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Sample records for incident brain lacunes

  1. Obesity, insulin resistance and incident small vessel disease on MRI: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Andrea L. C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Mosley, Thomas H.; Bezerra, Daniel C; Knopman, David S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Jack, Clifford R.; Coker, Laura H.; Alonso, Alvaro; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Windham, Beverly G.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The term “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) describes the clustering of risk factors found in many individuals with obesity. Due to their pathophysiology, we hypothesized that two features of MetS, central obesity and insulin resistance (IR), would be associated with cerebrovascular changes on MRI, and specifically with incident lacunar disease and not white matter hyperintensity progression (WMH). Methods Risk factors were defined at study baseline in 934 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who completed two brain MRIs approximately ten years apart. WMH progression and incident lacunes between the two MRIs were determined. An IR score for each participant was created using principal component analysis of 11 risk factors, including (among others): insulin, HOMA-IR, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. MetS (presence/absence), using standard clinical definitions, and IR score at the first MRI, were independent variables, evaluated in multivariate logistic regression to determine odds of WMH progression (Q5 vs. Q1–4) and incident lacunes. Results MetS (adjusted OR 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 3.05) and IR score (adjusted OR per 1-standard deviation increase: 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68) were associated with incident lacunes but not with WMH progression. Insulin, HOMA-IR and BMI were not associated with incident lacunes or WMH progression in separate models. Conclusions The IR score and central obesity are associated with incident lacunar disease but not WMH progression in individuals. Central obesity and IR may be important risk factors to target to prevent lacunar disease. PMID:26451022

  2. Deep multi-scale location-aware 3D convolutional neural networks for automated detection of lacunes of presumed vascular origin.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; Heskes, Tom; Bergkamp, Mayra; Wissink, Joost; Obels, Jiri; Keizer, Karlijn; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Ginneken, Bram van; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Lacunes of presumed vascular origin (lacunes) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, gait impairment, and dementia and are a primary imaging feature of the small vessel disease. Quantification of lacunes may be of great importance to elucidate the mechanisms behind neuro-degenerative disorders and is recommended as part of study standards for small vessel disease research. However, due to the different appearance of lacunes in various brain regions and the existence of other similar-looking structures, such as perivascular spaces, manual annotation is a difficult, elaborative and subjective task, which can potentially be greatly improved by reliable and consistent computer-aided detection (CAD) routines. In this paper, we propose an automated two-stage method using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). We show that this method has good performance and can considerably benefit readers. We first use a fully convolutional neural network to detect initial candidates. In the second step, we employ a 3D CNN as a false positive reduction tool. As the location information is important to the analysis of candidate structures, we further equip the network with contextual information using multi-scale analysis and integration of explicit location features. We trained, validated and tested our networks on a large dataset of 1075 cases obtained from two different studies. Subsequently, we conducted an observer study with four trained observers and compared our method with them using a free-response operating characteristic analysis. Shown on a test set of 111 cases, the resulting CAD system exhibits performance similar to the trained human observers and achieves a sensitivity of 0.974 with 0.13 false positives per slice. A feasibility study also showed that a trained human observer would considerably benefit once aided by the CAD system.

  3. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  4. The incidence of second brain tumors related to cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Marta, Gustavo Nader; Murphy, Erin; Chao, Samuel; Yu, Jennifer S; Suh, John H

    2015-03-01

    Secondary brain tumor (SBT) is a devastating complication of cranial irradiation (CI). We reviewed the literature to determine the incidence of SBT as related to specific radiation therapy (RT) treatment modalities. The relative risk of radiation-associated SBT after conventional and conformal RT is well established and ranges from 5.65 to 10.9; latent time to develop second tumor ranges from 5.8 to 22.4 years, depending on radiation dose and primary disease. Theories and dosimetric models suggest that intensity-modulated radiation therapy may result in an increased risk of SBT, but clinical evidence is limited. The incidence of stereotactic radiosurgery-related SBT is low. Initial data suggest that no increased risk from proton therapy and dosimetric models predict a lower incidence of SBT compared with photons. In conclusion, the incidence of SBT related to CI is low. Longer follow-up is needed to clarify the impact of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy and other developing technologies.

  5. Incidence of brain metastasis at initial presentation of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villano, J. Lee; Durbin, Eric B.; Normandeau, Chris; Thakkar, Jigisha P.; Moirangthem, Valentina; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background No reliable estimates are available on the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) in cancer patients. This information is valuable for planning patient care and developing measures that may prevent or decrease the likelihood of metastatic brain disease. Methods We report the first population-based analysis on BM incidence at cancer diagnosis using the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). All cancer cases with BM were identified from KCR and ACR, with subsequent focus on metastases from lung primaries; the annual number of BMs at initial presentation was derived. Comparisons were made between Kentucky and Alberta for the stage and site of organ involvement of lung cancer. Results Low incidence of BM was observed in the United States until mandatory reporting began in 2010. Both the KCR and ACR recorded the highest incidence of BM from lung cancer, with total BM cases at initial presentation occurring at 88% and 77%, respectively. For lung cancer, stage IV was the most common stage at presentation for both registries and ranged from 45.9% to 57.2%. When BM from lung was identified, the most common synchronous organ site of metastasis was osseous, occurring at 28.4%. Conclusion Our analysis from the Kentucky and Alberta cancer registries similarly demonstrated the aggressive nature of lung cancer and its propensity for BM at initial presentation. Besides widespread organ involvement, no synchronous organ site predicted BM in lung cancer. BM is a common and important clinical outcome, and use of registry data is becoming more available. PMID:24891450

  6. Incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours in some "electrical occupations".

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, S; Knave, B; Ahlbom, A; Persson, T

    1991-01-01

    A 19 year follow up study was conducted to explore the association between occupations expected to be exposed to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukaemia and brain tumours. Incidence of cancer between 1961-79 was calculated and the standardised morbidity ratio (SMR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was related to that of all Swedish working men. For all the selected "electrical occupations" the SMRs for total leukaemia and brain tumours were near unity. Increased risks were noted for all leukaemia among electrical/electronic engineers and technicians, (SMR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.7) as well as in the sub-groups of telegraph/telephone (2.1; 1.1-3.6) and machine (2.6; 1.0-5.8) industries. Risk for chronic lymphoid leukaemia was increased in the same occupational category (1.7; 1.1-2.5) and in the sub-group of machine industry (4.8; 1.0-14.0), as well as for all linesmen (2.0; 1.0-3.5) and power linesmen (2.8; 1.1-5.7). Risk for acute myeloid leukaemia was increased among all miners (2.2; 1.0-4.1) and miners working in iron/ore mines (5.7; 2.1-12.4). Increased risk for all brain tumours (2.9; 1.2-5.9) and glioblastomas (3.4; 1.1-8.0) appeared among assemblers and repairmen in radio and TV industry. Raised risk for all brain tumours was seen for all welders (1.3; 1.0-1.7) and welders in iron/steel works (3.2; 1.0-7.4) and risk for glioblastomas was also increased for all welders (1.5; 1.1-2.1). No major changes in relative risk estimates were noted after the exclusion of persons who were over 65 at the time of diagnosis. Although a homogeneous pattern of increased risks of leukaemia or brain tumour was not noted, the hypothesis that magnetic fields might play a part in the origin of cancer cannot be rejected. PMID:1911402

  7. Incidence of Leukoencephalopathy After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Junko; Sato, Hisashi; Nakajima, Masaru; Shishido, Fumio

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from April 2001 through March 2008 and had evaluable computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 1 month after completion of WBRT. We evaluated the leukoencephalopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The patients who had brain tumor recurrence after WBRT were censored at the last follow-up CT or MRI without recurrence. To evaluate the risk factors for leukoencephalopathy, bivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for follow-up time. Factors included in the analysis were age, gender, dose fractionation, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents. Results: The median age of the 111 patients was 60.0 years (range, 23-89 years). The median follow-up was 3.8 months (range, 1.0-38.1 months). Leukoencephalopathy developed in 23 of the 111 patients. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 8, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. The incidence was 34.4% (11 of 32), 42.9% (6 of 14), 66.7% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2) of the patients who were followed up for ≥6, ≥12, ≥24, and ≥36 months, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, older age (≥65 years) was significantly correlated with higher risk of leukoencephalopathy (odds ratio 3.31; 95% confidence interval 1.15-9.50; P=.03). Conclusions: The incidence of leukoencephalopathy after WBRT was 34.4% with ≥6 months follow-up, and increased with longer follow-up. Older age was a significant risk factor. The schedule of WBRT for patients with brain metastases should be carefully determined, especially for favorable patients.

  8. Cerebral small vessel disease and incident parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    van der Holst, Helena M.; van Uden, Inge W.M.; Tuladhar, Anil M.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; van Norden, Anouk G.W.; Norris, David G.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Platel, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between baseline cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and the risk of incident parkinsonism using different MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures. Methods: In the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) study, a prospective cohort study, 503 elderly participants with SVD and without parkinsonism were included in 2006. During follow-up (2011–2012), parkinsonism was diagnosed according to UK Brain Bank criteria. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between baseline imaging measures and incident all-cause parkinsonism and vascular parkinsonism (VP). Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was used to identify differences in baseline DTI measures of white matter (WM) tracts between participants with VP and without parkinsonism. Results: Follow-up was available from 501 participants (mean age 65.6 years; mean follow-up duration 5.2 years). Parkinsonism developed in 20 participants; 15 were diagnosed with VP. The 5-year risk of (any) parkinsonism was increased for those with a high white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8 per SD increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–2.4) and a high number of lacunes (HR 1.4 per number increase, 95% CI 1.1–1.8) at baseline. For VP, this risk was also increased by the presence of microbleeds (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.9–16.8) and a low gray matter volume (HR 0.4 per SD increase, 95% CI 0.2–0.8). Lower fractional anisotropy values in bifrontal WM tracts involved in movement control were observed in participants with VP compared to participants without parkinsonism. Conclusions: SVD at baseline, especially a high WMH volume and a high number of lacunes, is associated with incident parkinsonism. Our findings favor a role of SVD in the etiology of parkinsonism. PMID:26446068

  9. Brain but not lung functions impaired after a chlorine incident.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-10-01

    A workplace bleach exposure incident was studied in 13 women to determine whether chlorine caused neurobehavioral and pulmonary functional effects. We compared neurophysiological and neuropsychological measurements in 13 chlorine-exposed women, 4.5 years after exposure, and 41 unexposed women. Reaction times, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination and several psychological tests were measured. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. A profile of mood states and frequencies of 35 symptoms were obtained. Chlorine exposed women performed statistically significantly below unexposed women for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and eyes closed, color discrimination, grip strength, Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, trail making B and pegboard. Profile of mood states scores and frequency symptoms were elevated. Respiratory symptoms were elevated but pulmonary volumes and flows were not reduced. Chlorine bleach exposure was associated with impaired neurobehavioral functions and elevated POMS scores and symptom frequencies. Alternatives to chlorine should be used.

  10. Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Peter D; Hoover, Robert N; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-11-01

    The use of cellular telephones has grown explosively during the past two decades, and there are now more than 279 million wireless subscribers in the United States. If cellular phone use causes brain cancer, as some suggest, the potential public health implications could be considerable. One might expect the effects of such a prevalent exposure to be reflected in general population incidence rates, unless the induction period is very long or confined to very long-term users. To address this issue, we examined temporal trends in brain cancer incidence rates in the United States, using data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Log-linear models were used to estimate the annual percent change in rates among whites. With the exception of the 20-29-year age group, the trends for 1992-2006 were downward or flat. Among those aged 20-29 years, there was a statistically significant increasing trend between 1992 and 2006 among females but not among males. The recent trend in 20-29-year-old women was driven by a rising incidence of frontal lobe cancers. No increases were apparent for temporal or parietal lobe cancers, or cancers of the cerebellum, which involve the parts of the brain that would be more highly exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cellular phones. Frontal lobe cancer rates also rose among 20-29-year-old males, but the increase began earlier than among females and before cell phone use was highly prevalent. Overall, these incidence data do not provide support to the view that cellular phone use causes brain cancer.

  11. Incidence and sequelae of symptomatic venous thromboembolic disease among patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lai, J M; Yablon, S A; Ivanhoe, C B

    1997-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening complication among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, few reports describe the incidence of this important disease. We reviewed the incidence of symptomatic VTE among 124 consecutive admissions with TBI to a free-standing rehabilitation hospital over an 18-month period. Four patients manifested evidence of VTE within 2 months of injury: two with leg swelling, one with an oedematous arm, and one with respiratory distress. None of the patients with suspected VTE received prophylactic anticoagulant therapy. Diagnosis of VTE was confirmed with venograph in two of the four patients. Although VTE is frequently asymptomatic, the incidence of symptomatic VTE (1.6%) among this series of rehabilitation inpatients with TBI still appears surprisingly low. These results have implications regarding the utility of non-invasive diagnostic screening of asymptomatic VTE and routine anticoagulant prophylaxis of high-risk patients with TBI.

  12. Longitudinal change of small-vessel disease-related brain abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Seiler, Stephan; Loitfelder, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the longitudinal change of cerebral small-vessel disease–related magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities increases our pathophysiologic understanding of cerebral microangiopathy. The change of specific lesion types may also serve as secondary surrogate endpoint in clinical trials. A surrogate endpoint needs to progress fast enough to allow monitoring of treatment effects within a reasonable time period, and change of the brain abnormality needs to be correlated with clinical change. Confluent white matter lesions show fast progression and correlations with cognitive decline. Thus, the change of confluent white matter lesions may be used as a surrogate marker in proof-of-concept trials with small patient numbers needed to show treatment effects on lesion progression. Nonetheless if the expected change in cognitive performance resulting from treatment effects on lesion progression is used as outcome, the sample size needed to show small to moderate treatment effects becomes very large. Lacunes may also fulfill the prerequisites of a surrogate marker, but in the general population the incidence of lacunes over short observational periods is small. For other small-vessel disease–related brain abnormalities including microbleeds and microstructural changes in normal-appearing white matter longitudinal change and correlations with clinical decline is not yet fully determined.

  13. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  14. High incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loizon, Marine; Laurencin, Chloé; Vial, Christophe; Danaila, Teodor; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    We observed several cases of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) revealed after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). 115 consecutive PD patients who underwent STN-DBS between 2010 and 2014 at the Neurological Hospital in Lyon were retrospectively included. CTS was accepted as the diagnosis only if clinical examination and ENMG both confirmed it. Nine patients (7.8 %) developed CTS in the 2 years following surgery, which is far beyond the 2.7/1000 incidence in the general population. The present study shows an overrepresentation of CTS occurrence after STN-DBS in PD.

  15. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  16. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials: effects of ovarian steroids correlated with increased incidence of Bell's palsy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ben David, Y; Tal, J; Podoshin, L; Fradis, M; Sharf, M; Pratt, H; Faraggi, D

    1995-07-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian steroids on the brain stem during changes of estrogen and progesterone blood levels, we recorded brain stem auditory evoked potentials with increased stimulus rates from 26 women treated for sterility by menotropins (Pergonal and Metrodin). These women were divided into three groups according to their estrogen and progesterone blood levels. The brain stem auditory evoked potential results revealed a significant delay of peak III only, with an increased stimulus rate in the group with the highest estrogen level. Estrogen may cause a brain stem synaptic impairment, presumably because of ischemic changes, and thus also may be responsible for a higher incidence of Bell's palsy during pregnancy.

  17. Incidence of Brain Atrophy and Decline in Mini-Mental State Examination Score After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shibamoto, Yuta Baba, Fumiya; Oda, Kyota; Hayashi, Shinya; Kokubo, Masaki; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of brain atrophy and dementia after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases not undergoing surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients underwent WBRT to 40 Gy in 20 fractions with or without a 10-Gy boost. Brain magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed before and soon after radiotherapy, every 3 months for 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Brain atrophy was evaluated by change in cerebrospinal fluid-cranial ratio (CCR), and the atrophy index was defined as postradiation CCR divided by preradiation CCR. Results: Of 101 patients (median age, 62 years) entering the study, 92 completed WBRT, and 45, 25, and 10 patients were assessable at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Mean atrophy index was 1.24 {+-} 0.39 (SD) at 6 months and 1.32 {+-} 0.40 at 12 months, and 18% and 28% of the patients had an increase in the atrophy index by 30% or greater, respectively. No apparent decrease in mean MMSE score was observed after WBRT. Individually, MMSE scores decreased by four or more points in 11% at 6 months, 12% at 12 months, and 0% at 18 months. However, about half the decrease in MMSE scores was associated with a decrease in performance status caused by systemic disease progression. Conclusions: Brain atrophy developed in up to 30% of patients, but it was not necessarily accompanied by MMSE score decrease. Dementia after WBRT unaccompanied by tumor recurrence was infrequent.

  18. Incidence and treatment of brain metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Ming; Mao, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma (BMEC) is very rare, but its incidence has increased in the United States, Japan, China and other counties. Reports on BMEC have largely been focused on examining whether adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer influences the survival duration of BMEC patients and on the imaging characteristics of BMEC determined using new medical equipment. The difference between different pathological types of esophageal cancer, especially adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is one important factor used to assess the influence of BMEC. Adjuvant therapy, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, for esophageal cancer with different characteristics in different countries may affect BMEC treatment outcomes. The degree of popularization of advanced medical equipment is a major concern related to the prevalence of BMEC. Furthermore, targeted BMEC treatment is under development in developed countries. In this article, we reviewed the debate surrounding BMEC and analyzed BMEC studies from different perspectives. PMID:26019444

  19. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  20. Incidence of pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: A prospective study from a regional neurosurgical centre.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Seyed Alireza; Tan, Chin Lik; Menon, David K; Simpson, Helen L; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop pituitary dysfunction. Although, there is now increasing awareness of and investigations into such post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP), the exact prevalence and incidence remain uncertain. Here, we aim to identify the incidence of PTHP in a selected population of TBI patients deemed at risk of PTHP at a regional neurosurgical centre in the UK. A total of 105 patients have been assessed in two cohorts: (i) 58 patients in serial cohort and (ii) 47 patients in cross-sectional late cohort. We found that in serial cohort, 10.3% (6/58) of TBI patients had abnormalities of the pituitary-adrenal axis in the acute phase (Day 0-7 post injury). In comparison, in cross-sectional late cohort, 21.3% (10/47) of the patients developed dysfunction in at least one of their pituitary axes at 6 months or more post-TBI, with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism being the most common. Twenty-two patients from these two cohorts had their growth hormone assessment at 12 months or more post-TBI and 9.1% (2/22) were found to have growth hormone deficiency. Our results suggest that PTHP is a common condition amongst sufferers of TBI, and appropriate measures should be taken to detect and manage it.

  1. Blunt cerebrovascular injuries in severe traumatic brain injury: incidence, risk factors, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Pierre; Cardinale, Mickaël; Boret, Henry; D'Aranda, Erwan; Montcriol, Ambroise; Bordes, Julien; Prunet, Bertrand; Joubert, Christophe; Dagain, Arnaud; Goutorbe, Philippe; Kaiser, Eric; Meaudre, Eric

    2016-07-29

    OBJECTIVE Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) affect approximately 1% of patients with blunt trauma. An antithrombotic or anticoagulation therapy is recommended to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of neurovascular events. This treatment has to be carefully considered after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage expansion. Thus, the physician in charge of the patient is confronted with a hemorrhagic and ischemic risk. The main objective of this study was to determine the incidence of BCVI after severe TBI. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study including all patients with severe TBI admitted in the trauma center. Diagnosis of BCVI was performed using a 64-channel multidetector CT. Characteristics of the patients, CT scan results, and outcomes were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine the risk factors of BCVI. Patients in whom BCVI was diagnosed were treated with systemic anticoagulation. RESULTS In total, 228 patients with severe TBI who were treated over a period of 7 years were included. The incidence of BCVI was 9.2%. The main risk factors were as follows: motorcycle crash (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.9-34.8), fracture involving the carotid canal (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.7-80.9), cervical spine injury (OR 13.5, 95% CI 3.1-59.4), thoracic trauma (OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.1-51.2), and hepatic lesion (OR 13.3, 95% CI 2.1-84.5). Among survivors, 82% of patients with BCVI received systemic anticoagulation therapy, beginning at a median of Day 1.5. The overall stroke rate was 19%. One patient had an intracranial hemorrhagic complication. CONCLUSIONS Blunt cerebrovascular injuries are frequent after severe TBI (incidence 9.2%). The main risk factors are high-velocity lesions and injuries near cervical arteries.

  2. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case-control study with incidence data.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Röösli, Martin

    2012-05-20

    The first case-control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study) has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case-control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case-control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  3. Incidence of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Lei, Xiudong; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to define the incidence of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods 2448 patients with stage I–III TNBC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were identified. We computed the cumulative incidence of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence at 2 and 5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to determine factors that could predict for the development of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compute survival following a diagnosis of brain metastases. Results At a median follow up of 39 months 115 (4.7%) patients had developed brain metastases as a first site of recurrence. The cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years was 3.7% (95% CI 2.9%–4.5%) and 5.4% (95% CI 4.4%–6.5%), respectively. Among patients with stage I, II and III disease, the 2-year cumulative incidence of brain metastases was 0.8%, 3.1% and 8%, respectively (p<0.0001). 5-year cumulative incidence was 2.8%, 4.6% and 9.6% among patients with stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p<0.0001). In the multivariable model, patients with stage III disease had a significant increase in the risk of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence (HR = 3.51; 95% CI 1.85 – 6.67; p = .0001) compared to patients with stage I disease. Those with stage II disease had a non significant increased risk of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence (HR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.92 – 2.81; p = .10) compared to patients with stage I disease. Median survival following a diagnosis of brain metastases was 7.2 months (range 5.7 to 9.4 months). Conclusion Patients with non metastatic TNBC have a high early incidence of developing brain metastases as a first site of recurrence, which is associated with subsequent poor survival. Patients with stage III TNBC in particular would be an ideal cohort to

  4. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  5. Older Candidates for Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease Have a Higher Incidence of Psychiatric Serious Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Cozac, Vitalii V.; Ehrensperger, Michael M.; Gschwandtner, Ute; Hatz, Florian; Meyer, Antonia; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schuepbach, Michael; Taub, Ethan; Fuhr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE) of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We investigated a group of 26 patients with PD who underwent STN-DBS at mean age 63.2 ± 3.3 years. The operated patients from the EARLYSTIM study (mean age 52.9 ± 6.6) were used as a comparison group. Incidences of SAE were compared between these groups. Results: A higher incidence of psychosis and hallucinations was found in these elderly patients compared to the younger patients in the EARLYSTIM study (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The higher incidence of STN-DBS-related psychiatric complications underscores the need for comprehensive psychiatric pre- and postoperative assessment in older DBS candidates. However, these psychiatric SAE were transient, and the benefits of DBS clearly outweighed its adverse effects. PMID:27375478

  6. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  7. Brain metastases after breast-conserving therapy and systemic therapy: incidence and characteristics by biologic subtype.

    PubMed

    Arvold, Nils D; Oh, Kevin S; Niemierko, Andrzej; Taghian, Alphonse G; Lin, Nancy U; Abi-Raad, Rita F; Sreedhara, Meera; Harris, Jay R; Alexander, Brian M

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of brain metastases (BM) that develop after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer (BC) remain incompletely defined. We examined 1,434 consecutive patients with stage I/II invasive BC who received BCT from 1997 to 2006, 91 % of whom received adjuvant systemic therapy, according to BC subtype. Median follow-up was 85 months. Overall 5-year cumulative incidence of BM was 1.7 %; 0.1 % for luminal A, 3.3 % for luminal B, 3.2 % for luminal-HER2, 3.7 % for HER2, and 7.4 % for triple negative (TN). Women who developed BM were more likely at BC diagnosis to be younger (P < .0001) and have node-positive (P < .0001), grade 3 (P < .0001), hormone receptor-negative (P = .006), and HER2-positive (P = .01) tumors. Median time from BC diagnosis to BM was 51.4 months (range, 7.6-108 months), which was longer among luminal versus non-luminal subtypes (P = .0002; median, 61.4 vs. 34.5 months). Thirty-four percent of patients who developed distant metastases (DM) eventually developed BM. Median time from DM to BM was 12.8 months but varied by subtype, including 7.4 months for TN, 9.6 months for luminal B, and 27.1 months for HER2. Eighty-one percent of all BM patients presented with neurologic symptoms. Median number of BM at diagnosis was two, and median BM size was 15 mm, with TN (27 mm) and luminal B (16 mm) exhibiting the largest median sizes. In conclusion, the risk of BM after BCT varies significantly by subtype. Given the large size and symptomatic presentation among luminal B and TN subtypes, earlier BM detection might improve quality of life or increase eligibility for non-invasive treatments including stereotactic radiosurgery. Women with DM from these two BC subtypes have a high incidence of BM with a short latency, suggesting an ideal target population for trials evaluating the utility of MRI screening.

