3.4:1000-3.6:1000), and lowest in children (0-0.2:1000). The incidence was similar in autopsy series (0.35:1000-2.5:1000) and in studies of epilepsy patients in the general population (0-1.35:1000). The median proportion of SUDEP in relation to overall mortality in epilepsy was 40 and 4% in high- and low-risk groups, respectively. Although studies on SUDEP are heterogeneous in methodology, consistent patterns in incidence and risk factors emerge. Low- and high-risk patient groups are identified, which determine the relative contribution of SUDEP to overall mortality in epilepsy. In addition to patient population, risk factors for SUDEP depend on the type of controls used for

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  4. Depressive symptoms and the risk of incident delirium in older hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    McAvay, Gail J; Van Ness, Peter H; Bogardus, Sidney T; Zhang, Ying; Leslie, Douglas L; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Inouye, Sharon K

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether specific subsets of symptoms from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), assessed at hospital admission, were associated with the incidence of delirium. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients from the Delirium Prevention Trial. General medicine service at Yale New Haven Hospital, March 25, 1995, through March 18, 1998. Four hundred sixteen patients aged 70 and older who were at intermediate or high risk for delirium and were not taking antidepressants at hospital admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed GDS, and daily assessments of delirium were obtained using the Confusion Assessment Method. Of the 416 patients in the analysis sample, 36 (8.6%) developed delirium within the first 5 days of hospitalization. Patients who developed delirium reported 5.7 depressive symptoms on average, whereas patients without delirium reported an average of 4.2 symptoms. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was found that depressive symptoms assessing dysphoric mood and hopelessness were predictive of incident delirium, controlling for measures of physical and mental health. In contrast, symptoms of withdrawal, apathy, and vigor were not significantly associated with delirium. These findings suggest that assessing symptoms of dysphoric mood and hopelessness could help identify patients at risk for incident delirium. Future studies should evaluate whether nonpharmacological treatment for these symptoms reduces the risk of delirium.

  5. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative sore throat after endotracheal intubation in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Sim, Woo Seog; Kim, Eun Sung; Lee, Sangmin M; Kim, Duk Kyung; Na, Yu Ri; Park, Dahye; Park, Hue Jung

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of postoperative sore throat (POST) in Korean patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation and to assess potential risk factors. Methods This prospective study enrolled patients who underwent all types of elective surgical procedures with endotracheal intubation and general anaesthesia. The patients were categorized into group S (those with a POST) or group N (those without a POST). The demographic, clinical and anaesthetic characteristics of each group were compared. Results This study enrolled 207 patients and the overall incidence of POST was 57.5% ( n = 119). Univariate analysis revealed that significantly more patients in group S had a cough at emergence and hoarseness in the postanaesthetic care unit compared with group N. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that an intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O was associated with POST. Multivariate analysis identified an intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O and cough at emergence as risk factors for POST. At emergence, as the intracuff pressure over ≥17 cmH2O increased, the incidence of hoarseness increased. Conclusions An intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O and a cough at emergence were risk factors for POST in Korean patients. Intracuff monitoring during anaesthesia and a smooth emergence are needed to prevent POST.

  6. Risk of tuberculosis during pregnancy in Mongolia, a high incidence setting with low HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rendell, N L; Batjargal, N; Jadambaa, N; Dobler, C C

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and the relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnant women in Mongolia, a high TB incidence setting with a low rate of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, where active case finding for TB in pregnancy is implemented. We retrospectively collected data on pregnant women diagnosed with TB during 2013. Data were collected through doctors at central TB dispensaries who extracted the relevant information from patients' clinical records. The overall incidence of TB among pregnant women was 228 (95%CI 187276) per 100000 person-years, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 1.31 (95%CI 1.081.59) in pregnant women compared to the general population. Twelve per cent of the pregnant women with TB chose to have an abortion. In this study, pregnant women had a 1.3-fold higher risk of developing TB than the general population. Based on a moderately increased risk of TB during pregnancy in our study and the potential for adverse health outcomes, TB screening among pregnant women can currently be justified, but the cost-effectiveness of this intervention remains unclear. Patients and doctors need to be educated about the safety of standard TB treatment in pregnancy to reduce the rate of abortions.

  7. Risk factors associated with the incidence of foal mortality in an extensively managed mare herd.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S D; Bristol, F; Card, C E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this period. Seventy four percent of the foal deaths occurred within 48 h of parturition. The major causes of foal mortality included starvation/exposure 27%, septicemia 26%, and dystocia 20%. Weekly incidences varied significantly, ranging from 67% for week 1 to 14% for week 5 (P < 0.01). Other risk factors that were associated with foal death included failure of passive transfer (P < 0.0001), poor mothering ability (P < 0.0001), the presence of dystocia (P < 0.0001), low birth weight (p < 0.05), lack of rainfall (P < 0.01), and low temperatures (P < 0.1). The effect of sire, mare age, mare body condition, and foal sex were not significant risk factors for foal survival (P > 0.1). Further studies are required to determine if changing management procedures will be effective in reducing the incidence of neonatal foal mortality in this extensively managed herd. PMID:8640655

  8. Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, I; Berr, C; Artero, S; Ancelin, M-L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated. Design Prospective seven year cohort study. Setting General population, Montpellier, France. Participants 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination. Results Cox models were constructed to derive hazard ratios and determine confounding and interaction effects for potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia. Mean percentage population attributable fractions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals derived from bootstrapping for seven year incidence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. The final model retained crystallised intelligence (population attributable fraction 18.11%, 95% confidence interval 10.91% to 25.42%), depression (10.31%, 3.66% to 17.17%), fruit and vegetable consumption (6.46%, 0.15% to 13.06%), diabetes (4.88%, 1.87% to 7.98%), and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (7.11%, 2.44% to 11.98%). Conclusions Increasing crystallised intelligence and fruit and vegetable consumption and eliminating depression and diabetes are likely to have the biggest impact on reducing the incidence of dementia, outweighing even the effect of removing the principal known genetic risk factor. Although causal relations cannot be concluded with certainty, the study suggests priorities that may inform public health programmes. PMID:20688841

  9. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chodick, Gabriel; Heymann, Anthony D; Rosenmann, Lena; Green, Manfred S; Flash, Shira; Porath, Avi; Kokia, Ehud; Shalev, Varda

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared with those without, who had no reported history of cancer at the start of the follow-up in January 2000. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (SD = 2.5), we documented 1,639 and 7,945 incident cases of cancer among 16,721 people with DM and 83,874 free of DM, respectively. In women, DM was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% CI: 1.53-2.50) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.20-1.66) for cancers of genital organs and digestive organs, respectively. A significantly reduced HR was observed for skin cancer (0.38; 95% CI: 0.22-0.66). In men with DM, there was no significant increase in overall risk of cancer. DM was related with a 47% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer. These findings suggest that the nature of the association between DM and cancer depends on sex and specific cancer site.

  11. Risk of medication safety incidents with antibiotic use measured by defined daily doses.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Anas; Cavell, Gillian; Wade, Paul; Hinton, James; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-10-01

    Medication incidents (MIs) account for 11.3 % of all reported patient-safety incidents in England and Wales. Approximately one-third of inpatients are prescribed an antibiotic at some point during their hospital stay. The WHO has identified incident reporting as one solution to reduce the recurrence of adverse incidents. The aim of this study was to determine the number and nature of reported antibiotic-associated MIs occurring in inpatients and to use defined daily doses (DDDs) to calculate the incident rate for the antibiotics most commonly associated with MIs at each hospital. Two UK acute NHS teaching hospitals. Retrospective quantitative analysis was performed on antibiotic-associated MIs reported to the risk management system over a 2-year period. Quality-assurance measures were undertaken before analysis. The study was approved by the clinical audit departments at both hospitals. Drug consumption data from each hospital were used to calculate the DDD for each antibiotic. The number of antibiotic-related MIs reported and the incident rate for the 10 antibiotics most commonly associated with MIs at each hospital. Healthcare staff submitted 6,756 reports, of which 885 (13.1 %) included antibiotics. This resulted in a total of 959 MIs. Most MIs occurred during prescribing (42.4 %, n = 407) and administration (40.0 %, n = 384) stages. Most common types of MIs were omission/delay (26.3 %, n = 252), and dose/frequency (17.9 %, n = 172). Penicillins (34.5 %, n = 331) and aminoglycosides (16.6 %, n = 159) were the most frequently reported groups with co-amoxiclav (16.8 %, n = 161) and gentamicin (14.1 %, n = 135) the most frequently reported drugs. Using DDDs to assess the incident rate showed that cefotaxime (105.4/10,000 DDDs), gentamicin (25.7/10,000 DDDs) and vancomycin (23.7/10,000 DDDs) had the highest rates. This study highlights that detailed analysis of data from reports is essential in understanding MIs and developing strategies to prevent their recurrence

  12. Prediction of risk and incidence of dry eye in critical patients1

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Diego Dias; Almeida, Natália Gherardi; Silva, Priscila Marinho Aleixo; Ribeiro, Nayara Souza; Werli-Alvarenga, Andreza; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to estimate the incidence of dry eye, to identify risk factors and to establish a risk prediction model for its development in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a public hospital. Method: concurrent cohort, conducted between March and June, 2014, with 230 patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Data were analyzed by bivariate descriptive statistics, with multivariate survival analysis and Cox regression. Results: 53% out of 230 patients have developed dry eye, with onset mean time of 3.5 days. Independent variables that significantly and concurrently impacted the time for dry eye to occur were: O2 in room air, blinking more than five times per minute (lower risk factors) and presence of vascular disease (higher risk factor). Conclusion: dry eye is a common finding in patients admitted to adults intensive care units, and care for its prevention should be established. PMID:27192415

  13. The risk of fracture in incident multiple sclerosis patients: the Danish National Health Registers.

    PubMed

    Bazelier, Marloes T; Bentzen, Joan; Vestergaard, Peter; Stenager, Egon; Leufkens, Hubert G M; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; de Vries, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of fractures owing to osteoporosis and falling. To evaluate the risk of fracture in incident MS patients drawn from a dedicated MS registry compared with population-based controls. We conducted a population-based cohort study (1996-2007) utilising the Danish National Health Registers that were linked to the Danish MS Registry and the Danish MS Treatment Registry. Incident MS patients (2963 cases) were 1:6 matched by year of birth, gender, calendar time and region to persons without MS (controls). Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression were used to estimate the risk of fracture in MS. Time-dependent adjustments were made for age, history of diseases and drug use. Compared with controls, patients with MS had no overall increased risk of fracture (adjusted hazard ratio (adj. HR): 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2). However, the risk of femur/hip fracture (adj. HR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4) was significantly increased compared to controls. As compared with unexposed patients, MS patients who had been exposed to a short course of methylprednisolone in the prior year had no significantly increased risk of osteoporotic fracture (adj. HR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.5-2.9). Disabled MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] scores between 6 and 10, had a 2.6-fold increased risk of osteoporotic fracture (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR): 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-6.6) compared to patients with an EDSS score between 0 and 3. Patients with MS had a higher risk of femur/hip fracture than controls. Disability status is probably more important than glucocorticoid use in the aetiology of MS and osteoporotic fracture.

  14. Risk factors for incident delirium in an acute general medical setting: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Emily Jane; Phillips, Nicole M; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2017-03-01

    To determine predisposing and precipitating risk factors for incident delirium in medical patients during an acute hospital admission. Incident delirium is the most common complication of hospital admission for older patients. Up to 30% of hospitalised medical patients experience incident delirium. Determining risk factors for delirium is important for identifying patients who are most susceptible to incident delirium. Retrospective case-control study with two controls per case. An audit tool was used to review medical records of patients admitted to acute medical units for data regarding potential risk factors for delirium. Data were collected between August 2013 and March 2014 at three hospital sites of a healthcare organisation in Melbourne, Australia. Cases were 161 patients admitted to an acute medical ward and diagnosed with incident delirium between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Controls were 321 patients sampled from the acute medical population admitted within the same time range, stratified for admission location and who did not develop incident delirium during hospitalisation. Identified using logistic regression modelling, predisposing risk factors for incident delirium were dementia, cognitive impairment, functional impairment, previous delirium and fracture on admission. Precipitating risk factors for incident delirium were use of an indwelling catheter, adding more than three medications during admission and having an abnormal sodium level during admission. Multiple risk factors for incident delirium exist; patients with a history of delirium, dementia and cognitive impairment are at greatest risk of developing delirium during hospitalisation. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should be aware of patients who have one or more risk factors for incident delirium. Knowledge of risk factors for delirium has the potential to increase the recognition and understanding of patients who are vulnerable to delirium. Early recognition and

  15. The gender specific frequency of risk factor and CHD diagnoses prior to incident MI: a community study.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Yawn, Roy A; Jacobsen, Steven J; Roger, Veronique

    2007-04-04

    CHD is a chronic disease often present years prior to incident AMI. Earlier recognition of CHD may be associated with higher levels of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors that may delay incident AMI. To assess timing of CHD and CHD risk factor diagnoses prior to incident AMI. This is a 10-year population based medical record review study that included all medical care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota for all women and a sample of men residing in Olmsted County, MN with confirmed incident AMI between 1995 and 2000. All medical care for the 10 years prior to incident AMI was reviewed for 150 women and 148 men (38% sample) in Olmsted County, MN. On average, women were older than men at the time of incident AMI (74.7 versus 65.9 years, p < 0.0001). 30.4% of the men and 52.0% of the women received diagnoses of CHD prior to incident AMI (p = 0.0002). Unrecognized and untreated CHD risk factors were present in both men (45% of men 5 years prior to AMI) and women (22% of women 5 years prior to first AMI), more common in men and those without a diagnosis of CHD prior to incident AMI (p < 0.0001). A CHD diagnosis prior to incident AMI is associated with higher rates of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors suggesting that diagnosing CHD prior to AMI enhances opportunities to lower the risk of future CHD events.

  16. Incidence, type of atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia; Dahlqvist, Erik; Andersson, Jonas; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Johansson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (AF), to assess the presence of provoking factors and risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism, and to determine the type of AF in patients with first-diagnosed AF. Patients and methods This cohort study was performed in northern Sweden between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. Diagnosis registries were searched for the International Classification of Diseases-10 code for AF (I48) to identify cases of incident AF. All AF diagnoses were electrocardiogram-verified. Data pertaining to provoking factors, type of AF and presence of risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score were obtained from medical records. Results The incidence of AF in the entire population was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence was 27.5 per 1,000 person-years in patients aged ≥80 years. A total of 21% of all patients had a provoking factor in association with the first-diagnosed episode of AF. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2 or higher in 81% of the patients. Permanent AF was the most common type of AF (29%). Conclusion There was a considerable increase in the incidence of AF with age, and a provoking factor was found in one-fifth. The most common type of AF was permanent AF. Four in five patients had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more. PMID:28182159

  17. Time Outdoors at Specific Ages During Early Childhood and the Risk of Incident Myopia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal L; Huang, Yu; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy

    2017-02-01

    Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range.

  18. Incidence and risk factors of phlebitis associated to peripheral intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Arias-Fernández, Loreto; Suérez-Mier, Belén; Martínez-Ortega, María Del Carmen; Lana, Alberto

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of phlebitis associated to the care of peripheral vascular catheters (PVC). Prospective cohort study at the Central University Hospital of Asturias (Spain). A total of 178PVC were observed daily until their extraction. The incidence of phlebitis was measured using the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Scale, that distinguishes between gradei (possible phlebitis) andii (phlebitis). The independent diagnoses of phlebitis made by staff nurses were also collected. Finally, data about the insertion and the care of the PVC was also obtained. The incidence of phlebitis and the validity of the diagnoses made by staff nurses were calculated and the risk factors of phlebitis were determined by means of logistic regression. 5.6% of the PVC presented phlebitis, 21.3% possible phlebitis and 11.2% had phlebitis according to nurses' criteria. The staff nurses had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 50% in the diagnosis of phlebitis. After adjusting for potential confounders, the use of an extension tube as an accessory of the PVC was an independent predictor of phlebitis (odds ratio: 4.8; P=.04), but a PVC size of 22/24 gauges was associated with lower phlebitis incidence (odds ratio: 0.2; P=.02). Clinical phlebitis assessment is difficult because the agreement for phlebitis diagnosis is low. To minimize the incidence of phlebitis would be recommended to choose the smallest PVC size possible and to avoid using an extension tube as an accessory of the PVC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence trend and risk factors for campylobacter infections in humans in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Marianne; Nygård, Karin; Meldal, Hege; Valle, Paul Steinar; Kruse, Hilde; Skjerve, Eystein

    2006-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to evaluate whether the increase in incidence of campylobacteriosis observed in humans in Norway from 1995 to 2001 was statistically significant and whether different biologically plausible risk factors were associated with the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the different counties in Norway. Methods To model the incidence of domestically acquired campylobacteriosis from 1995 to 2001, a population average random effect poisson model was applied (the trend model). To case data and assumed risk-factor/protective data such as sale of chicken, receiving treated drinking water, density of dogs and grazing animals, occupation of people in the municipalities and climatic factors from 2000 and 2001, an equivalent model accounting for geographical clustering was applied (the ecological model). Results The increase in incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans in Norway from 1995 to 2001 was statistically significant from 1998. Treated water was a protective factor against Campylobacter infections in humans with an IRR of 0.78 per percentage increase in people supplied. The two-level modelling technique showed no evidence of clustering of campylobacteriosis in any particular county. Aggregation of data on municipality level makes interpretation of the results at the individual level difficult. Conclusion The increase in incidence of Campylobacter infections in humans from 1995 to 2001 was statistically significant from 1998. Treated water was a protective factor against Campylobacter infections in humans with an IRR of 0.78 per percentage increase in people supplied. Campylobacter infections did not appear to be clustered in any particular county in Norway. PMID:16827925

  20. Incidence and risk factors associated with acute mountain sickness in children trekking on Jade Mountain, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Yin-Chou; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Weng, Yi-Ming; Li, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Jr; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Te-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high-altitude areas. The incidence of AMS on Jade Mountain, the highest peak in Taiwan (3952 m), has been reported to be ∼36%. There is a lack of data in children trekking at altitude in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and symptoms of AMS in children trekking on Jade Mountain, Taiwan. This prospective cohort study included a total of 96 healthy non-acclimatized children aged 11-12 years who trekked from an elevation of 2600-3952 m in 3 days. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms associated with AMS. AMS were reported in 59% of children trekking on Jade Mountain over a 3 day period. AMS incidence increased significantly with increasing altitude. The most common AMS symptom was headache, followed by fatigue or weakness, difficulty sleeping, dizziness or lightheadedness and gastrointestinal symptoms. Children who had experienced upper respiratory infection (URI) within the 7 days before their trek tended to have a greater risk for development of AMS. AMS incidence did not significantly differ according to gender, recent acute gastroenteritis, menstruation and body mass index. The incidence of AMS in children trekking on Jade Mountain is greater than that observed in adults, and was associated with altitude and recent URI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prospective risk analysis and incident reporting for better pharmaceutical care at paediatric hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaestli, Laure-Zoé; Cingria, Laurence; Fonzo-Christe, Caroline; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Discharging patients from hospital is a complex multidisciplinary process that can lead to non-compliance and medication-related problems. To evaluate risks of discontinuity of pharmaceutical care at paediatric hospital discharge and assess potential improvement strategies, using two complementary methods: a prospective risk analysis and a spontaneous incident reporting system. Geneva University hospitals and community pharmacies. A multidisciplinary team analysed the paediatric medication discharge process applying the failure modes (FM), effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA), using ibuprofen, morphine, valganciclovir as model drugs. Over 46 months, incidents with discharge prescriptions, reported by community pharmacists, were classified according to FMECA's FM. FM, criticality indexes (CI), incidents. Twenty-four FM were identified. The highest criticality scores were given for prescribing the wrong dosage [mean criticality index (CI = 205)], early treatment discontinuation by the patient (CI = 195), and continuation of contraindicated treatment by the general practitioner (CI = 191). Implementation of eight improvement strategies covering the eight most critical FM led to a 64 % reduction in criticality scores (CI 496 vs 1,392). Improvement of the computerized-physician-order-entry system was the single most effective strategy (CI 843 vs 1,392). Only 52 incidents were spontaneously reported (17 for paediatric patients). Paediatric problems most frequently reported (lack of information, 35 %; delay in drug supply, 18 %) were consistent with the highest frequencies scored by FMECA. Spontaneous incident reporting leads to high levels of under-reporting, but highlighted similar problems at paediatric hospital discharge to FMECA. Using FMECA allowed estimations of criticalities at each step and the potential impact of safety improvement strategies. Proactive and reactive methods proved complementary and would help to set up effective targeted improvement

  2. Airflow Obstruction, Lung Function, and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alonso, Alvaro; Blecker, Saul; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; London, Stephanie J.; Loehr, Laura R.; McNeill, Ann Marie; Poole, Charles; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is reportedly associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Extant reports do not provide separate estimates for never smokers, and for African Americans, who incongruously have lower AF incidence than Caucasians. Methods and Results We examined 15,004 middle-aged African Americans and Caucasians enrolled in ARIC cohort study. Standardized spirometry were collected at the baseline examination. Incident AF was identified from the first among the following: ICD codes for AF on hospital discharge records or death certificates or 12-lead ECGs performed during three triennial follow-up visits. Over an average follow-up of 17.5 years, a total of 1,691 (11%) participants developed new onset AF. The rate of incident AF was inversely associated with FEV1 in each of the four race and gender- groups. After multivariable adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and height, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of AF comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of FEV1 were 1.37 (1.02,1.83) for white women, 1.49 (1.16,1.91) for white men, 1.63 (1.00,2.66) for black women, and 2.36 (1.30,4.29) for black men. The above associations were observed across all smoking status categories. Moderate/severe airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC<0.70 and FEV1< 80% of predicted value) was also associated with higher AF incidence. Conclusions In this large population-based study with a long term follow-up, reduced FEV1 and obstructive respiratory disease were inversely - associated with a higher AF incidence after adjusting for measured confounders. PMID:24344084

  3. Time Outdoors at Specific Ages During Early Childhood and the Risk of Incident Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal L.; Huang, Yu; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Williams, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. Results From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78–0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Conclusions Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range. PMID:28245296

  4. Acute hepatitis A in Italy: incidence, risk factors and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Tosti, M E; Spada, E; Romanò, L; Zanetti, A; Mele, A

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of, and risk factors for, acute hepatitis A (AHA) were assessed by using data collected from the Italian surveillance system of acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA). To this end, a case-control study within a population-based surveillance for acute viral hepatitis was performed. AHA incidence has been estimated since 1991; the association with considered risk factors was analysed from 2001 to 2006 employing cases of acute hepatitis B (AHB) as controls. The incidence of AHA declined from 4 / 100 000 in 1991 to 1.4/100 000 in 2006, with a peak during 1996-1998 due to an outbreak in southern Italy. The incidence of AHA was highest among persons aged 15-24 years. The case-fatality rate was 2.9 / 10 000. Contact with individuals with AHA [adjusted OR (OR(adj)) = 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.5; population-attributable risk (PAR) = 7.5%], travelling to endemic areas (OR(adj) = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6-3.8; PAR = 19.5%), ingestion of raw shellfish (OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6-2.1; PAR = 26.6%), and cohabitation with day care children (OR(adj) = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.01-1.7; PAR = 2.3%) were the main important risk factors. In 2003, an outbreak, with high case-fatality rate occurred among intravenous drug users, in a central Italian town. A weak association was found for male homosexuality when acute hepatitis C cases were employed as controls (OR(adj) = 1.4 CI, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Hepatitis A virus infections are currently occurring more frequently in adults, in whom the disease is most severe. In conclusion, looking at the attributable risks, at present most of the AHA infections are due to shellfish consumption, travel to endemic areas and contact with patients with AHA. Vaccination of individuals at increased risk of infection, as well as persons with underling liver disease and those at increased risk of complications, combined with surveillance of shellfish retail outlets are efficient control measures.

  5. Incident diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in exercising hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-11-15

    Exercise may be an important treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients, particularly in statin users who are at increased diabetes risk. We therefore used Cox proportional hazard analyses to compare running and walking dose (metabolic equivalent hours/day [MET-h/d]) to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypercholesterolemic patients. There were 60 diabetic- and 373 CVD-related deaths during a 10.1-year mortality surveillance of 6,688 hypercholesterolemic patients. In addition, there were 177 incident nonfatal diabetes, 815 incident nonfatal hypertensions, and 323 incident nonfatal CVD events during a 6.4-year follow-up of 6,971 hypercholesterolemic patients who supplied follow-up questionnaires. Fatal and nonfatal diabetes risk decreased 26% (p = 0.002) and 19% (p ≤0.0001) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 35% (p = 0.19) and 55% (p ≤0.0001), respectively, for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d and 73% (p = 0.02) and 71% (p ≤0.0001), respectively, for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. Fatal and nonfatal CVD risk decreased 8% (p = 0.008) and 3% (p = 0.22) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 10% (p = 0.45) and 36% (p = 0.008) for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d, respectively, and 37% (p = 0.009) and 26% (p = 0.10), respectively, for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. Incident hypertension risk decreased 4% (p = 0.01) per MET-h/d, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 29% (p = 0.002) for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d and 31% (p = 0.001) for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. In conclusion, running and walking for exercise lowers diabetes, hypertension, and CVD risk in hypercholesterolemic patients and should more than compensate for the purported 9% increase in diabetes risk from statin use. By preventing morbidity and mortality for a specific existing medical condition, some exercise expenses may qualify for flexible spending account expenditures in hypercholesterolemic patients when prescribed by a physician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Incidence and Risk of Proteinuria with Aflibercept in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xianghua; Zhou, Yun; Hu, Danna; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Background Aflibercept is a human recombinant fusion protein with antiangiogenic effects that functions as a decoy receptor to bind vascular endothelial growth factor A. Proteinuria is one of its major adverse effects with a substantial variation in the incidence rate, and the overall risk of proteinuria has not been systematically studied. We performed a meta-analysis of published clinical trials to quantify the incidence and relative risk of proteinuria in cancer patients treated with aflibercept. Methods The electronic databases were searched, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, and ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) abstracts. Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with aflibercept with toxicity data on proteinuria. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed or random effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results A total of 4,596 patients with a variety of solid tumors from 16 prospective clinical trials were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidences of all-grade and high-grade proteinuria in cancer patients were 33.9% (95% CI: 27.3–42.1%) and 7.9% (95% CI: 6.1–10.2%). The relative risks of proteinuria of aflibercept compared to control were increased for all-grade (RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.13–1.77) and high-grade (RR = 6.18, 95% CI: 3.78–10.12) proteinuria. The risk of developing all-grade and high-grade proteinuria with aflibercept was substantially higher than that of bevacizumab (all-grade: RR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.63–2.11; high-grade: RR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.84–3.05). Conclusions Aflibercept is associated with an increased risk of developing proteinuria. Appropriate monitoring and treatment is strongly recommended to prevent potential renal damage. Future studies are still needed to investigate the risk reduction and possible use of aflibercept in cancer patients. PMID

  7. Daily walking and the risk of incident functional limitation in knee OA: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhang, Yuqing; Fielding, Roger; LaValley, Michael; Felson, David T.; Gross, K. Douglas; Nevitt, Michael C.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended to mitigate functional limitations associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is unclear whether walking on its own protects against the development of functional limitation. Methods Walking over 7 days was objectively measured as steps/day within a cohort of people with or at risk of knee OA from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Incident functional limitation over two years was defined by performance-based (gait speed ≤ 1.0 m/s) and self-report (WOMAC physical function ≥ 28/68) measures. We evaluated the association of steps/day at baseline with developing functional limitation two years later by calculating risk ratios adjusted for potential confounders. The number of steps/day that best distinguished risk for developing functional limitation was estimated from the maximum distance from chance on Receiver Operator Characteristic curves. Results Among 1788 participants (mean age 67, mean BMI 31 kg/m2, female 60%), each additional 1000 steps/day was associated with a 16% and 18% reduction in incident functional limitation by performance-based and self-report measures, respectively. Walking < 6000 and < 5900 steps/day were the best thresholds to distinguish incident functional limitation by performance-based (67.3%/71.8% [sensitivity/specificity]) and self-report (58.7%/68.9%) measures, respectively. Conclusions More walking was associated with less risk of functional limitation over two years. Walking ≥ 6000 steps/day provides a preliminary estimate of the level of walking activity to protect against developing functional limitation in people with or at risk of knee OA. PMID:24923633

  8. Blunt cerebrovascular injuries in severe traumatic brain injury: incidence, risk factors, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Pierre; Cardinale, Mickaël; Boret, Henry; D'Aranda, Erwan; Montcriol, Ambroise; Bordes, Julien; Prunet, Bertrand; Joubert, Christophe; Dagain, Arnaud; Goutorbe, Philippe; Kaiser, Eric; Meaudre, Eric

    2016-07-29

    OBJECTIVE Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) affect approximately 1% of patients with blunt trauma. An antithrombotic or anticoagulation therapy is recommended to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of neurovascular events. This treatment has to be carefully considered after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage expansion. Thus, the physician in charge of the patient is confronted with a hemorrhagic and ischemic risk. The main objective of this study was to determine the incidence of BCVI after severe TBI. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study including all patients with severe TBI admitted in the trauma center. Diagnosis of BCVI was performed using a 64-channel multidetector CT. Characteristics of the patients, CT scan results, and outcomes were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine the risk factors of BCVI. Patients in whom BCVI was diagnosed were treated with systemic anticoagulation. RESULTS In total, 228 patients with severe TBI who were treated over a period of 7 years were included. The incidence of BCVI was 9.2%. The main risk factors were as follows: motorcycle crash (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.9-34.8), fracture involving the carotid canal (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.7-80.9), cervical spine injury (OR 13.5, 95% CI 3.1-59.4), thoracic trauma (OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.1-51.2), and hepatic lesion (OR 13.3, 95% CI 2.1-84.5). Among survivors, 82% of patients with BCVI received systemic anticoagulation therapy, beginning at a median of Day 1.5. The overall stroke rate was 19%. One patient had an intracranial hemorrhagic complication. CONCLUSIONS Blunt cerebrovascular injuries are frequent after severe TBI (incidence 9.2%). The main risk factors are high-velocity lesions and injuries near cervical arteries.

  9. Diet-dependent net acid load and risk of incident hypertension in United States women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luxia; Curhan, Gary C; Forman, John P

    2009-10-01

    Animal and human studies suggest a potential link between acid-base status and blood pressure. Contemporary Western diets yield a daily systemic acid load of varying amounts, yet the association with hypertension has never been explored. We prospectively examined the association between the diet-dependent net acid load (also known as the estimated net endogenous acid production) and the risk of incident hypertension among 87 293 women without a history of hypertension in the Nurses' Health Study II. We also used the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake as an alternative evaluation of diet-dependent net acid load. We identified 15 385 incident cases of hypertension during 995 239 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load had an increased risk of hypertension (relative risk: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.24; P for trend=0.01) compared with women in the bottom decile. To test whether the association between estimated diet-dependent net acid load and hypertension is independent of its individual components, an additional adjustment for intakes of protein and potassium was made and resulted in a relative risk of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.41; P for trend=0.003) for the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load. Results of the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake were similar with those of estimated diet-depend net acid load. In conclusion, a high diet-dependent net acid load is independently associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension.

  10. Pigmentation Traits, Sun Exposure, and Risk of Incident Vitiligo in Women.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Rachel; Wu, Shaowei; Wilmer, Erin; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Lajevardi, Newsha; Qureshi, Abrar

    2017-06-01

    Vitiligo is the most common cutaneous depigmentation disorder worldwide, yet little is known about specific risk factors for disease development. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 51,337 white women, we examined the associations between (i) pigmentary traits and (ii) reactions to sun exposure and risk of incident vitiligo. Nurses' Health Study participants responded to a question about clinician-diagnosed vitiligo and year of diagnosis (2001 or before, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2011, or 2012+). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident vitiligo associated with exposures variables, adjusting for potential confounders. We documented 271 cases of incident vitiligo over 835,594 person-years. Vitiligo risk was higher in women who had at least one mole larger than 3 mm in diameter on their left arms (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.83). Additionally, vitiligo risk was higher among women with better tanning ability (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.54) and in women who experienced at least one blistering sunburn (hazard ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-4.10). In this study, upper extremity moles, a higher ability to achieve a tan, and history of a blistering sunburn were associated with a higher risk of developing vitiligo in a population of white women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Miscount incidents: a novel approach to exploring risk factors for unintentionally retained surgical items.

    PubMed

    Judson, Timothy J; Howell, Michael D; Guglielmi, Charlotte; Canacari, Elena; Sands, Kenneth

    2013-10-01

    An estimated 1,500 operations result in retained surgical items (RSIs) each year in the United States, resulting in substantial morbidity. The rarity of these events makes studying them difficult, but miscount incidents may provide a window into understanding risk factors for RSIs. A cohort study of all consecutive operative cases during a 12-month period was conducted at a large academic medical center to identify risk factors for surgical miscounts. A multidisciplinary electronic miscount reconciliation checklist (necessitating both surgeon and nurse input) was introduced into the internally developed electronic Perioperative Information Management System to build a predictive model for RSI cases. Among 23,955 operations, 84 resulted in miscount incidents (0.35% [95% confidence interval: 0.28% to 0.43%]). Increased case duration was strongly associated with increased risk of a miscount in unadjusted analyses (p < .0001). In the nested case-control analysis, both the case duration and the number of providers present were independently associated with a more than doubling of the odds of a miscount, even after adjustment for one another, the elective/urgent/emergent status of a case, and personnel changes occurring during the case. The finding that both the length of the case and the number of providers involved in the case were independent risk factors for miscount incidents may offer insight into risk-targeted strategies to prevent RSIs, such as postoperative imaging, bar-coded surgical items, and radiofrequency technology. Miscounts trigger use of the Incorrect Count Safety Checklist, which can be used to determine whether a count completed at the procedure's conclusion is consistent across disciplines (circulating nurses, scrub persons, surgeons).

  12. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; van den Hoek, Anneke; Kint, Joan A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Sonder, Gerard Jb

    2011-10-29

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among immunocompetent travellers. Persons who attended the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam in 2006-2007 before short-term travel to tropical and subtropical countries were invited to answer a questionnaire regarding sociodemographics and travel purpose; they were also asked to keep a daily structured travel diary, recording their itinerary, symptoms, and self-medication or consultation with a doctor. Diarrhoea episodes containing blood or mucous were considered severe. Of 1202 travellers, the median age was 38 years, and the median travel duration 3 weeks. Of all episodes, 96% were mild. The median duration of TD was 2 days and significantly shorter in subsequent episodes compared to first episodes (p < 0.0005). Of first episodes 38% started in the first travel week. The incidence rate (IR) for first episodes was 2.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.30-2.70) per 100 travel days, with the highest IR among travellers to South-Central and West Asia. The IR for first and subsequent episodes was comparable. Risk factors for first episodes included female sex, a Western country of birth, and tourism as the purpose of travel. The lowest risk was in travellers to South America. An independent risk factor for subsequent episodes was female sex. In total, 5% of travellers used antibiotics; of those, 92% had mild diarrhoea, and 53% received antibiotics over the counter. TD is common among travellers, but the overall course is mild, not requiring treatment. The incidence rates for first and second episodes are comparable. Female sex is a risk factor for the first episode, as well as subsequent ones. Prescription antibiotics are not needed in short-term healthy travellers.

  13. Stroke in young adults: Incidence rate, risk factors, treatment and prognosis.

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, F J; Pérez-Torre, P; DeFelipe, A; Vera, R; Matute, C; Cruz-Culebras, A; Álvarez-Velasco, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-10-01

    To analyse the incidence, risk factors, aetiology, treatment and clinical evolution of young patients with stroke. Retrospective registry of patients aged 55 years or younger hospitalised in a stroke unit during 2014. We recorded the incidence rate for all strokes and analysed demographic data, risk factors, degree of stress, stroke type and aetiology, reperfusion treatments and clinical evolution. The study included 110 patients, the majority of whom were men (60.9%, 1.6:1 ratio). The incidence rate was 13.3% (110 of 830 strokes). Most of the patients had cardiovascular risk factors. Smoking was the most common risk factor (56.4%), followed by arterial hypertension (50%), dyslipidaemia (42.7%), obesity (33%), diabetes (18.2%) and emboligenic heart disease (12.7%). Some 64.3% of the heart disease cases and 51.1% of the dyslipidaemia cases were discovered during hospitalisation. Some 57.2% of the patients experienced psychosocial stress in the stage prior to the stroke. Some 83.6% of the stroke cases were ischaemic, 12.7% were haemorrhagic and 3.6% were venous sinus thrombosis. Of the ischaemic stroke cases, 30.4% were cryptogenic, 23.9% were lacunar, 16.3% were from uncommon causes, 15.2% were atherothrombotic and 14.1% were cardioembolic. Some 78.6% of the cerebral haemorrhage cases were hypertensive. Some 23.3% of the ischaemic stroke cases underwent reperfusion treatments in the acute phase, achieving levels of functional independence at 3 months of 62.5%. The majority of stroke events in patients 55 years of age or younger appear to be related to a high prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors and possibly to psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing low risk prostate cancer incidence in United States Air Force servicemen and selection of treatments.

    PubMed

    del Junco, Deborah J; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Koda, Erik; Rogers, David; Canby-Hagino, Edith; Kim, Jeri; Pettaway, Curtis; Boyd, Douglas D

    2011-06-01

    Periodic Health Assessments have been mandated for United States Air Force servicemen since the mid 1990s. Thus, we determined whether United States Air Force prostate cancer incidence rates increased thereafter and how these tumors segregate into low and intermediate/high risk categories. We also identified treatment choices. We queried the Department of Defense Automated Central Tumor Registry for prostate cancer diagnosed in United States Air Force servicemen between 1991 and 2008 to determine incidence rates, disease risk category and treatments. Age adjusted rates in white active duty servicemen diagnosed for the most recent period of 2005 to 2008 increased 3-fold relative to the rate in the earliest period of 1991 to 1994. A similar trend was evident in black servicemen. Relative to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population prostate cancer rates in active duty United States Air Force men between 1995 and 2008 were significantly increased for the 2 racial groups. A significantly greater proportion of active duty servicemen than retirees (62% vs 40%) presented with low risk disease, defined as prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml, Gleason sum less than 7 and clinical stage T1a-T2a. Of those with low risk disease significantly more active duty servicemen elected curative surgery than retirees (93% vs 53%). Prostate cancer incidence rates in United States Air Force servicemen have increased with time, exceeding rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population. While most cases are characterized as low risk, aggressive management is elected. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily walking and the risk of incident functional limitation in knee osteoarthritis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel K; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhang, Yuqing; Fielding, Roger; LaValley, Michael; Felson, David T; Gross, K Douglas; Nevitt, Michael C; Lewis, Cora E; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is recommended to mitigate functional limitations associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is unclear whether walking on its own protects against the development of functional limitation. Walking over 7 days was objectively measured as steps/day within a cohort of people with or at risk of knee OA from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Incident functional limitation over 2 years was defined by performance-based (gait speed <1.0 meter/second) and self-report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function score >28 of 68) measures. We evaluated the association of steps/day at baseline with developing functional limitation 2 years later by calculating risk ratios adjusted for potential confounders. The number of steps/day that best distinguished risk for developing functional limitation was estimated from the maximum distance from chance on receiver operating characteristic curves. Among 1,788 participants (mean age 67 years, mean body mass index 31 kg/m(2) , 60% women), each additional 1,000 steps/day was associated with a 16% and 18% reduction in incident functional limitation by performance-based and self-report measures, respectively. Walking <6,000 and <5,900 steps/day were the best thresholds to distinguish incident functional limitation by performance-based (sensitivity 67.3%, specificity 71.8%) and self-report (sensitivity 58.7%, specificity 68.9%) measures, respectively. More walking was associated with less risk of functional limitation over 2 years. Walking >6,000 steps/day provides a preliminary estimate of the level of walking activity to protect against developing functional limitation in people with or at risk of knee OA. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  17. Zoonotic Risk, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-08-16

    Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV-H3N8, are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have demonstrated seroconversion to diverse IAVs and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antisera we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2×pdmH1N1 reassortants by characterizing in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1 identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics, and fixing the CIV-H3N2 HA, we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high in vitro growth phenotypes and 13 of these replicated in mice lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant efficiently transmitted by contact but not airborne routes and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs.Importance IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained human transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. The dog, as a potential "mixing vessel" for avian and mammalian IAVs, represents a human health concern due to their susceptibility to

  18. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  19. Incidence, risk factors and risk prediction of hospital-acquired suspected adverse drug reactions: a prospective cohort of Ugandan inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kiguba, Ronald; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence and risk factors of hospital-acquired suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among Ugandan inpatients. We also constructed risk scores to predict and qualitatively assess for peculiarities between low-risk and high-risk ADR patients. Methods Prospective cohort of consented adults admitted on medical and gynaecological wards of the 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Hospital-acquired suspected ADRs were dichotomised as possible (possible/probable/definite) or not and probable (probable/definite) or not, using the Naranjo scale. Risk scores were generated from coefficients of ADR risk-factor logistic regression models. Results The incidence of possible hospital-acquired suspected ADRs was 25% (194/762, 95% CI: 22% to 29%): 44% (85/194) experienced serious possible ADRs. The risk of probable ADRs was 11% (87/762, 95% CI 9% to 14%): 46% (40/87) had serious probable ADRs. Antibacterials-only (51/194), uterotonics-only (21/194), cardiovascular drugs-only (16/194), antimalarials-only (12/194) and analgesics-only (10/194) were the most frequently implicated. Treatment with six or more conventional medicines during hospitalisation (OR=2.31, 95% CI 1.29 to 4.15) and self-reported herbal medicine use during the 4 weeks preadmission (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.13) were the risk factors for probable hospital-acquired ADRs. Risk factors for possible hospital-acquired ADRs were: treatment with six or more conventional medicines (OR=2.72, 95% CI 1.79 to 4.13), herbal medicine use during the 4 weeks preadmission (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.43), prior 3 months hospitalisation (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26) and being on gynaecological ward (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.44). More drug classes were implicated among high-risk ADR-patients, with cardiovascular drugs being the most frequently linked to possible ADRs. Conclusions The risk of hospital-acquired suspected ADRs was higher with preadmission herbal medicine use and treatment with

  20. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  2. [Analysis on essential hypertension risk factors of the high incidence in traffic officers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoying; Chen, Zhuyun; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Quan

    2008-11-01

    To study on essential hypertension risk factors of the high incidence in traffic officers. In order to provide evidence for prevention and control of hypertension. 139 out of all male marshals who had been serving more than 3 years in a certain railway were studied as occupational crowds of high prevalence rate in essential hypertension (Prevalence rate was 41.7%); 306 male train crew who had similar conditions in seniority and age with the marshals from two sections of this railway were studied by cluster random sampling as occupational crowds of low prevalence rate (Prevalence rate was 21.9%). They were surveyed the common risk factors for hypertension, occupational factors, occupational stress and type A behavior by the health questionnaire designed uniformly. Their lipids and blood glucose were detected. The cause for hypertension were compared in the differences and characteristics. (1) The risk factors and exposure of essential hypertension in the high incidence in the marshals were more higher than those in the low incidence in crew, and the exposure rate of the risk factors grew faster in the marshals than in the crew with working age. (2) By the same exposure rate of the risk factors in the marshal were more higher risk than those of the crew. (3) The risk factors and the danger lever were different in these two groups. The occupational stress, BMI, drinking habits and working age were the main risky factors, their ROR followed by 3.65, 3.33, 2.56 and 2.64, in the marshals. Hyperlipemia, elevated triglyceride, elevated cholesterol, ages and family history of hypertension were the main risk factors, their RR followed by 4.59, 3.38, 3.33, 2.96 and 2.25, in the crew. The essential hypertension among people worked on the train mainly result from the change and increase of professional social psychic factors and behavial factors as well as the increased sensitivity and responsibility of blood vessel formed in a long-time high exposure to the risk factors.