  8. Incidence of seizures on continuous EEG monitoring following traumatic brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brent R; Handler, Michael H; Tong, Suhong; Chapman, Kevin E

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Seizures may cause diagnostic confusion and be a source of metabolic stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures and of subclinical seizures in the pediatric population with TBI is not well known. METHODS A routine protocol for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring was initiated for all patients with moderate or severe TBI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. Over a 3.5-year period, all patients with TBI who underwent cEEG monitoring, both according to protocol and those with mild head injuries who underwent cEEG monitoring at the discretion of the treating team, were identified prospectively. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Over the study period, 594 children were admitted with TBI, and 144 of these children underwent cEEG monitoring. One hundred two (71%) of these 144 children had moderate or severe TBI. Abusive head trauma (AHT) was the most common mechanism of injury (65 patients, 45%) in children with cEEG monitoring. Seizures were identified on cEEG in 43 patients (30%). Forty (93%) of these 43 patients had subclinical seizures, including 17 (40%) with only subclinical seizures and 23 (53%) with both clinical and subclinical seizures. Fifty-three percent of patients with seizures experienced status epilepticus. Age less than 2.4 years and AHT mechanism were strongly correlated with presence of seizures (odds ratios 8.7 and 6.0, respectively). Those patients with only subclinical seizures had the same risk factors as the other groups. The presence of seizures did not correlate with discharge disposition but was correlated with longer hospital stay and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSIONS Continuous EEG monitoring identifies a significant number of subclinical seizures acutely after TBI. Children younger than 2.4 years of age and victims of AHT are particularly vulnerable to subclinical seizures, and seizures in general. Continuous EEG monitoring allows for

  9. The relation between the incidence of hypernatremia and mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The study was aimed at verifying whether the occurrence of hypernatremia during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay increases the risk of death in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database including all patients consecutively admitted over a 3-year period with a diagnosis of TBI (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8) to a general/neurotrauma ICU of a university hospital, providing critical care services in a catchment area of about 1,200,000 inhabitants. Methods Demographic, clinical, and ICU laboratory data were prospectively collected; serum sodium was assessed an average of three times per day. Hypernatremia was defined as two daily values of serum sodium above 145 mmol/l. The major outcome was death in the ICU after 14 days. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used, with time-dependent variates designed to reflect exposure over time during the ICU stay: hypernatremia, desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) administration as a surrogate marker for the presence of central diabetes insipidus, and urinary output. The same models were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results We included in the study 130 TBI patients (mean age 52 years (standard deviation 23); males 74%; median Glasgow Coma Score 3 (range 3 to 8); mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 50 (standard deviation 15)); all were mechanically ventilated; 35 (26.9%) died within 14 days after ICU admission. Hypernatremia was detected in 51.5% of the patients and in 15.9% of the 1,103 patient-day ICU follow-up. In most instances hypernatremia was mild (mean 150 mmol/l, interquartile range 148 to 152). The occurrence of hypernatremia was highest (P = 0.003) in patients with suspected central diabetes insipidus (25/130, 19.2%), a condition that was associated with increased severity of brain injury and ICU mortality. After adjustment for the baseline risk, the incidence of hypernatremia over the

  10. Association between resting-state brain functional connectivity and muscle sympathetic burst incidence

    PubMed Central

    Kucyi, Aaron; Millar, Philip J.; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kimmerly, Derek S.; Morris, Beverley L.; Bradley, T. Douglas; Floras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The insula (IC) and cingulate are key components of the central autonomic network and central nodes of the salience network (SN), a set of spatially distinct but temporally correlated brain regions identified with resting-state (task free) functional MRI (rsMRI). To examine the SN's involvement in sympathetic outflow, we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in intrinsic connectivity of the SN correlate positively with resting postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) burst incidence (BI) in subjects without and with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Overnight polysomnography, 5-min rsMRI, and fibular MSNA recording were performed in 36 subjects (mean age 57 yr; 10 women, 26 men). Independent component analysis (ICA) of the entire cohort identified the SN as including bilateral IC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), midcingulate cortex (MCC), and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). There was a positive correlation between BI and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P < 0.001), but dual-regression analysis identified no differences in SN functional connectivity between subjects with no or mild OSA (n = 17) and moderate or severe (n = 19) OSA. Correlation analysis relating BI to the strength of connectivity within the SN revealed large (i.e., spatial extent) and strong correlations for the left IC (P < 0.001), right pgACC/MCC (P < 0.006), left TPJ (P < 0.004), thalamus (P < 0.035), and cerebellum (P < 0.013). Indexes of sleep apnea were unrelated to BI and the strength of SN connectivity. There were no relationships between BI and default or sensorimotor network connectivity. This study links connectivity within the SN to MSNA, demonstrating several of its nodes to be key sympathoexcitatory regions. PMID:26538607

  11. Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile phone use in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Cherrie, John W

    2011-07-01

    Mobile phone use in the United Kingdom and other countries has risen steeply since the early 1990's when the first digital mobile phones were introduced. There is an ongoing controversy about whether radio frequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones increases the risk of brain cancer. However, given the widespread use and nearly two decades elapsing since mobile phones were introduced, an association should have produced a noticeable increase in the incidence of brain cancer by now. Trends in rates of newly diagnosed brain cancer cases in England between 1998 and 2007 were examined. There were no time trends in overall incidence of brain cancers for either gender, or any specific age group. Systematic increases in rates for cancers of the temporal lobe in men (0.04 new cases/year) and women (0.02/year) were observed, along with decreases in the rates of cancers of the parietal lobe (-0.03/year), cerebrum (-0.02/year) and cerebellum (-0.01/year) in men only. The increased use of mobile phones between 1985 and 2003 has not led to a noticeable change in the incidence of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007. The observed increase in the rate of cancers in the temporal lobe, if caused by mobile phone use, would constitute <1 additional case per 100,000 people in that period. These data do not indicate a pressing need to implement a precautionary principle by means of population-wide interventions to reduce RF exposure from mobile phones.

  12. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P < 0.001). Because increased numbers of both cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  13. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    permeability and integrity of the brain endothelium using in vitro and in vivo models. 3) Determine the protective effects of PARP inhibitors and/or selenium ...in preventing BBB-induced damage by oxidative stress, and in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Further, since selenium has anti...inhibitor and ROS inhibitor of BMEC-TJs HBMEC cocultures were preincubated with PARP inhibitor (30mM) or with ROS inhibitor (10mM selenium ) for 6

  14. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: incidence and aetiology.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, Erik G; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Boffano, Paolo; van den Bergh, Bart; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-09-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral and maxillofacial and neurosurgical intervention during the same hospital stay. Forty-seven patients from a population of 579 trauma patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery were identified. The main cause of injury was road traffic collision, followed by falls. Interpersonal violence correlated less well with traumatic brain injury. Most of the patients were males, aged 20-39 years. Frontal sinus fractures were the most common maxillofacial fractures (21.9%) associated with neurosurgical input, followed by mandibular fractures and zygomatic complex fractures. In the general maxillofacial trauma population, frontal sinus fractures were only found in 2.2% of the cases. At presentation to the Emergency Department the majority of the patients were diagnosed with severe traumatic brain injury and a Marshall CT class 2. Intracranial pressure monitoring was the most common neurosurgical intervention, followed by reconstruction of a bone defect and haematoma evacuation. Although it is a small population, our data suggest that maxillofacial trauma does have an association with traumatic brain injury that requires neurosurgical intervention (8.1%). In comparison with the overall maxillofacial trauma population, our results demonstrate that frontal sinus fractures are more commonly diagnosed in association with brain injury, most likely owing to the location of the impact of the trauma. In these cases the frontal sinus seems not specifically to act as a barrier to protect the brain. This report provides useful data concerning the joint management of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and neurosurgeons for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial trauma and brain injury patients in

  15. Characteristics and Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults Using Home Care in Ontario from 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L.; Martin, Lynn; Bédard, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Describe the characteristics and determine the annual cumulative incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults receiving home care in Ontario from 2003 to 2013. Methods A retrospective cohort study of longitudinal data from the Ontario Association of Community Care Access Centers (N = 554,313). TBI, demographic variables, depression, neurological conditions, and recent falls were measured from the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care. Comparisons were made between service users with and without TBI using odds ratios. Standardized incidence rates were calculated and the 10-year trend of annual cumulative incidence rates was examined. Results Characteristics associated with TBI: male sex (OR: 1.54), aboriginal origin (OR: 1.98), increasing age (low of OR: 1.22, in 70–74 years; high of OR: 2.31, in 90 years and older; comparison 65–69 years), being widowed (OR: 1.59), having one or more falls (OR: 2.31), the use of antidepressants (OR: 1.49) and the presence of depression (OR: 1.57), dementia (OR: 1.65), hemiplegia (OR: 4.34), multiple sclerosis (OR: 3.19) or parkinsonism (OR: 1.22). TBI incidence was significantly higher than rates previously reported in the literature. There was no change in the overall annual cumulative incidence over the 10-year period (p = .13). Conclusions Certain demographic characteristics, neurological diseases, antidepressant use, and a recent fall are associated with TBI. Incidence of TBI is higher than previous estimates and the overall incidence is not changing over time. These results can be used to improve care of the elderly and to generate hypotheses for future research regarding TBI in the home care setting.

  16. Role of mouthguards in reducing mild traumatic brain injury/concussion incidence in high school football athletes.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jackson; DeMont, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is continued speculation on the value of mouthguards (MGs) in preventing mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion injuries. The purpose of this randomized prospective study was to compare the impact of pressure-laminated (LM), custom-made, properly fitted MGs to over-the-counter (OTC) MGs on the MTBI/concussion incidence in high school football athletes over a season of play. Four hundred twelve players from 6 high school football teams were included in the study. Twenty-four MTBI/concussion injuries (5.8%) were recorded. When examining the MTBI/concussion injury rate by MG type, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0423) with incidence rates of 3.6% and 8.3% in the LM MG and OTC MG groups, respectively.

  17. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    inhibitors and/or selenium in preventing BBB-induced damage by oxidative stress, and in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Further...since selenium has anti- cancer properties that are linked with protection against oxidative stress and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors...BRCA1 in breast cancer cells resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, invasion and a loss of p21

  18. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults: aging with a TBI versus incident TBI in the aged.

    PubMed

    Peters, Matthew E

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 39 million older adults (age >65) were evaluated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in United States emergency departments during the 2-year period from 2009 to 2010, representing a 61% increase in estimates from prior years (Albrecht et al., 2015a). Across the lifespan, an estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a TBI-related disability (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2003). With improved recognition and management, more individuals experiencing TBI are surviving to die of other causes later in life (Flanagan et al., 2005). Taken together, these statistics highlight two important populations: those who are "aging with a TBI" and "incident TBI in the aged."

  19. The Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States. Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forkosch, Joel Anton; And Others

    This abstract summarizes recent statistics on the prevalence and causes of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), the populations it affects, and the degree of disability it causes. Estimates are based on 1985-1987 data from the National Health Interview Survey, a household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Analysis indicates: the…

  20. Increased incidence and impact of nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury as detected by continuous electroencephalographic monitoring

    PubMed Central

    VESPA, PAUL M.; NUWER, MARC R.; NENOV, VALERIY; RONNE-ENGSTROM, ELISABETH; HOVDA, DAVID A.; BERGSNEIDER, MARVIN; KELLY, DANIEL F.; MARTIN, NEIL A.; BECKER, DONALD P.

    2014-01-01

    Object The early pathophysiological features of traumatic brain injury observed in the intensive care unit (ICU) have been described in terms of altered cerebral blood flow, altered brain metabolism, and neurochemical excitotoxicity. Seizures occur in animal models of brain injury and in human brain injury. Previous studies of posttraumatic seizures in humans have been based principally on clinical observations without a systematic approach to electroencephalographic (EEG) recording of seizures. The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively the incidence of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures by using continuous EEG monitoring in patients in the ICU during the initial 14 days post-injury. Methods Ninety-four patients with moderate-to-severe brain injuries underwent continuous EEG monitoring beginning at admission to the ICU (mean delay 9.6 ± 5.4 hours) and extending up to 14 days postinjury. Convulsive and non-convulsive seizures occurred in 21 (22%) of the 94 patients, with six of them displaying status epilepticus. In more than half of the patients (52%) the seizures were nonconvulsive and were diagnosed on the basis of EEG studies alone. All six patients with status epilepticus died, compared with a mortality rate of 24% (18 of 73) in the nonseizure group (p < 0.001). The patients with status epilepticus had a shorter mean length of stay (9.14 ± 5.9 days compared with 14 ± 9 days [t-test, p < 0.03]). Seizures occurred despite initiation of prophylactic phenytoin on admission to the emergency room, with maintenance at mean levels of 16.6 ± 2.8 mg/dl. No differences in key prognostic factors (such as the Glasgow Coma Scale score, early hypoxemia, early hypotension, or 1-month Glasgow Outcome Scale score) were found between the patients with seizures and those without. Conclusions Seizures occur in more than one in five patients during the 1st week after moderate-to-severe brain injury and may play a role in the pathobiological conditions

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury Incidence, Clinical Overview, and Policies in the US Military Health System Since 2000.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Thomas M; Isaacson, Brad M; Cyborski, Cherina M; French, Louis M; Tsao, Jack W; Pasquina, Paul F

    Exposure to explosive armaments during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom contributed to approximately 14% of the 352 612 traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnoses in the US military between 2000 and 2016. The US Department of Defense issued guidelines in 2009 to (1) standardize TBI diagnostic criteria; (2) classify TBI according to mechanism and severity; (3) categorize TBI symptoms as somatic, psychological, or cognitive; and (4) systematize types of care given during the acute and rehabilitation stages of TBI treatment. Polytrauma and associated psychological and neurologic conditions may create barriers to optimal rehabilitation from TBI. Given the completion of recent combat operations and the transition of TBI patients into long-term care within the US Department of Veterans Affairs system, a review of the literature concerning TBI is timely. Long-term follow-up care for patients who have sustained TBI will remain a critical issue for the US military.

  2. EGFR and KRAS Mutations Predict the Incidence and Outcome of Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Serdjebi, Cindy; Khobta, Nataliya; Metellus, Philippe; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Nanni, Isabelle; Greillier, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Fina, Frederic; Mascaux, Celine; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of brain metastases (BM). The identification of driver oncogenes and matched targeted therapies has improved outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, a better understanding of BM molecular biology is needed to further drive the process in this field. Methods: In this observational study, stage IV NSCLC patients tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations were selected, and BM incidence, recurrence and patients’ outcome were assessed. Results: A total of 144 patients (142 Caucasian and two Asian) were selected, including 11.27% with EGFR-mutant and 33.10% with KRAS-mutant tumors, and 57.04% patients had developed BM. BM incidence was more frequent in patients with EGFR mutation according to multivariate analyses (MVA) (Odds ratio OR = 8.745 [1.743–43.881], p = 0.008). Among patients with treated BM, recurrence after local treatment was less frequent in patients with KRAS mutation (OR = 0.234 [0.078–0.699], p = 0.009). Among patients with untreated BM, overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with KRAS mutation according to univariate analysis (OR = 7.130 [1.240–41.012], p = 0.028), but not MVA. Conclusions: EGFR and KRAS mutations have a predictive role on BM incidence, recurrence and outcome in Caucasian NSCLC patients. These results may impact the routine management of disease in these patients. Further studies are required to assess the influence of other biomarkers on NSCLC BM. PMID:27999344

  3. Causation, incidence, and costs of traumatic brain injury in the U.S. military medical system.

    PubMed

    Ommaya, A K; Ommaya, A K; Dannenberg, A L; Salazar, A M

    1996-02-01

    Hospital discharge records from military facilities and private facilities reimbursed by Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services for fiscal year 1992 were reviewed to identify head injury admissions. Incidence rates, case fatality rates, causes of head injuries, and direct cost for hospital admissions were computed in this well-defined population. For fiscal year 1992, there were 5,568 hospitalized cases of noncombat head injury in the military medical system. The age-adjusted head injury rates for ages 15-44 years are higher in active-duty individuals compared with other beneficiaries (1.6 times greater for men and 2.5 times greater for women). The total cost for hospitalization in this population was $43 million. Private facility rehabilitation accounted for 26% of all private facility costs but only 6% of head injury cases. Firearms and motor vehicle crashes caused the most severe injuries for cases admitted to military facilities. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, and fighting accounted for 80% of the total military facility cost for head injuries. Military active-duty individuals are at increased risk for noncombat head injury. Prevention of head injury in military settings should focus on motor vehicle crashes, fist fights (assault), and falls.

  4. WE-EF-BRA-10: Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Reduces the Incidence of Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancerr

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Larson, R; Diagaradjane, P; Woodward, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a clinical technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall survival in select patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and small-cell lung cancer. We examined whether PCI could benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases. Methods: We utilized our mouse model in which 500k green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled breast cancer cells injected into the tail vein of SCID/Beige mice resulted in brain metastases in approximately two-thirds of untreated mice. To test the efficacy of PCI, one set of mice was irradiated five days after cell injection with a single fraction of 4-Gy (two 2-Gy opposing fields) whole-brain irradiation on the XRAD 225Cx small-animal irradiator. Four controls were included: a non-irradiated group, a group irradiated two days prior to cell injection, and two groups irradiated 3 or 6 weeks after cell injection. Mice were sacrificed four and eight weeks post-injection and were evaluated for the presence of brain metastases on a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Results: The incidence of brain metastasis in the non-irradiated group was 77% and 90% at four and eight weeks, respectively. The PCI group had a significantly lower incidence, 20% and 30%, whereas the other three control groups had incidence rates similar to the non-treated control (70% to 100%). Further, the number of metastases and the metastatic burden were also significantly lower in the PCI group compared to all other groups. Conclusion: The timing of irradiation to treat subclinical disease is critical, as a small dose of whole-brain irradiation given five days after cell injection abrogated tumor burden by greater than 90%, but had no effect when administered twenty-one days after cell injection. PCI is likely to benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases and should be strongly considered in the clinic.

  5. Trends in the incidence of physician-diagnosed mild traumatic brain injury among active duty U.S. military personnel between 1997 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Marshall, Stephen W; Sturdivant, Rodney X; Lincoln, Andrew E

    2012-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been described as the most common form of traumatic brain injury within military populations; however, few epidemiologic studies have examined incidence rates for mTBI in this population. The objective of this study was to examine trends in the incidence of mTBI among active-duty U.S. service members between 1997 and 2007. Specifically, we were interested in evaluating trends in the incidence rates in relation to the initiation of combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing data extracted from the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all incident cases of mTBI within the study population. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence rate of mTBI per 1000 person-years. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to analyze the data. There were 98,012 mTBI cases and 14,956,955 person-years of follow-up, for an overall incidence rate of 6.55 (95% CI 6.51,6.59) per 1000 person-years. There was a steady increase in the mTBI rate over time. The average change in the mTBI rate was 8.5% (95% CI 8.2%,8.8%) per year; however, the rate rose dramatically in the last 2 years of the study period. Overall, for 2006-2007 versus 1997-2005, the rate ratio was 1.61 (95% CI 1.58,1.65). The greatest increase in the rate of mTBI was observed among those serving in Iraq, who experienced a 38.4% (95% CI 35.4%,41.1%) annual increase in new cases. The observed increase in the incidence of mTBI in this population has significant policy implications in terms of allocating appropriate health care resources.

  6. Brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities are not significantly associated with incidence and severity of postoperative delirium in older persons without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Michele; Hshieh, Tammy T.; Guttmann, Charles R.G.; Ngo, Long H.; Meier, Dominik S.; Schmitt, Eva M.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Jones, Richard N.; Kosar, Cyrus M.; Fong, Tamara G.; Press, Daniel; Inouye, Sharon K.; Alsop, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common complication in older people, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, institutionalization and caregiver burden. Although delirium is an acute confusional state characterized by global impairments in attention and cognition, it has been implicated in permanent cognitive impairment and dementia. The pathogenesis of delirium, as well as the mechanisms leading to these disabling consequences, remains unclear. The present study is the first to address the potential predisposing role of brain morphological changes towards postoperative delirium in a large prospective cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery using state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques conducted before admission. We investigated the association of MRI-derived quantitative measures of white matter damage, global brain and hippocampal volume with the incidence and severity of delirium. Pre-surgical white matter hyperintensities (WMH), whole brain and hippocampal volume were measured in 146 consecutively enrolled subjects, ≥70 years old, without dementia who were undergoing elective surgery. These three pre-surgical MRI indices were tested as predictors of incidence and severity of subsequent delirium. Out of 146 subjects, 32 (22%) developed delirium. We found no statistically significant differences in WMH, whole brain or hippocampal volume between subjects with and without delirium. Both unadjusted and adjusted (age, gender, vascular comorbidity, general cognitive performance) regression analyses demonstrated no statistically significant association between any of the MRI measures with respect to delirium incidence or severity. In persons without dementia, preexisting cerebral white matter hyperintensities, general and hippocampal atrophy may not predispose to postoperative delirium or worsen its severity. PMID:25824618

  7. Cancer dose--response assessment for acrylonitrile based upon rodent brain tumor incidence: use of epidemiologic, mechanistic, and pharmacokinetic support for nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Marsh, G M; Strother, D E; Klaunig, J E; Collins, J J; Deskin, R

    2005-10-01

    A cancer dose-response assessment was conducted for acrylonitrile (AN) using updated information on mechanism of action, epidemiology, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics. Although more than 10 chronic bioassays indicate that AN produces multiple tumors in rats and mice, a number of large, well-conducted epidemiology studies provide no evidence of a causal association between AN exposure and cancer mortality of any type. The epidemiological data include early industry exposures that are far higher than occur today and that approach or exceed levels found to be tumorigenic in animals. Despite the absence of positive findings in the epidemiology data, a dose-response assessment was conducted for AN based on brain tumors in rats. Mechanistic studies implicate the involvement of oxidative stress in rat brain due to a metabolite (2-cyanoethylene oxide or CEO, cyanide), but do not conclusively rule out a potential role for the direct genotoxicity of CEO. A PBPK model was used to predict internal doses (peak CEO in brain) for 12 data sets, which were pooled together to provide a consistent characterization of the dose-response relationship for brain tumor incidence in the rat. The internal dose corresponding to a 5% increase in extra risk (ED 05=0.017 mg/L brain) and its lower confidence limit (LED 05=0.014 mg/L brain) was used as the point of departure. The weight-of-evidence supports the use of a nonlinear extrapolation for the cancer dose-response assessment. A quantitative comparison of the epidemiology exposure-response data (lung and brain cancer mortality) to the rat brain tumor data in terms of internal dose adds to the confidence in the nonlinear extrapolation. Uncertainty factors of 200 and 220 (for the oral and inhalation routes, respectively) were applied to the LED 05 to account for interspecies variation, intraspecies variation, and the severity of the response measure. Accordingly, oral doses below 0.009 mg/kg-day and air concentrations below 0.1mg/m(3) are not

  8. Incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among adults hospitalized after traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neurological outcome and mortality. However, as many relevant published studies to date have varied in the type and severity of TBI among included patients as well as in their design (randomized versus non-randomized), risk of bias, and setting (hospital ward versus intensive care unit), their reported estimates of infection occurrence vary considerably. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among patients hospitalized after TBI. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their first available date as well as personal files, reference lists of included articles, and conference proceedings. Two investigators will independently screen titles and abstracts and select cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials involving adults hospitalized after TBI that reported estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, or occurrence rate of infection for inclusion in the systematic review. These investigators will also independently extract data and assess risk of bias. We will exclude studies with fewer than ten patients; experimental groups allocated to treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, barbiturates, or hypothermia; and studies focused on military/combat-related TBI. Pooled estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and occurrence rate will be calculated using random effects models. We will also calculate I2 and Cochran

  9. Effects of Neurosurgical Treatment and Severity of Head Injury on Cognitive Functioning, General Health and Incidence of Mental Disorders in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari, Karim; Yousefzadeh, Shahrokh; Moosavi, Heshmat-Allah; Kazemnejad, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurosurgical treatment and the severity of head injury (HI) can have remarkable effect on patients’ neuropsychiatric outcomes. Objectives This research aimed to study the effect of these factors on cognitive functioning, general health and incidence of mental disorders in patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients and Methods In this descriptive, longitudinal study, 206 TBI patients entered the study by consecutive sampling; they were then compared according to neurosurgery status and severity of their HI. Both groups underwent neurosurgical and psychological examinations. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) and general health questionnaire–28 items (GHQ-28) were administered to the study participants. At follow-up, four months later, the groups underwent a structured clinical interview by a psychiatrist based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria regarding the presence of mental disorders. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were performed and adjusted for the effect of confounding variables (age, gender, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) , and level of education). The severity of HI had the most significant effect for the following variables; cognitive functioning and physical symptoms (P < 0.05). The effect of the neurosurgical treatment factor was not significant; however, the interaction effect of the two variables on social dysfunction, and total score of the GHQ-28 questionnaire appeared to be significant (P < 0.05). Fisher's exact test indicated that after a four month follow-up period, no significant differences were seen between the two groups (with or without neurosurgery) in the incidence of mental disorders, while χ2 Test showed that having a more severe HI is significantly correlated with the incidence of mental disorders (P < 0.01). Conclusions The implications of this study should be discussed with an

  10. Incidence of functional bi-temporal connections in the human brain in vivo and their relevance to epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Diego; Abete-Rivas, Margely; Martín-López, David; Lacruz, María Elena; Selway, Richard P; Valentín, Antonio; Alarcón, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of functional connections between human temporal lobes and their latencies were investigated using intracranial EEG responses to electrical stimulation with 1 msec single pulses in 91 patients assessed for surgery for treatment of epilepsy. The areas studied were amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, inferior and mid temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we assessed whether the presence of such connections are related to seizure onset extent and postsurgical seizure control. Responses were seen in any region of the contralateral temporal lobe when stimulating temporal regions in 30 patients out of the 91 (32.96%). Bi-hippocampal or bi-amygdalar projections were seen in only 5% of temporal lobes (N = 60) and between both fusiform gyri in 7.1% (N = 126). All other bilateral connections occurred in less than 5% of hemispheres. Depending on the structures, latencies ranged between 20 and 90 msec, with an average value of 60.2 msec. There were no statistical difference in the proportion of patients showing Engel Class I between patients with and without contralateral temporal connections. No difference was found in the proportion of patients showing bilateral or unilateral seizure onset among patients with and without contralateral temporal projections. The present findings corroborate that the functionality of bilateral temporal connections in humans is limited and does not affect the surgical outcome.