  3. Contribution of Behavioral Risk Factors and Obesity to Socioeconomic Differences in Colorectal Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health behaviors are known risk factors for colorectal cancer and are more common in low socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We evaluated the extent to which behavioral risk factors and body mass index (BMI) explain SES disparities in colorectal cancer incidence, overall and by tumor location. Methods We analyzed prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study data on 506 488 participants who were recruited in 1995–1996 from six US states and two metropolitan areas and followed through 2006. Detailed baseline data on risk factors for colorectal cancer, including health behaviors, were obtained using questionnaires. SES was measured by self-reported education and census-tract data. The outcome was primary incident invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between SES and risk of incident colorectal cancer, with adjustment for age, sex, race and ethnicity, family history, and state of residence. The model estimates were used to derive percentage mediation by behavioral risk factors; bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals were obtained through bootstrap techniques. Results Seven-thousand six-hundred seventy-six participants developed colorectal cancer during follow-up. SES differences in prevalence of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking, and unhealthy weight each explained between 11.3% (BMI) and 21.6% (diet) of the association between education and risk of colorectal cancer and between 8.6% (smoking) and 15.3% (diet) of the association between neighborhood SES and risk of colorectal cancer. Health behaviors and BMI combined explained approximately 43.9% (95% CI = 35.1% to 57.9%) of the association of education and 36.2% (95% CI = 28.0% to 51.2%) of the association of neighborhood SES with risk of colorectal cancer. The percentage explained by all factors and BMI combined was largest for right colon cancers and smallest for rectal cancers. Conclusion A substantial

  4. Psychological stress and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in men and women with known atrial fibrillation genetic risk scores.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle

    2017-02-14

    Psychological stress has been reported as a possible trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). No studies have investigated whether any association between stress and AF could be modified by genetic susceptibility to AF (AF-genetic risk score (AF-GRS)). 8765 men and 13,543 women from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based cohort, were included in the analyses. A variable representing stress was constructed from questions measuring job strain, and from one question assessing non-occupational stress. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for known covariates of AF. Mean follow-up times and number of recorded incident AF were 14.2 years and 1116 events for men, and 15.1 years and 932 events for women. Among women, high stress was associated with AF in the age adjusted model (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.47) but not following multivariable adjustment (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.95-1.39). Stress was not associated with incident AF in men. AF-GRS was significantly associated with incident AF for both genders. Stress did not interact significantly with genetic susceptibility to AF in men or women. Chronic stress is not associated with long-term incident hospital diagnosed AF. This association does not appear to be modified by genetic susceptibility to AF.

  5. Psychological stress and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in men and women with known atrial fibrillation genetic risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Psychological stress has been reported as a possible trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). No studies have investigated whether any association between stress and AF could be modified by genetic susceptibility to AF (AF-genetic risk score (AF-GRS)). 8765 men and 13,543 women from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based cohort, were included in the analyses. A variable representing stress was constructed from questions measuring job strain, and from one question assessing non-occupational stress. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for known covariates of AF. Mean follow-up times and number of recorded incident AF were 14.2 years and 1116 events for men, and 15.1 years and 932 events for women. Among women, high stress was associated with AF in the age adjusted model (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.47) but not following multivariable adjustment (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.95–1.39). Stress was not associated with incident AF in men. AF-GRS was significantly associated with incident AF for both genders. Stress did not interact significantly with genetic susceptibility to AF in men or women. Chronic stress is not associated with long-term incident hospital diagnosed AF. This association does not appear to be modified by genetic susceptibility to AF. PMID:28195211

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the risk of incident hypertension associated with a parental history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Robin P; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Prasad, Vivek; Hooker, Steven P; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-06-01

    Family history of hypertension increases the risk of an individual to develop hypertension, whereas moderate-to-high cardiorespiratory fitness has the opposite effect. However, the joint association of each on the development of hypertension is not well understood. We studied fitness and incident hypertension in 6278 participants who were given a preventative medical examination. Thirty-three percent reported a parent with hypertension, and there were 1545 cases of incident hypertension after a mean of 4.7 years. The presence of parental hypertension was associated with a 28% higher risk of developing hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, and examination year. After further adjustments for smoking, alcohol intake, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical inactivity, and fitness, there was a 20% higher risk associated with parental hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, and examination year, both moderate and high levels of fitness were associated with lower risk for developing hypertension by 26% and 42%, respectively. In the joint analysis, individuals with both a low level of fitness and a parent with hypertension exhibited a 70% higher risk for developing hypertension compared with high fit individuals with no parental history (P = 0.004). However, individuals with a high level of fitness and a parent with hypertension only experienced a 16% higher risk of developing hypertension compared with fit individuals with no parental history (P = 0.03). The significantly lower risk of developing hypertension when progressing from low- to high-fit groups among those with a parental history of hypertension has important clinical implications.

  7. Impact of incident myocardial infarction on the risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Rinde, L B; Lind, C; Småbrekke, B; Njølstad, I; Mathiesen, E B; Wilsgaard, T; Løchen, M-L; Hald, E M; Vik, A; Braekkan, S K; Hansen, J-B

    2016-06-01

    Essentials Registry-based studies indicate a link between arterial- and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We studied this association in a cohort with confounder information and validated outcomes. Myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with a 4.8-fold increased short-term risk of VTE. MI was associated with a transient increased risk of VTE, and pulmonary embolism in particular. Background Recent studies have demonstrated an association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thrombotic diseases. Objectives To study the association between incident myocardial infarction (MI) and VTE in a prospective population-based cohort. Methods Study participants (n = 29 506) were recruited from three surveys of the Tromsø Study (conducted in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2007-2008) and followed up to 2010. All incident MI and VTE events during follow-up were recorded. Cox regression models with age as the time scale and MI as a time-dependent variable were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of VTE adjusted for sex, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, HDL cholesterol, smoking, physical activity, and education level. Results During a median follow-up of 15.7 years, 1853 participants experienced an MI and 699 experienced a VTE. MI was associated with a 51% increased risk of VTE (HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.10) and a 72% increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) (HR 1.72; 95% CI 1.07-2.75), but not significantly associated with the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (HR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15). The highest risk estimates for PE were observed during the first 6 months after the MI (HR 8.49; 95% CI 4.00-18.77). MI explained 6.2% of the PEs in the population (population attributable risk) and 78.5% of the PE risk in MI patients (attributable risk). Conclusions Our findings indicate that MI is associated with a transient increased VTE risk, independently of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors. The risk estimates were

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Meniscal Injuries Among Active-Duty US Military Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Burks, Robert; Owens, Brett D.; Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Cameron, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Few population-based studies have examined the incidence of meniscal injuries, and limited information is available on the influence of patient's demographic and occupational factors. Objective: To examine the incidence of meniscal injuries and the influence of demographic and occupational factors among active-duty US service members between 1998 and 2006. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Using the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) codes 836.0 (medial meniscus), 836.1 (lateral meniscus), and 836.2 (meniscus unspecified), we extracted injury data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all acute meniscal injuries among active-duty military personnel. Patients or Other Participants: Active-duty military personnel serving in all branches of military service during the study period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Incidence rate (IR) per 1000 person-years at risk and crude and adjusted rates by strata for age, sex, race, rank, and service. Results: During the study period, 100201 acute meniscal injuries and 12115606 person-years at risk for injury were documented. The overall IR was 8.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.22, 8.32) per 1000 person-years. Main effects were noted for all demographic and occupational variables (P< .001), indicating that age, sex, race, rank, and service were associated with the incidence of meniscal injuries. Men were almost 20% more likely to experience an acute meniscal injury than were women (incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.20). The rate of meniscal injury increased with age; those older than 40 years of age experienced injuries more than 4 times as often as those under 20 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 4.25,95% CI = 4.08, 4.42). Conclusions: The incidence of meniscal injury was sub-stantially higher in this study than in previously reported studies. Male sex, increasing age, and service in the Army or Marine Corps were factors associated with meniscal injuries. PMID:22488232

  9. Incidence and risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook; Lim, Hyun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Hui Gyeong; Bang, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 300 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We assessed the presence of rectal pain and categorized patients into Group N (no rectal pain) or Group P (rectal pain). Results In total, 288 patients were included. Of these patients, 39 (13.5%) reported rectal pain and 14 (4.9%) had rectal pain that persisted for >3 months. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in Group P had more preoperative chemoradiotherapy, more ileostomies, longer operation times, more anastomotic margins of <2 cm from the anal verge, more anastomotic leakage, and longer hospital stays. Multivariate analysis identified an anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time as risk factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Conclusions In this study, the incidence of rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery was 13.5%. An anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time were risk factors for rectal pain. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Thus, the possibility of postoperative rectal pain should be discussed preoperatively with patients with these risk factors. PMID:28415928

  10. Pneumonia in patients with severe head injury: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Han-Jung; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Huang, Chun-Kai; Tang, Pi-Lien; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liang, Cheng-Loong

    2013-02-01

    The reported incidence of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia in critically ill trauma patients varies from as low as 4% to as high as 87%, with fatality rates varying from 6% to 59%. Clinical studies have identified the risk factors for pneumonia. The authors undertook this retrospective study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia in a group of patients with severe head injuries. This was a retrospective review of consecutive adult patients admitted to the neurosurgical ICU in the authors' hospital because of severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤ 8) between January 2008 and December 2010. During the study period, 290 patients were admitted to the neurosurgical ICU. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.001-1.02), nasogastric tube insertion (HR 4.56, 95% CI 1.11-18.64), and hemiplegia or hemiparesis (HR 3.79, 95% CI 2.01-7.17) were significantly associated with the development of pneumonia. The authors identified 3 risk factors (age, nasogastric tube insertion, and hemiplegia or hemiparesis) associated with the development of pneumonia in patients with severe head injury. This finding constituted the basis for developing a simple screening tool that can be used to assess the risk of occurrence of pneumonia in such patients.

  11. Cumulative incidence and risk factors for limber tail in the Dogslife labrador retriever cohort

    PubMed Central

    de C. Bronsvoort, B. M.; Handel, I. G.; Rose, E.; Summers, K.; Clements, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Limber tail is a condition that typically affects larger working breeds causing tail limpness and pain, resolving without veterinary intervention. It is poorly understood and the disease burden has not been well characterised. Data collected from owners of the Dogslife cohort of Labrador Retrievers have been used to describe incidents and a case–control study was undertaken to elucidate risk factors with 38 cases and 86 controls. The cumulative incidence of unexplained tail limpness was 9.7 per cent. Swimming is not a necessary precursor for limber tail, but it is a risk factor (OR=4.7) and working dogs were more susceptible than non-working dogs (OR=5.1). Higher latitudes were shown to be a risk factor for developing the condition and the case dogs were more related to each other than might be expected by chance. This suggests that dogs may have an underlying genetic predisposition to developing the condition. This study is the first, large-scale investigation of limber tail and the findings reveal an unexpectedly high illness burden. Anecdotally, accepted risk factors have been confirmed and the extent of their impact has been quantified. Identifying latitude and a potential underlying genetic predisposition suggests avenues for future work on this painful and distressing condition. PMID:27353875

  12. Assessing public health risk in the London polonium-210 incident, 2006.

    PubMed

    Maguire, H; Fraser, G; Croft, J; Bailey, M; Tattersall, P; Morrey, M; Turbitt, D; Ruggles, R; Bishop, L; Giraudon, I; Walsh, B; Evans, B; Morgan, O; Clark, M; Lightfoot, N; Gilmour, R; Gross, R; Cox, R; Troop, P

    2010-06-01

    Mr Alexander Litvinenko died in a London hospital on 23 November 2006, allegedly from poisoning with the radionuclide polonium-210 ((210)Po). Associated circumstances required an integrated response to investigate the potential risk of internal contamination for individuals exposed to contaminated environments. Descriptive study. Contaminated locations presenting a potential risk to health were identified through environmental assessment by radiation protection specialists. Individuals connected with these locations were identified and assessed for internal contamination with (210)Po. In total, 1029 UK residents were identified, associated with the 11 most contaminated locations. Of these, 974 were personally interviewed and 787 were offered urine tests for (210)Po excretion. Overall, 139 individuals (18%) showed evidence of probable internal contamination with (210)Po arising from the incident, but only 53 (7%) had assessed radiation doses of 1mSv or more. The highest assessed radiation dose was approximately 100mSv. Although internal contamination with (210)Po was relatively frequent and was most extensive among individuals associated with locations judged a priori to pose the greatest risk, a high degree of assurance could be given to UK and international communities that the level of health risk from exposure to the radionuclide in this incident was low. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating the Hamilton Anatomy of Risk Management-Forensic Version and the Aggressive Incidents Scale.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alana N; Moulden, Heather M; Mamak, Mini; Lalani, Shams; Messina, Katrina; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2016-07-14

    The Hamilton Anatomy of Risk Management-Forensic Version (HARM-FV) is a structured professional judgement tool of violence risk developed for use in forensic inpatient psychiatric settings. The HARM-FV is used with the Aggressive Incidents Scale (AIS), which provides a standardized method of recording aggressive incidents. We report the findings of the concurrent validity of the HARM-FV and the AIS with widely used measures of violence risk and aggressive acts, the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) and a modified version of the Overt Aggression Scale. We also present findings on the predictive validity of the HARM-FV in the short term (1-month follow-up periods) for varying severities of aggressive acts. The results indicated strong support for the concurrent validity of the HARM-FV and AIS and promising support for the predictive accuracy of the tool for inpatient aggression. This article provides support for the continued clinical use of the HARM-FV within an inpatient forensic setting and highlights areas for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. [Analysis on the incidence and risk factors of campus violence among college students in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Dong, Xiao-Mei; Dai, Jin-Fang; Chi, Gui-Bo; Wang, Sheng-Yong; Dong, Shan; Peng, Lin

    2011-09-01

    To explore the incidence and risk factors of campus violence in Guangzhou. 2200 college students in three universities in Guangzhou were selected by cluster sampling method and were interviewed with self-designed questionnaire about the incidence and risk factors of campus violence in 2010. The final analysis sample was 2103. Chi-square test was used to analyze the gender, grade and major distribution of campus violence. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the influencing factors of campus violence in bully and victim. The incidence of campus violence in Guangzhou was 69.9% (1471/2103). In boys and girls the incidence of campus violence was 75.6% (830/1098) and 63.8% (641/1005) (χ(2) = 34.82, P < 0.05). The incidence of bully and victim of campus violence was 63.6%(1338/2103) and 55.3% (1163/2103). The incidence of bully and victim in boys was 70.9%(778/1098) and 60.0%(659/1098), and in girls was 55.7% (560/1005) and 50.1% (504/1005) (χ(2)(bully) = 51.93, χ(2)(victim) = 20.68, P < 0.01). The incidence of psychological violence was the highest (68.0%, 1430/2103), followed by sexual violence (34.2%, 719/2103), the incidence of physical violence was the lowest (16.5%, 348/2103). Results of logistic regression showed that boys (OR = 1.60), arts (OR = 1.82), with siblings (OR = 1.31), the living expenses was not enough (basic enough OR = 1.35, not enough OR = 1.54), playing the computer games (OR = 1.70), playing tricks such as sliding plate (OR = 2.03), loving violence program (general OR = 1.30, very like OR = 1.44), mother with gamble behavior (OR = 4.29), father's indulgent education style (OR = 1.60), been bullied by others before high school (OR = 1.61), dissatisfaction to the environment and rules of campus (nothing special feeling OR = 1.67, some dissatisfaction OR = 1.89), been treated badly by primary school teacher (one kind OR = 1.35, two kinds and above OR = 1.90)were the risk factors of bully. Boys (OR = 1.23), minority (OR = 1.71), with

  15. Age- and Gender-Normalized Coronary Incidence and Mortality Risks in Primary and Secondary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Iannetta, Loredana; Schiariti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic differences in ischemic heart disease incidence between women and men remain largely unexplained. The reasons of women’s “protection” against coronary artery disease (CAD) are not still clear. However, there are subsets more likely to die of a first myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to underline different treatment strategies between genders and describe the role of classical and novel factors defined to evaluate CAD risk and mortality, aimed at assessing applicability and relevance for primary and secondary prevention. Women and men present different age-related risk patterns: it should be important to understand whether standard factors may index CAD risk, including mortality, in different ways and/or whether specific factors might be targeted gender-wise. Take home messages include: HDL-cholesterol levels, higher in pre-menopausal women than in men, are more strictly related to CAD. The same is true for high triglycerides and Lp(a). HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely related to incidence and mortality. In primary prevention the role of statins is not completely ascertained in women although in secondary prevention these agents are equally effective in both genders. Weight and glycemic control are effective to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women from middle to older age. Blood pressure is strongly and directly related to CVD mortality, from middle to older age, particularly in diabetic and over weighted women. Kidney dysfunction, defined using UAE and eGFR predicts primary CVD incidence and risk in both genders. In secondary prediction, kidney dysfunction predicts sudden death in women in conjunction with left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation. Serum uric acid does not differentiate gender-related CVD incidences, although it increases with age. Age-related differences between genders have been related to loss of ovarian function traditionally and to lower iron stores more recently. QT interval

  16. Incidence and risk of hypertension in patients newly treated for multiple myeloma: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chari, Ajai; Mezzi, Khalid; Zhu, Shao; Werther, Winifred; Felici, Diana; Lyon, Alexander R

    2016-11-22

    Hypertension is commonly reported in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and may be associated with older age, disease-related complications and consequences of MM treatments. This study evaluated the incidence rates of and risk factors for hypertension and malignant hypertension in newly-treated MM patients in the United States. Newly-treated adult MM patients were identified from Truven MarketScan claims database from 1/1/05 to 3/31/14. Inclusion criteria were new diagnosis of MM with start of MM treatment, ≥12 months continuous enrollment prior to diagnosis, ≥30 days of continuous enrollment following initial diagnosis, and prescription drug coverage. Non-MM patients were matched for age (within +/- 5 years), sex and distribution of index dates to MM patients. Baseline cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, incidence rate of hypertension and malignant hypertension in the follow-up period, and risk of hypertension and malignant hypertension based on existing baseline CV comorbidities were evaluated. A total of 7895 MM patients (38% with hypertension history) and 23,685 non-MM patients (24% with hypertension history) were included in the study. Twenty-two percent of MM patients versus 3% of non-MM patients had baseline renal failure. A higher percentage of MM versus non-MM patients had baseline hypertension in combination with renal failure, congestive heart failure or both. The incidence rate of hypertension in MM and non-MM patients was 260 and 178 per 1000 person-years, respectively. There was a 30% increase in the risk of hypertension for MM versus non-MM patients: hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.37). In MM patients with a history of hypertension, the risk of malignant hypertension was significantly increased with the following comorbid conditions: cardiomyopathy, HR 2.79 (95% CI 1.20, 6.48); renal failure, HR 2.13 (95% CI 1.36, 3.34); and diabetes mellitus, HR 1.59 (95% CI 1.05, 2.39). This study confirms that the incidence of

  17. Saudi Arabian adult intensive care unit pressure ulcer incidence and risk factors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona; Lewis, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify pressure ulcer (PU) incidence and risk factors that are associated with PU development in patients in two adult intensive care units (ICU) in Saudi Arabia. A prospective cohort study design was used. A total of 84 participants were screened second daily basis until discharge or death, over a consecutive 30-day period, out of which 33 participants with new PUs were identified giving a cumulative hospital-acquired PU incidence of 39·3% (33/84 participants). The incidence of medical devices-related PUs was 8·3% (7/84). Age, length of stay in the ICU, history of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease, infrequent repositioning, time of operation, emergency admission, mechanical ventilation and lower Braden Scale scores independently predicted the development of a PU. According to binary logistic regression analyses, age, longer stay in ICU and infrequent repositioning were significant predictors of all stages of PUs, while the length of stay in the ICU and infrequent repositioning were associated with the development of stages II-IV PUs. In conclusion, PU incidence rate was higher than that reported in other international studies. This indicates that urgent attention is required for PU prevention strategies in this setting. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008−2015

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. Methods The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Results Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5–52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008–2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010–2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012–2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (<33 years versus >40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22–7.18, p<0.001), history of syphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03–4.47, p<0.001), positive anti-amoeba antibody (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.17–2.68, p = 0.006), and high baseline CD4 count (CD4 ≥350 /μL versus CD4 <200, HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.00–2.53, p = 0.050) as risk factors for incident syphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age <33 years: 60.1/1,000 person-years). Interestingly, 37% of patients with incident syphilis were asymptomatic. Conclusions Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5-52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008-2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010-2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012-2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (<33 years versus >40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22-7.18, p<0.001), history of syphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03-4.47, p<0.001), positive anti-amoeba antibody (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.17-2.68, p = 0.006), and high baseline CD4 count (CD4 ≥350 /μL versus CD4 <200, HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.00-2.53, p = 0.050) as risk factors for incident syphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age <33 years: 60.1/1,000 person-years). Interestingly, 37% of patients with incident syphilis were asymptomatic. Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history of syphilis, in Tokyo. Regular screening for syphilis