  11. The incidence and risk factors for hypotension during emergent decompressive craniotomy in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick; Mack, Christopher D; Sammer, Marla; Rozet, Irene; Lee, Lorri A; Muangman, Saipin; Wang, Marjorie; Hollingworth, Will; Lam, Arthur M; Vavilala, Monica S

    2006-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study in children <13 yr with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center to describe risk factors for intraoperative hypotension (IH) during emergent decompressive craniotomy. Between 1994 and 2004, 108 children underwent emergent decompressive craniotomy for TBI. Overall, 56 (52%) patients had IH. Independent risk factors for IH were each 10 mL estimated blood loss/kg (ARR 1.15 95% CI 1.08-1.22), each mm of computed tomography (CT) midline shift (ARR 1.04 95%CI 1.01-1.07), each 10 mL of CT lesion volume (ARR 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.05), and emergency department (ED) hypotension (5/5 patients with ED hypotension had IH). CT midline shift > or =4 mm predicted IH (ARR 1.67 95% CI 1.06-2.63), independent of blood loss. IH occurred frequently during emergent decompressive craniotomy in children with TBI. ED hypotension, blood loss, CT lesion volume, and CT midline shift predicted IH. Anesthesiologists can expect children with preoperative CT midline shift > or =4 mm to have IH during this procedure.

  12. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar

    2011-10-01

    The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p = 0.11, χ(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p = 0.44, χ(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n = 9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n = 23) (p = 0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata).

  13. Caractérisation du dipôle lacune-calcium par relaxations électrique et mécanique dans des mononcristaux de zircones calciées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrot, S.; Mazot, Ph.; de Fouquet, J.

    1993-05-01

    Complex impedance measurements have been performed on calcia doped zirconia single crystals for three different dopant concentrations. A maximum of the dielectric loss is observed at a frequency which is thermally activated. The activation energy is slightly lower than the one derived from the study of the dc electrical conductivity with temperature. The experimental results depend very little on composition. Resonant method experiments have been used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus for different orientations [100], [110] and [111] in he case of one composition. The study with temperature confirms that [111] is the preferential orientation of the vacancy-calcium dipole. Des mesures isothermes d'impédance complexe ont été réalisées sur des échantillons monocristallins de zircone cuhique stabilisée à la chaux, pour trois compositions différentes. L'étude de la conductivité en courant continu conduit à la détermination d'une énergie d'activation légèrement superieure à celle obtenue lors de l'étude en fréquence de l'angle de pertes diélectriques. Pour une concentration donnée, nous avons également mesuré, par une méthode de résonance, le frottement intérieur ainsi que le module d'Young d'un échantillon selon les trois orientations cristallographiques [100], [111] et [110]. Cette étude confirme la direction du dipôle lacune-calcium selon un axe [111].

  14. Preoperative steroid use and the incidence of perioperative complications in patients undergoing craniotomy for definitive resection of a malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Alan, Nima; Seicean, Andreea; Seicean, Sinziana; Neuhauser, Duncan; Benzel, Edward C; Weil, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    We studied the impact of preoperative steroids on 30 day morbidity and mortality of craniotomy for definitive resection of malignant brain tumors. Glucocorticoids are used to treat peritumoral edema in patients with malignant brain tumors, however, prolonged (⩾ 10 days) use of preoperative steroids as a risk factor for perioperative complications following resection of brain tumors has not been studied comprehensively. Therefore, we identified 4407 patients who underwent craniotomy to resect a malignant brain tumor between 2007 and 2012, who were reported in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a prospectively collected clinical database. Metastatic brain tumors constituted 37.5% (n=1611) and primary malignant gliomas 62.5% (n=2796) of the study population. We used logistic regression to assess the association between preoperative steroid use and perioperative complications before and after 1:1 propensity score matching. Patients who received steroids constituted 22.8% of the population (n=1009). In the unmatched cohort, steroid use was associated with decreased length of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-0.8), however, the risk for readmission (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8) was increased. In the propensity score matched cohort (n=465), steroid use was not statistically associated with any adverse outcomes. Patients who received steroids were less likely to stay hospitalized for a protracted period of time, but were more likely to be readmitted after discharge following craniotomy. As an independent risk factor, preoperative steroid use was not associated with any observed perioperative complications. The findings of this study suggest that preoperative steroids do not independently compromise the short term outcome of craniotomy for resection of malignant brain tumors.

  15. Association of serum vitamin D with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical indices of brain aging the framingham heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer's disease...

  16. Door-to-door capture of incident and prevalent stroke cases in Durango, Mexico – the Brain Attack Surveillance in Durango (BASID) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Majersik, Jennifer J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Ruano, Angel; Becerra-Mendoza, Daniela; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence, and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases. Methods Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents ≥35 years of age. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and if confirmed, a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time. Results Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7/1000 (95% CI: 4.3/1000, 11.2/1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3/100,000 (95% CI: 27.8, 436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance. Conclusions This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world. PMID:21212398

  17. Deployment-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI): Incidence, Natural History, and Predictors of Recovery in Soldiers Returning from OIF/OEF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    clinical efforts at these locations by expanding the post-deployment assessment of traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and TBI -related exposures...employment, including fitness for military duty, functional status, and quality of life. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TBI , mild TBI , deployment, longitudinal 16... TBI ) and TBI -related exposures; identifying pre-existing and deployment-related exposures and comorbid conditions that may influence the risk or

  18. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  19. The Incidence, Prevalence, Costs and Impact on Disability of Common Conditions Requiring Rehabilitation in the US: Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Limb Loss, and Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Vincent Y; Chan, Leighton; Carruthers, Kadir J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative incidence, prevalence, costs and impact on disability of 8 common conditions treated by rehabilitation professionals. Design Structured review of the literature Setting United States Participants N/A Interventions N/A Main Outcome Measures disease associated incidence, prevalence, direct and indirect costs and impact on activity and work limitations. Results Back pain and arthritis (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) are the most common and costly conditions that we examined, affecting over 100 million individuals and costing over $200 billion per year. Traumatic brain injury, while less common than arthritis and back pain, carries enormous per capita direct and indirect costs, mostly due to the young age of those involved and the severe disability that it may cause. Finally, stroke, which is often listed as the most common cause of disability, is likely second to both arthritis and back pain in its impact on functional limitations. Conclusions Of the common rehabilitation diagnoses we studied, musculoskeletal conditions such and back pain and arthritis likely have the most impact on the health care system due to their high prevalence and impact on disability. PMID:24462839

  20. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injuries. Guidelines Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.

    This paper on traumatic brain injuries begins with statistics on the incidence of the disorder, especially as they relate to Colorado. Traumatic brain injury is then defined, and problems caused by traumatic brain injury are discussed. The components of effective programming for students with traumatic brain injuries are described, followed by the…

  2. Blood brain barrier breakdown as the starting point of cerebral small vessel disease? - New insights from a rat model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD, cerebral microangiopathy) leads to dementia and stroke-like symptoms. Lacunes, white matter lesions (WML) and microbleeds are the main pathological correlates depicted in in-vivo imaging diagnostics. Early studies described segmental arterial wall disorganizations of small penetrating cerebral arteries as the most pronounced underlying histopathology of lacunes. Luminal narrowing caused by arteriolosclerosis was supposed to result in hypoperfusion with WML and infarcts. We have used the model of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) for a longitudinal study to elucidate early histological changes in small cerebral vessels. We suggest that endothelial injuries lead to multiple sites with blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage which cause an ongoing damage of the vessel wall and finally resulting in vessel ruptures and microbleeds. These microbleeds together with reactive small vessel occlusions induce overt cystic infarcts of the surrounding parenchyma. Thus, multiple endothelial leakage sites seem to be the starting point of cerebral microangiopathy. The vascular system reacts with an activated coagulatory state to these early endothelial injuries and by this induces the formation of stases, accumulations of erythrocytes, which represent the earliest detectable histological peculiarity of small vessel disease in SHRSP. In this review we focus on the meaning of the BBB breakdown in CSVD and finally discuss possible consequences for clinicians. PMID:23497521

  3. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  4. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  5. Brain Injury: A Manual For Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Karen; Dettmer, Judy; Dise-lewis, Jeanne E.; Murphy, Mary; Santistevan, Barbette; Seckinger, Barbara

    This manual provides Colorado educators with guidelines for serving students with brain injuries. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides basic information on the brain including definitions of brain injury and its severity, incidence of brain injury, and characteristics of students with brain injury. Chapter 3 considers…

  6. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  7. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  8. Impact of small vessel disease in the brain on gait and balance.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Daniela; Ritchie, Stuart J; Doubal, Fergus; Gattringer, Thomas; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E; Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Pattie, Alison; Dickie, David A; Staals, Julie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2017-01-30

    Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71-74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity - WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients' performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects.

  9. Impact of small vessel disease in the brain on gait and balance

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Daniela; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Doubal, Fergus; Gattringer, Thomas; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; del C. Valdés Hernández, Maria; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Pattie, Alison; Dickie, David A.; Staals, Julie; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71–74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity – WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients’ performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects. PMID:28134332

  10. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Barrick, Thomas R.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson’s R = −0.69, P < 1 × 10−7), and significant grey matter loss and whole brain atrophy occurs annually (P < 0.05). Additionally, the rate of white matter hyperintensity growth was heterogeneous, occurring more rapidly within long association fasciculi. Using voxel-based quantification (family-wise error corrected P < 0.05), we show the rate of white matter hyperintensity

  11. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Christian; Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson's R = -0.69, P < 1 × 10(-7)), and significant grey matter loss and whole brain atrophy occurs annually (P < 0.05). Additionally, the rate of white matter hyperintensity growth was heterogeneous, occurring more rapidly within long association fasciculi. Using voxel-based quantification (family-wise error corrected P < 0.05), we show the rate of white matter hyperintensity

  12. Incident analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.; Buerer, A.; Leeds, S.

    1996-02-20

    This document presents information about a fire that occurred in January 1996 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of 100% fuming nitric acid. Topics discussed include: Summary of the incident; technical background; procedural background; supervision; previous incidents with 100% fuming nitric acid; and judgment of potential hazards.

  13. Incidence of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, T; Kleijer, W J; Horn, N

    1991-02-01

    We have calculated the incidence of Menkes disease for Denmark, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and West Germany, based on known Menkes patients born during the time period 1976-87. Considering live-born Menkes patients, the combined incidence for these five countries is 1 Menkes patient per 298,000 live-born babies. If the number of affected aborted fetuses are taken into account, the incidence is 1 Menkes per 254,000 live-born babies. This incidence, which is 2-4 times lower than earlier published incidence figures, places Menkes disease as an extremely rare disease. The mutation rate for Menkes disease is estimated to be 1.96 x 10(-6), based on the number of isolated Menkes cases born during the time period 1976-87 and the total number of newborn males during this time.

  14. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  15. INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D.; NEWTON, Katherine M.; CLINTON, Walter L.; EPPLEIN, Meira; GARCIA, Rochelle; ALLISON, Kimberly; VOIGT, Lynda F.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Estimate age-specific incidence of endometrial hyperplasia: simple, complex, and atypical, in order of increasing likelihood of progression to carcinoma. Study design Women ages 18–90 years with endometrial pathology specimens (1985–2003) at a large integrated health plan were identified using automated data. Incidence rates were obtained by dividing the number of cases by the estimated number of female health plan enrollees who retained a uterus. Results Endometrial hyperplasia peak incidence was: simple-142/100,000 woman-years, complex-213/100,000 woman-years, both in the early 50s; and atypical-56/100,000 woman-years in the early 60s. Age-adjusted incidence decreased over the study period, especially for atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Endometrial hyperplasia incidence without and with atypia peaks in the early postmenopausal years and in the early 60s, respectively. Given that some cases of endometrial hyperplasia likely go undiagnosed, the figures provided should be viewed as minimum estimates of the true incidence. PMID:19393600

  16. Brain involvement in Alström syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alström Syndrome (AS) is a rare ciliopathy characterized by cone–rod retinal dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Most patients do not present with neurological issues and demonstrate normal intelligence, although delayed psychomotor development and psychiatric disorders have been reported. To date, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities in AS have not been explored. Methods We investigated structural brain changes in 12 genetically proven AS patients (mean-age 22 years; range: 6–45, 6 females) and 19 matched healthy and positive controls (mean-age 23 years; range: 6–43; 12 females) using conventional MRI, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Results 6/12 AS patients presented with brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement (4/12), periventricular white matter abnormalities (3/12) and lacune-like lesions (1/12); all patients older than 30 years had vascular-like lesions. VBM detected grey and white matter volume reduction in AS patients, especially in the posterior regions. DTI revealed significant fractional anisotropy decrease and radial diffusivity increase in the supratentorial white matter, also diffusely involving those regions that appeared normal on conventional imaging. On the contrary, axial and mean diffusivity did not differ from controls except in the fornix. Conclusions Brain involvement in Alström syndrome is not uncommon. Early vascular-like lesions, gray and white matter atrophy, mostly involving the posterior regions, and diffuse supratentorial white matter derangement suggest a role of cilia in endothelial cell and oligodendrocyte function. PMID:23406482

  17. Antiepileptic drugs and brain development.

    PubMed

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy, the most common neurological disorder in young humans, has its highest incidence during the first year of life. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are used to treat seizures in infants, children and pregnant women target ion channels, neurotransmitters and second messenger systems in the brain. The same targets regulate brain processes essential both for propagation of seizures and for brain development, learning, memory and emotional behavior. Here we review adverse effects of AEDs in the developing mammalian brain. In addition, we discuss mechanisms explaining adverse effects of AEDs in the developing mammalian brain including interference with cell proliferation and migration, neurogenesis, axonal arborization, synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity and physiological apoptotic cell death.

  18. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  19. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  20. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  1. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. Coping with brain damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

  3. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  4. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…

  5. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  6. New model for predicting freeway incidents and incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a new model that predicts the number of freeway incidents and associated delays based on general freeway segment characteristics, traffic volumes, and incident management procedures. The model is intended to be used in planning capacity-enhancing freeway improvements and incident management programs. Estimates of incident frequencies, severity, durations, and delays are provided for seven standard incident types, each of which represents a significant fraction of total unplanned incidents and has severity and/or duration characteristics substantially different from the others. In addition to describing the incident prediction model, the paper addresses the need for a coordinated national strategy for collecting incident data, with particular attention to urban freeways. It concludes that the incident data systems that have evolved in several urban areas, often in connection with freeway service patrols and incident response team activities, already provide a valuable nationwide data resource for understanding incident patterns and their variations. However, better national coordination of locally collected incident data would be helpful for addressing issues beyond the scope of the local concerns for which virtually all current systems were originally designed. Specific areas for improvement include the definitions of incident types, descriptions of incident locations (relative to both the length and breadth of the highway), and data recording the critical times during incidents such as when detection, response, and clearing occur.

  7. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Cancer.gov

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and two-phase stratified sampling. Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  8. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope <-10, -10 to <-5, and -5 to <-1 versus -1 to <0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.20; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; and 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03, respectively). More severe constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Medical Perspectives on Brain Damage and Development. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Marcia Q.

    The author describes damage and normal development of the brain, as well as assessment and intervention with brain-damaged children. After a brief introduction on the complex and delicate process of brain development and a review of incidence, aspects of etiology such as genetic and postnatal causes are discussed. Brain development is examined…

  10. Incidence of CNS tumors in Appalachian children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Luo, Alice; Durbin, Eric B; Lycan, Ellen; Tucker, Thomas; Chen, Quan; Horbinski, Craig; Villano, John L

    2017-03-11

    Determine whether the risk of astrocytomas in Appalachian children is higher than the national average. We compared the incidence of pediatric brain tumors in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia regions, covering years 2000-2011. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collects population-based data from 55 cancer registries throughout U.S. and Canada. All invasive primary (i.e. non-metastatic tumors), with age at diagnosis 0-19 years old, were included. Nearly 27,000 and 2200 central nervous system (CNS) tumors from non-Appalachia and Appalachia, respectively comprise the cohorts. Age-adjusted incidence rates of each main brain tumor subtype were compared. The incidence rate of pediatric CNS tumors was 8% higher in Appalachia, 3.31 [95% CI 3.17-3.45] versus non-Appalachia, 3.06, [95% CI 3.02-3.09] for the years 2001-2011, all rates are per 100,000 population. Astrocytomas accounted for the majority of this difference, with the rate being 16% higher in Appalachian children, 1.77, [95% CI 1.67-1.87] versus non-Appalachian children, 1.52, [95% CI 1.50-1.55]. Among astrocytomas, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas were 41% higher in Appalachia, 0.63 [95% CI 0.56-0.70] versus non-Appalachia 0.44 [95% CI 0.43-0.46] for the years 2004-2011. This is the first study to demonstrate that Appalachian children are at greater risk of CNS neoplasms, and that much of this difference is in WHO grade I astrocytomas, 41% more common. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown and we discuss the importance of this in relation to genetic and environmental findings in Appalachia.

  11. Incidence of vestibular schwannomas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Hsieh, Jason K; Ostrom, Quinn T; Kruchko, Carol; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of population-based data evaluating the incidence of vestibular schwannomas according to age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Such data are necessary to assess the burden of vestibular schwannomas on varying populations and to inform future research and healthcare planning. The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, which contains the largest aggregation of population-based data on the incidence of primary central nervous system tumors in the US, was used. Age-adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vestibular schwannomas from 2004 to 2010 were calculated by age at diagnosis, gender, race, and ethnicity. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated using Joinpoint to characterize temporal trends. From 2004 to 2010, there were 23,729 newly diagnosed vestibular schwannomas in the US; overall incidence was 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence was stable over time (APC -0.41 %, 95 % confidence interval -3.4, 2.7). Incidence increased with age to a peak of 2.93 per 100,000 in the 65-74 year old age group. Overall, there was no difference in incidence by gender. Compared to Whites, incidence was highest in Asian Pacific Islanders (IRR 1.37, p < 0.001) and lowest in African Americans (IRR 0.36, p < 0.001). Incidence was lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanics (IRR 0.69, p < 0.001). Over 3300 vestibular schwannomas are diagnosed per year in the US and incidence is 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence increases with age up to the 65-74 year old age group. Incidence is higher in Asian Pacific Islanders and lower in African Americans and Hispanics.

  12. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  13. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  14. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  15. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  16. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  17. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  18. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  19. Grazing incidence beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P. R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  20. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location

    PubMed Central

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 × 1 × 1– cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II–III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain. PMID:17522333

  1. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima.

  2. Behavior: Sexual Differences in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early right brain hemisphere specialization for spatial tasks may be due to sex differences. Early specialization has been demonstrated in males asked to perform spatial tasks. An apparently longer period of female brain plasticity may explain why males have a higher incidence of developmental language problems. (MA)

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet describes traumatic brain injury (TBI), an injury of the brain caused by the head being hit by something or being shaken violently. It discusses the incidence of TBI, and describes its symptoms as changes in thinking and reasoning, understanding words, remembering things, paying attention, solving problems, thinking abstractly,…

  4. Brain Edema After Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dostovic, Zikrija; Dostovic, Ernestina; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Avdic, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of brain edema after ischaemic stroke and its impact on the outcome of patients in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients. Ischaemic stroke and brain edema are verified by computed tomography. The severity of stroke was determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Laboratory findings were made during the first four days of hospitalization, and complications were verified by clinical examination and additional tests. Results: In 9 (7.9%) patients developed brain edema. Pneumonia was the most common complication (12.3%). Brain edema had a higher incidence in women, patients with hypertension and elevated serum creatinine values, and patients who are suffering from diabetes. There was no significant correlation between brain edema and survival in patients after acute ischaemic stroke. Patients with brain edema had a significantly higher degree of neurological deficit as at admission, and at discharge (p = 0.04, p = 0.004). Conclusion: The cerebral edema is common after acute ischaemic stroke and no effect on survival in the acute phase. The existence of brain edema in acute ischaemic stroke significantly influence the degree of neurological deficit. PMID:27994292

  5. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  6. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  7. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  8. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...

  9. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  10. Brain Fog

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendships and relationships. • Take your body to the gym and don’t forget to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific data show that longevity ...

  11. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  12. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  13. Brain Lesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue. Usually, a brain lesion is an incidental finding unrelated to the condition or symptom that led to the imaging test in the first place. ...

  14. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  15. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  16. Brain to music to brain!

    PubMed

    Azizi, S Ausim

    2009-07-31

    It has been implicitly understood that culture and music as collective products of human brain in turn influence the brain itself. Now, imaging and anatomical data add substance to this notion. The impact of playing piano on the brain of musicians and its possible effects on cultural and neurological evolution are briefly discussed.

  17. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Cancer.gov

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  18. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  19. Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    1990 Thesis/" Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention CRodney L. Fisher AFIT Student at: Columbia University AFIT/CI/CIA 90-120 AFT/I/I...Civilian Institution Programs DTIC CTELECTE 0 36 UNCLASSIFIFD 4 PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA: INCIDENCE AND PREVENTION By Rodney L. Fisher, CAPT., USAF...Availability Codes Avall and/or Dit Special ABSTRACT Perioperative thermal regulation is discussed. A retrospective audit was conducted to identify the

  20. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  1. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  2. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  3. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take these medicines. If you had a brain aneurysm , you may also have other symptoms or problems. ... chap 28. Read More Acoustic neuroma Brain abscess Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Brain tumor - children Brain tumor - ...

  4. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  5. True rise in anaphylaxis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence trend of anaphylaxis in Asia is not well investigated. The aim of this study is to estimate the entire population-based incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea using a nationwide administrative database. Data over a 7-year period (2008–2014) was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database which covers 97.9% of the entire Korean population. Using diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases-10 for anaphylaxis (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, and T88.6), we identified the annual number of patients who had visited any hospital with a primary diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Incidence rates were calculated using the population distribution data of all NHI beneficiaries. The incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea was 32.19 episodes per 100,000 person-years in 2014, which nearly doubled from 2008 (16.02 episodes per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of anaphylaxis increased continuously throughout these years regardless of gender and age groups (P for trend < 0.001). Female was significantly less predisposed than male (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confident interval [CI], 0.66–0.72; P < 0.001). The incidence was the lowest in 0 to 19 age group and the highest in 40 to 69 age group (adjusted OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.29–2.54; P < 0.001). In conclusion, we report the increasing time trend of anaphylaxis incidence rates using nationwide claims database for the first time in Asia. PMID:28151851

  6. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  7. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  8. Brain banking: opportunities, challenges and meaning for the future.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Brain banks collect post-mortem human brains to foster research into human CNS function and disease. They have been indispensable for uncovering the secrets of many diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. At a time when there are so many open questions in neuroscience and the incidence of brain diseases continues to increase in parallel with the aging of the population, brain banking remains at the heart of brain research. However, the major source of brain banks, the clinical autopsy, is rapidly falling into limbo. New strategies, including donor programmes, medico-legal autopsies and banking in networks, as well as fresh considerations of the ethics and public relations, are required.

  9. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum reduction plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Spinelli, J.J.; Band, P.R.; Svirchev, L.M.; Gallagher, R.P. )

    1991-11-01

    An historical cohort study was conducted among 4,213 men who worked for 5 or more years at a Soderberg aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the mortality and cancer incidence of the cohort with that of the BC population and to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal-tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and electromagnetic fields. Significantly elevated rates were observed for bladder cancer incidence (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.69) and brain cancer mortality (standardized mortality ratio = 2.17). The risk of bladder cancer was strongly related to cumulative exposure to CTPV (P less than .01). The risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma also increased with increasing exposure (P less than .05), although the overall rate was similar to that of the general population (SIR = 1.06). The lung cancer rate was as expected (SIR = 0.97), but showed a weak association with CTPV exposure that was not statistically significant. No individual cause of death or incident cancer site was related to exposure to electromagnetic fields. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on lung and bladder cancer showed the exposure response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  10. Incidence of intracranial tumors following hospitalization for head injuries (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Inskip, P D; Mellemkjaer, L; Gridley, G; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of brain and other intracranial tumors following head trauma was evaluated in a cohort of 228,055 Danish residents hospitalized because of concussion, fractured skull, or other head injury between 1977 and 1992 and followed for an average of eight years (maximum, 17 years). Traffic accidents, falls, and sports-related incidents were the usual causes of the injury. Malignant and benign neoplasms were identified by linking the study roster with records of the Danish Cancer Registry for the years 1977 to 1993. This approach precludes differential reporting of injuries by study participants as an explanation for any associations seen. Intracranial tumors of the nervous system occurred more often than expected based on incidence rates for the Danish population; however, most of the excess occurred during the first year after the injury and likely was due to the detection of tumors that were present before the injury occurred. Excluding the first year of follow-up, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.15 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-1.32). The same general temporal pattern was seen for the major subtypes of brain tumor as for all types combined. SIRs after the first year were 1.0 for glioma (CI = 0.8-1.2), 1.2 for meningioma (CI = 0.8-1.7), and 0.8 for neurilemmoma (CI = 0.4-1.7). However, hemangioblastoma and hemangioma were more frequent than expected, based on 15 cases (SIR = 2.6, CI = 1.4-4.2). Results indicate that head trauma causes, at most, a small increase in the overall risk of brain tumors during the ensuing 15 years; however, a possible association with intracranial vascular tumors warrants further evaluation.

  11. Incidents Unsuitable for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray; And Others

    Educators from over 30 countries judged the suitability of incidents in moral education in the context of their native environment. Participants were 54 secondary school principals or teachers, most of whom were graduate students or married to graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara. They were given descriptions of 23…

  12. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  13. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  14. INCIDENT REPORTING: LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Dean, Jesse D.; Davis, Patrick B.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2007-09-12

    Experience makes a superior teacher. Sharing the details surrounding safety events is one of the best ways to help prevent their recurrence elsewhere. This approach requires an open, non-punitive environment to achieve broad benefits. The Hydrogen Incident Reporting Tool (www.h2incidents.org) is intended to facilitate the sharing of lessons learned and other relevant information gained from actual experiences using and working with hydrogen and hydrogen systems. Its intended audience includes those involved in virtually any aspect of hydrogen technology, systems and use, with an emphasis towards energy and transportation applications. The database contains records of safety events both publicly available and/or voluntarily submitted. Typical records contain a general description of the occurrence, contributing factors, equipment involved, and some detailing of consequences and changes that have been subsequently implemented to prevent recurrence of similar events in the future. The voluntary and confidential nature and other characteristics surrounding the database mean that any analysis of apparent trends in its contents cannot be considered statistically valid for a universal population. A large portion of reported incidents have occurred in a laboratory setting due to the typical background of the reporting projects, for example. Yet some interesting trends are becoming apparent even at this early stage of the database’s existence and general lessons can already be taken away from these experiences. This paper discusses the database and a few trends that have already become apparent for the reported incidents. Anticipated future uses of this information are also described. This paper is intended to encourage wider participation and usage of the incidents reporting database and to promote the safety benefits offered by its contents.

  15. Traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

  16. [Brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  17. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  18. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  19. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  20. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  1. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of ...

  2. Optic Neuritis Incidence is Increased in Spring Months in Patients with Asymptomatic Demyelinating Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Balashov, Konstantin E.; Pal, Gian; Rosenberg, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Optic neuritis (ON) patients can be divided based on the presence or absence of asymptomatic demyelinating lesions (ADL) on brain MRI. The presence of ADL is associated with an increased risk of progression to clinically-definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). Methods The clinical data and brain MRI of 110 patients with acute unilateral ON were analyzed. Results Patients with ADL had a significantly higher incidence of ON in spring months as compared to patients with no ADL (p=0.0024). Increased incidence of ON in spring months was seen in patients with ADL whether or not they were diagnosed with CDMS on follow-up. PMID:20142310

  3. Fragile Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes three types of brain disorders: the sluggish, the oppositional, and the depressed. Explains how to identify these disorders and offers educators strategies for dealing with each. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  4. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... small abscess (less than 2 cm) An abscess deep in the brain An abscess and meningitis Several ... or MRI scan may be needed for a deep abscess. During this procedure, medicines may be injected ...

  5. Brain Basics

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  6. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monthly Donation Named Funds Planned Giving Gifts of Stock Business Partnerships Host an Event AFTD-Team Races ... family members to reach a closure after a long struggle. Brain autopsy is often done in conjunction ...

  7. State Methods for a Cyber Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Statewide Emergency Response and Response Plan SIPC State Infrastructure Protection Center SIRT Security Incident Response Team SIRT State Incident...by statute and policy to report agency information security incidents to the state Security Incident Response Team ( SIRT ). Those reports are made...through recent state statutes. P-16 Yes, agencies are required by statute and policy to report information security incidents to the SIRT . Q-17

  8. Getting My Bearings, Returning to School: Issues Facing Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a blow to the head or other penetrating head injury resulting in impairment of the brain's functioning. Despite the high incidence of TBI in adolescents, many educators still consider TBI to be a low-incidence disability. In addition, school personnel often report receiving little to no pre-service…

  9. Replication of grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    1986-01-01

    The replication of grazing incidence optics is reviewed. Electroform and epoxy replication are described and compared. It is concluded that for light weight and deep nesting, replication has a distinct advantage over direct production. The resolution of optics produced in this manner is however, limited to about 10 arc seconds; a typical value is 40 arc seconds. Epoxy replicated pieces tend to have better optical figures than electroformed optics, but the latter can be made thinner to make more deeply nested systems.

  10. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  11. Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily in many countries since 1960, but the underlying mechanism causing this increase remains elusive. The incidence of melanoma has been linked to the distance to frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting towers. In the current study, the authors sought to determine if there was also a related link on a larger scale for entire countries. Exposure-time-specific incidence was extracted from exposure and incidence data from 4 different countries, and this was compared with reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting.

  12. Silent brain infarcts: a cause of depression in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Saavedra Perez, Heidi C; Direk, Nese; Hofman, Albert; Vernooij, Meike W; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan

    2013-02-28

    The present study included 1047 elderly participants. At baseline, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to detect infarcts and white matter lesions; further, depressive disorders were assessed. Participants were followed up during 3.6 years to determine incident and recurrent depression. We found an increased risk of recurrent depression associated with silent brain infarcts.

  13. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  14. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  15. Long-Term Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Changes in Binswanger’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huisa, Branko N; Caprihan, Arvind; Thompson, Jeffrey; Prestopnik, Jillian; Qualls, Clifford R; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The blood brain-barrier (BBB) is disrupted in small vessel disease (SVD) patients with lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). The relationship of WMHs and regional BBB permeability changes has not been studied. We hypothesized that BBB disruption occurs in normal appearing WM (NAWM) and regions near the WMHs. To test the hypothesis, we repeated BBB permeability measurements in patients with extensive WMHs related to Binswanger’s disease (BD). Methods We selected a subset of 22 BD subjects from a well-characterized larger prospective vascular cognitive impairment cohort. We used 16 age-matched controls for comparison. The abnormal WM permeability (WMP) was measured twice over several years using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI). WMP maps were constructed from voxels above a predetermined threshold. Scans from first and second visits were co-registered. WM was divided into 3 regions: NAWM, WMH ring and WMH core. The ring was defined as 2mm on each side of the WMH border. WMP was calculated in each of the three specific regions. We used paired t-test, ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test to compare individual changes. Results WMP was significantly higher in subjects than controls (p<0.001). There was no correlation between WMH load and WMP. High permeability regions had minimal overlap between first and second scans. Nine percent of WMP was within the WMHs, 49% within the NAWM, and 52% within the WMH ring (p<0.001; ANOVA). Conclusions Increased BBB permeability in NAWM and close to the WMH borders supports a relationship between BBB disruption and development of WMHs. PMID:26205374

  16. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  17. Brain heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Ho, Linh

    2009-03-01

    We present a case with intractable partial complex seizures in a 14-year-old girl who was found to have brain heterotopia on MRI and PET-CT. The patient presented with intractable partial complex seizures and a normal electroencephalogram. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed heterotopic gray matter lining the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Subsequent PET-CT demonstrated moderate tracer localization in the heterotopic gray matter surrounding the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Heterotopia may demonstrate normal or increased FDG uptake on PET, therefore its appearance may be deceiving when other pathologies are being considered.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Guidebook for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office for Special Education Services.

    This guidebook is designed to help New York school staff better understand the specialized needs of students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and appropriately apply educational interventions to improve special and general education services for these students. It provides information on the following areas: (1) the causes, incidence, and…

  19. Brain metastasis: new opportunities to tackle therapeutic resistance.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Joan; De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia

    2014-09-12

    Brain metastasis is a devastating complication of cancer with unmet therapeutic needs. The incidence of brain metastasis has been rising in cancer patients and its response to treatment is limited due to the singular characteristics of brain metastasis (i.e., blood-brain-barrier, immune system, stroma). Despite improvements in the treatment and control of extracranial disease, the outcomes of patients with brain metastasis remain dismal. The mechanisms that allow tumor cells to promulgate metastases to the brain remain poorly understood. Further work is required to identify the molecular alterations inherent to brain metastasis in order to identify novel therapeutic targets and explicate the mechanisms of resistance to systemic therapeutics. In this article, we review current knowledge of the unique characteristics of brain metastasis, implications in therapeutic resistance, and the possibility of developing biomarkers to rationally guide the use of targeted agents.

  20. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  1. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains?

  2. Drug delivery systems for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Rautioa, Jarkko; Chikhale, Prashant J

    2004-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. They are extremely difficult to treat. Although, the rate of brain tumor incidence is relatively low, the field clearly lacks therapeutic strategies capable of overcoming barriers for effective delivery of drugs to brain tumors. Clinical failure of many potentially effective therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors is usually not due to a lack of drug potency, but rather can be attributed to shortcomings in the methods by which a drug is delivered to the brain and into brain tumors. In response to the lack of efficacy of conventional drug delivery methods, extensive efforts have been made to develop novel strategies to overcome the obstacles for brain tumor drug delivery. The challenge is to design therapeutic strategies that deliver drugs to brain tumors in a safe and effective manner. This review provides some insight into several potential techniques that have been developed to improve drug delivery to brain tumors, and it should be helpful to clinicians and research scientists as well.

  3. Intracerebral hemorrhage mortality is not changing despite declining incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Brown, Devin L.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends in incidence and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rigorous population-based study. Methods: We identified all cases of spontaneous ICH in a South Texas community from 2000 to 2010 using rigorous case ascertainment methods within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project. Yearly population counts were determined from the US Census, and deaths were determined from state and national databases. Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted incidence was estimated for each year with Poisson regression, and a linear trend over time was investigated. Trends in 30-day case fatality and long-term mortality (censored at 3 years) were estimated with log-binomial or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, stroke severity, and comorbid disease. Results: A total of 734 cases of ICH were included. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was 5.21 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36, 6.24) in 2000 and 4.30 per 10,000 (95% CI 3.21, 5.76) in 2010. The estimated 10-year change in demographic-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was −31% (95% CI −47%, −11%). Yearly demographic-adjusted 30-day case fatality ranged from 28.3% (95% CI 19.9%, 40.3%) in 2006 to 46.5% (95% CI 35.5, 60.8) in 2008. There was no change in ICH case fatality or long-term mortality over time. Conclusions: ICH incidence decreased over the past decade, but case fatality and long-term mortality were unchanged. This suggests that primary prevention efforts may be improving over time, but more work is needed to improve ICH treatment and reduce the risk of death. PMID:24838789

  4. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  5. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  6. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  7. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors A A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  8. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  9. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  10. The Australian Incident Monitoring Study. Crisis management--validation of an algorithm by analysis of 2000 incident reports.

    PubMed

    Runciman, W B; Webb, R K; Klepper, I D; Lee, R; Williamson, J A; Barker, L

    1993-10-01

    Anaesthetists are called upon to manage complex life-threatening crises at a moment's notice. As there is evidence that this may require cognitive tasking beyond the information-processing capacity of the human brain, it was decided to try and develop a generic crisis management algorithm analogous to the "Phase I" immediate response routine used by airline pilots. Such an algorithm, based on the mnemonic "COVER ABCD, A SWIFT CHECK", was developed and refined over 3 meetings, each attended by 60-100 anaesthetists and aviation psychologists. It was validated against 1301 relevant incidents among the first 2000 incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study. It proved sufficiently robust and safe to recommend its general use as an initial response to any incident or crisis which occurs when a patient is breathing gas from an anesthetic machine. It requires a limited knowledge base and is easily learnt and rehearsed during the anaesthetist's working day. It will provide a functional diagnosis in over 99% of cases and will correct 62% of the problems in 40-60 seconds. In the remaining 37% it will allow the anaesthetist to proceed with a "sub-algorithm", confident in the knowledge that some important step has not been missed. In just over 30% of incidents this will be for a problem familiar to all anaesthetists (e.g. laryngospasm, bradycardia); in just over 6% it will be for a less common, more complex, but finite, set of problems (3% cardiac arrest, 1% air embolism, 1% anaphylaxis, 1% for the remaining desaturations); in less than 1% diagnosis and correction will require a more complex checklist (e.g. for malignant hyperthermia, pneumothorax). The next stage, the development of specific sub-algorithms and a structured team approach for ongoing problems, is in progress.

  11. The Creative Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  12. Factors affecting the incidence of hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, C W; Donner, A P

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension was determined among 10,173 patients of general practices in southwestern Ontario studied from 1978 to 1982. For both sexes the incidence of hypertension rose with increasing age. The incidence was higher among men than among women until age 50, after which it was similar for the two sexes. Obesity was positively associated with incidence for both sexes. In men this association diminished significantly with increasing age. The similar trend in women fell just short of statistical significance. In men but not women heavy alcohol consumption was positively related to the incidence of hypertension. However, the broad definition of this variable may have obscured a relation in women. Among men the effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension was less for heavy drinkers than for light drinkers. Smoking was not related to the incidence of hypertension in either sex. PMID:3815197

  13. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  14. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  15. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  16. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  17. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Arcelus, Mónica; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel Á.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Moreno-Montañés, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Smoking is a serious global public health concern that has been related to many chronic diseases. However, the effect of smoking on eye disorders has been less studied. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the association between current tobacco smokers and the risk of developing glaucoma and furthermore to evaluate the relationship between passive or former smokers and glaucoma. In this prospective and dynamic cohort, 16,797 participants initially who were found not to have glaucoma were followed up for a median of 8.5 years. Validated data on lifestyle, including tobacco consumption, were assessed at baseline. Information about new diagnosis of glaucoma was collected by follow-up questionnaires every 2 years. The outcome was the incidence of self-reported glaucoma during the follow-up. A subsample was used to validate the glaucoma diagnosis. During the 8.5 years of follow-up, 184 new glaucoma cases were identified. Current smokers had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma compared to participants who had never smoked after controlling for potential confounders (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.88 [95% coefficient interval (CI): 1.26–2.81]; P = 0.002). A nonsignificant increased risk was found among former smokers (HR 1.27 [95% CI: 0.88–1.82]; P = 0.198). When we assessed the exposure as per the number of cigarette pack-years, a dose–response relationship between pack-years and the risk of glaucoma was found (HR for the 5th quintile versus the 1st quintile: 1.70 [95% IC: 1.10–2.64], P for trend, 0.009). However, no relationship was found between passive smokers and glaucoma. (HR 0.67 [95% CI: 0.37–1.21]; P = 0.189). Our results suggest a direct association between current smokers and the incidence of glaucoma. In particular, this association was related to the number of pack-years, which was not found in the case of former smokers nor in the case of passive smokers. PMID:28072720

  18. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  19. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  20. Improving incident reporting among junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Hotton, Emily; Jordan, Lesley; Peden, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To ensure systems in hospitals improve to make patient care safer, learning must occur when things go wrong. Incident reporting is one of the commonest mechanisms used to learn from harm events and near misses. Only a relatively small number of incidents that occur are actually reported and different groups of staff have different rates of reporting. Nationally, junior doctors are low reporters of incidents, a finding supported by our local data. We set out to explore the culture and awareness around incident reporting among our junior doctors, and to improve the incident reporting rate within this important staff group. In order to achieve this we undertook a number of work programmes focused on junior doctors, including: assessment of their knowledge, confidence and understanding of incident reporting, education on how and why to report incidents with a focus on reporting on clinical themes during a specific time period, and evaluation of the experience of those doctors who reported incidents. Junior doctors were asked to focus on incident reporting during a one week period. Before and after this focussed week, they were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their confidence about what an incident was and how to report. Prior to “Incident Reporting Week”, on average only two reports were submitted a month by junior doctors compared with an average of 15 per month following the education and awareness week. This project highlights the fact that using a focussed reporting period and/or specific clinical themes as an education tool can benefit a hospital by promoting awareness of incidents and by increasing incident reporting rates. This can only assist in improving hospital systems, and ultimately increase patient safety. PMID:26734264

  1. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.

    PubMed

    Tserkovny, Alex

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.

  2. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  3. Brain abscess of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Antonio Azoubel; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Carvalho, Ricardo Wathson Feitosa; Avelar, Rafael Linard; Pereira, Carlos Umberto; Pereira, José Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Brain abscess is a rare and threatening infection, which is in a suppuration area, caused either by trauma, neurosurgical complication, or by a secondary infection of dental origin complication. The infectious process spread from the start focus can occur in 2 ways: hematogenous or by contiguity. The treatment should ideally be based on the etiological factor excision, combined with drainage and antibiotics as adjuvant; this philosophy is not observed in the reports described in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This study's goal was to report a case of brain abscess consequent of an odontogenic outbreak, where an adequate treatment was set up, but it was already in advanced stages and had as a result the lethal outcome. Complications from the odontogenic infections have a low incidence, but should never be disregarded, because they can lead to death, as described in this manuscript.

  4. Intervening in the psychopath's brain.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder involving personality and behavioral features associated with a high rate of violent aggression and recidivism. This paper explores potential psychopharmacological therapies to modulate dysfunctional neural pathways in psychopaths and reduce the incidence of their harmful behavior, as well as the ethical and legal implications of offering these therapies as an alternative to incarceration. It also considers whether forced psychopharmacological intervention in adults and children with psychopathic traits manifesting in violent behavior can be justified. More generally, the paper addresses the question of how to weigh the psychopath's presumptive right to non-interference in his brain and mind against the public interest in avoiding harm.

  5. Antidepressants and the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Lesley; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-05-01

    Major unipolar depression is a significant global health problem, with the highest incident risk being during adolescence. A depressive illness during this period is associated with negative long-term consequences including suicide, additional psychiatric comorbidity, interpersonal relationship problems, poor educational performance and poor employment attainment well into adult life. Despite previous safety concerns, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain a key component of the treatment of moderate to severe depression episodes in adolescents. The impact of SSRIs on the developing adolescent brain, however, remains unclear. In this review we first consider what is currently known about the developing brain during adolescence and how these development processes may be affected by a depressive illness. We then review our understanding of the action of SSRIs, their effects on the brain and how these may differ between adults and adolescents. We conclude that there is currently little evidence to indicate that the human adolescent brain is at developmental risk from SSRIs. Furthermore, there is no clear-cut evidence to support the concerns of marked suicidal adverse side effects accruing in depressed adolescents being treated with SSRIs. Neither, however, is there irrefutable evidence to dismiss all such concerns. This makes SSRI prescribing a matter of medical judgement, ensuring the benefits outweigh the risks for the individual patients, as with so much in therapeutics. Overall, SSRIs show clinical benefits that we judge to outweigh the risks to neurodevelopment and are an important therapeutic choice in the treatment of moderate to severe adolescent depression.

  6. Adolescent brain development, substance use, and psychotherapeutic change.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan; Tapert, Susan F

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a unique developmental period characterized by major physiological, psychological, social, and brain changes, as well as an increased incidence of maladaptive, addictive behaviors. With the use of MRI techniques, researchers have been able to provide a better understanding of adolescent brain maturation and how neurodevelopment affects cognition and behavior. This review discusses adolescent brain development and its potential influence on psychotherapeutic change. We focus on cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based approaches for treating substance use and highlight potential brain mechanisms underlying response to psychotherapy. Finally, we discuss integrative neuroimaging and treatment studies and potential opportunities for advancing the treatment of adolescent addictive behaviors.

  7. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  8. Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

  9. Fortress brain.

    PubMed

    Royall, Donald R

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal inclusions, comprised of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) such lesions are distributed in a hierarchical retrograde transynaptic spatial pattern. This implies a retrograde transynaptic temporal propagation as well. There can be few explanations for this other than infectious agents (prions and viruses). This suggests that AD and LBD (at least) may have infectious origins. Transynaptic infiltration of the CNS along cranial nerve or other major projections, by one or more infectious agents has important implications. The clinical syndrome and natural history of each neurodegenerative disorder will reflect its portal of entry. There may be a different neurodegenerative syndrome for each cranial nerve or other portal of entry, and not all may manifest as "dementia". Each syndrome may be associated with more than one pathological lesion. Each pathology may be associated with several clinical syndromes. Host-parasite interactions are species specific. This may explain the rarity of AD-like pathology in most other older mammals. Over evolutionary timescales, the human brain should be adapted to predation by neurotropic agents. Viewed from this perspective, the prion-like pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of β-amyloid and other proteins may be adaptive, and anti-microbial. Reductions in synaptic density may slow the progress of invading pathogens, while perineuronal nets and other structures may guard the gates. This suggests a defense in depth of a structure, the brain, that is inherently vulnerable to invasion along its neural networks.

  10. Neurologic features of chronic minamata disease (organic mercury poisoning) and incidence of complications with aging.

    PubMed

    Uchino, M; Tanaka, Y; Ando, Y; Yonehara, T; Hara, A; Mishima, I; Okajima, T; Ando, M

    1995-09-01

    To elucidate the neurologic features of chronic Minamata disease, and the incidence of complications with aging, we studied 80 patients with documented Minamata disease (organic mercury poisoning) from 1986 to 1994 (mean age: 63 years). Of the cardinal neurologic findings, sensory impairment was seen with highest frequency in 98.8% of patients limited to the extremities in 86.3%. Impairment of lower extremity coordination was observed in 60%, constriction of the visual field in 51.9%, and retrocochlear hearing loss in 41%. To assess age-related complications, patients were separated into three groups by age: Group I (10 to 39 years); Group II (40 to 69 years); Group III (> or = 70 years). The incidences of hypertension and cerebrovascular diseases, organic ophthalmologic disorders (including cataracts), presbyacusis, and cervical spondylosis deformans increased significantly with age. Compared with a preceding survey (1981 to 1985, 171 patients, mean age: 63.5 years), the incidences of complicated hypertension and cataracts had decreased, whereas those of cerebrovascular disease and retinitis pigmentosa remained unchanged. The incidences of abnormal brain computed tomography (CT), presbyacusis, cervical spondylosis deformans, and positive tests for urine sugar also increased. The incidences of these complications other than retinitis pigmentosa were similar to those in the general population. These results accurately reflect the recent epidemiological disease tendencies in Japan toward a decreased incidence of hypertension and an increased incidence of diabetes.

  11. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  12. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  13. Noticing Critical Incidents in a Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Ban Heng

    2014-01-01

    What teachers attend to, how they make sense of, and respond to critical incidents in the classroom are important for improving teaching. However, seeing and understanding important features of critical incidents can be difficult. In this paper, I propose a notion of productive noticing, which I used to analyse a case study of what teachers…

  14. Critical Incidents in ELT Initial Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2008-01-01

    A critical incident is any unplanned event that occurs during class. In has been suggested that if trainee teachers formally reflect on these critical incidents, it may be possible for them to uncover new understandings of the teaching and learning process. This paper outlines and discusses how eighteen trainee teachers in an English language…

  15. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  16. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  17. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  18. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  19. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  20. Hazardous materials incidents in military aircraft.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M; Tolan, G

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated 10 years of reported hazardous cargo incident information from the U.S. Air Force and Naval Safety Centers. In this first of two papers describing the hazardous cargo problems reported by the two services, we describe types of aircraft and types of hazardous cargo involved in incidents not causing aircraft mishaps. Normally, hazardous cargo must be manifested as such and no passengers are allowed on such flights. Unauthorized hazardous cargo was found on military aircraft carrying passengers. The most common problem was fuel spills or fumes. The most frequent cause of a hazardous cargo incident was improper manifest of same. Improvements are recommended for the incompatible or inconsistent hazardous cargo incident reporting systems, in order to improve prevention of hazardous cargo incidents.