  20. Withdrawal syndrome in the pediatric intensive care unit. Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, F; Gaboli, M; González-Celador, R; Gómez de Quero-Masía, P; Fernández-de Miguel, S; Murga-Herrera, V; Serrano-Ayestarán, O; Sánchez-Granados, J M; Payo-Pérez, R

    2013-03-01

    To determine the incidence of withdrawal syndrome after prolonged infusion of fentanyl and midazolam in children, and the associated risk factors. Historic or retrospective cohort study. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in an academic center. Forty-eight pediatric patients who received sedation and analgesia only with fentanyl and midazolam through continuous infusion for at least 48 hours. None. Collected data included demographic and clinical parameters, dose and duration of sedation received, and incidence, severity and treatment of withdrawal syndrome. Fifty percent of the patients developed withdrawal syndrome. There were significant differences between the patients who developed withdrawal syndrome and those who did not, in terms of the duration of infusion and the cumulative doses of both drugs. A cumulative fentanyl dose of 0.48 mg/kg, a cumulative midazolam dose of 40 mg/kg, and a duration of infusion of both drugs of 5.75 days were risk factors for the development of withdrawal syndrome. Most children developed mild or moderate disease, beginning about 12-36 hours after weaning from infusion. Methadone was used in most cases for treating withdrawal. There is a high incidence of withdrawal syndrome in children following the continuous infusion of midazolam and fentanyl. The duration of infusion of both drugs and higher cumulative doses are associated with the development of withdrawal syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN AFTER HYSTEROSCOPIC STERILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    YUNKER, Amanda C.; RITCH, Jessica M. B.; ROBINSON, Erica F.; GOLISH, Cara T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and pre-operative risk factors for developing pelvic pain after hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure™ micro-inserts Design Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting University Medical Center Patients A total of 458 patients who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure™ between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2012. Results The incidence of acute pelvic pain after hysteroscopic sterilization was 8.1%, and the incidence of persistent pain after 3 months post-procedure was 4.2%. The range of presentation with pain was 1 to 469 days, with a mean time of 56 days. Of the patients that developed chronic pelvic pain after the procedure, 75% presented within 130 days of the procedure. Patients with previous diagnoses of any chronic pain (chronic pelvic pain, chronic low back pain, chronic headache, and fibromyalgia) were more likely to report both acute pain (OR 6.81, 95% CI 2.95,15.73) and chronic pain (OR 6.15, 95% CI 2.10,18.10) after hysteroscopic sterilization. Conclusions Pelvic pain may develop after hysteroscopic sterilization. Patients with preexisting chronic pain diagnoses may be at increased risk of developing pelvic pain after the procedure. Fifty percent of new pelvic pain after Essure™ placement will resolve by 3 months. PMID:24952343

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy among Patients with Selected Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, A; Xie, F; Baddley, JW; Beukelman, T; Chen, L; Calabrese, L; Delzell, E; Grijalva, CG; Patkar, N; Saag, K; Winthrop, K; Curtis, JR

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a large, population-based study to describe the incidence and risk factors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis (PsO), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using national inpatient and outpatient administrative data from the entire Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from 2000–2009. Suspected PML cases were identified using hospital discharge diagnosis codes. Risk factors for PML were evaluated using outpatient data >= 6 months prior to PML diagnosis. Among 2,030,578 patients with autoimmune diseases of interest, a total of 53 PML cases were identified (2.6/100,000 patients). Most PML cases had HIV and/or cancer. Nine PML cases had evidence for biologic use prior to PML hospitalization, of which 3 had neither HIV nor malignancy and were exposed to biologics within 12 (rituximab) or 6 months(all other biologics) prior to PML diagnosis. PML occurred at an estimated incidence of 0.2/100,000 patients with autoimmune diseases who did not have HIV or malignancy. PML occurs at a very low incidence among patients with rheumatic diseases but can occur even in the absence of HIV or malignancy. PMID:22162369

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors of Striae Distensae Following Breast Augmentation Surgery: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Denis Souto; Zanella, Rafaela Koehler; Doncatto, Leo Francisco; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2014-01-01

    Background The significant increase in the popularity of breast augmentation surgeries has led to an increase in the number and types of complications; among these is the postoperative occurrence of Striae Distensae (SD). The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of SD and describing its occurrence in association with age, breast implant volume, history of SD, history of pregnancies and breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), changes in postoperative weight, smoking habits, and use of oral contraceptives. Methods A cohort study was conducted and the patient data from a specific social group that underwent augmentation mammaplasty with silicone breast implants in a private clinic was analyzed. Results 563 patients entered the cohort, while 538 completed the study. The SD incidence was 7.06%. The risk was almost the double at 22–28 years of age and triple in women of 21 years of age or less. The women who did not use oral contraceptives were 2.59 times more likely of developing SD. A higher incidence of SD was observed among those with normal or low BMI values, smokers, and in those who had implants larger than 300 ml. Conclusions Young age, larger implant volumes, smoking, and normal or low BMI values were the risk factors responsible for the development of SD; while using oral contraceptives was found to be a protective factor. PMID:24844230

  4. Molluscum Contagiosum in a Pediatric American Indian Population: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Andrea M.; Holman, Robert C.; Hughes, Christine M.; Mehal, Jason M.; Folkema, Arianne M.; Redd, John T.; Cheek, James E.; Damon, Inger K.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) causes an innocuous yet persistent skin infection in immunocompetent individuals and is spread by contact with lesions. Studies point to atopic dermatitis (AD) as a risk factor for MCV infection; however, there are no longitudinal studies that have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods Outpatient visit data from fiscal years 2001–2009 for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children were examined to describe the incidence of molluscum contagiosum (MC). We conducted a case-control study of patients <5 years old at an Indian Health Service (IHS) clinic to evaluate dermatological risk factors for infection. Results The incidence rate for MC in children <5 years old was highest in the West and East regions. MC cases were more likely to have a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema, eczema or dermatitis, impetigo, and scabies (p<0.05) compared to controls; 51.4% of MC cases had a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema or dermatitis. Conclusions The present study is the first demonstration of an association between AD and MC using a case-control study design. It is unknown if the concurrent high incidence of eczema and MC is related, and this association deserves further investigation. PMID:25072249

  5. Preeclampsia in Jordan: incidence, risk factors, and its associated maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef S; Batieha, Anwar; Al-Njadat, Rania Ali; Hijazi, Sa'ad S

    2017-03-08

    To estimate the incidence of preeclampsia among Jordanian pregnant women, determine its risk factors and its associated neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted in Jordan. This study included all women who gave birth in the selected hospitals during the study period. Maternal and medical conditions during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were compared between women who developed preeclampsia and who did not. This study included a total of 21,928 women. The overall incidence rate of preeclampsia was 1.3%. Obesity (OR = 2.6) and high blood pressure (OR = 11.9) were significantly associated with increasing odds of preeclampsia. The risk of preeclampsia was 2.3 times higher in first pregnancies than that in second or more pregnancies. The rates of low birth weight (LBW) delivery (32.5% vs. 8.3%), and prematurity (30.8% vs. 7%), and the neonatal mortality rate (81 vs. 12 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher among women with preeclampsia. The overall incidence rate of preeclampsia was 1.3%. Preeclampsia was significantly associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as increasing vaginal operative delivery, cesarean section, LBW, and birth asphyxia.

  6. Visual loss after corrective surgery for pediatric scoliosis: incidence and risk factors from a nationwide database.

    PubMed

    De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Samdani, Amer F; Sponseller, Paul D; Ain, Michael C; Miller, Neil R; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Perioperative visual loss (POVL) after spinal deformity surgery is an uncommon but severe complication. Data on the incidence and risk factors of this complication after corrective surgery in the pediatric population are limited. The present study aimed to investigate nationwide estimates of POVL after corrective surgery for pediatric scoliosis. This is a retrospective study that uses a nationwide database. The sample includes 42,339 patients under the age of 18 who underwent surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. The outcome measures were incidence of POVL and risk factors. Patients under the age of 18 who underwent elective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis between 2002 and 2011 were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. The incidence of POVL (ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, or cortical blindness) was estimated after application of discharge weights. Demographics, comorbidities, and operative parameters were compared between patients with and without visual loss. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify significant risk factors for POVL development. No funds were received in support of this work. The incidence of POVL was 1.6 per 1,000 procedures (0.16%). Patients with visual loss were significantly more likely to be younger and male, have Medicaid as insurance, and undergo fusion of eight or more spinal levels compared with patients without visual loss. Following multivariate analysis, older patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.91) and female patients (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.14) were significantly less likely to develop POVL compared with younger and male patients. On the other hand, having Medicaid as insurance (OR: 2.13;95% CI: 1.32-3.45), history of deficiency anemia (OR: 8.64; 95% CI: 5.46-14.31), and fusion of eight or more spinal levels (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.34-4.30) were all independently associated with POVL. In this nationwide study, the incidence of POVL

  7. Education and risk of incident dementia during the premotor and motor phases of essential tremor (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Louis, Elan D; Cosentino, Stephanie; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with late-onset essential tremor (ET) (e.g., older adults) seem to have an increased prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and a higher risk of incident dementia. It is well-known that education has a protective role against dementia in individuals without a pre-existing neurologic disorder, but evidence regarding the maintenance of this effect during the premotor and motor phases of ET is unknown. Our aim was to determine the influence of education on the risk of dementia in a population-based cohort of ET patients and controls. In a prospective study (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain), participants ≥65 years old were evaluated twice: at baseline (1994-1995) and at follow-up (1997-1998). There were 3 groups: premotor (i.e., participants first diagnosed with incident ET at follow-up), prevalent ET (i.e., participants diagnosed with ET at baseline and at follow-up), and controls. Participants were stratified into lower education (≤primary studies) versus higher education (≥secondary studies) categories. Dementia risk was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models (higher education control group = reference category). Among the participants, 3878 had a mean duration of follow-up of 3.2 years. Eight (16.7%) of 48 lower education premotor ET patients developed incident dementia versus 1 (3.3%) of 30 higher education premotor ET patients, 9 (7.1%) of 126 lower education prevalent ET patients, 7 (8.8%) of 80 higher education prevalent ET patients, and 92 (4.9%) of 1892 lower education controls (P < 0.001). In comparison to the higher education controls, the adjusted hazard ratios for incident dementia were 5.84 (lower education premotor ET, P < 0.001); 1.36 (higher education premotor ET, P = 0.76); 2.13 (lower education prevalent ET, P = 0.04); 2.79 (higher education prevalent ET, P = 0.01); and 1.66 (lower education controls, P = 0.01). Our results suggest that a higher educational attainment may ameliorate the risk

  8. Education and risk of incident dementia during the premotor and motor phases of essential tremor (NEDICES)

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Louis, Elan D.; Cosentino, Stephanie; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Individuals with late-onset essential tremor (ET) (e.g., older adults) seem to have an increased prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and a higher risk of incident dementia. It is well-known that education has a protective role against dementia in individuals without a pre-existing neurologic disorder, but evidence regarding the maintenance of this effect during the premotor and motor phases of ET is unknown. Our aim was to determine the influence of education on the risk of dementia in a population-based cohort of ET patients and controls. In a prospective study (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain), participants ≥65 years old were evaluated twice: at baseline (1994–1995) and at follow-up (1997–1998). There were 3 groups: premotor (i.e., participants first diagnosed with incident ET at follow-up), prevalent ET (i.e., participants diagnosed with ET at baseline and at follow-up), and controls. Participants were stratified into lower education (≤primary studies) versus higher education (≥secondary studies) categories. Dementia risk was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models (higher education control group = reference category). Among the participants, 3878 had a mean duration of follow-up of 3.2 years. Eight (16.7%) of 48 lower education premotor ET patients developed incident dementia versus 1 (3.3%) of 30 higher education premotor ET patients, 9 (7.1%) of 126 lower education prevalent ET patients, 7 (8.8%) of 80 higher education prevalent ET patients, and 92 (4.9%) of 1892 lower education controls (P < 0.001). In comparison to the higher education controls, the adjusted hazard ratios for incident dementia were 5.84 (lower education premotor ET, P < 0.001); 1.36 (higher education premotor ET, P = 0.76); 2.13 (lower education prevalent ET, P = 0.04); 2.79 (higher education prevalent ET, P = 0.01); and 1.66 (lower education controls, P = 0.01). Our results suggest that a higher educational attainment may

  9. TSH increment and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Eun; Jin, Sang-Man; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Sun Wook; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid function is known to influence glucose metabolism, and thyroid-stimulating hormone is the most useful parameter in screening for thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of type 2 diabetes according to baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone level and thyroid-stimulating hormone change in euthyroid subjects. We identified and enrolled 17,061 euthyroid subjects without diabetes among participants who had undergone consecutive thyroid function tests between 2006 and 2012 as a part of yearly health check-up program. Thyroid-stimulating hormone changes were determined by subtracting baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone level from thyroid-stimulating hormone level at 1 year before diagnosis of diabetes or at the end of follow-up in subjects who did not develope diabetes. During 84,595 person-years of follow-up, there were 956 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Cox proportional hazards models showed the risk of incident type 2 diabetes was significantly increased with each 1 μIU/mL increment in TSH after adjustment for multiple confounding factors (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20, P < 0.001). Compared with individuals in the lowest tertile (-4.08 to 0.34 μIU/mL), those in the highest thyroid-stimulating hormone change tertile (0.41-10.84 μIU/mL) were at greater risk for incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.48, P for trend = 0.011). However, baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone level and tertile were not associated with the risk for diabetes. Prominent increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration can be an additional risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in euthyroid subjects.

  10. Basal-Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Associated Risk Factors in US Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Li, Wen-Qing; Li, Tricia; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) in the United States, since most national registries do not collect information on BCC. We evaluated BCC incidence trends and associated risk factors for BCC in 140,171 participants from a US female cohort, the Nurses' Health Study (1986–2006), and a US male cohort, the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1988–2006). Age-adjusted BCC incidence rates increased from 519 cases per 100,000 person-years to 1,019 cases per 100,000 person years for women and increased from 606 cases per 100,000 person-years to 1,488 cases per 100,000 person-years for men during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified the following phenotypic risk factors for BCC in both cohorts: family history of melanoma, blond or red hair colors, higher number of extremity moles, higher susceptibility to sunburn as a child/adolescent, and higher lifetime number of severe/blistering sunburns. The multivariate-adjusted risk ratio for the highest quintile of cumulative midrange ultraviolet B flux exposure versus the lowest quintile was 3.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.70, 3.76) in women and 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.57, 2.29) in men. BCC incidence was generally higher in men than in women, and BCC risk was strongly associated with several phenotypic and exposure factors, including midrange ultraviolet B radiation, in our study populations. PMID:23828250

  11. The association between psychiatric diseases, psychotropic drugs and the risk of incident rosacea.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, J; Bichsel, F; Voegel, J J; Jick, S S; Meier, C R

    2014-04-01

    Psychological conditions, such as traumatic events or stress, have been discussed controversially as aetiological factors for rosacea. To assess the association between diagnosed depression, other affective disorders or schizophrenia and subsequent incident rosacea. We further aimed at evaluating the possible role of various psychotropic drugs within this association. We conducted a matched case-control study of psychiatric diseases and incident rosacea, stratified by exposure to various psychotropic drugs, using the UK-based General Practice Research Database. Cases had a first diagnosis of rosacea recorded between 1995 and 2009. Each case was matched to one control on age, sex, general practice and years of history on the database. A history of depression or other affective disorders was not associated with an increased risk of developing rosacea; lithium was the only antidepressant drug that significantly altered this association. Current long-term use of lithium was associated with a decreased odds ratio (OR) of 0·58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·38-0·88] among people without a schizophrenia diagnosis (with or without affective disorders), compared with people not exposed to lithium. Patients with diagnosed schizophrenia revealed a decreased rosacea risk (OR 0·71, 95% CI 0·60-0·91), independent of antipsychotic drug use. Depression or other affective disorders were not associated with incident rosacea, whereas patients with schizophrenia were at a decreased risk of this skin disease in our study population. The materially decreased risk of rosacea among people with chronic lithium exposure may lead to new insights into the pathomechanism of rosacea. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  13. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Fraser, Gary

    2013-02-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk. We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate hazard ratios, with "attained age" as the time variable. A total of 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariate HR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians was statistically significant [HR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.99] for both genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was found between vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietary patterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetarians appeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinal system (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92). Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer. Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Ankle-brachial index and incident diabetes mellitus: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Hua, Simin; Loehr, Laura R; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Heiss, Gerardo; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Matsushita, Kunihiro

    2016-12-07

    Individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) often have reduced physical activity, which may increase the future risk of diabetes mellitus. Although diabetes is a risk factor for PAD, whether low ankle-brachial index (ABI) predates diabetes has not been studied. We examined the association of ABI with incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models in the ARIC Study. ABI was measured in 12,247 black and white participants without prevalent diabetes at baseline (1987-1989). Incident diabetes cases were identified by blood glucose levels at three subsequent visits (1990-92, 1993-95, and 1996-98) or self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use at those visits or during annual phone interview afterward through 2011. A total of 3305 participants developed diabetes during a median of 21 years of follow-up. Participants with low (≤0.90) and borderline low (0.91-1.00) ABI had 30-40% higher risk of future diabetes as compared to those with ABI of 1.10-1.20 in the demographically adjusted model. The associations were attenuated after further adjustment for other potential confounders but remained significant for ABI 0.91-1.00 (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and marginally significant for ABI ≤ 0.90 (HR = 1.19, 0.99-1.43). Although the association was largely consistent across subgroups, a stronger association was seen in participants without hypertension, those with normal fasting glucose, and those with a history of stroke compared to their counterparts. Low ABI was modestly but independently associated with increased risk of incident diabetes in the general population. Clinical attention should be paid to the glucose trajectory among people with low ABI but without diabetes.

  15. Basal-cell carcinoma incidence and associated risk factors in U.S. women and men.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Li, Wen-Qing; Li, Tricia; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2013-09-15

    There is a paucity of data on basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) in the United States, since most national registries do not collect information on BCC. We evaluated BCC incidence trends and associated risk factors for BCC in 140,171 participants from a U.S. female cohort, the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2006), and a U.S. male cohort, the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1988-2006). Age-adjusted BCC incidence rates increased from 519 cases per 100,000 person-years to 1,019 cases per 100,000 person years for women and increased from 606 cases per 100,000 person-years to 1,488 cases per 100,000 person-years for men during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified the following phenotypic risk factors for BCC in both cohorts: family history of melanoma, blond or red hair colors, higher number of extremity moles, higher susceptibility to sunburn as a child/adolescent, and higher lifetime number of severe/blistering sunburns. The multivariate-adjusted risk ratio for the highest quintile of cumulative midrange ultraviolet B flux exposure versus the lowest quintile was 3.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.70, 3.76) in women and 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.57, 2.29) in men. BCC incidence was generally higher in men than in women, and BCC risk was strongly associated with several phenotypic and exposure factors, including midrange ultraviolet B radiation, in our study populations.

  16. VEGETARIAN DIETS AND THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER IN A LOW-RISK POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Fraser, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. Since people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios, with “attained age” as the time variable. Results 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariate HR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians was statistically significant (HR=0.92; 95%CI: 0.85, 0.99) for both genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was found between vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR=0.76; 95%CI: 0.63, 0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietary patterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR=0.84; 95%CI: 0.72, 0.99) in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers (HR=0.66; 95%CI: 0.47, 0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetarians appeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinal system (HR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.92). Conclusion Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer. Impact Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer compared to other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23169929

  17. Risk factor for first-incident hip fracture in Taiwanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Ping; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Chao, An-Shine; Yu, Yu-Wei; Fan, Chih-Ming; Sung, Chen-Ming; Chern, Ingrid Ying-Yu

    2016-04-01

    The variation in hip fracture risk between countries is greater than 10-fold. The present study aimed at identifying risk factors that resulted in the first occurrence of hip fracture in Taiwanese postmenopausal women. A case-control study with a patient group of 50 postmenopausal women, who were admitted to Keelung Chang Gung Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan due to the first incident of accidental hip fracture, was used to examine potential risk factors, including bone mass. Fifty women without hip fracture, selected from those undergoing general health evaluation at the Gynecology Outpatient Clinic at Keelung Chang Gung Hospital, were used as the control group and were matched to the case patients according to age. Evaluation consisted of a questionnaire, interview to document risk factors, physical examination (to record body height and body weight), and examination [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine]. The average age of participants of both groups was 79.6 years. Lower level of education, younger age at menopause, increased body height, weight-bearing exercise less than three times per week, and lower BMD were associated with first-incident hip fracture. Total hip BMD was a stronger predictor than the BMD of different sites. Participants in the control group had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic diseases and a history of cataracts or glaucoma compared with those in the patient group. While total hip BMD is the strongest predictor of hip fracture, increasing awareness of osteoporosis prevention by educating people about good lifestyle habits and how to maintain BMD is prioritized for preventing the first-incident hip fracture in Taiwanese women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Environmental and genetic risk factors and gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R; Gottlieb, D J; O'Connor, G T

    2000-01-01

    Current understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, suggests that chronic inflammation leads to the airways obstruction and parenchymal destruction that characterize this condition. Environmental factors, especially tobacco smoke exposure, are known to accelerate longitudinal decline of lung function, and there is substantial evidence that upregulation of inflammatory pathways plays a vital role in this process. Genetic regulation of both inflammatory responses and anti-inflammatory protective mechanisms likely underlies the heritability of COPD observed in family studies. In alpha-1 protease inhibitor deficiency, the only genetic disorder known to cause COPD, lack of inhibition of elastase activity, results in the parenchymal destruction of emphysema. Other genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to alter the risk of COPD but have not been established as causes of this condition. It is likely that multiple genetic factors interacting with each other and with a number of environmental agents will be found to result in the development of COPD. PMID:10931792

  19. [Influence of risk factor "hot foods over 37 degrees Celsius" on oral flora and the pathogenesis of gingivitis and periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Kantor, M; Nell, A; Dörtbudak, O; Lütgendorff-Gyllenstorm, H; Lang, T; Sperr, W

    2000-07-07

    Austrian law prescribes that hot food and beverages must be served at a minimum temperature of 75 degrees C. Within a group of 50 volunteers, we studied hot food at a temperature higher than 37 degrees C as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of gingivitis and periodontitis. In the first part of the investigation the effects of heat on bacterial growth in the mouth were evaluated. Bacterial growth was significantly reduced after drinking hot tea (70 degrees C) (p < 0.001). The ability of the volunteers to estimate the temperature of a direct heat stimulus in the mouth was tested in the second part of the study. 82% of the volunteers underestimated the temperature of tea (70 degrees C) by about 15 degrees C. In the third part of the study the periodontal state of the volunteers was determined by index measurements. Moreover, eating behaviour was assessed by a questionnaire. No statistically significant correlation between eating behaviour (hot/cold) and periodontal inflammation was found.