  1. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  2. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.

    1990-09-01

    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  3. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factors that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.

  4. Incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Reikerås, O.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of hip fracture has been studied extensively, but there is still some doubt whether the age-specific incidence is increasing. The proportion of trochanteric fractures has varied and has also been said to be increasing. We studied data on 1,730 prospectively registered cases from 1998–2003 and computed age- and gender-specific incidence rates for intracapsular and trochanteric fractures. The incidence of hip fracture for women over 50 years was 1,263 and for men 452 per 100,000. The proportion of trochanteric fractures was 38% for women and 41% for men. There was no significant difference in the proportion of trochanteric fractures either between or within the genders, and the proportion did not exceed 50% in any age group. These findings confirm the high incidence of hip fracture in Norway but do not indicate any increase. The proportion of trochanteric fractures also seems to be stable. PMID:17033761

  5. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S

    2007-06-01

    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  6. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factorsmore » that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.« less

  7. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  8. Pediatric Rodent Models of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Semple, Bridgette D; Carlson, Jaclyn; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Due to a high incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents, age-specific studies are necessary to fully understand the long-term consequences of injuries to the immature brain. Preclinical and translational research can help elucidate the vulnerabilities of the developing brain to insult, and provide model systems to formulate and evaluate potential treatments aimed at minimizing the adverse effects of TBI. Several experimental TBI models have therefore been scaled down from adult rodents for use in juvenile animals. The following chapter discusses these adapted models for pediatric TBI, and the importance of age equivalence across species during model development and interpretation. Many neurodevelopmental processes are ongoing throughout childhood and adolescence, such that neuropathological mechanisms secondary to a brain insult, including oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, may be influenced by the age at the time of insult. The long-term evaluation of clinically relevant functional outcomes is imperative to better understand the persistence and evolution of behavioral deficits over time after injury to the developing brain. Strategies to modify or protect against the chronic consequences of pediatric TBI, by supporting the trajectory of normal brain development, have the potential to improve quality of life for brain-injured children.

  9. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/22556195 . Szeder V, Tateshima S, Duckwiler GR. Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, ... chap 67. Read More Aneurysm in the brain Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Recovering after stroke Seizures Smoking - ...

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  11. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  12. Brain-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

  13. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  14. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain to bump against the inside of your skull. Common TBIs, such as concussions, can happen during ... an object, like a bullet or piece of skull, pierces your brain. Symptoms of a traumatic brain ...

  16. That's Using Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Dana R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new adult learning theories, including those of Roger Sperry (left brain/right brain), Paul McLean (triune brain), and Howard Gardner (multiple intelligences). Relates adult learning theory to training. (JOW)

  17. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  18. Bridging the Communication Gap (Combler les Lacunes dans le Domaine de la Communication)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    designation appeared was in the name of the Real Biblioteca P lica da Corte, 50%ofthe total costs involved mustbe created in 1796. Several other public...Maria Josd. -Leitura P~blica: Roe de Bibliotecas Municipais. Relat6rio aprosentado A SEC.- Uisboa: SEC, 1986. 10 - BAU, Graga, FERREIRA, Godinho

  19. Nourish Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tags: brain, brain-healthy, cognitive decline, dementia, diet, exercise, health, lifestyle Family Health, Prevention and Wellness, Seniors, Staying Healthy December 2010 Copyright © American Academy of ...

  20. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  1. Cancer incidence pattern in Cordoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto R; Aballay, Laura R; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; Butinof, Mariana; Paz, Roberto Meyer; Pou, Sonia; Eynard, Aldo R; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in Argentina; nevertheless the distribution of the cancer incidence rates throughout the country is unknown. This study was conducted to describe cancer incidence patterns in Córdoba Province. Incidence data were supplied by the Government Córdoba Cancer Registry. Demographic information (age, sex, and place of residence) and diagnosis, certified by a pathologist, about all incident cases from June 2003 to May 2005 by type and 5-year age groups were obtained. Comparison of the incidence rate of cancer in various counties was performed by using standardized incidence rates (SIR) per 100,000 inhabitants using the world standard population. Estimated SIRs were used to build up incidence maps. Two indicators were created: sex ratio and site-specific ratio. Mixed Poisson models were fitted. Taken as a whole for all counties, SIR was 121.42 and 141.57 for men and women, respectively. The most common sites in men were prostate (13.62), lung (10.12), colon (7.53), and bladder (7.03); in women were breast (22.51) and colon (3.31). The highest and lowest rates were in urban and rural areas, respectively. Cancer registry has a pivotal role in cancer control. Such information is the primary resource of information not only for epidemiological research on cancer determinants but also for planning and evaluating health services for the policies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  2. [Circulating immune complexes in acute concussion of the brain].

    PubMed

    Midlenko, A I; Biktimirov, T Z; Garmashov, Iu A; Smirnova, M A; Smol'ianinova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the count of circulating immune complexes (CIC) in the blood of children with acute concussion of the brain. The fact that CIC at high concentrations that can penetrate into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and cause complications as vasculitis, microangiopathy, proliferative processes in the meninges, enlarged ventricles of the brain, and atrophy of its tissue was borne in mind. The studies revealed a significant progressive CIC increase within 3 weeks. For correction of blood CIC levels, laser exposure was applied to the carotid and vertebral arteries and acupuncture points. For comparison, thymaline in age-specific doses was used. Laser radiation showed a significant fall of CIC at days 19-21, particular when applied to the acupuncture points. Thymaline did not affect blood CIC levels. Laser application to the acupuncture points in children with acute brain concussion should reduce the incidence of complications of brain injury disease.

  3. Trends in Incidence of Common Cancers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid; Karimirad, Mohammad Reza; Vaziri, Siavash; Mansouri, Fiezollah; Moudi, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of ten common cancers in Iran, based on the national cancer registry reports from 2004 to 2009. This epidemiological study was carried out based on existing age-standardized estimate cancer data from the national report on cancer registry/Ministry of Health in Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by test for linear trend and P ≥ 0.05 was taken as the significant level. Totals of 41,169 and 32,898 cases of cancer were registered in men and females, respectively, during these years. Overall age-standard incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population according to primary site weres 125.6 and 113.4 in males and females, respectively. Between 2004 and 2009, the ten most common cancers (excluding skin cancer) were stomach (16.2), bladder (12.6), prostate (11), colon-rectum (10.14), hematopoeitic system (7.1), lung (6.1), esophagus (6.4), brain (3.2), lymph node (3.8) and larynx (3.4) in males; and in females were breast (27.4), colon-rectum (9.3), stomach (7.6), esophagus (6.4), hematopoeitic system (4.9), thyroid (3.9), ovary (3.6), corpus uteri (2.9), bladder (3.2) and lung (2.6). Moreover, results showed that skin cancer was estimated as the most common cancer in both sexes. The lowest and the highest incidence in females and males were reported respectively in 2004 and 2009. Over this period, the incidence of cancer in both sexes has been significantly increasing (p<0.01). Like other less developed and epidemiologically transitioning countries, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of cancer in Iran is rising. Due to the increasing trends, the future burden of cancer in the Iran is going to be acute with the expected increases in aging populations. Determining and controlling potential risk factors of cancer should hopefully lead to decrease in its burden.

  4. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.

  5. Fourth-year nursing student perceptions of incidents and incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Espin, Sherry; Meikle, Diane

    2014-04-01

    This study explored how fourth-year nursing students (n = 10) from one urban baccalaureate nursing program perceived incidents potentially harmful to patients, as well as incident reporting. Individual interviews were conducted. Five scenarios were presented in the interviews, with each scenario portraying a situation that varied in terms of the severity of potential for patient harm and the clinical team members involved. Participants' responses were analyzed using a descriptive thematic approach. Of the 50 events (10 participants × 5 scenarios), participants identified 37 events as incidents. Three themes emerged regarding how participants identified an incident: scope of practice, professional roles, and harm to the patient. Regarding 48 of the 50 events, participants said they would report these incidents either informally or formally. Findings from this study suggest a need for nursing education regarding what constitutes an incident, as well as how and when to report incidents.

  6. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  7. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain.

  8. Experimental missile wound to the brain.

    PubMed

    Carey, M E; Sarna, G S; Farrell, J B; Happel, L T

    1989-11-01

    Among civilians in the United States, 33,000 gunshot wound deaths occur each year; probably half of these involve the head. In combat, head wounds account for approximately half of the immediate mortality when death can be attributed to a single wound. No significant reduction in the neurosurgical mortality associated with these wounds has occurred between World War II and the Vietnam conflict, and very little research into missile wounds of the brain has been undertaken. An experimental model has been developed in the anesthetized cat whereby a ballistic injury to the brain may be painlessly reproduced in order that the pathophysiological effects of brain wounding may be studied and better treatments may be designed to lower the mortality and morbidity rates associated with gunshot wounds. Prominent among physiological effects observed in this model was respiratory arrest even though the missile did not injure the brain stem directly. The incidence of prolonged respiratory arrest increased with increasing missile energy, but arrest was often reversible provided respiratory support was given. It is possible that humans who receive a brain wound die from missile-induced apnea instead of brain damage per se. The mortality rate in humans with brain wounding might be reduced by prompt respiratory support. Brain wounding was associated with persistently increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure not entirely attributable to intracranial bleeding. The magnitude of these derangements appeared to be missile energy-dependent and approached dangerous levels in higher-energy wounds. All wounded cats exhibited postwounding increases in blood glucose concentrations consistent with a generalized stress reaction. A transient rise in hematocrit also occurred immediately after wounding. Both of these phenomena could prove deleterious to optimal brain function after injury.

  9. Prevention of future incidents and investigational lines

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Miguel J.; Zapatero, José; López, Mario

    2011-01-01

    All radiation devices in use nowadays are subject to cause serious incidents and accidents, with potential risks in exposed population groups. These risks may have immediate or long term health implications. The detection of radioactive incidents is a procedure that should be systematized in economically developed societies. International organizations may provide support to other states in the event of a radioactive incident. Prevention, mitigation and treatment of the radiation effects are done by anticipating the moment of exposure and by establishing new efforts for investigation of radioprotective products. In this article we will analyze the causes of radiological incidents, the means to detect them, and the current preventive and therapeutic procedures available, with special emphasis on new biodosimetry methods for triage and investigational radioprotective drugs. Finally, we will explore the most efficient measures, for future prevention. PMID:24376973

  10. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  11. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... investigation team shall be established and consist of at least one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contract employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other persons...

  12. Using Incidence Sampling to Estimate Covariances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the generalized symmetric means approach to the estimation of population covariances, complete with derivations and examples. Particular attention is paid to the problem of missing data, which is handled very naturally in the incidence sampling framework. (CTM)

  13. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  14. Dissection of the Process of Brain Metastasis Reveals Targets and Mechanisms for Molecular-based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases outnumber the incidence of brain tumors by a factor of ten. Patients with brain metastases have a dismal prognosis and current treatment modalities achieve only a modest clinical benefit. We discuss the process of brain metastasis with respect to mechanisms and involved targets to outline options for therapeutic intervention and focus on breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma. We describe the process of penetration of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by disseminated tumor cells, establishment of a metastatic niche, colonization and outgrowth in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in colonization of the brain parenchyma, interactions of extravasated tumor cells with microglia and astrocytes, as well as their propensity for neuromimicry, is discussed. We outline targets suitable for prevention of metastasis and summarize targets suitable for treatment of established brain metastases. Finally, we highlight the implications of findings revealing druggable mutations in brain metastases that cannot be identified in matching primary tumors.

  15. Properties And Performance Of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    We numerically analyze at near-grazing incidence various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  16. Properties and performance of grazing incidence reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    1982-05-01

    Various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements are numerically analyzed at near-grazing incidence, to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  17. Solar Cell Angle of Incidence Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission has three different solar arrays each of which sees changes in incidence angle during normal operation. When solar array angle of incidence effects was researched little published data was found. The small amount of-published data created a need to obtain and evaluate such data. The donation of the needed data, which was taken in the fall of 1994, was a major factor in the preparation of this paper.

  18. Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. E.; Toelle, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    ASHMET computer program estimates amount of solar insolation incident on surfaces of several types of solar collectors, including fixed-position flat-plate, monthly-tilt-adjusted flat-plat, beam-tracting, and fixed-azimuthtracker. Basic methodology employed in ASHMET is to use ASHRAE relationships to obtain clear-day total daily insolation incident on collector surface of representative day of each month of year. ASHMET is interactive program and prompts user for all required data.

  19. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  20. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  1. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  2. Brain AVM (Arteriovenous Malformation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a brain scan for another health issue or after the blood vessels rupture and cause bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). Once diagnosed, a brain AVM can often be treated successfully to prevent complications, such as brain damage or stroke. Find out why Mayo Clinic is the best ...

  3. Safety incident reporting in emergency radiology: analysis of 1717 safety incident reports.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Aran, Shima; Raja, Ali S; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the incidence and types of safety reports logged in the radiology safety incident reporting system in our emergency radiology section over an 8-year period. Electronic incident reporting system of our institute was searched for the variables in emergency radiology. All reports from April 2006 to June 2014 were included and deindentified. The following event classifications were investigated in radiography, CT, and MRI modalities: diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation/consent, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue, and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 881,194 emergency radiology examinations were performed during the study period, 1717 (1717/881,194 = 0.19 %) of which resulted in safety reports. Reports were classified into 14 different categories, the most frequent of which were "diagnostic test orders" (481/1717 = 28 % total incident reports), "medication/IV safety" (302/1717 = 18 % total incident reports), and "service coordination" (204/1717 = 12 % total incident reports). X-ray had the highest report rate (873/1717 = 50 % total incident reports), followed by CT (604/1717 = 35 % total incident reports) and MRI (240/1717 = 14 % total incident reports). Forty-six percent of safety incidents (789/1717) caused no harm and did not reach the patient, 36 % (617/1717) caused no harm but reached the patient, 18 % (308/1717) caused temporary or minor harm/ damage, and less than 1 % caused permanent or major harm/ damage or death. Our study shows an overall safety incident report rate of 0.19 % in emergency radiology including radiography, CT, and MRI modalities. The most common safety incidents were diagnostic test orders, medication/IV safety, and service coordination.

  4. Cancer Incidence Among Police Officers in a U.S. Northeast Region: 1976–2006

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M

    2015-01-01

    Police officers are exposed to occupational hazards which may put them at increased risk of cancer. We examined the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 2,234 white-male police officers in Buffalo, New York. The study population was followed for 31 years (1976–2006). The incidence of cancer, ascertained using a population-based tumor registry, was compared with 9 US regions using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program data. Four hundred and six officers (18.2%) developed cancer between 1976 and 2006. The risk of overall cancer among police officers was found to be similar to the general white-male population (Standardized Incidence Ratio [SIR] = 0.94, 95%, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.85–1.03). An elevated risk of Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma was observed relative to the general population (SIR = 3.34, 95%, CI= 1.22–7.26). The risk of brain cancer, although only slightly elevated relative to the general population (SIR = 1.61, 95%, CI = 0.73–3.05), was significantly increased with 30 years or more of service (SIR = 2.92, 95%, CI = 1.07–6.36). Incidence ratios were significantly lower than expected for skin and bladder cancer. Police officers were at increased risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma overall and of brain cancer after 30 years of service. PMID:22900461

  5. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  6. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 164.47/100,000 (207.42/100,000 in males, 120.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 117.54/100,000 and 116.90/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0.74 years old) was 13.53%. The cancer mortality, ASMRC and ASMRW were 141.59/100,000, 101.17/100,000 and 100.33/100,000 in urban areas, and 173.79/100,000, 124.20/100,000 and 123.64/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. Cancers of the lung, stomach, liver, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, brain, leukemia, bladder and pancreas were the most common cancers, accounting for about 82.12% of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, female breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumor, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 89.01% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural, males and females both in incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions Cancer surveillance information in Shandong province is making great progress with the increasing number of cancer registries, population coverage and the improving data quality. Cancer registration plays a fundamental role in cancer control by providing basic information on population-based cancer incidence, mortality, survival and time trend. The disease burden of cancer is serious in Shandong province, and so cancer prevention and control in Shandong province should be enhanced including health education, health promotion, cancer screening and cancer care services. PMID:27478312

  8. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the framingham offspring study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomarkers have been individually associated with vascular brain injury, but no prior study has explored the simultaneous association of a biologically plausible panel of biomarkers with the incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack and the prevalence of subclinical brain injury. In 3127...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  10. Treatment Efficacy: Cognitive-Communicative Disorders Resulting from Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses adults with brain injuries and resulting cognitive communicative disorders. The incidence of brain injuries, the effects of cognitive-communication disorders, the role of the speech-language pathologist, the benefits of treatment, and the effects of different treatments are discussed. Charts are included that summarize…

  11. [Chemical incidents and gathering information on toxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-12-01

    Major cases of chemical incidents and information on chemical agents and chemical terrorist attacks are outlined. Since the late 1990s, major incidents occurred consecutively, such as two cases of sarin attack in 1994 and 1995, an oil spill from a Russian oil tanker in the Japan Sea in 1997, arsenic poisoning in Wakayama in 1998, the criticality incident at Tokai-Mura in 1999 in Japan, and terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York. The importance of crisis management and cooperation among relevant organizations has been emphasized. To provide information for an appropriate and quick response in emergencies, we prepared a Web portal site for information on chemicals including chemical agents, a chemical incident database, and links to relevant Web sites. In intentional cases of poisoning caused by toxic chemicals in Japan, 111 cases were collected mainly from a newspaper database (1984-1999). Many copy-cat poisonings occurred, especially in 1984-1985 and in 1998 just after an arsenic poisoning incident in Wakayama. Many cases occurred in the laboratories of institutes, universities, and hospitals where various types of chemicals are used.

  12. Comorbidities Among Persons With Incident Psychiatric Condition

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: I sought to determine how medical comorbidities co-exist with incident psychiatric condition. Method: I used data from all 11 available waves (1992-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). I identified 4,358 index participants with self-reported incident psychiatric condition. I collected comorbidity data from participants preceding, including, and succeeding that incident wave. Comorbidities assessed included high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes mellitus, cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis. Modified Poisson regression combined with log-linked binomial regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of reporting a comorbidity preceding and following the incident wave. Multiple comparison testing dictated significance of RRs with p < .007. Results: For the waves preceding the index wave, the RRs of reporting all comorbidities except HBP and cancer were significantly (p < .007) increased. For the waves following incident psychiatric condition, the risks of reporting heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease were significantly (p < .007) increased. These results were adjusted for participant age, race, gender, other comorbidities listed, and the wave in which a comorbidity was reported. Conclusion: The bidirectional association between a psychiatric condition and medical illnesses could only be statistically confirmed for lung disease, diabetes, and heart disease. It is of interest to determine how reporting a psychiatric condition may affect the sequelae of health care use and treatment outcomes for patients with either of these comorbidities or a combination of them. PMID:28008416

  13. Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael E; Paul, John F

    2010-03-15

    Autistic disorder (AD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically identified in early childhood. Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its etiology. The number of individuals identified as having autism has increased dramatically in recent years, but whether some proportion of this increase is real is unknown. If real, susceptible populations may have exposure to controllable exogenous stressors. Using literature AD data from long-term (approximately 10-year) studies, we determined cumulative incidence of AD for each cohort within each study. These data for each study were examined for a changepoint year in which the AD cumulative incidence first increased. We used data sets from Denmark, California, Japan, and a worldwide composite of studies. In the Danish, California, and worldwide data sets, we found that an increase in AD cumulative incidence began about 1988-1989. The Japanese study (1988-1996) had AD cumulative incidence increasing continuously, and no changepoint year could be calculated. Although the debate about the nature of increasing autism continues, the potential for this increase to be real and involve exogenous environmental stressors exists. The timing of an increase in autism incidence may help in screening for potential candidate environmental stressors.

  14. Comparing center-specific cumulative incidence functions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ludi; Schaubel, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    The competing risks data structure arises frequently in clinical and epidemiologic studies. In such settings, the cumulative incidence function is often used to describe the ultimate occurrence of a particular cause of interest. If the objective of the analysis is to compare subgroups of patients with respect to cumulative incidence, imbalance with respect to group-specific covariate distributions must generally be factored out, particularly in observational studies. This report proposes a measure to contrast center- (or, more generally group-) specific cumulative incidence functions (CIF). One such application involves evaluating organ procurement organizations with respect to the cumulative incidence of kidney transplantation. In this case, the competing risks include (i) death on the wait-list and (ii) removal from the wait-list. The proposed method assumes proportional cause-specific hazards, which are estimated through Cox models stratified by center. The proposed center effect measure compares the average CIF for a given center to the average CIF that would have resulted if that particular center had covariate pattern-specific cumulative incidence equal to that of the national average. We apply the proposed methods to data obtained from a national organ transplant registry.

  15. Delphi technique used in laser incident surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Krystyn R.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Neal, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    There are several data sources for collecting laser incidents. All reviewed sources collect information differently for varying purposes. An effort was undertaken to combine laser exposure reporting data into a single database so that trends in laser incidents could be identified. A review of available datasets revealed significant disparities in laser exposure reporting. As a result, utilizing the existing database to predict personnel at increased risk for laser exposure and injury is challenging if not impossible. For example, many of the data sources do not contain information about physical examinations, diagnosis, or medical follow-up, which are important for studying laser injury outcomes. This study proposes using the Delphi Technique to identify relevant fields that should be collected for a laser incident database based on the experiences of three groups of United States Air Force (USAF) professionals: (1) Engineers (Bioenvironmental Engineers), (2) Health Physicists, and (3) Physicians (Ophthalmologists and Flight Surgeons). In broad terms, these three professional groups coordinate laser incident analyses and investigations. Knowing what information is most important for studying laser incidents is the first step in establishing an effective database that will assist in identifying occupations that are at high-risk for laser injury. Robust data sets obtained for analysis by these healthcare professionals can be an effective tool for laser injury prevention and management.

  16. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  17. Patient safety incidents are common in primary care: A national prospective active incident reporting survey

    PubMed Central

    Brami, Jean; Chanelière, Marc; Kret, Marion; Mosnier, Anne; Dupie, Isabelle; Haeringer-Cholet, Anouk; Keriel-Gascou, Maud; Maradan, Claire; Villebrun, Frédéric; Makeham, Meredith; Quenon, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to describe the incidence and the nature of patient safety incidents (PSIs) in primary care general practice settings, and to explore the association between these incidents and practice or organizational characteristics. Methods GPs, randomly selected from a national influenza surveillance network (n = 800) across France, prospectively reported any incidents observed each day over a one-week period between May and July 2013. An incident was an event or circumstance that could have resulted, or did result, in harm to a patient, which the GP would not wish to recur. Primary outcome was the incidence of PSIs which was determined by counting reports per total number of patient encounters. Reports were categorized using existing taxonomies. The association with practice and organizational characteristics was calculated using a negative binomial regression model. Results 127 GPs (participation rate 79%) reported 317 incidents of which 270 were deemed to be a posteriori judged preventable, among 12,348 encounters. 77% had no consequences for the patient. The incidence of reported PSIs was 26 per 1000 patient encounters per week (95% CI [23‰ -28‰]). Incidents were three times more frequently related to the organization of healthcare than to knowledge and skills of health professionals, and especially to the workflow in the GPs’ offices and to the communication between providers and with patients. Among GP characteristics, three were related with an increased incidence in the final multivariable model: length of consultation higher than 15 minutes, method of receiving radiological results (by fax compared to paper or email), and being in a multidisciplinary clinic compared with sole practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety incidents (PSIs) occurred in mean once every two days in the sampled GPs and 2% of them were associated with a definite possibility for harm. Studying the association between organizational features of general

  18. Incident position detector for radiation beam

    SciTech Connect

    Koumura, N.; Niwa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Ohwada, M.; Tanaka, K.

    1983-05-17

    Disclosed is a device for detecting an incident position of radiation beam, particularly, its center or center of gravity. The detecting device is provided with a scanning type radiation beam sensing device having a plurality of radiation sensing elements in a linear arrangement, and the sensing device is disposed in such a manner that its radiation receiving surface may be substantially coincided with an incident surface of the radiation beam to be detected. When reading an output from the sensing device, the time sequential output signals from the sensing device are split into predetermined sections, and the signal quantities among the sections are compared. In this way, the position of the center or the center of gravity of the radiation beam on the incident surface is detected with the position corresponding to a split point of the signals as the reference.

  19. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises.

  20. Plasmonics metalens independent from the incident polarizations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Rongzhen; Zhang, Jingran; Li, Yan; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-06-29

    An ultra-thin, planar, broadband metalens composed of L-shaped gap antennas on a thin gold film has been designed, which is suitable for both circular and X/Y linear polarizations focusing simultaneously. The phase discontinuity of the cross-polarized transmisson light can be manipulated by the length and width of the L-shaped gap antenna accurately. The designed planar metalens posses a strong focusing ability over a large wavelength range, and the size of the focus spot is in sub-wavelength scale. The focal lengths change from 13 to 7 um with incident wavelength from 750 to 1300 nm, and the cause of dispersion is explained and analyzed in detail. The designed metalens can work very well at a wide incident angles of 0~45°. Most importantly, its unique focusing ability that is independent of the incident polarizations will greatly promotes the practical applications and developments of the metasurfaces.