  20. Association between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and incident cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Tobin M; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S

    2015-10-27

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) vary in volume and quality. We evaluated whether fat volume or attenuation (indirect measure of quality) predicts metabolic risk factor changes. Framingham Heart Study Multi-detector Computed Tomography Substudy participants (n=1730, 45% women) were followed up over a mean of 6.2 years. Baseline VAT and SAT volume (in cm(3)) and attenuation (in Hounsfield units) were assessed. Outcomes included blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. We constructed multivariable regression models predicting change from baseline to follow-up. Baseline VAT was associated with metabolic risk factors at follow-up. Per 500-cm(3) increase in baseline VAT, glucose was 2.34 mg/dL higher (95% confidence interval, 1.71-2.97) and high-density lipoprotein was 1.62 mg/dL lower (95% confidence interval, 0.97-2.28) in women (P<0.0001 for both). These findings remained significant after adjustment for body mass index. Results for SAT were similar although less striking. Lower (more negative) fat attenuation was associated with more adverse metabolic profiles at follow-up. For example, per 5-unit decrease in baseline VAT Hounsfield units, log triglycerides increased by 0.08 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.12; P=0.005), which remained significant after adjustment for baseline VAT. Among men, VAT and SAT Hounsfield units were associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors but were mostly attenuated after baseline volume adjustment. VAT volume and SAT volume are associated with incident metabolic risk factors beyond overall adiposity. Decreases in fat attenuation are also associated with incident risk factors. These findings suggest that both volume and quality of VAT and SAT contribute to metabolic risk. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Type 2 diabetes, glucose homeostasis and incident atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lopez, Faye L.; Filion, Kristian B.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in previous studies that have frequently been beset by methodological challenges. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Participants Detailed medical histories were obtained on 13025 participants. Individuals were categorized as having no diabetes, pre-diabetes or diabetes based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria at study baseline (1990–92). Main Outcome Measures Diagnoses of incident AF were obtained through 2007. Associations between type 2 diabetes and markers of glucose homeostasis with the incidence of AF were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for possible confounders. Results Type 2 diabetes was associated with a significant increase in risk of AF (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–1.60) after adjustment for confounders. There was no indication that individuals with pre-diabetes or those with undiagnosed diabetes were at increased risk of AF compared to those without diabetes. We observed a positive linear association between HbA1c and risk of AF in those with and without diabetes: 1.13 (1.07–1.20) and 1.05 (0.96–1.15) per 1% point increase, respectively. There was no association between fasting glucose or insulin (p>0.05) in those without diabetes but a significant association with fasting glucose in those with the condition (p=0.0002). Results were similar in whites and African Americans. Conclusions Diabetes, HbA1c level and poor glycemic control are independently associated with increased risk of AF, but the underlying mechanisms governing the relationship are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:21930722

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors for Neonatal Jaundice among Newborns in Southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mullany, Luke C.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal jaundice among infants referred for care from a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Methods Study participants were 18,985 newborn infants born in Sarlahi District in Southern Nepal from May 2003 through January 2006 who participated in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based trial to evaluate the effect of newborn chlorhexidine cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity. Jaundice was assessed based on visual assessment of the infant by a study worker and referral for care. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated to identify risk factors for referral for neonatal jaundice using Poisson regression. Results The incidence of referral for neonatal jaundice was 29.3 per 1,000 live births (95% Confidence Interval: 26.9, 31.7). Male sex, high birth weight, breastfeeding patterns, warm air temperature, primiparity, skilled birth attendance, place of delivery, prolonged labor, oil massage, paternal education, and ethnicity were significant risk factors (p-values<0.01). After multi-variable adjustment, sex, birth weight, difficulty feeding, prolonged labor, primiparity, oil massage, ambient air temperature, and ethnicity remained important factors. Among infants with difficulty feeding, exclusive breastfeeding was a risk factor for neonatal jaundice, whereas exclusive breastfeeding was protective among infants with no report of difficulty feeding. Conclusions Several known risk factors for neonatal jaundice in a low-resource setting were confirmed in this study. Unique observed associations of jaundice with ambient air temperature and oil massage may be explained by the opportunity for phototherapy based on the cultural practices of this study population. Future research should investigate the role of an infant’s difficulty in feeding as a potential modifier in the association between exclusive breastfeeding and jaundice. PMID:24112359

  3. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. Objective We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. Methods The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within one year prior to MI index date. Results There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma prior to index date of MI whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06–2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). While inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared to those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57–6.44) without controlling for COPD. After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84–2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12–4.82). Conclusion Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. PMID:27157653

  4. Sildenafil use and increased risk of incident melanoma in US men: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Robinson, Kathleen; Han, Jiali

    2014-01-01

    Importance The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway plays a crucial role in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Sildenafil (Viagra) is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5A inhibitor commonly used for erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that BRAF activation down-regulates PDE5A levels, and low PDE5A expression by BRAF activation or sildenafil use increases the invasiveness of melanoma cells, which raises the possible adverse effect of sildenafil use on melanoma risk. Objective To evaluate the association between sildenafil use and risk of incident melanoma among men in the United States. Design, Setting and Participants Design In 2000, participants in the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study (HPFS), an ongoing prospective study. were inquired regarding sildenafil use for erectile dysfunction. We excluded baseline cancers, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension. A total of 14,912 men were included. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was obtained in the self-reported questionnaires biennially. The diagnosis of melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. Results We identified 79 melanoma, 305 SCC, and 1,720 BCC cases during the follow-up (2000–2010). Sildenafil use was significantly associated with an increased risk of subsequent melanoma with a multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–4.78). In contrast, we did not observe an increase in risk of SCC (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.46–1.37), or BCC (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.84–1.30) associated with sildenafil use. Moreover, erectile function itself was not associated with an altered risk of melanoma. Conclusions Sildenafil use may be associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. PMID:24710960

  5. Efficient Estimation of Semiparametric Transformation Models for the Cumulative Incidence of Competing Risks.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lu; Lin, D Y

    2017-03-01

    The cumulative incidence is the probability of failure from the cause of interest over a certain time period in the presence of other risks. A semiparametric regression model proposed by Fine and Gray (1999) has become the method of choice for formulating the effects of covariates on the cumulative incidence. Its estimation, however, requires modeling of the censoring distribution and is not statistically efficient. In this paper, we present a broad class of semiparametric transformation models which extends the Fine and Gray model, and we allow for unknown causes of failure. We derive the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators (NPMLEs) and develop simple and fast numerical algorithms using the profile likelihood. We establish the consistency, asymptotic normality, and semiparametric efficiency of the NPMLEs. In addition, we construct graphical and numerical procedures to evaluate and select models. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methods over the existing ones through extensive simulation studies and an application to a major study on bone marrow transplantation.

  6. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; P<0.001 for trend) and a 14% lower risk for every additional three months of exclusive breast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001 for trend). Women who breastfed for ≥36 months in total across their reproductive lifetime had a 40% reduced risk of endometriosis compared with women who never breast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially influenced

  7. Incidence and Risk Factors of Elevated Intraocular Pressure Following Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Olivia S; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Htoon, Hla M; Tan, Donald T; Wong, Tina T

    2016-10-01

    To report the incidence and risk factors of elevated IOP following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). A retrospective case series. A retrospective study investigating the 5-year incidence of raised IOP following DALK cases performed from 2004 to 2008 in a tertiary center. Patients with less than 6 months of follow-up were excluded. Elevated IOP was defined as IOP >21 mm Hg. An episode of elevated IOP occurred in 36.1% of cases (44/122 cases), 11.4% (n = 5) occurring within the first week. The average duration of raised IOP was 48.9 (SD: 65.5) days. Causes included pupil block from air, swollen grafts, and corticosteroid response. Surgical intervention to lower IOP was required in 3 cases (6.8%). In multivariate analyses, the use of Olopatadine 0.1% or cyclosporine eye drops before DALK (OR = 14.51, 95% CI = 1.43-147.23) and use of topical prednisolone acetate 1% compared with dexamethasone 0.1% post DALK (OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 0.73-31.52) were associated with higher rates of elevated IOP post DALK. At 5 years post DALK, 3 of 71 cases (4.48%) developed de novo glaucomatous field defects, and 1 case with pre-existing glaucoma had progression of glaucomatous field defect. DALK was associated with a significant incidence of transiently elevated IOP postoperatively, but had a low incidence of de novo glaucoma at 5 years in our study. Risk factors for raised IOP post DALK included the use of topical prednisolone acetate 1% compared with dexamethasone 0.1%, and the use of Olopatadine 0.1% or any concentration of cyclosporine eye drops prior to DALK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast feeding and cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, and mortality: the Caerphilly study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gunnell, David; Elwood, Peter; Yarnell, John W G; Davey Smith, George

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the association of having been breast fed with cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, and mortality. Prospective cohort study. Caerphilly, South Wales. All men aged 45-59 years living in and around the study area. Of 2818 eligible men, 2512 (89%) were seen. Altogether 1580 men (63%) obtained details of how they had been fed in infancy (ever breast fed or only bottle fed) from their mother or a close female relative. A subset of 1062 subjects reported on whether bottle fed or the duration of breast feeding if breast fed. Breast feeding was not associated with stature, blood pressure, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, or fibrinogen. In fully adjusted models (controlling for age, birth order, and social position in childhood and adulthood), breast feeding was associated with greater body mass index than bottle feeding (difference: 0.41 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.81). There was a positive association between breast feeding and coronary heart disease mortality (hazard ratio: 1.73; 1.17 to 2.55) and incidence (1.54; 1.17 to 2.04) (fully adjusted models). There was no evidence of a duration-response effect, which might be expected if an adverse effect of breast feeding was causal. These data provide little evidence of a protective influence of breast feeding on cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, or mortality. A possible adverse effect of breast feeding on coronary heart disease incidence was observed but may have a number of explanations, including selection and information bias. In view of these limitations, further long term studies with improved measures of infant feeding are required to confirm or refute these findings.

  9. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D; Chung, W; Shin, D; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  10. Incidence and Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Texas Latinos: Implications for Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Weiss, Nancy S.; Holden, Alan E. C.; Suarez, Lucina; Cooper, Sharon P.; Munoz, Edgar; Naylor, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in the U.S. despite a decline in cancer overall. Latinos have higher rates of HCC than the general population according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Not included in SEER, Texas Latinos make up one-fifth of the U.S. Latino population. To determine whether HCC incidence differs among U.S. and Texas Latinos, this descriptive study compares HCC incidence from 1995 through 2006 among three Latino populations: U.S. SEER, Texas overall and a South Texas subset. To identify lines of prevention research, we compare prevalence of known HCC risk factors among these Latino groups. Methods Data were collected from the U.S. SEER Program, Texas Cancer Registry and Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS). Annual age-specific and age-adjusted HCC incidence rates, annual percent changes (APCs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as well as prevalence of obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Results Of the three Latino groups compared, South Texas Latinos had the highest age-adjusted HCC incidence rates and SEER Latinos had the lowest (10.6/100,000 (10.1–11.1) and 7.5/100,000 (7.2–7.7), respectively). HCC incidence significantly increased over time (APCs>0) among Latinos in all three geographic groups. Between 1995 and 2006, there was an increase in obesity among all three populations, and obesity was highest among South Texas Latinos. Diabetes increased among U.S. Latinos, and Latino women in South Texas had significantly higher diabetes prevalence than U.S. Latino women. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use were similar among groups. Conclusions The incidence of HCC among Latinos in South Texas is higher than elsewhere in the United States. Higher rates of HCC among Texas and South Texas Latinos may be associated with greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes, risk factors for HCC that are amenable to intervention. PMID:22530052

  11. History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Incident Invasive Breast Cancer among Parous Women in the Nurses' Health Study II Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Powe, Camille E; Tobias, Deirdre K; Michels, Karin B; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Manson, JoAnn E; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Type II diabetes is associated with breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Pregnancy also modifies breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which shares pathogenesis and risk factors with type II diabetes, would have greater invasive breast cancer risk than parous women without a history of GDM.Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis among parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II, with mean age 35 years in 1989. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare risks of incident invasive breast cancer in women with and without a history of GDM.Results: Among 86,972 women studied, 5,188 women reported a history of GDM and 2,377 developed invasive breast cancer (100 with history of GDM, 2,277 without GDM) over 22 years of prospective follow-up. History of GDM was inversely associated with incident invasive breast cancer [HR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.84; P = 0.0004], compared with no history of GDM, after adjustment for body mass index, reproductive history, and other breast cancer risk factors. Findings were similar by menopausal status, although observed person-time was predominantly premenopausal (premenopausal: HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P = 0.03; postmenopausal: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.92; P = 0.02). Restricting to women undergoing mammography screening modestly attenuated the relationship (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.96; P = 0.02).Conclusions: Among a large cohort of U.S. women, history of GDM was not associated with an elevated risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.Impact: Our findings highlight the need to further investigate GDM's role in breast cancer development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 321-7. ©2016 AACR.

  12. Definition, incidence, risk factors, and prevention of paralytic ileus following radical cystectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jorge A; McIntosh, Andrew G; Strehlow, Robert; Lawrence, Valerie A; Parekh, Dipen J; Svatek, Robert S

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative paralytic ileus (POI) has profound clinical consequences because it represents a substantial burden on both patients and health care resources. To determine the knowledge base regarding POI in the radical cystectomy (RC) population with an emphasis on preventive measures and risk factors. A systematic literature search of Medline (1966 to February 2011) and a study review were conducted. Eligible studies explicitly reported the incidence of POI and/or at least two quantitative measures of gastrointestinal recovery. The search identified 727 relevant articles; 77 met eligibility criteria, comprising 13 793 patients. Of these, 21 used explicit definitions of POI, and they varied widely. Across studies, the incidence of POI ranged from 1.58% to 23.5%. Possible risk factors for POI included increasing age and body mass index. Seventeen studies reported effects of an intervention on POI: 3 randomized controlled studies, 11 observational cohort studies with concurrent comparison, and 3 observational cohort studies with nonconcurrent comparison. Gum chewing was associated with shortened times to flatus (2.4 vs 2.9 d; p<0.0001) and bowel movement (BM) (3.2 vs 3.9 d; p<0.001) in one observational cohort study (n=102); omission of a postoperative nasogastric tube (NGT) was associated with shorter time to flatus (4.21 vs 5.33 d; p=0.0001) and shorter length of stay (14.4 vs 19.1 d; p=0.001) in one observational cohort study (n=430); and the routine use of bowel preparation was associated with an increased incidence of POI (5% vs 19%) in another series (n=86). Additionally, readaptation of the dorsolateral peritoneal layer was shown to shorten times to flatus (p=0.016) and times to BM (p=0.011) in one randomized controlled study (n=200). The incidence/definition of POI after RC is highly variable. An improved reporting strategy is needed to identify true incidence and risk factors, and to guide future research for both potential preventive and therapeutic

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Postcontrast Acute Kidney Injury in Survivors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Petek, Bradley J; Bravo, Paco E; Kim, Francis; de Boer, Ian H; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Shuman, William P; Gunn, Martin L; Carlbom, David J; Gill, Edward A; Maynard, Charles; Branch, Kelley R

    2016-04-01

    Survivors of sudden cardiac arrest may be exposed to iodinated contrast from invasive coronary angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography, although the effects on incident acute kidney injury are unknown. The study objective was to determine whether contrast administration within the first 24 hours was associated with acute kidney injury in survivors of sudden cardiac arrest. This cohort study, derived from a prospective clinical trial, included patients with sudden cardiac arrest who survived for 48 hours, had no history of end-stage renal disease, and had at least 2 serum creatinine measurements during hospitalization. The contrast group included patients with exposure to iodinated contrast within 24 hours of sudden cardiac arrest. Incident acute kidney injury and first-time dialysis were compared between contrast and no contrast groups and then controlled for known acute kidney injury risk factors. Of the 199 survivors of sudden cardiac arrest, 94 received iodinated contrast. Mean baseline serum creatinine level was 1.3 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 1.5 mg/dL) for the contrast group and 1.6 mg/dL (95% CI 1.4 to 1.7 mg/dL) for the no contrast group. Incident acute kidney injury was lower in the contrast group (12.8%) than the no contrast group (17.1%; difference 4.4%; 95% CI -9.2% to 17.5%). Contrast administration was not associated with significant increases in incident acute kidney injury within quartiles of baseline serum creatinine level or after controlling for age, sex, race, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and admission serum creatinine level by regression analysis. Older age was independently associated with acute kidney injury. Despite elevated baseline serum creatinine level in most survivors of sudden cardiac arrest, iodinated contrast administration was not associated with incident acute kidney injury even when other acute kidney injury risk factors were controlled for. Thus, although acute kidney injury is not uncommon

  14. Third- and fourth-degree perineal tears--incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Gavish, Oz; Eisner, Michal; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Wasserberg, Nir; Yogev, Yariv

    2013-05-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors for third- and fourth-degree perineal tears (34DPT), and to identify subgroups of women who are at especially high risk for 34DPT. A cohort study of women who underwent vaginal delivery in a single tertiary medical center between 1999 and 2011, (58 937 deliveries). Women diagnosed with 34DPT following delivery were compared to control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and tree classification analysis were used to identify combinations of risk factors which were associated with considerable risk for 34DPT. Overall, 356 (0.6%) deliveries were complicated by 34DPT (340 (95.5%) third-degree tears and 16 (4.5%) fourth-degree tears). Independent predictors of 34DPT were: forceps delivery (odds ratio (OR) = 5.5, confidence interval (CI) 3.9-7.8), precipitate labor (OR = 5.2, CI 2.9-9.2), persistent occiput posterior position (OR = 2.6, CI 1.6-4.3), vacuum extraction (OR = 1.9, CI 1.4-2.6) as well as large for gestational age (LGA) infant and gestational age > 40 weeks. Fourth-degree tears were associated with forceps delivery (OR = 12.5, CI 2.3-66.2), precipitate labor (OR = 9.7, 95%-CI 1.2-75.4) and LGA infant (OR = 7.4, 95%-CI 1.7 -1.5). Overall, the predictability of 34DPT was limited (R(2 )= 0.4). In subgroups of women with certain combinations of risk factors the risk of 34DPT ranged from 10% to 25%. Despite the limited predictability of 34DPT by individual risk factors, the use of combinations of risk factors may assist obstetricians in identifying women who are at especially high risk for 34DPT.

  15. Rosacea, Use of Tetracycline, and Risk of Incident Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Khalili, Hamed; Wu, Shaowei; Chan, Andrew T; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-02-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease. Case reports have shown rosacea as a comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but no epidemiologic studies have examined rosacea and risk of subsequent IBD. The association between tetracycline use and risk of IBD was assessed, but this study produced limited findings. We examined the association between rosacea, use of tetracycline, and risk of incident Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We analyzed data from 96,314 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Information on IBD was confirmed by medical review. Participants were asked in 2005 about their lifetime histories of clinician-diagnosed rosacea and year of diagnosis. Information on ever use of tetracycline was collected in 1993. During 1,856,587 person-years (1991-2011), we identified 149 cases of CD and 215 cases of UC. Rosacea was not associated with risk of UC. In contrast, rosacea was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent CD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.18), which appeared particularly stronger for a longer duration after a diagnosis of rosacea (Ptrend = .01). Tetracycline use was associated with increased risk of CD (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24) and UC (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.80); there was a trend toward increased risk with increased duration of use (both Ptrend < .05) (1993-2011). On the basis of an analysis of data from the Nurses' Health Study II, ever use of tetracycline at baseline is associated with an increased risk of CD and UC. Personal history of rosacea is associated with an increased risk of only CD. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rosacea, Use of Tetracycline, and Risk of Incident Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Khalili, Hamed; Wu, Shaowei; Chan, Andrew T.; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease. Case reports have shown rosacea as a comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but no epidemiologic studies have examined rosacea and risk of subsequent IBD. The association between tetracycline use and risk of IBD was assessed but produced limited findings. We examined the association between rosacea, use of tetracycline, and risk of incident Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods We analyzed data from 96,314 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011). Information on IBD was confirmed by medical review. Participants were asked in 2005 about their lifetime histories of clinician-diagnosed rosacea and year of diagnosis. Information on ever use of tetracycline was collected in 1993. Results During 1,856,587 person-years (1991–2011), we identified 149 cases of CD and 215 cases of UC. Rosacea was not associated with risk of UC. In contrast, rosacea was significantly associated with an increased risk of subsequent CD (hazard ratio [HR]=2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–4.18), which appeared particularly stronger for a longer duration after a diagnosis of rosacea (Ptrend=.01). Tetracycline use was associated with an increased risk of CD (HR=1.56; 95% CI, 1.09–2.24) and UC (HR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.00–1.80); there was a trend toward increased risk with increased duration of use (both Ptrend<.05) (1993–2011). Conclusions Based on an analysis of data from the Nurses’ Health Study II, ever use of tetracycline at baseline is associated with an increased risk of CD and UC. Personal history of rosacea is associated with an increased risk of only CD. PMID:26404866

  17. Incidence of cross infection in liver transplant patients. Risk factors and role of nursinge.

    PubMed

    Cierco Garrido, M Carmen; García Muñoz, Raquel; Pérez Castro, Immaculada; Sanz Moncusi, Miquel

    2017-08-16

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of infection in liver transplant recipients immediately post-transplant, during admission to a liver transplant unit during the immediate post-transplant admission. Descriptive, prospective study performed in the Liver Transplant Unit of Hospital Clínic, Barcelona. All liver transplant recipients between January 2012 and August 2015 (n=241) were included. Statistical analysis was performed with R Commander. Variables were compared with Chi-square and Student's t-test. A value of p≤.05 was considered significant. The incidence of infection was 34.8%. The most frequent infections were bacterial (75.3%), particularly urinary infections (34.6%) caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Independent risk factors for the development of bacterial infections according to multivariate analysis were sex, age and length of hospital stay. Infections are a significant problem in the early post-transplant period, and are associated with longer hospitalisation periods. The role of nursing in preventing infections, by identifying risk factors, correctly applying nursing protocols in insertion, maintenance and early withdrawal of medical devices and fulfilling hand hygiene, is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Incident Major Depressive Episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Cattie, Jordan E.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald R.; Corkran, Stephanie H.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy and depression are inter-related yet separable and prevalent neuropsychiatric disturbances in persons infected with HIV. In the present study of 225 HIV+ persons, we investigated the role of an incident depressive episode in changes in apathy. Participants completed the apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale during a detailed neuropsychiatric and neuromedical evaluation at visit 1 and again at approximately a 14 month follow-up. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to obtain diagnoses of a new major depressive disorder. At their follow-up visit, participants were classified into four groups depending on their visit 1 elevation in apathy and new major depressive episode (MDE) status. Apathetic participants at baseline with a new MDE (n=23) were at risk for continued, clinically elevated apathy at follow-up, although severity of symptoms did not increase. Of the 144 participants without clinically elevated apathy at visit 1, those who developed a new MDE (n=16) had greater apathy symptomatology at follow-up than those without MDE. These findings suggest that HIV+ individuals, who do not as yet present with elevated apathy, may be at greater risk of elevated psychiatric distress should they experience a new/recurrent depressive episode. Thus, in the context of previous findings, it appears that although apathy and depression are separable constructs, they interact such that a new depressive episode is a risk factor for incident apathy. PMID:25679203

  19. Incident major depressive episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Cattie, Jordan E; Marcotte, Thomas D; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald R; Corkran, Stephanie H; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Apathy and depression are inter-related yet separable and prevalent neuropsychiatric disturbances in persons infected with HIV. In the present study of 225 HIV+ persons, we investigated the role of an incident depressive episode in changes in apathy. Participants completed the apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale during a detailed neuropsychiatric and neuromedical evaluation at visit 1 and again at approximately a 14 month follow-up. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to obtain diagnoses of a new major depressive disorder. At their follow-up visit, participants were classified into four groups depending on their visit 1 elevation in apathy and new major depressive episode (MDE) status. Apathetic participants at baseline with a new MDE (n=23) were at risk for continued, clinically elevated apathy at follow-up, although severity of symptoms did not increase. Of the 144 participants without clinically elevated apathy at visit 1, those who developed a new MDE (n=16) had greater apathy symptomatology at follow-up than those without MDE. These findings suggest that HIV+ individuals, who do not as yet present with elevated apathy, may be at greater risk of elevated psychiatric distress should they experience a new/recurrent depressive episode. Thus, in the context of previous findings, it appears that although apathy and depression are separable constructs, they interact such that a new depressive episode is a risk factor for incident apathy.

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Shiraz, Iran: Results of a Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Zhao, Yun; Poorarian, Shahnaz; Binns, Colin W; Scott, Jane A

    2017-06-01

    Approximately one in five Western women who breastfeed are likely to experience acute mastitis. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of acute mastitis in a cohort of Iranian women. Subjects were 672 participants of the Shiraz Infant Feeding Study conducted between June 2014 and March 2015. Mothers were recruited from the maternity ward and followed up at 1, 3, 4, and 6 months postpartum to obtain information on their breastfeeding practices and experiences. The occurrence of acute mastitis in the first 26 weeks postpartum was self-reported and the occurrence of acute mastitis in the first 4 weeks and between 5 and 12 weeks postpartum was treated as separate outcomes. The risk factors for acute mastitis were explored using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In total, 130 mothers (19.3%, 95% confidence interval: 16.3-22.3%) experienced at least one episode of acute mastitis. Having expressed breast milk and use of a pacifier were significantly associated with acute mastitis in both the first 4 weeks and between 5 and 12 weeks postpartum. Persistent problems with cracked or sore nipples, or engorged breasts, and a reduction in breastfeeding were associated with acute mastitis between 5 and 12 weeks. The incidence of acute mastitis experienced by this cohort of Iranian women is similar to that reported for women in Western countries. The risk factors of acute mastitis identified in this study are potentially modifiable and could be prevented or ameliorated with adequate support and anticipatory guidance provided in the early postpartum period.

  1. New-onset diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation in children - Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Swati; Bock, Matthew J; Louks Palac, Hannah; Brickman, Wendy J; Gossett, Jeffrey G; Marino, Bradley S; Backer, Carl L; Pahl, Elfriede

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a recognized complication of SOT in adults and is associated with decreased graft and patient survival. Little is known about NOD in pediatric HT recipients. We aimed to characterize the incidence and describe risk factors for development of NOD after HT in children. Children who developed diabetes after HT were identified from the OPTN database. Demographic and clinical data before and after transplant were compared between patients with and without NOD. A total of 2056 children were included, 56% were male, 54% were Caucasian, and 62% had cardiomyopathy prior to HT. NOD developed in 219 children (11%) after HT. The incidence of NOD was 2.4, 9.0, and 10.4% at one, five, and 10 yr after HT, respectively. Obesity (HR: 4.32), dialysis prior to transplant (HR: 2.38), African American race (HR: 1.86), transplant before year 2000 (HR: 1.82), female gender (HR: 1.68), and older age at transplant (HR: 1.28) were independent predictors of NOD. The major modifiable risk factor for NOD is obesity, imparting the maximum hazard. Improved surveillance for diabetes in high-risk patients and specific prevention and intervention strategies are imperative in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  3. Radiation Risks of Leukemia, Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma Incidence in the Mayak Cohort: 1948–2004

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Irina S.; Labutina, Elena V.; Hunter, Nezahat

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of all types of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML and CML respectively), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other forms of leukemia have been studied in a cohort of 22,373 workers employed at the Mayak Production Association (PA) main facilities during 536,126 person-years of follow-up from the start of employment between 1948 and 1982 to the end of 2004. Risk assessment was performed for both external gamma-radiation and internal alpha-exposure of red bone marrow due to incorporated Pu-239 using Mayak Workers Dosimetry System 2008 taking into account non-radiation factors. The incidence of leukemia excluding CLL showed a non-linear dose response relationship for external gamma exposure with exponential effect modifiers based on time since exposure and age at exposure. Among the major subtypes of leukemia, the excess risk of AML was the highest within the first 2–5 years of external exposure (ERR per Gy: 38.40; 90% CI: 13.92–121.4) and decreased substantially thereafter, but the risks remained statistically significant (ERR per Gy: 2.63; 90% CI: 0.07–12.55). In comparison, excess CML first occurred 5 years after exposure and decreased about 10 years after exposure, although the association was not statistically significant (ERR per Gy: 1.39; 90% CI: -0.22–7.32). The study found no evidence of an association between leukemia and occupational exposure to internal plutonium ERR per Gy 2.13; 90% CI: <0–9.45). There was also no indication of any relationship with either external gamma or internal plutonium radiation exposure for either incidence of Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma. PMID:27631102

  4. Gastric cancer in Africa: what do we know about incidence and risk factors?

    PubMed

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kelly, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Gastric cancer is a major contributor to mortality worldwide, yet its incidence varies widely around the world in a way which our current understanding of aetiology cannot fully explain. Incidence data from Africa are weak, reflecting poor diagnostic resources, but there are firm data on intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy which are important steps in the carcinogenesis pathway. The available registry data suggest that incidence is unlikely to be dramatically different from Europe or North America. Helicobacter pylori infection is an important permissive factor in the development of cancer, but H. pylori seroprevalence is high all over Africa and cannot clearly be correlated with cancer. However, there is evidence that specific bacterial virulence genes, particularly vacA and iceA allele1, do contribute to cancer risk. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy have been the focus of twelve studies and are common in Africa. Epstein-Barr virus, which causes 10% of cancer worldwide, is the focus of only one African study. Work in other continents demonstrates that other risk factors apply only to one or other of the two major histological types, intestinal and diffuse. Diet, smoking, alcohol and salt intake predispose to the intestinal type of cancer, but genetic factors predispose to the diffuse type. There is a pressing need for information on the histological types occurring in Africa, and their associated risk factors. Most urgently, information on dietary predisposition to cancer is required to inform public health policy with respect to the demographic transition (urbanisation and lifestyle changes) which is occurring all over the continent. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors for Early Acute Kidney Injury in Nonsurgical Patients: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Carlos Roberto; Sepúlveda, Oscar Julián; Acosta, Juan Sebastián; Barón, Rafael Andrés; Diaztagle, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the first days of hospitalization could prevent potentially fatal complications. However, epidemiological data are scarce, especially on nonsurgical patients. Objectives. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with AKI within five days of hospitalization (EAKI). Methods. Prospective cohort of patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Department. Results. A total of 16% of 400 patients developed EAKI. The associated risk factors were prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs (2.21 OR; 95% CI 1.12–4.36, p = 0.022), chronic kidney disease (CKD) in stages 3 to 5 (3.56 OR; 95% CI 1.55–8.18, p < 0.003), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) at admission (5.05 OR; 95% CI 1.59–16.0, p < 0.006). The median length of hospital stay was higher among patients who developed EAKI (8 [IQR 5–14] versus 6 [IQR 4–10], p = 0.008) and was associated with an increased requirement for dialysis (4.87 OR 95% CI 2.54 to 8.97, p < 0.001) and in-hospital death (3.45 OR; 95% CI 2.18 to 5.48, p < 0.001). Conclusions. The incidence of EAKI in nonsurgical patients is similar to the worldwide incidence of AKI. The risk factors included CKD from stage 3 onwards, prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs, and VTE at admission. EAKI is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased mortality rate, and dialysis requirement. PMID:28487772

  6. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors in Rural Areas of China: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies. PMID:23554875

  7. Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections: incidence and an analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tan, C C; Zanariah, Y; Lim, K I; Balan, S

    2007-12-01

    Six hundred and fifty-five central venous catheters (CVC) in 496 patients in the intensive care unit of Hospital Sultanah Aminah were studied to determine the incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI). CR-BSI was diagnosed in 38 catheters, giving an incidence of 9.43 CR-BSI per 1000 catheter days. The mean duration in situ was 8.4 +/- 4.9 days for infected CVCs and 6.0 +/- 3.8 days for non infected CVCs (p = 0.001). CVCs inserted in ICU had the highest infection rate (9.4%) compared to those inserted in the operating theatre (1.4%) and ward (2.8%) (p = 0.001). The highest rate of CR-BSI occurred with 4-lumen catheters (usually inserted when patients needed total parenteral nutrition) with a percentage of 15.8%. The majority of the CVCs (97.9%) were inserted via the subclavian or the internal jugular routes and there was no statistical difference in CR-BSI between them (p = 0.83). Number of attempts more than one had a higher rate of CR-BSI compared to single attempt with percentage of 7.0% vs 4.8% (p = 0.22). The top two organisms were Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In conclusion, the incidence of CR-BSI in our ICU was 9.43 CR-BSI per 1000 catheter days. The risk factors were duration of CVC in situ, venue of insertion and use of 4 lumen catheter for total parenteral nutrition. The site of insertion, number of lumen up to 3 lumens and the number of attempts were not risk factors.

  8. Altered renal sodium handling and risk of incident hypertension: Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, Lanfranco; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; Galletti, Ferruccio; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study). The study included 294 untreated normotensive non-diabetic men with normal renal function examined twice (1994–95 and 2002–04). Renal tubular Na handling was estimated by exogenous lithium clearance. Fractional reabsorption of Na in proximal and distal tubules was calculated and included in the analysis. At baseline, there was no association between BP and either proximal or distal fractional reabsorption of Na. At the end of the 8-year follow-up, direct associations were observed between baseline proximal (but not distal) Na fractional reabsorption and the changes occurred in systolic and diastolic BP over time (+2.79 and +1.53 mmHg, respectively, per 1SD difference in proximal Na-FR; p<0.01). Also multivariable analysis showed a direct association between baseline proximal Na fractional reabsorption and risk of incident hypertension, independently of potential confounders (OR: 1.34, 95%CI:1.06–1.70). The results of this prospective investigation strongly suggest a causal relationship between an enhanced rate of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule and the risk of incident hypertension in initially normotensive men. PMID:28196131

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  10. Blood pressure and risk of cancer incidence and mortality in the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Tanja; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Ulmer, Hanno; Hallmans, Göran; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Nagel, Gabriele; Tretli, Steinar; Concin, Hans; Engeland, Anders; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2012-04-01

    Observational studies have shown inconsistent results for the association between blood pressure and cancer risk. We investigated the association in 7 cohorts from Norway, Austria, and Sweden. In total, 577799 adults with a mean age of 44 years were followed for, on average, 12 years. Incident cancers were 22184 in men and 14744 in women, and cancer deaths were 8724 and 4525, respectively. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of cancer per 10-mmHg increments of midblood pressure, which corresponded with 0.7 SDs and, for example, an increment of systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 130/80 to 142/88 mmHg. All of the models used age as the time scale and were adjusted for possible confounders, including body mass index and smoking status. In men, midblood pressure was positively related to total incident cancer (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg increment: 1.07 [95% CI: 1.04-1.09]) and to cancer of the oropharynx, colon, rectum, lung, bladder, kidney, malignant melanoma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. In women, midblood pressure was not related to total incident cancer but was positively related to cancer of the liver, pancreas, cervix, uterine corpus, and malignant melanoma. A positive association was also found for cancer mortality, with HRs per 10-mmHg increment of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08-1.15) for men and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11) for women. These results suggest a small increased cancer risk overall in men with elevated blood pressure level and a higher risk for cancer death in men and women.

  11. Surgical site infection complicating internal fixation of fractures: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Thanni, Lateef O. A.; Aigoro, Nofiu O.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data on surgical site infections (SSIs) complicating internal fixation of fractures from Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the incidence and risk factors for SSIs following internal fixation of fracture. METHODS: A cohort of 90 patients with long bone fractures that were stabilized internally with metallic devices was studied prospectively and retrospectively. RESULTS: The incidence of SSI was 12%. The isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in four patients, Pseudomonas spp. in three, and Escherichia coli in one patient. Diabetes mellitus and perioperative transfusion with allogeneic blood were not predictive of SSI. Duration of operation longer than 120 minutes was a strong predictor (OR 2.25, 95% CL 0.48-10.16). Other risk factors were male sex (OR 2.01, 95% CL 0.44-10.45), injury-operation interval less than six months (OR 2.00, 95% CL 0.22-46.08), fracture fixation with plates and screws (OR 1.51, 95% CL 0.36-6.40), white blood cell count (WBC) less than 5,000 per cumm (OR 1.50, 95% CL 0.15-16.37), preoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.48, 95% CL 0.00-16.19), and postoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.24, 95% CL 0.29-5.00). CONCLUSION: The incidence of SSI after internal fixation of long bone fractures in our centers is 12%, and this is within the previously reported range. Use of plates and screws, WBC less than 5,000 per cumm, and perioperative urinary catheterization are important risk factors. PMID:15303412

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies.

  13. Clostridium difficile colitis: increasing incidence, risk factors, and outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Marylise; Al-Shaibi, Maha; Chan, Gabriel; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Rahme, Elham; Paraskevas, Steven; Deschenes, Marc; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Fernandez, Myriam; Giannetti, Nadia; Cecere, Renzo; Hassanain, Mazen; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Metrakos, Peter; Tchervenkov, Jean; Barkun, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-27

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is an increasingly important diagnosis in solid organ transplant recipients, with rising incidence and mortality. We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of colectomy for CDAD after solid organ transplantation. Patients with CDAD were identified from a prospective transplant database. Complicated Clostridium difficile colitis (CCDC) was defined as CDAD associated with graft loss, total colectomy, or death. From 1999 to 2010, we performed solid organ transplants for 1331 recipients at our institution. The incidence of CDAD was 12.4% (165 patients); it increased from 4.5% (1999) to 21.1% (2005) and finally 9.5% (2010). The peak frequency of CDAD was between 6 and 10 days posttransplantation. Age more than 55 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.16-1.81), induction with antithymocyte globulin (HR: 1.43, 95% CI=1.075-1.94), and transplant other than kidney alone (liver, heart, pancreas, or combined kidney organ) (HR: 1.41, 95% CI=1.05-1.92) were significant independent risk factors for CDAD. CCDC occurred in 15.8% of CDAD cases. Independent predictors of CCDC were white blood cell count more than 25,000/μL (HR: 1.08, 95% CI=1.025-1.15) and evidence of pancolitis on computed tomography scan (HR: 2.52, 95% CI=1.195-5.35). Six patients with CCDC underwent colectomy with 83% patient survival and 20% graft loss. Of the medically treated patients with CCDC (n=20), the patient survival was 35% with 100% graft loss. We have identified significant risk factors for CDAD and predictors of progression to CCDC. Furthermore, we found that colectomy can be performed with excellent survival in selected patients.

  14. Neutron equivalent doses and associated lifetime cancer incidence risks for head & neck and spinal proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Basit S.; Paganetti, Harald

    2009-08-01

    In this work we have simulated the absorbed equivalent doses to various organs distant to the field edge assuming proton therapy treatments of brain or spine lesions. We have used computational whole-body (gender-specific and age-dependent) voxel phantoms and considered six treatment fields with varying treatment volumes and depths. The maximum neutron equivalent dose to organs near the field edge was found to be approximately 8 mSv Gy-1. We were able to clearly demonstrate that organ-specific neutron equivalent doses are age (stature) dependent. For example, assuming an 8-year-old patient, the dose to brain from the spinal fields ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 mSv Gy-1, whereas the dose to the brain assuming a 9-month-old patient ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mSv Gy-1. Further, as the field aperture opening increases, the secondary neutron equivalent dose caused by the treatment head decreases, while the secondary neutron equivalent dose caused by the patient itself increases. To interpret the dosimetric data, we analyzed second cancer incidence risks for various organs as a function of patient age and field size based on two risk models. The results show that, for example, in an 8-year-old female patient treated with a spinal proton therapy field, breasts, lungs and rectum have the highest radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence risks. These are estimated to be 0.71%, 1.05% and 0.60%, respectively. For an 11-year-old male patient treated with a spinal field, bronchi and rectum show the highest risks of 0.32% and 0.43%, respectively. Risks for male and female patients increase as their age at treatment time decreases.

  15. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (ptrend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (ptrend  < 0.0001), compared with no baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp.

  16. Incidence and predictive risk factors of postoperative sepsis in orthopedic trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Lakomkin, Nikita; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Wick, Brandon; Shen, Michelle S; Jahangir, A Alex; Mir, Hassan; Obremskey, William T; Dodd, Ashley C; Sethi, Manish K

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative sepsis is associated with high mortality and the national costs of septicemia exceed those of any other diagnosis. While numerous studies in the basic orthopedic science literature suggest that traumatic injuries facilitate the development of sepsis, it is currently unclear whether orthopedic trauma patients are at increased risk. The purpose of this study was thus to assess the incidence of sepsis and determine the risk factors that significantly predicted septicemia following orthopedic trauma surgery. 56,336 orthopedic trauma patients treated between 2006 and 2013 were identified in the ACS-NSQIP database. Documentation of postoperative sepsis/septic shock, demographics, surgical variables, and preoperative comorbidities was collected. Chi-squared analyses were used to assess differences in the rates of sepsis between trauma and nontrauma groups. Binary multivariable regressions identified risk factors that significantly predicted the development of postoperative septicemia in orthopedic trauma patients. There was a significant difference in the overall rates of both sepsis and septic shock between orthopedic trauma (1.6%) and nontrauma (0.5%) patients (p < 0.001). For orthopedic trauma patients, ventilator use (OR = 15.1, p = 0.002), history of pain at rest (OR = 2.8, p = 0.036), and prior sepsis (OR = 2.6, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with septicemia. Statistically predictive, modifiable comorbidities included hypertension (OR = 2.1, p = 0.003) and the use of corticosteroids (OR = 2.1, p = 0.016). There is a significantly greater incidence of postoperative sepsis in the trauma cohort. Clinicians should be aware of these predictive characteristics, may seek to counsel at-risk patients, and should consider addressing modifiable risk factors such as hypertension and corticosteroid use preoperatively. Level of evidence Level III.