  1. Incidence of bruxism in TMD population.

    PubMed

    Chandwani, Briesh; Ceneviz, Caroline; Mehta, Noshir; Scrivani, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to examine the incidence of bruxism in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders. Two cohorts of patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders were evaluated. One group, composed of 163 patients, was asked specifically about the occurrence of bruxism, while the other group, composed of 200 patients, was not specifically asked about bruxism (self-reporting). The incidence of bruxism was only 20.5% for the group that only self-reported bruxism, while the incidence was 65% when asked specifically about bruxism. It is critical to ask specifically about bruxism. Patients are more likely to report bruxism when asked specifically about it. It is important to incorporate this as part of a TMD evaluation.

  2. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  3. The incidence and prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Donald S A; Cooper, David S

    2012-10-01

    The thyroid gland is the most common organ affected by autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases, most notably type 1 diabetes mellitus, are increasing in incidence. It is unknown whether autoimmune thyroid diseases are following the same pattern. This review summarizes studies of autoimmune thyroid disease incidence and prevalence since 1950, not only for these measures of occurrences, but also for commenting on identified risk factors for thyroid autoimmunity. We find that incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease is currently higher than in historic series although the studies are so variable in design, patient population, disease definition, and laboratory methods that it is impossible to tell whether this difference is real. Further research is required to assess the possibility of changing disease patterns of autoimmune thyroid disease as opposed to simple changes in diagnostic thresholds.

  4. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  5. Incidence of intraoperative seizures during motor evoked potential monitoring in a large cohort of patients undergoing different surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ulkatan, Sedat; Jaramillo, Ana Maria; Téllez, Maria J; Kim, Jinu; Deletis, Vedran; Seidel, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of seizures during the intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by electrical brain stimulation in a wide spectrum of surgeries such as those of the orthopedic spine, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, interventional radiology procedures, and craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors and vascular lesions. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed data from 4179 consecutive patients who underwent surgery or an interventional radiology procedure with MEP monitoring. RESULTS Of 4179 patients, only 32 (0.8%) had 1 or more intraoperative seizures. The incidence of seizures in cranial procedures, including craniotomies and interventional neuroradiology, was 1.8%. In craniotomies in which transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) was applied to elicit MEPs, the incidence of seizures was 0.7% (6/850). When direct cortical stimulation was additionally applied, the incidence of seizures increased to 5.4% (23/422). Patients undergoing craniotomies for the excision of extraaxial brain tumors, particularly meningiomas (15 patients), exhibited the highest risk of developing an intraoperative seizure (16 patients). The incidence of seizures in orthopedic spine surgeries was 0.2% (3/1664). None of the patients who underwent surgery for conditions of the spinal cord, neck, or peripheral nerves or who underwent cranial or noncranial interventional radiology procedures had intraoperative seizures elicited by TES during MEP monitoring. CONCLUSIONS In this largest such study to date, the authors report the incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who underwent MEP monitoring during a wide spectrum of surgeries such as those of the orthopedic spine, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, interventional radiology procedures, and craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors and vascular lesions. The low incidence of seizures induced by electrical brain stimulation

  6. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  7. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6 million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. PMID:23972786

  8. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  9. Survival among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer and brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, S.; Broglio, K.; Esteva, F. J.; Yang, W.; Kau, S.-W.; Islam, R.; Albarracin, C.; Yu, T. K.; Green, M.; Hortobagyi, G. N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and survival following brain metastases among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: In all, 679 patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast cancer diagnosed from 1980 to 2006 were identified. Cumulative incidence of brain metastases was computed. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to explore factors that predict for development of brain metastases. Survival was computed using the Kaplan–Meier product limit method. Results: Median follow-up was 26.9 months. In all, 42 (6.2%) patients developed brain metastases with a cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8% to 7.9%] and 9.6% (95% CI 6.8% to 13%), respectively. A total of 24 (3.5%) patients developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence with cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 2.0% (95% CI 2.6% to 6.0%) and 4.9% (95% CI 3.2% to 7.0%), respectively. In the multivariable model, no specific factor was observed to be significantly associated with time to brain metastases. Median survival for all patients who developed brain metastases and those who developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence was 2.9 months (95% CI 2.0–7.6 months) and 5.8 months (95% CI 1.7–11.0 months), respectively. Conclusion: In this single-institutional study, patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast tumors have a high early incidence of brain metastases associated with poor survival and maybe an ideal cohort to target brain metastases preventive strategies. PMID:19150943

  10. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

  11. Modulating brain oscillations to drive brain function.

    PubMed

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-12-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions.

  12. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  13. Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

  14. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  15. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  16. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  17. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  18. Brain cancer spreads.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-07-30

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).

  19. Biophysics: Unfolding the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    The folded surface of the human brain, although striking, continues to evade understanding. Experiments with swelling gels now fuel the notion that brain folding is modulated by physical forces, and not by genetic, biological or chemical events alone.

  20. Brain Training for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 65, stimulating your brain with activities and games can keep your mind sharp later in life ( ... you currently have some form of dementia, brain games and “active mind” activity can still help.There ...

  1. Aging-associated changes in human brain.

    PubMed

    Mrak, R E; Griffin, S T; Graham, D I

    1997-12-01

    A wide variety of anatomic and histological alterations are common in brains of aged individuals. However, identification of intrinsic aging changes--as distinct from changes resulting from cumulative environmental insult--is problematic. Some degree of neuronal and volume loss would appear to be inevitable, but recent studies have suggested that the magnitudes of such changes are much less than previously thought, and studies of dendritic complexity in cognitively intact individuals suggest continuing neuronal plasticity into the eighth decade. A number of vascular changes become more frequent with age, many attributable to systemic conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. A small number of histological changes appear to be universal in aged human brains. These include increasing numbers of corpora amylacea within astrocytic processes near blood-brain or cerebrospinal fluid-brain interfaces, accumulation of the "aging" pigment lipofuscin in all brain regions, and appearance of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary tangles (but not necessarily amyloid plaques) in mesial temporal structures.

  2. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  3. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'.

  4. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  5. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... select agent or toxin; inventory discrepancies; security breaches (including information systems); severe... response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent or toxin and...

  6. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  7. Delphi Technique Used in Laser Incident Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    incidents, some recommendations will be made in how this useful tool can be part of a surveillance program primarily based on Air Force Occupational ... Safety and Health Standard (AFOSH) Standard 48-139. Future studies are needed toward promoting the use of this tool but a better system for reporting

  8. The Incidence of Poverty among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Marilyn

    1979-01-01

    Examines changes in incidences of poverty among the aged using measures that include in-kind public and private transfers, tax liabilities, and a share of net worth. Alternative poverty threshold indicators are suggested for use with the improved economic-status measure. These changes make possible alternative estimates of progress against poverty…

  9. Stephanie Clark: From Teaching Incident to Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rita; Welty, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Steps taken by instructional designers in constructing a case study for use in faculty development are outlined, from the original case study idea to selection of an appropriate classroom incident, writing the case, and planning the teaching process (identifying relevant issues, preparing discussion questions, and organizing discussion). The text…

  10. Focusers of obliquely incident laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharskiy, A. V.; Danilov, V. A.; Popov, V. V.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Sisakyan, I. N.; Sayfer, V. A.; Stepanov, V. V.

    1984-08-01

    Focusing obliquely incident laser radiation along a given line in space with a given intensity distribution is treated as a problem of synthesizing a mirror surface. The intricate shape of such a surface, characterized by a function z= z (u,v) in the approximation of geometrical optics, is determined from the equation phi (u,v,z) - phi O(u,v,z)=O, which expresses that the incident field and the reflected field have identical eikonals. Further calculations are facilitated by replacing continuous mirror with a more easily manufactured piecewise continuous one. The problem is solved for the simple case of a plane incident wave with a typical iconal phi O(u,v,z)= -z cos0 at a large angle to a focus mirror in the z-plane region. Mirrors constructed on the basis of the theoretical solution were tested in an experiment with a CO2 laser. A light beam with Gaussian intensity distribution was, upon incidence at a 45 deg angle, focused into a circle or into an ellipse with uniform intensity distribution. Improvements in amplitudinal masking and selective tanning technology should reduce energy losses at the surface which results in efficient laser focusing mirrors.

  11. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  12. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... incident; (2) reduce their chance of developing a disorder such as depression, Post-Traumatic Stress... severe emotional and psychological distress, including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the more immediate Acute Stress Disorder (ASD).\\2\\ There are concerns about the impact of exposure to...

  13. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... roles and lines of authority and communication, (6) Planning and coordination with local emergency... risk assessment.2 The incident response plan must be coordinated with any entity-wide plans, kept in... emergencies such as fire, gas leak, explosion, power outage, and other natural and man-made events. (c)...

  14. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  15. Reducing Incidents of Cheating in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Mary; Gleason, Patricia; Misicka, Stacey

    This report describes a program implemented to raise the awareness of the dramatic increases of reported academic cheating, to influence the attitudes of the targeted students towards cheating, and ultimately to reduce incidents of cheating in the targeted classrooms. The targeted populations consisted of middle school students in growing…

  16. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  1. Incidence of fractures requiring inpatient care

    PubMed Central

    Somersalo, Axel; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lönnroos, Eija; Heinänen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of fractures has been addressed in several studies, but there are few data on different types of fractures that require inpatient care, even though they account for considerable healthcare costs. We determined the incidence of limb and spine fractures that required hospitalization in people aged ≥ 16 years. Patients and methods We collected data on the diagnosis (ICD10 code), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 9 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Incidence rates were calculated for all fractures using data on the population at risk. Results and interpretation During the study period, 3,277 women and 2,708 men sustained 3,750 and 3,030 fractures, respectively. The incidence of all fractures was 4.9 per 103 person years (95% CI: 4.8–5.0). The corresponding numbers for women and men were 5.3 (5.1–5.4) and 4.5 (4.3–4.6). Fractures of the hip, ankle, wrist, spine, and proximal humerus comprised two-thirds of all fractures requiring hospitalization. The proportion of ankle fractures (17%) and wrist fractures (9%) was equal to that of hip fractures (27%). Four-fifths of the hospitalized fracture patients were operated. In individuals aged < 60 years, fractures requiring hospitalization were twice as common in men as in women. In individuals ≥ 60 years of age, the opposite was true. PMID:24694275

  2. Evaluating Computer-Related Incidents on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothschild, Daniel; Rezmierski, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    The Computer Incident Factor Analysis and Categorization (CIFAC) Project at the University of Michigan began in September 2003 with grants from EDUCAUSE and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The project's primary goal is to create a best-practices security framework for colleges and universities based on rigorous quantitative analysis of…

  3. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  4. Lunar tractive forces and renal stone incidence.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as "normal" days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on "normal" days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department.

  5. Occurrence and clinical features of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Boku, Narikazu; Nakasu, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma has been considered rare and survival following esophageal carcinoma with distant metastasis is poor. The purpose of this report was to clarify cumulative incidence and risk factors for brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, and to consider recommended treatments for brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma. We reviewed 391 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Median age was 65 years. Clinical stages were I, II, III, and IV in 32, 47, 150, and 162 patients, respectively. Brain imaging was performed usually when patients revealed neurological symptoms. The 3-year cumulative incidence of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy was 6.6%. There were 4 patients with single metastasis and 8 with multiple metastases. Initial clinical stages were II, III, and IV in 1, 2, and 9 patients, respectively. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and others in 2 patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated M factor, distant lymph node relapse, and recurrent lung and liver metastasis as significant risk factors of brain metastasis (P < 0.05). Median survival time after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 2.1 months. Brain metastasis was not directly related to cause of mortality. The causes were extracranial tumor deterioration in 8 patients and infection in 4 patients. Brain metastasis may increase in the future with improving survival from esophageal carcinoma. However, considering the poor survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis, short-term palliative therapy for brain metastasis appears preferable to vigorous long-term therapy.

  6. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    et al. Statins and neuroprotectants: A comparatife in vitro study of lipopholicity, blood-brain barrier penetration, lowering of brain cholesterol ...heterogeneous disease involving multiple brain injury phenotypes and that success of an agent tested across multiple established TBI models using an...coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor Simvastatin reduces serum cholesterol but also inhibits neuro-inflammation and has possible effects on brain

  7. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  8. Brain Death Determination.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, each year 1% to 2% of deaths are brain deaths. Considerable variation in the practice of determining brain death still remains, despite the publication of practice parameters in 1995 and an evidence-based guideline update in 2010. This review is intended to give bedside clinicians an overview of definition, the causes and pitfalls of misdiagnosing brain death, and a focus on the specifics of the brain death determination process.

  9. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  10. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  11. Your Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  12. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  13. Your Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  14. Brain and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

  15. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  16. Our Amazing Brains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

  17. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  18. Brain Research and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, Mary

    Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

  19. International measles incidence and immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert; Jolley, Damien

    2011-07-01

    Measles is exquisitely sensitive to immunization programs. We investigated the decline in measles incidence after immunization with 1 or 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), with or without supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Using data from the World Health Organization, we modeled the impact of measles immunization using a negative binomial regression model. All countries offer measles immunization, and 192 of 193 countries offer a second dose of MCV (MCV2), using either a routine second dose, SIAs, or both. The incidence of measles fell from a median of 70.9 cases/100,000/year when coverage with a first dose of MCV (MCV1) was in the range of 0%-39% to a median of .9 cases/100,000/year when MCV1 coverage was 90%-100%, in both cases with no MCV2. Further reductions followed the introduction of MCV2 and SIAs. Modeling showed that each 1% increase in MCV1 coverage was followed by a 2.0% decrease in incidence in the same and following years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%-1.9%, and 2.1%-1.9%, respectively). For a second dose, a rise of 1% in MCV2 coverage was followed by a decrease in measles incidence by .4% (95% CI, .3%-.5%) in the same year and .3% (95% CI, .2%-.5%) in the following year. SIAs were followed by decreases of measles incidence by 40.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-33.8%) in the same year and 45.2% (95% CI, 51.1%-48.7%) in the following year. A herd immunity effect was demonstrated with MCV1 coverage of >80%, and SIAs are an extraordinarily effective strategy for measles control.

  20. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  1. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity.

  2. Incidence of Posttraumatic Shoulder Dislocation in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szyluk, Karol J.; Jasiński, Andrzej; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of shoulder joint dislocation has been estimated at 11–26 per 100 000 population per year. In our opinion, basic epidemiological data need to be continually updated in studies of large populations. To study the incidence of posttraumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint in the Polish population. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated the entire Polish population between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2015. To identify the study group, data collected in the electronic database of the National Health Fund were used. The study group was divided into subgroups to detect possible differences in the incidence of shoulder dislocation with regard to age, sex, and season of the year (month) when the dislocation occurred. Results The cumulative size of the study sample was 192.72 million over the 5 years of the study. We identified 51 409 patients with first posttraumatic shoulder dislocation, at a mean age of 50.83 years (SD 21.12), from 0 to 104 years. The incidence of traumatic shoulder dislocations for the entire study group ranged from 24.75/100 000/year (number of posttraumatic shoulder dislocations per 100 000 persons per year) to 29.09/100 000/year, for a mean of 26.69/100 000/year. Conclusions In this study, the overall incidence of first-time posttraumatic shoulder dislocations in the Polish general population was 26.69 per 100 000 persons per year. These results are higher than estimates presented by other authors. It is necessary to study, regularly update, and monitor this problem in the general population. PMID:27777396

  3. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed.

  4. The neuropathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mckee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, is divided into three grades of severity: mild, moderate, and severe, based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, the loss of consciousness, and the development of post-traumatic amnesia. Although mild traumatic brain injury, including concussion and subconcussion, is by far the most common, it is also the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. Proper recognition, management, and treatment of acute concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are the fundamentals of an emerging clinical discipline. It is also becoming increasingly clear that some mild traumatic brain injuries have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Evidence indicates that a single traumatic brain injury can precipitate or accelerate multiple age-related neurodegenerations, increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease, and that repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus, septal abnormalities, and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (τ) as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy frequently occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and motor neuron disease. Currently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy can be diagnosed only at

  5. Pediatric brain death: updated guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jodi E

    2013-01-01

    Logan, a 5-year-old boy, was riding his bike with his 7-year-old brother when he was struck from behind by a car traveling at approximately 40 mph. The driver indicated that she did not see the riders until she hit Logan, who was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. Logan was thrown from his bike and was found at the side of the road, unresponsive and posturing. Although he was uninjured, Logan's brother witnessed the incident.Emergency medical services arrived and placed Logan on a backboard with a c-collar. Because he was not protecting his airway, he was intubated and then given sodium chloride fluids and brought to the pediatric emergency department. Upon arrival, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5, and his right pupil was 6 mm and not reactive.Logan's initial head computed tomographic scan showed diffuse brain edema, with early downward transtentorial brain herniation. The pediatric neurosurgeon determined that no operative management was appropriate for Logan. Besides a small laceration on his forehead, Logan had no other injuries. At this time, he was taking a few spontaneous respirations and had occasional posturing of his extremities.

  6. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses.

  7. Parameterization of Incident and Infragravity Swash Variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdon, H. F.; Holman, R. A.; Sallenger, A. H.

    2002-12-01

    By clearly defining the forcing and morphologic controls of swash variance in both the incident and infragravity frequency bands, we are able to derive a more complete parameterization for extreme runup that may be applicable to a wide range of beach and wave conditions. It is expected that the dynamics of the incident and infragravity bands will have different dependencies on offshore wave conditions and local beach slopes. For example, previous studies have shown that swash variance in the incident band depends on foreshore beach slope while the infragravity variance depends more on a weighted mean slope across the surf zone. Because the physics of each band is parameterized differently, the amount that each frequency band contributes to the total swash variance will vary from site to site and, often, at a single site as the profile configuration changes over time. Using water level time series (measured at the shoreline) collected during nine dynamically different field experiments, we test the expected behavior of both incident and infragravity swash and the contribution each makes to total variance. At the dissipative sites (Iribarren number, \\xi0, <0.3) located in Oregon and the Netherlands, the incident band swash is saturated with respect to offshore wave height. Conversely, on the intermediate and reflective beaches, the amplitudes of both incident and infragravity swash variance grow with increasing offshore wave height. While infragravity band swash at all sites appears to increase linearly with offshore wave height, the magnitudes of the response are somewhat greater on reflective beaches than on dissipative beaches. This means that for the same offshore wave conditions the swash on a steeper foreshore will be larger than that on a more gently sloping foreshore. The potential control of the surf zone slope on infragravity band swash is examined at Duck, North Carolina, (0.3 < \\xi0 < 4.0), where significant differences in the relationship between swash

  8. Critical incidents and judicial response during medium security treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeandarme, Inge; Wittouck, Ciska; Vander Laenen, Freya; Pouls, Claudia; Heimans, Henri; Oei, T I; Bogaerts, Stefan

    This study examined inpatient incidents in three Flemish forensic medium security units and analyzed the subsequent judicial reactions to these incidents. During medium security treatment, incidents were reported for more than half of the participants. The most frequently registered incidents were non-violent in nature, such as absconding and treatment non-compliance. The base rate for physically violent incidents was low. Although crime-related incidents during medium security treatment were rarely prosecuted and adjudicated, the base rate of revocation - and hence drop-out from treatment - as a result of these incidents was high.

  9. Whither brain death?

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2014-01-01

    The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public.

  10. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    grant 3/5/2013https://secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae=Item&t=IP... -g 250 Q. Q) "tii 200 -~ ~ C/) !::’ 150...mice, as indicated. Page 3 of 9Progress report for BC102246 DOD grant 3/5/2013https://secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae...secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae=Item&t=IP... Figure 2 A ~ E 0 li) ~ 0 -15 :.c c (j) 0 0:: -() w ~ (l) I B ~ :i 0

  11. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  12. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  13. Brain plasticity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Gibb, Robbin

    2013-01-01

    The developing normal brain shows a remarkable capacity for plastic change in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, psychoactive drugs, parent-child relationships, peer relationships, stress, gonadal hormones, intestinal flora, diet, and injury. The effects of injury vary with the precise age-at-injury, with the general result being that injury during cell migration and neuronal maturation has a poor functional outcome, whereas similar injury during synaptogenesis has a far better outcome. A variety of factors influence functional outcome including the nature of the behavior in question and the age at behavioral assessment as well as pre- and postinjury experiences. Here, we review the phases of brain development, how factors influence brain, and behavioral development in both the normal and perturbed brain, and propose mechanisms that may underlie these effects.

  14. Major incidents in Britain over the past 28 years: the case for the centralised reporting of major incidents

    PubMed Central

    Carley, S.; Mackway-Jones, K.; Donnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents occurring in Britain over the past 28 years. METHODS: Major incidents were identified through a MEDLINE search, a hand search of journals and government reports at the Home Office Emergency Planning College, newspaper reports, a postal survey of ambulance emergency planning officers, and through requests for information posted on the internet. MAIN RESULTS: Brief incidents profiles from 108 British major incidents are presented. Most major incidents pass unreported in the medical literature. On average three to four major incidents occur in Britain each year (range 0-11). Sixty three of 108 (59.2%) of incidents involve public transportation. The next two largest groups are civil disturbance 22 of 108 (20.3%) and industrial accidents 16 of 108 (14.8%). Although incidents at sports stadiums are rare they produce large numbers of casualties. The data currently available on major incidents are difficult to find and of questionable accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data makes planning for major incidents and exercising major incident plans difficult. Casualty incident profiles (CIPs) may assist major incidents exercises and planning. CIPs from future major incidents should be collated and made available to all major incident planners.   PMID:9764261

  15. Noncontiguous spinal tuberculosis: incidence and management

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has a worthy reputation as one of the great mimickers in medicine with a multitude of clinical pictures and variations. Noncontiguous spinal TB is described as atypical and case reports are published as rarities in the mainstream academic journals. The aim of the study was to asses the incidence and review of the management of non-contiguous spinal TB. We identified 16 cases of noncontiguous spinal TB from a single surgeon series of 98 patients, who were managed surgically between 2001 and 2006. These were diagnosed on whole spine MRI. This represents the largest series reported in literature to date and is higher than the expected incidence. Case notes and imaging were retrospectively reviewed in an attempt to ascertain if there were any parameters to differentiate this group from the rest of the TB spine population. Our incidence of noncontiguous spinal TB is 16.3%. There was a higher incidence of neurology in the noncontiguous group (75%) compared to the rest of our group (58.5%). Non-contiguous TB was not found to be a manifestation of HIV, MDR TB or of chronicity in our series. Most noncontiguous lesions were evident on plain radiology. Noncontiguous spinal TB is common in areas of high prevalence such as South Africa. Despite being frequently missed initially, noncontiguous involvement is evident on plain radiography and simply requires a higher index of suspicion. When investigating spine TB patients, simple radiology of the entire spine is mandatory. If available, a full spine sagittal MRI is extremely useful in identifying noncontiguous lesions. Treatment of noncontiguous tuberculosis is as for standard spinal TB cases in our unit with similar outcomes, but care needs to be taken in surgical planning as patients may have multiple areas of neurological compromise. PMID:19357878

  16. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  17. A Risk Model for Lung Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Hoggart, Clive; Brennan, Paul; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Johansson, Mattias; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rasmuson, Torgny; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810–0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737–0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. PMID:22496387

  18. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  19. Incidence and toxigenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila in seafood.

    PubMed

    Tsai, G J; Chen, T H

    1996-08-01

    Three selective media, Oxoid Aeromonas agar (OA), blood ampicillin agar (BA) and starch ampicillin agar (SA) were used to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in 66 samples of oyster, shrimp, fish and surimi products. Oyster had the highest incidence, with 50% positive, whilst no A. hydrophila was found in the surimi. Of the three selective media, BA displayed the highest recovery rate of A. hydrophila from seafood. Forty-eight isolates from this survey were tested for their capability to produce hemolysin and cytotoxin. Hemolysin was produced by 79.2% of the isolates and cytotoxin was produced by 91.7% of the isolates in brain heart infusion broth. One of the toxin-producing isolates from oyster, strain 8-169, was further tested for growth and toxin production in oyster, shrimp and fish at various temperatures. This particular isolate grew best and had highest toxin production in oyster. Hemolysin and cytotoxin were produced earlier at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, and titers of hemolysin were also higher at 28 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, it was able to grow and produce hemolysin in oyster.

  20. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  1. Cultural differences in dealing with critical incidents.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Jörg; Vogt, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural aspects of High Reliability Organizations (HROs), such as air navigation services. HROs must maintain a highly professional safety culture and constantly be prepared to handle crises. The article begins with a general discussion of the concept of organizational culture. The special characteristics of HROs and their safety culture is then described. Finally the article illustrates how Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is becoming an ingrained feature of the organizational culture in air traffic control systems. Critical Incident Stress Management is a prevention program that can successfully guard against the negative effects of critical incidents. The CISM program of DFS (Deutsche Flugsicherung) was recently evaluated by the University of Copenhagen. This evaluation not only confirmed the successful prevention of negative effects at the operation's employee level (especially air traffic controllers), but also showed a sustained improvement of its safety culture and its overall organizational performance. The special aspects of cross-cultural crisis intervention and the challenges it faces, as well as the importance of prevention programs, such as CISM, are illustrated using the examples of two aircraft accidents: the crash landing of a calibration aircraft and the Lake Constance air disaster.

  2. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment.

  3. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  4. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  5. Cancer incidence among creosote-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Karlehagen, S; Andersen, A; Ohlson, C G

    1992-02-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 922 creosote-exposed impregnators at 13 plants in Sweden and Norway. The subjects had been impregnating wood (eg, railroad cross-ties and telegraph poles), but no data on individual exposures were available. The study population was restricted to men employed during the period 1950-1975, and their cancer morbidity was checked through the cancer registries. The total cancer incidence was somewhat lower than expected, 129 cases versus 137 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.94]. Increased risks in both countries combined were observed for lip cancer (SIR 2.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-5.83), skin cancer (SIR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-4.50), and malignant lymphoma (SIR 1.9, 95% CI 0.83-3.78). Exposure to sunlight may have contributed to the risk of lip and skin cancer. The small number of cancer cases does not permit valid conclusions. The findings indicate that impregnating wood with creosote in earlier decades increased the risk of skin cancer.

  6. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  7. Increasing incidence of coeliac disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Kristiansson, B

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the incidence of coelic disease was studied among children born in Göteborg, Sweden, between 1970 and 1988. A total of 188 patients with coeliac disease were found. Of these, 83% were less than 2 years old at the time of their first duodenal biopsy and 74% of them have so far been verified according to the criteria of the European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The cumulative incidence at 2 years of age/1000 liveborn infants increased significantly from 0.31 in the first birth cohort to 2.93 in the last. This increase could only partly be explained by improvements in detection. Weight for age at diagnosis was generally considerably below the reference value, but was slightly less affected towards the end of the period. The increase in incidence of coeliac disease is the first reported since the middle 1970s and makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases among Swedish children. PMID:2039251

  8. Effects of the malpractice crisis on access to and incidence of high-risk procedures: evidence from Florida.

    PubMed

    Dranove, David; Gron, Anne

    2005-01-01

    There is much debate on how recent increases in medical malpractice premiums affect patients' access to care. We examined activity levels of neurosurgeons and obstetricians, as well as the incidence of high-risk surgery and patients' travel times in Florida, where malpractice insurance premiums have soared since 2000. Compared with 1997-2000, we found that during 2000-2003, many neurosurgeons cut back their volume of brain surgeries and that craniotomy patients traveled longer for care without any significant change in the overall incidence of craniotomies. Women undergoing high-risk deliveries did not see increases in travel times.

  9. Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Sharma, Sambad; Venkat, Suresh; Liu, Keqin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can't penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed.

  10. Breast Cancer Brain Metastases: Clonal Evolution in Clinical Context

    PubMed Central

    Saunus, Jodi M.; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Lim, Zhun Leong; Lakhani, Sunil R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake. However, emerging data are beginning to paint a more complex picture where the brain acts as a sanctuary for dormant, subclinical proliferations that are initially protected by the BBB, but then exposed to dynamic selection pressures as tumours mature and vascular permeability increases. Here, we review key experimental approaches and landmark studies that have charted the genomic landscape of breast cancer brain metastases. These findings are contextualised with the factors impacting on clonal outgrowth in the brain: intrinsic breast tumour cell capabilities required for brain metastatic fitness, and the neural niche, which is initially hostile to invading cells but then engineered into a tumour-support vehicle by the successful minority. We also discuss how late detection, abnormal vascular perfusion and interstitial fluid dynamics underpin the recalcitrant clinical behaviour of brain metastases, and outline active clinical trials in the context of precision management. PMID:28098771

  11. Neurologic sequelae of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nicole J

    2009-11-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size, and location of the tumor, the patient's age at diagnosis, and the treatment modalities used. Heightened surveillance and improved neuroimaging modalities have been instrumental in detecting and addressing such complications, which are often not appreciated until many years after completion of therapy. As current brain tumor therapies are continually refined and newer targeted therapies are developed, it will be important for future cooperative group studies to include systematic assessments to determine the incidence of neurologic complications and to provide a framework for the development of novel strategies for prevention and intervention.

  12. Cervical venous reflux in dynamic brain scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Perez, L A

    1976-01-01

    Cervical venous reflux, shown by dynamic brain scintigraphy, was investigated through three avenues of approach: (A) by reviewing 371 randomly chosen routine dynamic intracerebral bloodflow studies to estimate its incidence; (B) by correlative positive-contrast superior venacavography in patients with characteristic cervical venous reflux; and (C) by performing dynamic brain scintigraphy while utilizing various positional and physiologic maneuvers to attempt to produce cervical venous reflux in patients who did not exhibit this phenomenon on earlier examination. Although any obstruction of the superior vena cava or a properly timed Valsalva maneuver in selected patients can produce the scintigraphic picture of cervical venous reflux, in most cases it is a normal phenomenon due to incompetent or absent cervical venous valves.

  13. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  14. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  15. [Neuroendocrine dysfunction and brain damage. A consensus statement].

    PubMed

    Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Rincón, María Dolores; Domingo, Manel Puig

    2009-01-01

    This consensus statement aims to enhance awareness of the incidence and risks of hypopituitarism in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or brain hemorrhages among physicians treating patients with brain damage. The importance of this problem is related not only to the frequency of TBI but also to its prevalence in younger populations. The consequences of TBI are characterized by a series of symptoms that depend on the type of sequels related to neuroendocrine dysfunction. The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism are often confused with those of other sequels of TBI. Consequently, patients with posttraumatic hypopituitarism may receive suboptimal rehabilitation unless the underlying hormone deficiency is identified and treated. This consensus is based on the recommendation supported by expert opinion that patients with a TBI and/or brain hemorrhage should undergo endocrine evaluation in order to assess pituitary function and, if deficiency is detected, should receive hormone replacement therapy.

  16. Epigenomic landscape of melanoma progression to brain metastasis: unexplored therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Marzese, Diego M; Witz, Isaac P; Kelly, Daniel F; Hoon, Dave S B

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma brain metastasis is a complication with rising incidence. Despite the high rate of somatic mutations driving the initial stages of melanocyte transformation, the brain colonization requires a phenotypic reprogramming that is, in part, influenced by epigenomic modifications. This special report summarizes recent findings in the epigenomic landscape of melanoma progression to brain metastasis, with particular emphasis on the clinical utility of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and ncRNA expression as theragnostic markers, as well as the significance of the metastatic microenvironment on melanoma brain metastasis epigenome.

  17. Nocardia Brain Abscess and CD4+ Lymphocytopenia in a Previously Healthy Individual

    PubMed Central

    Adjamian, Norair; Kikam, Adeline; Wessell, Kathryn Ruda; Casselman, Jason; Toller-Artis, Erin; Olasokan, Olapeju; Hostoffer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia brain abscesses are a known occurrence in patients with immunocompromised conditions. Nocardial infection is commonly an unfortunate sequela to other complications which these patients are being followed up and treated for. The incidence of nocardial brain abscess in an otherwise healthy patient is extremely rare. We present a case of Nocardia brain abscess in a previously healthy individual, who, upon workup for vision and gait abnormalities, was shown to have multiple brain abscesses and a decreased absolute CD4+ lymphocyte count. Adding to the rarity of our case, the finding of lymphocytopenia in our patient was unrelated to any known predisposing condition or infectious state. PMID:26448886

  18. Left Brain, Right Brain, Super Brain: The Holistic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellin, David

    Recent discoveries about the whole brain seem to call for a holistic approach to learning, one in which educators would teach the whole person, including physical and emotional states as well as cognitive abilities. Three holistic techniques are particularly relevant to education: (1) biofeedback; (2) yoga; and (3) the Lozanov method. Biofeedback…

  19. Trajectory of Cognitive Decline after Incident Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Deborah A.; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Giordani, Bruno; Wadley, Virginia G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cognitive decline is a major cause of disability in stroke survivors. The magnitude of survivors’ cognitive changes after stroke is uncertain. Objective To measure changes in cognitive function among survivors of incident stroke, controlling for their prestroke cognitive trajectories. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 23,572 participants aged ≥45 years without baseline cognitive impairment from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, residing in the continental United States, enrolled 2003–2007 and followed through March 31, 2013. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years (25th–75th percentile: 5.0–7.1 years), 515 participants survived expert-adjudicated incident stroke and 23,057 remained stroke-free. Exposure Time-dependent incident stroke. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was change in global cognition (Six-Item Screener, SIS; range 0–6). Secondary outcomes were change in new learning (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List Learning; range 0–30), verbal memory (Word List Delayed Recall; range 0–10), and executive function (Animal Fluency Test; range ≥0), and cognitive impairment (SIS<5/impaired vs. ≥5/unimpaired). For all tests, higher scores indicate better performance. Results Stroke was associated with acute decline in global cognition (0.10 points; 95% CI, 0.04–0.17), new learning (1.80 points; 95% CI, 0.73–2.86), and verbal memory (0.60 points; 95% CI, 0.13–1.07). Participants with stroke, compared to those without stroke, demonstrated faster declines in global cognition (0.06 points per year faster; 95% CI, 0.03–0.08) and executive function (0.63 points per year faster; 95% CI, 0.12–1.15), but not in new learning and verbal memory, compared to prestroke slopes. Among survivors, the difference in risk of cognitive impairment acutely after stroke was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.95–1.83; P=0

  20. Returning the Individual with Traumatic Brain Injury to the Community: An Overview of Programs and Services in Israel. Monograph #50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shlomo, Ed.; Florian, Victor, Ed.

    This monograph describes community rehabilitation services available to persons with traumatic brain injury in Israel. Following a foreword by Leonard Diller which cites the incidence of traumatic brain injury and notes existing intervention models, an introductory chapter by Shlomo Katz and Victor Florian provides a historical survey of the…

  1. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

  2. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  3. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training.

  4. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  5. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose <0.1 mSv and the highest ≥ 0.5 mSv) allowing for a latency of 5 years for leukemia and thyroid cancer, and 10 years for other cancers. Of the eight predefined cancer sites regarded as radiation-related from earlier studies, only colon cancer among women showed an association with exposure from fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  6. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  7. SLOPE PROFILOMETRY OF GRAZING INCIDENCE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS,P.Z.

    2003-01-14

    Profiling instruments are well-suited to the measurement of grazing incidence optics, such as those found in synchrotron radiation beam lines. Slope measuring profilers, based upon the principle of the pencil beam interferometer, have proven to be especially useful in measuring the figure and slope errors on cylindrical aspheres. The Long Trace Profiler, in various configurations, is the most widely used of this class of profiler. Current performance provides slope measurement accuracy at the microradian level and height measurements accurate to 25 nm over 1 meter trace lengths.

  8. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higher-order telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters.

  9. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  10. Ideal cardiovascular health and incident hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai Yan; Liu, Xiao Xue; Wang, An Xin; Wu, Yun Tao; Zheng, Xiao Ming; Zhao, Xiao Hong; Cui, Kai; Ruan, Chun Yu; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Jonas, Jost B.; Wu, Shou Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and presence of 7 key health factors. Since it is unknown whether cumulative exposure to CVH reduces the risk of developing arterial hypertension, we prospectively examined the potential association between cumulative CVH (cumCVH) score (except for blood pressure metrics) and incident hypertension. Of the 101,510 participants with an age range of 18 to 98 years in this longitudinal community-based Kailuan study, our cohort included those 15,014 participants without hypertension at baseline and who had follow-up examinations 2, 4, and 6 years later. CumCVH was calculated as the summed CVH score for each examination multiplied by the time between the 2 examinations (points × year). Based on the cumCVH score, the study population was stratified into groups of <44 points, 44 to 48 points, 49 to 54 points, 55 to 59 points, and ≥60 points. Incidence of hypertension ranged from 16.76% in the lowest cumCVH category to 11.52% in the highest cumCVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, income level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, uric acid concentration, resting heart rate, parental history of hypertension at baseline, and medication usage before the third follow-up examination, participants in the highest cumCVH category had a significantly reduced risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest cumCVH category (adjusted odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.71). For every increase in category based on the cumCVH score, the risk of hypertension decreased by approximately 2% (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97–0.98). The effect was consistent across sex and age groups. A higher cumCVH score is associated with a lower risk of incident hypertension. PMID:27977580

  11. Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Burned Service Members: Preliminary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    APRN, BC, Douglas B. Cooper, PhD, Janyna M. Mercado , PhD, Jan E. Kennedy, PhD, Linda H. Yoder, RN, MBA, PhD, AOCN, FAAN, and COL John B. Holcomb, MC...TX): I agree that PTSD and mTBI are now well recognized combat injuries, especially in the popular media. Of concern are the differences and

  12. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  13. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  14. Cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Alana G; Mertz, Kristen J; Jubelirer, Steven J; Wilson, John W

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia has one of the oldest populations in the nation. Cancer is a common disease among the elderly. With the projected growth of the elderly population (defined as 65 years and older), cancer will become a major public health burden. This article provides a summary of cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians. Incidence data were obtained from the West Virginia Cancer Registry. Approximately 6,262 elderly persons are diagnosed with some form of reportable cancer in West Virginia each year. Among those aged 65 and older, the four leading primary cancer sites in the order of their relative frequency were lung and bronchus cancer (21.8%), prostate cancer (14.6%), colorectal cancer (12.7%), and female breast cancer (9.6%). In general, the burden of cancer was greater in elderly men than in elderly women. Knowledge of the epidemiology of cancer in the elderly can potentially help guide statewide cancer prevention and control efforts and be used for anticipating future health care needs in the state.

  15. Tripod-BETA: Incident investigation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.A.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Tripod-BETA is a methodology for conducting an incident analysis in parallel with the investigation, supported by a PC based tool. Interaction between these two processes provides the investigators with confirmation of the relevance of their fact gathering and highlights avenues of investigation leading to latent failures. The benefit to the analysis process is that logical anomalies can be highlighted and resolved while The investigation is still active. Tripod-BETA focuses initially on the accident mechanism - the physical process of the accident - and uses it as a structure to identify the controls and defenses that should have been in place. For the incident to happen these controls and defenses either were missing or failed. The investigation then examines the immediate and latent failures behind each missing or failed defense, following the Tripod theory of accident causation. Tripod-BETA software provides the means to collect and assemble investigation facts and manipulate them on screen into a graphic representation of the event and its causes - an accident tree. The logic of the tree structure (labeling and connections) can be tested to ensure that it conforms to the concepts of the Hazard and Effects Management Process (HEMP) and the Tripod theory. When anomalies and omissions have been resolved, a draft accident report can be auto-generated for final editing using a word processing package.

  16. Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation.

    PubMed

    Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A

    2003-08-01

    Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates.

  17. Incidence of systemic mycoses in autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Höhne, F-M; Tietz, H-J

    2004-02-01

    The incidence of systemic mycoses was investigated in the autopsy material of the Institute of Pathology of the Humaine Hospital in Bad Saarow, Germany. This hospital provides qualified standard care in east Brandenburg with a wide spectrum of medical disciplines caring for patients with acute medical conditions as well as oncological cases (660 beds). Between 1973 and 2001, 47 systemic mycoses were diagnosed in 4813 autopsies of deceased adults, corresponding to 0.98%. During the period of investigation, both the care provided by the hospital and the organization of the health service changed. The autopsy frequency fell from about 80% (1973-1991) to about 28% (1992-2001). This is thus still far higher than the average of about 3% assumed for the Federal Republic of Germany. Although the incidence of systemic mycoses increased during the entire 29-year period of investigation, the number of cases in whom this was the immediate cause of death decreased. Whereas candidoses predominated from 1973 to 1991, a shift in favor of aspergilloses was noticed in the period from 1992 to 2001. Systemic mycosis was diagnosed intravitally in only three of 47 cases. The present study therefore underscores the significance of clinical autopsy as a diagnostic method and means of medical quality control.

  18. Assessment Competency of Nurses in Biological Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Yousefi, Shahla; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Saeid, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are two main areas within emergency care which focus on departmental and staff preparedness in biological incidents. Despite the importance, little is known about the nurse’s preparedness in facing these events. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two teaching methods (multimedia instructional module versus lecture presentation) on nurse’s competency in biological incidents. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 90 nurses were randomly divided into three groups (lecture presentation, multimedia- compact disk, and control). Data were collected by thirty-four multiple-choice questions for measuring knowledge, and a visual analogue scale graded 0 - 100 for assessing attitude. Data were analyzed using a paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with SPSS version 17.0. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The results revealed no statistically significant difference in nurse’s competency mean scores between the lecture and multimedia CDs groups. Conclusions: It is recommended to use multimedia CDs for in-service education of nurses. PMID:26839862

  19. Incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Koo, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Hee; Shin, Kun Hong; Ha, Yong Chan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chan Soo

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in both Western and Asian populations. Because the aged population in Korea is increasing, the number of osteoporotic fractures is thought to be also increasing. However, there has been no nationwide analysis of osteoporotic fractures in Korea. We analyzed the incidence and cost of hip fracture from 2001 to 2004 by using data from the Health Insurance Review Agency, Korea. In the over 50 years age group, the number of hip fractures in women increased from 250.9/100,000 persons in 2001 to 262.8/100,000 in 2004, a 4.7% increase. However, that in men decreased from 162.8/100,000 in 2001 to 137.5/100,000 in 2004, a 15.5% decrease. Direct medical care costs of hip fracture increased from $62,707,697 in 2001 to $65,200,035 in 2004, and the proportional cost of hip fractures in the national medical costs increased by 4.5% over 4 years (from 0.200% in 2001 to 0.209% in 2004). On analysis of the population-based data obtained from the whole country from 2001 to 2004, the incidence rate of hip fractures in women, not in men, and its cost have increased in Korea. The gender distribution of hip fractures underlines the need for aggressive intervention in osteoporosis in elderly women.

  20. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n = 223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least

  1. [Systemic treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Conforti, R; Bonneterre, J; Bachelot, T; Le Rhun, E; Bernard-Marty, C

    2015-02-01

    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been observed over the last years, mainly because the recent development of new drugs including therapies targeting HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) resulted in an increased survival of these patients. With HER2+ patients living longer and the well-known neurotropism of HER2+ tumour cells, the resulting high incidence of brain metastases is not really surprising. Moreover, brain metastases more often occur within a context of existing extracranial metastases. These need to be treated at the same time in order to favourably impact patients' survival. Consequently, the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases clearly relies on a multidisciplinary approach, including systemic treatment. A working group including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and oncologists was created in order to provide French national guidelines for the management of brain metastases within the "Association des neuro-oncologues d'expression française" (ANOCEF). The recommendations regarding the systemic treatment in breast cancer patients are reported here including key features of their management.

  2. Managing Materials and Wastes for Homeland Security Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide information on waste management planning and preparedness before a homeland security incident, including preparing for the large amounts of waste that would need to be managed when an incident occurs, such as a large-scale natural disaster.

  3. Incidence of Recurrence in Posterior Circulation Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Uohara, Michael Y.; Beslow, Lauren A.; Billinghurst, Lori; Jones, Brianna M.; Kessler, Sudha K.; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (CAIS) affects approximately 1.6 per 100 000 children per year, while stroke recurs in up to 20%of patients at 5 years. Factors determining the risk of recurrence are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence of the recurrence of CAIS in the posterior and anterior circulations to determine if the risk differs between the 2 locations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective analysis of CAIS was conducted among children enrolled in a single-center prospective consecutive cohort at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2015. Children with confirmed CAIS occurring between 29 days and 17.99 years were evaluated for inclusion. Patients were excluded if infarcts were located in both the anterior and posterior distributions or if CAIS occurred as a complication of intracranial surgery or brain tumor. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Stroke recurrence. RESULTS The study population included 107 patients (75 boys [70.1%] and 32 girls [29.9%]; median age at AIS, 7.7 years [interquartile range, 3.1–13.6 years]). Sixty-one children had anterior circulation CAIS (ACAIS) and 46 had posterior circulation CAIS (PCAIS). Median follow-up was 20.9 months (interquartile range, 8.7–40.4 months). For ACAIS, recurrence-free survival was 100% at 1 month and 96%(95%CI, 85%–99%) at 1 and 3 years. For PCAIS, recurrence-free survival was 88%(95%CI, 75%–95%) at 1 month and 81%(95% CI, 66%–90%) at 1 and 3 years. The hazard ratio for recurrence after PCAIS compared with ACAIS was 6.4 (95%CI, 1.4–29.8; P = .02) in univariable analysis and 5.3 (95%CI, 1.1–26.4; P = .04) after adjusting for sex and cervical dissection. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identified a subgroup of patients that comprise more than 80% of recurrences of CAIS. Three years after incident stroke, 19% of children with PCAIS had a recurrence compared with 4%of patients with ACAIS. Different mechanisms of

  4. Brain Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.

  5. Split Brain Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

  6. The Emerging Scholarly Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

  7. Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... other regions of the brain (such as the hippocampus and amygdala) for long-term storage and retrieval. As these messages travel through the brain, they too create pathways that serve as the basis of our memory. Movement. Different parts of the cerebrum are responsible ...

  8. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  9. Brain Friendly School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Judith Anne

    2006-01-01

    This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

  10. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  11. Imaging the Working Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swithenby, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

  12. Drugs and the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  13. Measuring brain lipids.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    The rapid development of analytical technology has made lipidomics an exciting new area and this review will focus more on modern approaches to lipidomics than on earlier technology. Although not fully comprehensive for all possible brain lipids, the intent is to at least provide a reference for the analysis of classes of lipids found in brain and nervous tissue. We will discuss problems posed by the brain because of its structural and functional heterogeneity, the development changes it undergoes (myelination, aging, pathology etc.) and its cellular heterogeneity (neurons, glia etc.). Section 2 will discuss the various ways in which brain tissue can be extracted to yield lipids for analysis and section 3 will cover a wide range of techniques used to analyze brain lipids such as chromatography and mass-spectrometry. In Section 4 we will discuss ways of analyzing some of the specific biologically active brain lipids found in very small amounts except in pathological conditions and section 5 looks to the future of experimental lipidomic modification in the brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  14. What a Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

  15. [Brain death diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Dolores

    2009-05-01

    Brain death has been recognized by the scientific community as the person's death, and accepted in the legislation of different countries. Brain death is defined as the irreversible ending of the functions of all the intracranial neurological structure in both the brain and brain stem. This clinical situation appears when intracranial pressure exceeds the patient's systolic blood pressure, leading to brain circulatory arrest. The most frequent are cerebral hemorrhage and cranioencephalic trauma. Clinical diagnostic must be done by doctors with expertise in neurocritical patient treatment. This diagnosis is based on a systematic, complete and extremely rigorous clinical examination that confirms a non-reactive coma, absence of brain stem reflex, and absence of spontaneous breathing. Instrumental tests may be obligatory in some cases, this depending on each country. Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials are the electrophysiological tests used. In patients treated with sedative drugs, cerebral blood flow evaluation tests, such as cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler or 99Tc-HMPAO scintigraphy, will be used. More than 92% of the transplants performed in Spain are performed with brain death donor organs. Brain death confirmation is a high responsibility act, with medical, ethical and legal significance since it requires removal of all artificial support, or organs extraction for transplant. Extensive knowledge on its diagnostic and correct decision making avoid unnecessary use of resources and improves management of organs for transplant.

  16. The Resilient Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  17. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  18. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  19. Brain tumors in children with neurofibromatosis: additional neuropsychological morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    De Winter, A. E.; Moore, B. D.; Slopis, J. M.; Ater, J. L.; Copeland, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with numerous physical anomalies and an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairment. Tumors of the CNS occur in approximately 15% of children with neurofibromatosis, presenting additional risk for cognitive impairment. This study examines the impact of an additional diagnosis of brain tumor on the cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 149 children with neurofibromatosis. Thirty-six of these children had a codiagnosis of brain tumor. A subset of 36 children with neurofibromatosis alone was matched with the group of children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis and brain tumor. Although mean scores of the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group were, in general, lower than those of the neurofibromatosis alone group, these differences were not statistically significant. Children in the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group who received cranial irradiation (n = 9) demonstrated weaker academic abilities than did children with brain tumor who had not received that treatment. These results suggest that neurofibromatosis is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning, but the severity of the problems is not significantly exacerbated by the codiagnosis of a brain tumor unless treatment includes cranial irradiation. PMID:11550319

  20. Gastrointestinal cancer and brain metastasis: a rare and ominous sign.

    PubMed

    Go, Pauline H; Klaassen, Zachary; Meadows, Michael C; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2011-08-15

    Metastatic brain tumors represent 20% to 40% of all intracranial neoplasms and are found most frequently in association with lung cancer (50%) and breast cancer (12%). Although brain metastases occur in <4% of all tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the incidence of GI brain metastasis is rising in part due to more effective systemic treatments and prolonged survival of patients with GI cancer. Data were collected from 25 studies (11 colorectal, 7 esophageal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 intestinal, 3 all-inclusive GI tract cancer) and 13 case reports (4 pancreatic, 4 gallbladder, and 5 small bowel cancer). Brain metastases are found in 1% of colorectal cancer, 1.2% of esophageal cancer, 0.62% of gastric cancer, and 0.33% of pancreatic cancer cases. Surgical resection with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been associated with the longest median survival (38.4-262 weeks) compared with surgery alone (16.4-70.8 weeks), stereotactic radiosurgery (20-38 weeks), WBRT alone (7.2-16 weeks), or steroids (4-7 weeks). Survival in patients with brain metastasis from GI cancer was found to be diminished compared with metastases arising from the breast, lung, or kidney. Prolonged survival and improvement in clinical symptoms has been found to be best achieved with surgical resection and WBRT. Although early treatment has been linked to prolonged survival and improved quality of life, brain metastases represent a late manifestation of GI cancers and remain an ominous sign.