  17. Incidence, presentation and risk factors of late postoperative pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Niina K; Järvelä, Kati M; Loisa, Eetu L; Sutinen, Jaakko A; Laurikka, Jari O; Khan, Jahangir A

    2017-06-01

    Occurrence and risk factors of late postoperative pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment, i.e. pretamponade and tamponade, following cardiac surgery are incompletely described in current literature. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and presentation of late pretamponade and tamponade as well as to outline significant predisposing factors. A cohort of 1356 consecutive cardiac surgery patients treated in a tertiary academic centre between January 2013 and December 2014 was followed up for 6 months after surgery. Pericardial effusion was considered late when presenting after the 7th postoperative day. The incidence, timing and risk factors, as well as symptoms and clinical findings associated with late pretamponade and tamponade in patients surviving at least 7 days was analysed. Of 1308 patients included in the analysis, 81 (6.2%) underwent invasive treatment for late postoperative pericardial effusion, 27 (2.1%) for pretamponade and 54 (4.1%) for tamponade, respectively, with a median delay of 11 (range 8-87) days after the primary operation. Haemodynamic instability was present in 34.6%, signs of cardiac chamber compression in 54.3% and subjective symptoms, mostly dyspnoea, in 56.8% of patients, respectively. Treated patients were younger, had lower EuroSCORE-II rating, less coronary disease, better cardiac function, higher preoperative haemoglobin values and had mostly undergone elective surgery involving cardiac valves. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors were single valve surgery and high preoperative haemoglobin level, whereas age 60-69 years was associated with lower risk. Younger, generally healthier patients undergoing valve surgery are at greatest risk for developing late tamponade or pretamponade.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection in Chinese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yao; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Yi-Yang; Huang, Cih-En; Kuan, Feng-Che; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lu, Chang Hsien

    2015-11-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy via central venous access ports is an important part of the standard treatment for most cancers, but it is accompanied with the risk of infections. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection (CPI) among Chinese patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005 a total of 1391 cancer patients with 1449 totally implantable central venous access ports were evaluated. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the analyses of risk factors. The overall CPI incidence rate was 0.21 per 1000 catheter-days. Hematological malignancies and head and neck cancer were associated with an increased risk of CPI (hazard ratio 4.00 and 4.11, respectively, both p < 0.001) and less infection-free catheter longevity (p < 0.001) compared with other cancer types. Chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting was associated with a lower risk of infection than for patients in a nonadjuvant setting (p < 0.001). The most common pathogens isolated from CPI were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida. Infection remains to be a challenging issue for totally implantable central venous ports. Implementation of an insertion bundle for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections is warranted, especially for those patients with hematological and head and neck cancers, as well as for patients receiving chemotherapy in the metastatic settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Joks, Monika; Czyż, Anna; Popławski, Dariusz; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered.

  20. Paradoxical Association of Enhanced Cholesterol Efflux With Increased Incident Cardiovascular Risks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Min; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson; Mosior, Marian K.; Huang, Ying; Wu, Yuping; Matter, William; Gao, Vivian; Schmitt, David; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Fisher, Edward A.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diminished cholesterol efflux activity of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–depleted serum is associated with prevalent coronary artery disease, but its prognostic value for incident cardiovascular events is unclear. We investigated the relationship of cholesterol efflux activity with both prevalent coronary artery disease and incident development of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke). Approach and Results Cholesterol efflux activity from free cholesterol–enriched macrophages was measured in 2 case– control cohorts: (1) an angiographic cohort (n=1150) comprising stable subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography and (2) an outpatient cohort (n=577). Analysis of media from cholesterol efflux assays revealed that the high-density lipoprotein fraction (1.063risk of prevalent coronary artery disease in unadjusted models within both cohorts; however, the inverse risk relationship remained significant after adjustment for traditional coronary artery disease risk factors only within the outpatient cohort. Surprisingly, higher cholesterol efflux activity was associated with increase in prospective (3 years) risk of myocardial infarction/stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–4.74) and major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–3.06). Conclusions Heightened cholesterol efflux to apoB-depleted serum was paradoxically associated with increased prospective risk for myocardial

  1. Are Cardiovascular Risk Factors also Associated with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation?

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Victoria; Honarbakhsh, Shohreh; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Wallace, Joshua; Hunter, Ross; Schilling, Richard; Perel, Pablo; Morley, Katherine; Banerjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Summary Established primary prevention strategies of cardiovascular diseases are based on understanding of risk factors, but whether the same risk factors are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and field synopsis of the associations of 23 cardiovascular risk factors and incident AF, which included 84 reports based on 28 consented and four electronic health record cohorts of 20,420,175 participants and 576,602 AF events. We identified 3-19 reports per risk factor and heterogeneity in AF definition, quality of reporting, and adjustment. We extracted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals [CI] and visualised the number of reports with inverse (RR [CI]<1.00), or direct (RR [CI]>1.00) associations. For hypertension (13/17 reports) and obesity (19/19 reports), there were direct associations with incident AF, as there are for coronary heart disease (CHD). There were inverse associations for non-White ethnicity (5/5 reports, with RR from 0.35 to 0.84 [0.82–0.85]), total cholesterol (4/13 reports from 0.76 [0.59–0.98] to 0.94 [0.90–0.97]; 8/13 reports with non-significant inverse associations), and diastolic blood pressure (2/11 reports from 0.87 [0.78–0.96] to 0.92 [0.85–0.99]; 5/11 reports with non-significant inverse associations), and direct associations for taller height (7/10 reports from 1.03 [1.02–1.05] to 1.92 [1.38–2.67]), which are in the opposite direction of known associations with CHD. A systematic evaluation of the available evidence suggests similarities as well as important differences in the risk factors for incidence of AF as compared with other cardiovascular diseases, which has implications for the primary prevention strategies for atrial fibrillation. PMID:28229164

  2. [Incidence of non-communicable diseases and health risks due to potable water quality].

    PubMed

    Skudarnov, S E; Kurkatov, S V

    2011-01-01

    Iron and fluorine concentrations and water mineralization and hardness, which exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations, were found to cause an increase in overall morbidity and morbidity from skeletal-and-muscular, urogenital, and digestive system involvement in the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region. A quantitative relationship were found between the concentrations of iron, the hardness and dry residue of water and the incidence rates of urogenital, skeletal-and-muscular and digestive diseases. The consumption of potable water contaminated with chloroform and methane tetrachloride presents unacceptable carcinogenic risks to the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region.

  3. Incidence of and risk factors for surgical site infections in women undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Taru; Pasanen, Annukka; Leminen, Arto; Bützow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and risk factors for, surgical site infections in a contemporary cohort of women with endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively studied 1164 women treated for endometrial carcinoma by hysterectomy at a single institution in 2007-2013. In all, 912 women (78.4%) had minimally invasive hysterectomy. Data on surgical site infections were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections. Ninety-four women (8.1%) were diagnosed with a surgical site infection. Twenty women (1.7%) had an incisional infection and 74 (6.4%) had an organ/space infection. The associations of 17 clinico-pathologic and surgical variables were tested by univariate analyses. Those variables that were identified as potential risk factors in univariate analyses (p < 0.15) were used in logistic regression models with incisional and organ/space infections as dependent variables. Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), diabetes, and long operative time (>80th centile) were independently associated with a higher risk of incisional infection, whereas minimally invasive surgery was associated with a smaller risk. Smoking, conversion to laparotomy, and lymphadenectomy were associated with a higher risk of organ/space infection. Organ/space infections comprised the majority of surgical site infections. Risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections differed. Minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a smaller risk of incisional infections but not of organ/space infections. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Personal History of Prostate Cancer and Increased Risk of Incident Melanoma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Ma, Jing; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Han, Jiali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Steroid hormones, particularly androgens, play a major role in prostatic carcinogenesis. Personal history of severe acne, a surrogate for higher androgen activity, has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and one recent study indicated that severe teenage acne was a novel risk factor for melanoma. These findings suggest a possible relationship between PCa and risk of melanoma. We prospectively evaluated this association among US men. Methods A total of 42,372 participants in the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986 to 2010) were included. Biennially self-reported PCa diagnosis was confirmed using pathology reports. Diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was self-reported biennially, and diagnosis of melanoma was pathologically confirmed. We sought to confirm the association in 18,603 participants from the Physicians' Health Study (PHS; 1982 to 1998). Results We identified 539 melanomas in the HPFS. Personal history of PCa was associated with an increased risk of melanoma (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.54). Although we also detected a marginally increased risk of NMSC associated with PCa (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.995 to 1.16), the difference in the magnitude of the association between melanoma and NMSC was significant (P for heterogeneity = .002). We did not find an altered risk of melanoma associated with personal history of other cancers. The association between PCa and risk of incident melanoma was confirmed in the PHS (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.21). Conclusion Personal history of PCa is associated with an increased risk of melanoma, which may not be entirely a result of greater medical scrutiny. PMID:24190118

  5. Traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma in a high-risk birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Becker, Allan; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Brauer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The risk of incident asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity associated with early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the risk of new onset asthma is positively associated with early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in a well-characterised high-risk birth cohort. Infants at high-risk for asthma were recruited for an intervention study. Birth year exposures to NO, NO(2), black carbon and PM(2.5) were estimated by land use regression. At 7 years of age, asthma was assessed by a paediatric allergist and bronchial hyper-reactivity was measured by methacholine challenge. Associations between exposures and outcomes were analysed by stepwise multiple logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Exposure estimates were available for 184 children; 23 were diagnosed with asthma and 68 with bronchial hyper-reactivity. The IQR (4.1 μg/m(3)) of birth year PM(2.5) was associated with a significantly increased risk of asthma (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.4) and with a trend to increased risk of bronchial hyper-reactivity. Similar findings were noted in association with NO and NO(2), while black carbon did not appear to confer increased risk. Modest elevations in exposure to some traffic-related air pollutants during the year of birth are associated with new onset asthma assessed at age 7. That significant associations were revealed in spite of a limited sample size emphasises the strengths of a high-risk birth cohort model, along with individual air pollution exposure estimates and well-characterised data on covariates and outcomes.

  6. The Risk Implications of Globalisation: An Exploratory Analysis of 105 Major Industrial Incidents (1971–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits work on the socio-political amplification of risk, which predicts that those living in developing countries are exposed to greater risk than residents of developed nations. This prediction contrasts with the neoliberal expectation that market driven improvements in working conditions within industrialising/developing nations will lead to global convergence of hazard exposure levels. It also contradicts the assumption of risk society theorists that there will be an ubiquitous increase in risk exposure across the globe, which will primarily affect technically more advanced countries. Reviewing qualitative evidence on the impact of structural adjustment reforms in industrialising countries, the export of waste and hazardous waste recycling to these countries and new patterns of domestic industrialisation, the paper suggests that workers in industrialising countries continue to face far greater levels of hazard exposure than those of developed countries. This view is confirmed when a data set including 105 major multi-fatality industrial disasters from 1971 to 2000 is examined. The paper concludes that there is empirical support for the predictions of socio-political amplification of risk theory, which finds clear expression in the data in a consistent pattern of significantly greater fatality rates per industrial incident in industrialising/developing countries. PMID:26978378

  7. SAFETY OF INTRAVITREAL DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANT (OZURDEX): The SAFODEX study. Incidence and Risk Factors of Ocular Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malclès, Ariane; Dot, Corinne; Voirin, Nicolas; Vié, Anne-Laure; Agard, Émilie; Bellocq, David; Denis, Philippe; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the incidence, risk factors, and time course of intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex). The medical charts of 421 consecutive eyes (361 patients) receiving one or more Ozurdex implant between October 2010 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure of at least 25 mmHg or an increase of at least 10 mmHg from baseline. The main indications for treatment were retinal vein occlusion (34%), diabetic macular edema (30%), postsurgical macular edema (17%), uveitis (14%), and other etiologies (5%). Among 1,000 intravitreal injections, ocular hypertension was recorded for 28.5% of injected eyes over a mean follow-up period of 16.8 months (3-55). Intraocular pressure-lowering medication was required for 31% of eyes. Only three eyes with preexisting glaucoma required filtering surgery to manage postinjection intraocular pressure elevation. Early retreatment between the third and fourth month does not increase the risk of intraocular pressure elevation. Younger age, male sex, Type 1 diabetes, preexisting glaucoma treated with dual or triple therapy, and a history of retinal vein occlusion or uveitis were significant risk factors for ocular hypertension after dexamethasone implant injection (P < 0.05 for all the above). Episodes of ocular hypertension after Ozurdex implant were generally transient and successfully managed with topical treatment. An analysis of the risk factors may help to determine the risk-benefit ratio for individual patients treated with dexamethasone implants.

  8. The Risk Implications of Globalisation: An Exploratory Analysis of 105 Major Industrial Incidents (1971-2010).

    PubMed

    Beck, Matthias

    2016-03-10

    This paper revisits work on the socio-political amplification of risk, which predicts that those living in developing countries are exposed to greater risk than residents of developed nations. This prediction contrasts with the neoliberal expectation that market driven improvements in working conditions within industrialising/developing nations will lead to global convergence of hazard exposure levels. It also contradicts the assumption of risk society theorists that there will be an ubiquitous increase in risk exposure across the globe, which will primarily affect technically more advanced countries. Reviewing qualitative evidence on the impact of structural adjustment reforms in industrialising countries, the export of waste and hazardous waste recycling to these countries and new patterns of domestic industrialisation, the paper suggests that workers in industrialising countries continue to face far greater levels of hazard exposure than those of developed countries. This view is confirmed when a data set including 105 major multi-fatality industrial disasters from 1971 to 2000 is examined. The paper concludes that there is empirical support for the predictions of socio-political amplification of risk theory, which finds clear expression in the data in a consistent pattern of significantly greater fatality rates per industrial incident in industrialising/developing countries.

  9. Incidence and risk of hypomagnesemia in advanced cancer patients treated with cetuximab: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Long; Li, Hao; Liu, Bing; Zou, Zui

    2013-06-01

    Hypomagnesemia is a serious adverse event for patients treated with cetuximab, an inhibitor of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, no significant association has yet been established between cetuximab and hypomagnesemia in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published RCTs to assess the overall risk of hypomagnesemia associated with cetuximab. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences were searched for relevant RCTs. Quantitative analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and cetuximab. A total of 7,045 patients with a variety of advanced cancers from 10 trials were included in the analysis. The overall incidence of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab was 3.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6-4.3%]. Patients treated with cetuximab had a significantly increased risk of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk (RR) of 8.60 (95% CI, 5.08-14.54). Risk was observed to vary with tumor type. The study concluded that cetuximab is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia in patients with advanced cancer receiving concurrent chemotherapy.

  10. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motor neuron disease (MND) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. Methods 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. Findings During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 – 2·7) to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 – 15·3) per 100,000 women aged 50–54 to 70–74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03). There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (pfor trend = 0·009): obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m2 or more) had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to <25 Kg/m2)(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03). This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Interpretation MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease. PMID:22559076

  11. Incidence of and risk factors for motor neurone disease in UK women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Pat; Brown, Anna; Beral, Valerie; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane

    2012-05-06

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 - 2·7) to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 - 15·3) per 100,000 women aged 50-54 to 70-74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03). There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (p(for trend) = 0·009): obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m(2) or more) had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to <25 Kg/m(2))(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03). This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  12. Worldwide Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: Update on Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Francesco; Regalbuto, Concetto; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the last decades, thyroid cancer incidence has continuously and sharply increased all over the world. This review analyzes the possible reasons of this increase. Summary. Many experts believe that the increased incidence of thyroid cancer is apparent, because of the increased detection of small cancers in the preclinical stage. However, a true increase is also possible, as suggested by the observation that large tumors have also increased and gender differences and birth cohort effects are present. Moreover, thyroid cancer mortality, in spite of earlier diagnosis and better treatment, has not decreased but is rather increasing. Therefore, some environmental carcinogens in the industrialized lifestyle may have specifically affected the thyroid. Among potential carcinogens, the increased exposure to medical radiations is the most likely risk factor. Other factors specific for the thyroid like increased iodine intake and increased prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis cannot be excluded, while other factors like the increasing prevalence of obesity are not specific for the thyroid. Conclusions. The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is most likely due to a combination of an apparent increase due to more sensitive diagnostic procedures and of a true increase, a possible consequence of increased population exposure to radiation and to other still unrecognized carcinogens. PMID:23737785

  13. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in a large footwear factory.

    PubMed

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Dano, C; Fanello, S; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a large modern footwear factory and to identify factors predictive of CTS. To this end, 199 workers were examined in 1996, and 162 of them were re-examined in 1997. Ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors of CTS were assessed by workpost analysis and self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of CTS at baseline in 1996 and in 1997 was 16.6% (95%CI: 11.4-21.7) and 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-16.8), respectively. The incidence rate of CTS in 1997 was 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-7.8). No specific type of job performance was associated with CTS. Obesity (OR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.1-17.1) and psychological distress at baseline (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.0-18.6) were strongly predictive of CTS. Rapid trigger movements of the fingers were also predictive of CTS (OR = 3.8; 95%CI: 1.0-17.2). A strict control of thework by superiors was negatively associatedwith CTS (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.3). The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were largely higher than in the general population and numerous industries. The study highlights the role of psychological distress in workers exposed to a high level of physical exposure and psychological demand.

  14. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  15. Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease Increases the Risk of Incident Stroke and Mortality: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Clinton B; Dong, Chuanhui; Perez, Enmanuel J; De Rosa, Janet; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Rundek, Tatjana; DeCarli, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2017-08-28

    The effects of white matter hyperintensity volume and subclinical brain infarcts on the risk of incident stroke, its ischemic subtypes, and mortality require further study in diverse samples. Stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study underwent magnetic resonance imaging (N=1287; mean age 71±9 years, 60% women, 15% non-Hispanic white, 17% non-Hispanic black, 68% Hispanic) and were followed for a median of 8 years (interquartile range: 6-9 years). Cox models estimated proportional hazards of incident stroke of all types, ischemic stroke (and its subtypes), and mortality and stratified by race/ethnicity. In total 72 participants (6%) had incident strokes and 244 died (19%). In fully adjusted models, those with larger white matter hyperintensity volume had greater risk of all stroke types (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), ischemic stroke (HR: 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), and cryptogenic stroke (HR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4). White and black but not Hispanic participants had increased stroke risk (P<0.05 for heterogeneity for all and ischemic stroke). Those with subclinical brain infarct had greater risk for all stroke types (HR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), ischemic stroke (HR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.8), lacunar (HR: 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3-12.3), and cryptogenic stroke (HR: 3.6; 95% CI, 1.0-12.7), without significant heterogeneity across race/ethnic groups. Greater white matter hyperintensity volume increased both vascular (HR: 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) and nonvascular (HR: 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5) mortality among Hispanic and white but not black participants (P=0.040 for heterogeneity). Subclinical brain infarct was associated with increased vascular mortality among Hispanic participants only (HR: 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.8). In this urban US sample, subclinical cerebrovascular lesions increased the risk of clinical stroke and vascular mortality and varied by race/ethnicity and lesion type. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by

  16. Baseline subjective memory complaints associate with increased risk of incident dementia: the PREADVISE trial.

    PubMed

    Abner, E L; Kryscio, R J; Caban-Holt, A M; Schmitt, F A

    2015-03-01

    Subjective memory complaints reflect patient-identified deficits in memory and have been linked to increased risk of future dementia in nondemented (including cognitively intact) older adults. To assess the risk of incident dementia during follow-up for participants in the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease with Vitamin E and Selenium (PREADVISE) study who reported memory complaints at baseline. Double-blind, placebo controlled 2×2 randomized controlled trial that transformed into an observational cohort following discontinuation of supplementation in the SELECT parent trial. PREADVISE participants were assessed at 130 local clinical study sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico during the controlled trial phase and were later followed by telephone from a centralized location during the observational phase. PREADVISE enrolled a total of 7,547 nondemented men over the age of 60; 4,271 consented to participation in the observational study. Participants were interviewed at baseline for memory complaints. The Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) was administered to each participant at the annual memory screening. Participants who failed the MIS also received a more detailed neurocognitive assessment: an expanded Consortium to Establish a Registry in Alzheimer's Disease (CERADe) neuropsychological battery was used during the RCT, and the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) was used during the observational study. Participants who failed the second screen were asked to have a memory work-up with a local physician and to share their medical records with PREADVISE. Subgroups of men who did not fail the MIS were also asked to complete the CERADe battery and TICS-m for validation purposes. Additional measures collected include self-reported medical history, medication use, and the AD8 Dementia Screening Test. After controlling for important risk factors for dementia, Cox proportional hazards regression revealed that men who reported memory

  17. Incidence and risk factors of iron deficiency anemia in term infants.

    PubMed

    Tantracheewathorn, Supapan; Lohajaroensub, Sirin

    2005-01-01

    To compare the incidence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants and to identify the risk factors of IDA in these infants. Cohort study. A study of 140 full- term infants (70 BF and 70 FF) was conducted at BMA Medical College and Vajira Hospital from February 2002 to November 2003. All infants were followed at the age of 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months for growth and developmental assessment. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at 9 - 12 months; and infants with Hb < 11.0 g/dl were further investigated for the cause of anemia. The mean values of Hb, Hct, MCV and serum ferritin of BF infants were 10.8 g/dl, 32.8%, 70.9fl and 16.7 ng/ml respectively, which were significantly lower than those of FF infants (11.4 g/dl, 35.1%, 73.3fl, and 36.9 ng/ml, p < 0. 05). Anemia was found in 27 BF infants (38.6%) compared with 10 FF infants (14.39%). The incidence of IDA in BF infants was significantly higher than FF infants (25.7% vs 2.9%, p < 0.001). Risk factors of IDA included low birth weight, breastfeeding and inadequate complementary food (adjusted RR (95% CI): 3.1(1.1 - 9.1), 6.3(1.5 - 25.0), 7.7(2.8 - 20.0), respectively). IDA is more prevalent in BF than FF infants. Risk factors of IDA are low birth weight, breastfeeding and inadequate complementary food. Prevention of IDA in infants should be achieved through adequate iron-rich complementary food and screening for Hb or Hct at 9 - 12 months of age in high risk infants.

  18. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  19. Injury patterns in Swedish elite athletics: annual incidence, injury types and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sverker; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Renström, Per A

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the incidence, type and severity of musculoskeletal injuries in youth and adult elite athletics athletes and to explore risk factors for sustaining injuries. Prospective cohort study conducted during a 52-week period. Male and female youth and adult athletics athletes ranked in the top 10 in Sweden (n=292). 199 (68%) athletes reported an injury during the study season. Ninety-six per cent of the reported injuries were non-traumatic (associated with overuse). Most injuries (51%) were severe, causing a period of absence from normal training exceeding 3 weeks. Log-rank tests revealed risk differences with regard to athlete category (p=0.046), recent previous injury (>3 weeks time-loss; p=0.039) and training load rank index (TLRI; p=0.019). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that athletes in the third (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.78) and fourth TLRI quartiles (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.74) had almost a twofold increased risk of injury compared with their peers in the first quartile and interaction effects between athlete category and previous injury; youth male athletes with a previous serious injury had more than a fourfold increased risk of injury (HR=4.39; 95% CI 2.20 to 8.77) compared with youth females with no previous injury. The injury incidence among both youth and adult elite athletics athletes is high. A training load index combing hours and intensity and a history of severe injury the previous year were predictors for injury. Further studies on measures to quantify training content and protocols for safe return to athletics are warranted.

  20. Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Jo; Boland, Patrick J.; Meredith, Dennis S.; Lis, Eric; Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya J.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

  1. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-11-10

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  2. Wound complications after distal humerus fracture fixation: incidence, risk factors, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Tom M; Ahmadi, Shahryar; Morrey, Bernard F; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín

    2014-02-01

    This study set out to accurately determine the incidence of wound complications after distal humerus fracture fixation, to assess risk factors, and to determine their implications on outcome. Eighty-nine distal humerus fractures (mean patient age, 58 years) were treated with internal fixation at an average of 4 days after injury. Mean follow-up time was 15 months (range, 6-72 months). Twenty-nine (33%) fractures were open. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine wound complications. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine associated risk factors. Fourteen patients (15.7%) developed a major wound complication requiring on average 2.5 (range, 1-6) additional surgical procedures. Six patients required plastic surgical soft tissue coverage. All 14 fractures complicated by wound problems united. The final mean range of motion in the major wound complication group was 100° (range, 65°-130°), compared with 100° (range, 10°-140°) in those with no or minor wound problems. Grade III open fractures and the use of a plate to stabilize the olecranon osteotomy were identified as significant risk factors for development of major wound complications. The incidence of major wound complications after fixation of distal humerus fractures is substantial. The presence of a grade III open fracture and the use of an olecranon osteotomy stabilized with a plate are significant risk factors for major wound complications. Fracture healing rates and functional elbow range of motion do not appear to be affected by major wound complications when they are handled with proper soft tissue coverage techniques. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes. PMID:27648989

  4. Incidence and risk factors of injuries in Brazilian elite handball players: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giroto, N; Hespanhol Junior, L C; Gomes, M R C; Lopes, A D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for handball injuries in Brazilian elite handball players. Overall, 339 athletes from 21 handball teams who participated in the two main Brazilian championships were followed up during a season. In total, 312 injuries were reported by 201 athletes. The injury incidence rate during training was 3.7/1000 h, and during matches was 20.3/1000 matches. Ankle (19.4%, n = 46) and knee (13.5%, n = 32) were the body regions most affected by traumatic injuries. Shoulders (44.0%, n = 33) and knee (26.7%, n = 20) were the body regions most affected by overuse injuries. Muscle injuries (27.1%, n = 68) was the traumatic injury type most reported. Tendinopathy (91.8%, n = 56) was the overuse injury type most observed. Previous injury (OR: 2.42, CI 95%: 1.51-3.89) and an additional match per week (OR: 1.31, CI 95%: 1.05-1.62) were associated with a higher risk of overuse injury. Female athletes (OR: 1.56, CI 95%: 1.08-2.25) and an additional hour of training per week (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.02-1.15) were associated with a higher risk of traumatic injury. This study showed that athletes with previous injury have shown a high risk of developing an overuse injury.

  5. [Apnoea in infants with bronchiolitis: Incidence and risk factors for a prediction model].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Ramírez-Álvarez, María; Martínez García, Yasmina; Artacho-González, Lourdes; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-05-04

    The presence of apnoea in acute bronchiolitis (AB) varies between 1.2% and 28.8%, depending on the series, and is one of its most fearsome complications. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of apnoea in hospitalised patients diagnosed with AB, and to define their associated risk factors in order to construct a prediction model. A retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in the last 5 years with a diagnosis of AB, according to the classic criteria. Data was collected on the frequency of apnoea and related clinical variables to find risk factors in a binary logistic regression model for the prediction of apnoea. A ROC curve was developed with the model. Apnoea was recorded during the admission of 53 (4.4%) patients out of a total 1,197 cases found. The risk factors included in the equation were: Female (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.27-1.37), Caesarean delivery (OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.5-7.7), Postmenstrual age ≤43 weeks (OR: 6.62, 95% CI: 2.38-18.7), Fever (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.09-1.97), Low birth weight (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.23-7.67), Apnoea observed by caregivers before admission (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.64-13.3), and severe bacterial infection (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.68-9.46). The optimal sensitivity and specificity of the model in the ROC curve was 0.842 and 0.846, respectively (P<.001). The incidence of apnoea during admission was 4.4 per 100 admissions of AB and year. The estimated prediction model equation may be of help to the clinician in order to classify patients with increased risk of apnoea during admission due to AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  7. Risk Factors for Incident Cortical, Nuclear, Posterior Subcapsular, and Mixed Lens Opacities: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Grace M.; Choudhury, Farzana; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with the 4-year incidence of nuclear, cortical, posterior sub-capsular (PSC), and mixed lens opacities. Design Population-based, longitudinal study. Participants Four thousand six hundred fifty-eight Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California. Methods Participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and slit-lamp assessment of lens opacities using the Lens Opacities Classification System II at baseline and again 4 years later. Each opacity type was defined in persons with a LOCS II score of 2 or more. Univariate and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent baseline risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear only, cortical only, PSC only, and mixed (when more than one opacity type developed in a person) lens opacities. These comprised 4 mutually exclusive groups, and were based on person rather than eye. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios for independent risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear-only, cortical-only, PSC-only, and mixed lens opacities. Results Of the 3471 participants with gradable lenses in the same eye at baseline and 4-year follow-up, 200 (5.8%) had incident nuclear-only opacities, 151(4.1%) had incident cortical-only opacities, 16 (0.5%) had incident PSC-only lens opacities, and 88 (2.5%) had mixed lens opacities. Independent baseline risk factors for incident nuclear-only lens opacities included older age, current smoking, and presence of diabetes. Independent risk factors for incident cortical-only lens opacities included older age and having diabetes at baseline. Female gender was an independent risk factor for incident PSC-only lens opacities. Older age, and presence of diabetes at baseline exam were independent risk factors for incident mixed lens opacities. Specifically, in diabetics, higher levels of hemoglobin

  8. Risk factors for elevated HIV incidence among Aboriginal injection drug users in Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Craib, Kevin J.P.; Spittal, Patricia M.; Wood, Evan; Laliberte, Nancy; Hogg, Robert S.; Li, Kathy; Heath, Katherine; Tyndall, Mark W.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T.

    2003-01-01

    Background Because of established links between entrenched poverty and risk of HIV infection, there have long been warnings that HIV/AIDS will disproportionately affect Aboriginal people in Canada. We compared HIV incidence rates among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver and studied factors associated with HIV seroconversion among Aboriginal participants. Methods This analysis was based on 941 participants (230 Aboriginal people) recruited between May 1996 and December 2000 who were seronegative at enrolment and had completed at least one follow-up visit. Incidence rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of time to HIV seroconversion among female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Results As of May 31, 2001, seroconversion had occurred in 112 (11.9%) of the participants, yielding a cumulative incidence of HIV infection at 42 months of 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3%–15.1%). The cumulative incidence at 42 months was significantly higher among the Aboriginal participants than among the non-Aboriginal participants (21.1% v. 10.7%, p < 0.001). This elevation in risk was present in both female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Among the female Aboriginal IDUs, frequent speedball (combined cocaine and heroin) injection (adjusted relative risk [RR] 3.1; 95% CI 1.4–7.1) and going on binges of injection drug use (adjusted RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2) were found to be independent predictors of HIV seroconversion. Among the male Aboriginal IDUs, the independent predictors of seroconversion were frequent speedball injection (adjusted RR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0–8.5) and frequent cocaine injection (adjusted RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0–6.5). Interpretation In Vancouver, Aboriginal IDUs are becoming HIV positive at twice the rate of non-Aboriginal IDUs. Our findings emphasize the urgent need for an appropriate and effective public health strategy — planned and

  9. Brain Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors, Incidence, and the Possible Role of Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, John P.; Fadul, Camilo E.; Cole, Bernard F.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Suriawinata, Arief A.; Ripple, Gregory H.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Pipas, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are uncommon. There has been relatively little published on the host and tumor factors that might lead to this clinical scenario. We reviewed all cases of brain metastases from CRC at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center over a more than 20-year period to establish incidence and to identify patient and cancer characteristics which were associated with their development. Patients and Methods We present a retrospective review of 39 confirmed cases of brain metastases from CRC diagnosed between 1984 and 2006. Immunohistochemical staining for CXCR4 was performed on all available brain metastasis biopsy specimens. Results The incidence of brain metastases from CRC was 2.3%. Left-sided primary colon tumors predominated. The majority of patients had pulmonary metastases at the time brain metastases were identified, and those with preexisting pulmonary metastases had progression of that disease. All patients were symptomatic from brain metastases, and the cerebellum was the most common area of brain involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed strong expression of CXCR4 in all brain metastases sampled. Conclusion The incidence of brain metastases from CRC is low. Primary tumor in the left colon, long-standing pulmonary metastases, especially those with recent progression, and CXCR4 expression by tumor cells are all associated with increased risk of brain metastases. Increased survival among patients with metastatic CRC will likely result in an increased incidence of brain metastases. Further characterization of the role of tumor and host factors might yield better insight into the development, and potentially the prevention, of this devastating situation. PMID:19739271

  10. Pediatric Keratoconus in a Tertiary Referral Center: Incidence, Presentation, Risk Factors, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Sylvain; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Hamade, Adib; Slim, Elise; Cherfan, Carole G; Chelala, Elias; Bleik, Jamal; Jarade, Elias F

    2016-08-01

    To report the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcome of pediatric keratoconus in a tertiary referral eye hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated all patients with keratoconus 14 years or younger newly diagnosed at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon, between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of pediatric keratoconus among all pediatric patients and among patients with keratoconus of all ages was assessed. Patients with pediatric keratoconus were evaluated for keratoconus stage, initial presentation, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and pachymetry. Patients were classified according to different treatment regimen groups and different follow-up visits were evaluated. During 5 years, 16,808 patients were examined, of whom 2,972 were 14 years or younger. A total of 541 patients were diagnosed as having keratoconus; of those, 16 were 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis. Hence, the incidence of keratoconus was 0.53% among pediatric patients and 3.78% among adult patients (> 14 years). Initial presentation was during routine checkup (1 of 16) for allergic conjunctivitis (3 of 16), reduced vision (10 of 16), and corneal hydrops (mimicking keratitis) (2 of 16). Except for 2 patients lost to follow-up, all eyes received corneal cross-linking treatment and 16 eyes received additional intracorneal ring segment implantation. The incidence of pediatric keratoconus indicates that increased awareness for keratoconus among children is needed, mainly in cases of family history of keratoconus, ocular allergy/pruritus, poor CDVA, corneal hydrops, and/or high astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(8):534-541.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Incidence and risk factors of development of lung tumors after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Marqués, E; Manrique, A; Loinaz, C; Gómez, R; Meneu, J C; Abradelo, M; Pérez, B; Moreno, A; García, I; Moreno, E

    2005-11-01

    Lung tumors have been related to tobacco and alcohol. The incidence increases after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) especially when it is performed because of alcoholic cirrhosis. We analyzed the incidence and risk factors for de novo lung tumors among 701 patients who underwent OLT between April 1986 and July 2004, after exclusion of pediatric recipients and adults who died within 2 months after OLT. The incidence of de novo lung tumors was 15 patients (2.1%), including 12 (4.3%) who underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis and 3 (0.7%) for nonalcoholic diseases. There were 14 men and 1 woman of mean age at OLT of 50.8 +/- 9.6 years. Mean time from OLT to lung tumor was 83 +/- 43 months (range, 10-184 months). Thirteen patients (86.6%) were heavy smokers before OLT and 8 (61.5%) continued after OLT; 12 patients (80%) were heavy drinkers before OLT. Ten patients were immunosuppressed with CyA and 5 with tacrolimus. Acute rejection episodes before tumor diagnosis occurred in 6 patients (40%). Two patients underwent thoracotomy, but only one was resected. The remaining 13 patients were unresectable because of locally advanced tumor or metastatic disease. Two unresectable patients received palliative chemotherapy. All patients died with a mean survival from tumor diagnosis, of 5.3 months (range, 3 days to 33 months). A significantly higher incidence of lung tumors was observed among patients who underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis, usually diagnosed in advanced stages of poor prognosis and low survival.

  12. Postoperative meralgia paresthetica after posterior spine surgery: incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chen, Po-Quang

    2005-09-15

    A prospective study on postoperative meralgia paresthetica after posterior thoracolumbar spine surgery on the Relton-Hall frame. To assess the incidence of postoperative lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) neuralgia and to investigate its risk factors and clinical outcomes. Postoperative meralgia paresthetica is a common complication of posterior thoracolumbar spine surgery. The injury mechanism is external compression to the LFCN near the anterior superior iliac spine in the prone position. A total of 252 patients were examined for signs of meralgia paresthetica before and after surgery. Patients with a LFCN injury were followed regularly until sensory impairment resolved. Several possible contributing factors were assessed to evaluate the correlations. Postoperative meralgia paresthetica was experienced by 60 patients (23.8%). Patients with an LFCN injury had a significantly greater body mass index (23.6 vs. 22.4 kg/m2) and a longer surgical time (3.7 vs. 3.2 hours). Overweight/obese patients had a significantly greater incidence (odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.29). Patients operated for degenerative spinal disorders also had a significantly higher incidence of LFCN injury (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-5.13). Recovery took 10.5 days on average (range, 2 days to 2 months). Thirty-two patients (53%) recovered completely within the first week and every patient recovered within 2 months. Postoperative meralgia paresthetica is a common but benign complication of posterior thoracolumbar spine surgery. Degenerative spinal disorders, overweight/obesity, and longer surgical time are factors related to a higher incidence of LFCN injury. The clinical outcome is always excellent, and complete recovery can be expected within 2 months.

  13. Risk of pneumonia associated with incident benzodiazepine use among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Heidi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Sund, Reijo; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding whether benzodiazepines and similarly acting non-benzodiazepines (Z-drugs) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among older adults is lacking. We sought to investigate this association among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease, a condition in which both sedative/hypnotic use and pneumonia are common. METHODS: We obtained data on all community-dwelling adults with a recent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in Finland (2005–2011) from the Medication use and Alzheimer disease (MEDALZ) cohort, which incorporates national registry data on prescriptions, reimbursement, hospital discharges and causes of death. Incident users of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs were identified using a 1-year washout period and matched with nonusers using propensity scores. The association with hospital admission or death due to pneumonia was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model and adjusted for use of other psychotropic drugs in a time-dependent manner. RESULTS: Among 49 484 eligible participants with Alzheimer disease, 5232 taking benzodiazepines and 3269 taking Z-drugs were matched 1:1 with those not taking these drugs. Collectively, use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.42). When analyzed separately, benzodiazepine use was significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07–1.54), whereas Z-drug use was not (adjusted HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.84–1.44). The risk of pneumonia was greatest within the first 30 days of benzodiazepine use (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26–3.48). INTERPRETATION: Benzodiazepine use was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk of pneumonia should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in this population. PMID:28396328

  14. Risk of pneumonia associated with incident benzodiazepine use among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Heidi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Sund, Reijo; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-04-10

    Knowledge regarding whether benzodiazepines and similarly acting non-benzodiazepines (Z-drugs) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among older adults is lacking. We sought to investigate this association among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease, a condition in which both sedative/hypnotic use and pneumonia are common. We obtained data on all community-dwelling adults with a recent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in Finland (2005-2011) from the Medication use and Alzheimer disease (MEDALZ) cohort, which incorporates national registry data on prescriptions, reimbursement, hospital discharges and causes of death. Incident users of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs were identified using a 1-year washout period and matched with nonusers using propensity scores. The association with hospital admission or death due to pneumonia was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model and adjusted for use of other psychotropic drugs in a time-dependent manner. Among 49 484 eligible participants with Alzheimer disease, 5232 taking benzodiazepines and 3269 taking Z-drugs were matched 1:1 with those not taking these drugs. Collectively, use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.42). When analyzed separately, benzodiazepine use was significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54), whereas Z-drug use was not (adjusted HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.84-1.44). The risk of pneumonia was greatest within the first 30 days of benzodiazepine use (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26-3.48). Benzodiazepine use was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk of pneumonia should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in this population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  15. Snus (Swedish smokeless tobacco) use and risk of stroke: pooled analyses of incidence and survival.

    PubMed

    Hansson, J; Galanti, M R; Hergens, M-P; Fredlund, P; Ahlbom, A; Alfredsson, L; Bellocco, R; Engström, G; Eriksson, M; Hallqvist, J; Hedblad, B; Jansson, J-H; Pedersen, N L; Trolle Lagerros, Y; Ostergren, P-O; Magnusson, C

    2014-07-01

    Snus is a moist smokeless tobacco product with high nicotine content. Its use has a short-term effect on the cardiovascular system, but the relationship between snus use and stroke is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between use of snus and incidence of and survival after stroke, both overall and according to subtypes. Pooled analyses of eight Swedish prospective cohort studies were conducted, including 130 485 men who never smoked. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incidence and death after diagnosis using Cox proportional hazard regression models and case fatality and survival using logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier methods, respectively. No associations were observed between the use of snus and the risk of overall stroke (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17) or of any of the stroke subtypes. The odds ratio (OR) of 28-day case fatality was 1.42 (95% CI 0.99-2.04) amongst users of snus who had experienced a stroke, and the HR of death during the follow-up period was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08-1.61). Use of snus was not associated with the risk of stroke. Hence, nicotine is unlikely to contribute importantly to the pathophysiology of stroke. However, case fatality was increased in snus users, compared with nonusers, but further studies are needed to determine any possible causal mechanisms. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of subsequent hip fractures in Korea: multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee Haeng; Kim, Ju Young; Yim, Soo Jae; Moon, Do Hyun; Choi, Geun Hong; Moon, Kyoung Ho

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of subsequent hip fractures and its risk factors in the northwestern region of Korea. We analyzed hip fracture patients who visited any of the 5 teaching hospitals in the Bucheon and Incheon area from January 2000 to December 2010. Medical records were reviewed and presence of subsequent hip fractures, alcohol history, marital status, live in solitude, dementia, dizziness, American society of anesthesiologists score, osteoporosis treatment after fracture, body mass index (BMI) and initial bone mineral density were analyzed. The average follow-up period was 12 months (range 1-130 months). A total of 2,546 patients (women 1,770, men 776) who had experienced hip fractures were included. Of these, subsequent hip fractures were found in 233 patients (9.2%) (women 187, men 46). Mean age at the time of the first fracture was 79.2 yr old (range 50-100 yr). The average interval between the first fracture and the subsequent hip fractures was 30.2 months (range 4 days-154 months). In this large-scale, retrospective, multicenter study, overall incidence of subsequent hip fractures is 9.2%. Independent risk factors of subsequent fracture are women, BMI<22 kg/m(2), and being unmarried.

  17. Atrial fibrillation after lung cancer surgery: incidence, severity, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Muranishi, Yusuke; Sonobe, Makoto; Menju, Toshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyohumi F; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (Af) is a common post-operative cardiac complication after lung cancer surgery; however, the type of lung cancer surgery being performed has evolved, remarkably, into minimally invasive surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence and severity of post-operative Af and to identify the risk factors for Af, using a recent cohort of lung cancer surgery patients. We reviewed, retrospectively, the medical records of 593 patients, who underwent lung cancer surgery between 2011 and 2013, for the development of post-operative Af. The overall incidence of post-operative Af in our study was 6.4 % (38/593). Three (8 %) of these 38 patients, subsequently, suffered brain i