  1. [ANOCEF guidelines for the management of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Dhermain, F; Noël, G; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Mandonnet, E; Taillibert, S; Metellus, P

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of brain metastases is increasing because of the use of new therapeutic agents, which allow an improvement of overall survival, but with only a poor penetration into the central nervous system brain barriers. The management of brain metastases has changed due to a better knowledge of immunohistochemical data and molecular biological data, the development of new surgical, radiotherapeutic approaches and improvement of systemic treatments. Most of the time, the prognosis is still limited to several months, nevertheless, prolonged survival may be now observed in some sub-groups of patients. The main prognostic factors include the type and subtype of the primitive, age, general status of the patient, number and location of brain metastases, extracerebral disease. The multidisciplinary discussion should take into account all of these parameters. We should notice also that treatments including surgery or radiotherapy may be proposed in a symptomatic goal in advanced phases of the disease underlying the multidisciplinary approach until late in the evolution of the disease. This article reports on the ANOCEF (French neuro-oncology association) guidelines. The management of brain metastases of breast cancers and lung cancers are discussed in the same chapter, while the management of melanoma brain metastases is reported in a separate chapter due to different responses to the brain radiotherapy.

  2. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  3. A Child's Brain. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The first of a series of articles on the human brain focuses on the cyclic nature of brain development. Educational and social issues evolving from current discoveries about the brain are also discussed. (CJ)

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic Brain Injury & Dystonia Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages to the brain. TBI can occur when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and ...

  5. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Laviña, Bàrbara

    2016-01-01

    Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases. PMID:28042833

  6. γ knife radiosurgery of brain metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Laetitia; Muracciole, Xavier; Régis, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer ranges from 14 to 16%.Age, number of metastatic sites, short disease-free survival and molecular subtypes are associated with the occurrence of brain metastasis. Patients classified in the triple-negative group more frequently presented brain metastasis as the first site (26%) than those in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (6%) or luminal (12%) subtypes. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is still the standard treatment for breast cancer patients with brain metastasis. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of patients with brain metastasis were 25 and 10%, respectively, with a median survival of 6 months. In selected patients with single brain metastasis, majority of lung cancer, three randomized controlled trials underlined the significant survival benefit in adding local treatment such as surgery or stereotactic radio surgery to WBRT. Similarly, the upfront stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone did not affect survival rate in three other randomized studies and represents an alternative treatment for patients with stage 1-4. Metastatic breast cancer patients with Karnofsky Performance Scale ≥70, single or oligometastatic brain metastases and well-controlled extracranial disease or favorable disease-specific graded prognostic assessment group presented a median overall survival of 16 months. Delaying WBRT could spare patients of neurocognitive toxicity due to full-dose whole brain irradiation. Nevertheless, the real WBRT neurocognitive impact is still unclear. These patients should be followed with serial magnetic resonance image every 3 months and treated with WBRT or additional SRS at recurrence to control brain disease.

  7. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  8. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Identification of recovery incidents. 537.6... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.6 Identification of recovery incidents. (a) Responsibilities. Each command claims service and ACO will develop means to identify recovery incidents arising...

  9. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Identification of recovery incidents. 537.6... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.6 Identification of recovery incidents. (a) Responsibilities. Each command claims service and ACO will develop means to identify recovery incidents arising...

  10. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Joseph D; Brett, Meghan; Matthias, James; Stanek, Danielle; Springs, Chasisity Brown; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Oltean, Hanna; Baker, JoDee Summers; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Mead, Paul S; Hinckley, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Surveillance data from four states with a low-incidence of Lyme disease was evaluated. Most cases occurred after travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas. Cases without travel-related exposure in low-incidence states differed epidemiologically; misdiagnosis may be common in these areas.

  11. Critical Incidents in Multicultural Training: An Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, M. Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined critical incidents in graduate students' multicultural counseling training. Trainees (N=59) were asked to describe a critical incident and their multicultural training environment by responding to a critical incident protocol and the multicultural environment Inventory-Revised (D. B. Pope-Davis, W. M. Liu, J. Nevitt, & R. L.…

  12. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  13. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  14. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  16. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  17. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  18. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  19. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  20. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  1. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  2. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  3. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  4. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  5. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  6. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. Each railroad subject to this part shall submit to...

  7. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. (a) Each railroad subject to this part shall submit...

  8. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. (a) Each railroad subject to this part shall submit...

  9. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. (a) Each railroad subject to this part shall submit...

  10. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. (a) Each railroad subject to this part shall submit...

  11. Ionospheric profile inversion using oblique-incidence ionograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Watt, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the elementary methods used in deriving true-height profiles from oblique-incidence ionograms are reviewed. The two principal methods presented are oblique-to-vertical transformation and direct inversion of the oblique-incidence ionogram. Limitations in oblique-incidence inversion due to magnetic-field effects, horizontal gradients, and absolute time delay are discussed.

  12. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  13. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  14. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  15. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  16. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  17. School Board Presidents Describe Critical Incidents with Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.; Bryant, Miles T.

    1991-01-01

    Of 239 Nebraska school board presidents surveyed, 68 percent had experienced a critical incident with their superintendents. The most frequently cited incidents involved communications or human relations (37 percent), followed by staffing issues (15 percent), and ethics (11 percent). Over half of the incidents resulted in superintendent…

  18. Influenza vaccine oculorespiratory syndrome incidence is reduced in HIV.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Curtis; Thorne, Anona

    2011-10-19

    Clinical experience suggests Oculorespiratory Syndrome (ORS) following influenza vaccination is rare in HIV but this is not well evaluated. We assessed ORS incidence in a randomized influenza vaccine trial of HIV participants. The overall incidence was 0.8% suggesting that influenza vaccine ORS incidence is reduced in HIV.

  19. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  20. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  1. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  2. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  3. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  4. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  5. Cognitive Impairments Are Different in Single-Incidence and Multi-Incidence ADHD Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Bruijn, Yvette G. E.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We may improve our understanding of the role of common versus unique risk factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining ADHD-related cognitive deficits in single- (SPX), and multi-incidence (MPX) families. Given that individuals from multiplex (MPX) families are likely to share genetic vulnerability for the…

  6. ASC deficiency suppresses proliferation and prevents medulloblastoma incidence.

    PubMed

    Knight, E R W; Patel, E Y; Flowers, C A; Crowther, A J; Ting, J P; Miller, C R; Gershon, T R; Deshmukh, M

    2015-01-15

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is silenced by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, yet ASC's role in most cancers remains unknown. Here, we show that ASC is highly expressed in a model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer; ASC is also expressed in human medulloblastomas. Importantly, while ASC deficiency did not affect normal cerebellar development, ASC knockout mice on the Smoothened (ND2:SmoA1) transgenic model of medulloblastoma exhibited a profound reduction in medulloblastoma incidence and a delayed tumor onset. A similar decrease in tumorigenesis with ASC deficiency was also seen in the hGFAP-Cre:SmoM2 mouse model of medulloblastoma. Interestingly, hyperproliferation of the external granule layer (EGL) was comparable at P20 in both wild-type and ASC-deficient SmoA1 mice. However, while the apoptosis and differentiation markers remained unchanged at this age, proliferation makers were decreased, and the EGL was reduced in thickness and area by P60. This reduction in proliferation with ASC deficiency was also seen in isolated SmoA1 cerebellar granule precursor cells in vitro, indicating that the effect of ASC deletion on proliferation was cell autonomous. Interestingly, ASC-deficient SmoA1 cerebella exhibited disrupted expression of genes in the transforming growth factor-β pathway and increased level of nuclear Smad3. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unexpected role for ASC in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, thus identifying ASC as a promising novel target for antitumor therapy.

  7. Stent Thrombosis: Incidence, Predictors and New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Gill Louise; Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Chieffo, Alaide

    2012-01-01

    Some concerns have been raised regarding the risk of late and very late stent thrombosis (ST) following drug-eluting stent implantation. Despite remaining an uncommon complication of percutaneous coronary intervention, when ST occurs, it can be catastrophic to the individual, commonly presenting as acute ST elevation myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death. The incidence and predictors of ST have been reported in the literature and the role of dual antiplatelet therapies in the avoidance of such a complication remains vital. Ongoing studies are assessing the role of these therapies including platelet reactivity testing, genetic testing and optimum duration of therapy. In addition, newer polymer-free and bioabsorbable stents are under investigation in the quest to potentially minimise the risk of ST. PMID:22577541

  8. Incidence of airsickness among military parachutists.

    PubMed

    Antuñano, M J; Hernandez, J M

    1989-08-01

    This study describes the incidence of airsickness among military parachutists and analyzes the factors involved in its occurrence. Each of 45 healthy male subjects (28 students and 17 advanced parachutists) was studied. Each student participated in five parachute-jump exercises (one daily) and each advanced parachutist participated in one exercise only (proficiency). A questionnaire used for the diagnostic evaluation of motion sickness symptoms was completed by the subjects after each training exercise. A positive diagnosis of airsickness was established for 64% of the students on their first jump and for 35% of the advanced paratroopers on their proficiency jump. By the fifth jump, only 25% of the students experienced airsickness. This suggests that some students developed tolerance to airsickness after five consecutive exposures to inflight vestibular stimulation. Airsickness among student and advanced paratroopers occurred during the transport flight. This can be attributed to vestibular stimulation resulting from the aircraft maneuvers and inflight air turbulence.

  9. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  11. NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    C Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Shea, Brian; Goorah, Diya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Previously established risk factors for the development of NEC include prematurity and low birth weight. However, it is not clear to date as to whether the etiology of NEC is due to host, environmental, or yet other unknown factors. We analyzed the differences in incidence of NEC in twin pregnancies to further clarify its etio-pathogenesis. Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective search of the medical records of the Department of Pediatric Surgery was done to identify all the neonates treated for surgical NEC from 2006-2013. Patients that had been treated for NEC elsewhere and subsequently transferred in to our facility were excluded. The medical records of the resulting 45 patients were then analyzed for demographics, antenatal screening, risk factors, treatment (medical and surgical), and outcomes. The resulting data was then analyzed using relative risk calculations and standard statistical tests. Results: Of the 45 patients who developed surgical NEC, 9 neonates (20%) were born of a twin pregnancy. There were no cases in which both twin A and twin B developed NEC. NEC in twin pregnancy neonates showed a female preponderance (p less than 0.0001) and developed universally in the first born of the twins. Birth weight, time of onset of NEC, hospital stay and mortality were similar between twin and non-twin NEC. There was an average lead-time of three weeks to development of NEC in both singletons and twin pregnancies. Conclusion: There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event. NEC in twin pregnancy does not appear to have a deleterious outcome compared to NEC in singleton pregnancy. PMID:26023516

  12. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List

    SciTech Connect

    Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch

    2016-02-29

    On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.

  13. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  14. Use of Critical Incident Reports in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Branch, William T

    2005-01-01

    Critical incident reports are now being widely used in medical education. They are short narrative accounts focusing on the most important professional experiences of medical students, residents, and other learners. As such, critical incident reports are ideally suited for addressing values and attitudes, and teaching professional development. This manuscript describes critical incident reports and gives examples of their use, provides a theoretical underpinning that explains their effectiveness, and describes the educational impacts of critical incident reports and similar methods that use reflective learning. The author recommends critical incident reports as an especially effective means to address learners' most deeply held values and attitudes in the context of their professional experiences. PMID:16307635

  15. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  16. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  17. Microglia protect against brain injury and their selective elimination dysregulates neuronal network activity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Gergely; Martinecz, Bernadett; Lénárt, Nikolett; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Orsolits, Barbara; Judák, Linda; Császár, Eszter; Fekete, Rebeka; West, Brian L.; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Dénes, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the main immune cells of the brain and contribute to common brain diseases. However, it is unclear how microglia influence neuronal activity and survival in the injured brain in vivo. Here we develop a precisely controlled model of brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia combined with fast in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and selective microglial manipulation. We show that selective elimination of microglia leads to a striking, 60% increase in infarct size, which is reversed by microglial repopulation. Microglia-mediated protection includes reduction of excitotoxic injury, since an absence of microglia leads to dysregulated neuronal calcium responses, calcium overload and increased neuronal death. Furthermore, the incidence of spreading depolarization (SD) is markedly reduced in the absence of microglia. Thus, microglia are involved in changes in neuronal network activity and SD after brain injury in vivo that could have important implications for common brain diseases. PMID:27139776

  18. The Brain from Within

    PubMed Central

    di Porzio, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a powerful way to visualize brain functions and observe brain activity in response to tasks or thoughts. It allows displaying brain damages that can be quantified and linked to neurobehavioral deficits. fMRI can potentially draw a new cartography of brain functional areas, allow us to understand aspects of brain function evolution or even breach the wall into cognition and consciousness. However, fMRI is not deprived of pitfalls, such as limitation in spatial resolution, poor reproducibility, different time scales of fMRI measurements and neuron action potentials, low statistical values. Thus, caution is needed in the assessment of fMRI results and conclusions. Additional diagnostic techniques based on MRI such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and the measurement of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provide new tools to assess normal brain development or disruption of anatomical networks in diseases. A cutting edge of recent research uses fMRI techniques to establish a “map” of neural connections in the brain, or “connectome”. It will help to develop a map of neural connections and thus understand the operation of the network. New applications combining fMRI and real time visualization of one’s own brain activity (rtfMRI) could empower individuals to modify brain response and thus could enable researchers or institutions to intervene in the modification of an individual behavior. The latter in particular, as well as the concern about the confidentiality and storage of sensitive information or fMRI and lie detectors forensic use, raises new ethical questions. PMID:27375460

  19. Bilirubin oxidation in brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T W

    2000-01-01

    Bilirubin is a product of heme catabolism which by virtue of its lipid solubility can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. Neonatal jaundice is a common transitional phenomenon which is due to the combination of increased heme catabolism and rate limitations as far as hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion of bilirubin. In the great majority of cases this is an innocuous condition, which is even posited to have some beneficial effects due to the ability of bilirubin to quench free oxygen radicals. However, because bilirubin is neurotoxic, hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn may exceptionally result in death in the neonatal period, or survival with severe neurological sequelae (kernicterus). Bilirubin enters the brain through an intact blood-brain barrier. Clearance of bilirubin from brain partly involves retro-transfer through the blood-brain barrier, and possibly also through the brain-CSF barrier into CSF. Work in our lab during the past 5 years has substantiated earlier work which had suggested that bilirubin may also be metabolized in brain. The responsible enzyme is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and oxidizes bilirubin at a rate of 100-300 pmol bilirubin/mg protein/minute. The enzyme activity is lower in the newborn compared with the mature animal, and is also lower in neurons compared with glia. Studies of different rat strains have documented genetic variability. The enzyme is cytochrome-c-dependent, but has as yet not been unequivocally identified. The rate of oxidation of bilirubin is such that this enzyme probably contributes meaningfully to the clearance of bilirubin from brain.

  20. Evaluation of Incident Risks in a Repository for Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grundler, D.; Mariae, D.; Muller, W.; Boetsch, W.; Thiel, J.

    2008-07-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment of the operation phase of a repository for radioactive waste requires the knowledge of incident risks. These are evaluated from generic observations. The present method accounts for the uncertainty (1) of whether an incident occurs, (2) of the incident rate, (3) of the duration of generic observation, and (4) of the duration of operation phase of the repository. It yields a mean risk and its standard deviation from a minimum of generic data, comprising only the number of observed incidents and the duration of the observation, as more comprehensive generic data are seldom available. It was shown that incidents sharing a common generic observation must be either merged together to a total incident or the generic observation must be split up in sub-observations, one for each such incident. The method was tested on the example of the German Konrad repository for low-level waste in a deep geological formation. (authors)

  1. Building Brains for Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    34dU UAI:5 L.OVERED August 1993 memorandum 4. TITLE ANg SUBTITLn S. FUNDING NUMBERS Building Brains for Bodies N00014-91-J-4038 6. AUTHOR(S) Rodney...FIrS INSTfIflTE OF TEI( ’IINOL()( ;Y ARTIFI(’IAL INTLLWEII ,N’iE L,11OHXIOtlY A.I. Memo No. 1439 August. 1993 Building Brains for Bodies Rodney A...atioiial Ali enabling technology such as lie brain t hat we will power simply has not previously been available. build- has thle abilityv to revol itt onize

  2. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  3. Brain Organization and Psychodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Avi; Geva, Amir B.

    1999-01-01

    Any attempt to link brain neural activity and psychodynamic concepts requires a tremendous conceptual leap. Such a leap may be facilitated if a common language between brain and mind can be devised. System theory proposes formulations that may aid in reconceptualizing psychodynamic descriptions in terms of neural organizations in the brain. Once adopted, these formulations can help to generate testable predictions about brain–psychodynamic relations and thus significantly affect the future of psychotherapy. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:24–39) PMID:9888105

  4. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  6. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  7. Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1996-01-01

    This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

  8. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  9. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension.

  10. Loss of PAFR prevents neuroinflammation and brain dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiang-Jie; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Na; Hu, Jin-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain. Owing to the neuroinflammation lasts for months or even years after TBI, which is a pivotal causative factor that give rise to neurodegenerative disease at late stage of TBI. Studies have shown that platelet activating factor (PAF) inducing inflammatory reaction after TBI could not be ignored. The morphological and behavioral abnormalities after TBI in wild type mice are rescued by general knockout of PAFR gene that neuroinflammation responses and cognitive ability are improved. Our results thus define a key inflammatory molecule PAF that participates in the neuroinflammation and helps bring about cerebral dysfunction during the TBI acute phase. PMID:28094295

  11. Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and ...

  12. Incidence of Osteoporosis in Patients with Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction. Clinical researches have shown an increased bone disintegration and lower bone mass in patients with calcium urolithiasis. Goal. The goal of our research was to establish the incidence of osteoporosis in adult patients with calcium urolithiasis, on the basis of measuring mineral bone density, using DEXA method, with a special reflection on age subgroups. Material and methods. Clinical research was prospective and it was implemented at the University Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases and at the Urology Clinic. Material in this research consisted of patients divided in two groups, a working and a control group. One hundred and twenty (120) patients were included in both these groups, divided in three age subgroups: 20-40, 40-60 and over 60. The working group consisted of the patients with calcium urolithiasis and the control group consisted of patients without calcium urolithiasis. Establishing of mineral bone density at L2-L4 of lumbal spine vertebrae and hip was done for the patients in both these groups, using DEXA method. Results. Analysis of mineral bone density using DEXA method in patients in age groups of working and control groups, as well as in the total sample of working and control groups, have shown that the patients of the working group, over 60, had a decreased mineral bone density (30% of osteopenia and 15% osteoporosis) significantly more expressed when compared to the other two age groups (12.5% in the subgroup 20-40 and 17.5% in the subgroup 40-60), which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In the control group, when taking into account age groups, osteopenia and osteoporosis were marked in 37.5% and 2.5% in the group of patients over 60, whereas in the youngest population, 5% of osteopenia was found, which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). When observing the total sample of working and control group, there was a

  13. Neurotoxic effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on the developing rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Dzietko, M; Sifringer, M; Klaus, J; Endesfelder, S; Brait, D; Hansen, H H; Bendix, I; Felderhoff-Mueser, U

    2010-08-01

    The incidence of methamphetamine abuse is particularly high in adolescents and is a common problem among women of childbearing age, leading to an increasing number of children with prenatal exposure. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) is an amphetamine-like stimulant and is known to induce apoptotic damage to fine serotonergic fibers in the adult rat brain. Little is known about toxic effects of MDMA and potential underlying molecular mechanisms in the developing brain. Here, we investigated whether MDMA exposure during the period of rapid brain growth causes neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. MDMA significantly enhanced neuronal death in the brains of 6-day-old rat pups at a dose of 60 mg/kg, but no significant toxicity was detected at the ages of 14 and 21 days. Brain regions mainly affected were the cortex, septum, thalamus, hypothalamus and the cornu ammonis 1 region. To explore possible molecular mechanisms involved in this neurodegenerative process, we investigated the impact of MDMA on the expression of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor. Neonatal exposure of 6-day-old rats to MDMA triggered a considerable increase in cortical BDNF and NT-3 levels. Moreover, P7 CD1/BDNF knockout mice were noticeably more sensitive to MDMA exposure as compared to their wild-type age-matched littermates. These data suggest that a single injection of MDMA causes neurodegeneration in the neonatal rat brain. The upregulation of BDNF and NT-3 expression may indicate an important compensatory mechanism leading to the survival of neuronal cells in the developing brain.

  14. Undiagnosed amebic brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Riganti, Mario

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of amebic brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica. The patient was a 31-year-old man who presented with amebic liver abscess. His clinical course deteriorated in spite of proper drainage and treatment. He developed delirium, lethargy and then expired. With a history of heroin addiction, withdrawal syndrome from heroin was suspected. At autopsy, amebic abscesses were detected in the liver, large intestine, meninges and brain. A 19 cm amebic liver abscess was found in the right lobe of the liver. A 4 cm amebic brain abscess was found in the right occipital lobe. Microscopically, the tissue sections from the affected organs were confirmed to have degenerated E. histolytica trophozoites. Involvement of the brain in amebic liver abscess should be suspected in patients with neurological signs and symptoms.

  15. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... them create an advance directive and power of attorney for health care. Support Groups You can ease ... surgery Brain tumor - children Breast cancer Increased intracranial pressure Lung cancer - small cell Melanoma Renal cell carcinoma ...

  16. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skull causing pressure on brain ( subdural hematoma ) Concussion BREATHING CONDITIONS Low oxygen in the body (hypoxia) ... disease Arrhythmias Chronic subdural hematoma CO2 blood test Concussion Confusion Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Dementia due to metabolic ...

  17. Brain and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... reward circuit” of the brain Some drugs, like marijuana and heroin , have chemical structures that mimic that ... Pleasure Effect Most drugs of abuse— nicotine , cocaine , marijuana , and others—affect the brain’s “reward” circuit, which ...

  18. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... But usually there is improvement. Behavior and Social Interaction People may display inappropriate behavior after a brain ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  19. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tell the difference between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... identify where the seizures start in your brain Movement disorders (such as Parkinson disease )

  20. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information ...

  1. Brains on video games.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  2. Genetics and the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find us on YouTube Follow us on Instagram Genetics and the Brain by Carl Sherman September 10, ... effects that may be responsible. How Much Is Genetic? [x] , [xi] , [xii] , [xiii] A basic question in ...

  3. Modular Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  4. Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Guénel, P; Raskmark, P; Andersen, J B; Lynge, E

    1993-01-01

    Several studies suggest that work in electrical occupations is associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly leukaemia and brain tumours. These studies may, however, not be representative if there is a publication bias where mainly positive results are reported. To study an unselected population the incidence of cancer was followed up over a 17 year period (1970-87) in a cohort of 2.8 million Danes aged 20-64 years in 1970. Each person was classified by his or her industry and occupation in 1970. Before tabulation of the data on incidence of cancer, each industry-occupation group was coded for potential exposure to magnetic fields above the threshold 0.3 microT. Some 154,000 men were considered intermittently exposed and 18,000 continuously exposed. The numbers for women were 79,000 and 4000 respectively. Intermittent exposure was not associated with an increased risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, or melanoma. Men with continuous exposure, however, had an excess risk of leukaemia (observed (obs) 39, expected (exp) 23.80, obs/exp 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24) with equal contributions from acute and other leukaemias. These men had no excess risk of brain tumours or melanoma. A risk for breast cancer was suggested in exposed men but not in women. The risk for leukaemia in continuously exposed men was mainly in electricians in installation works and iron foundry workers. Besides electromagnetic fields other exposures should be considered as possible aetiological agents. PMID:8398864

  5. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  6. Management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, Riccardo; Rudā, Roberta; Mutani, Roberto

    2002-10-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time. Lung, breast and skin (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15% of patients the primary site remains unknown. After the introduction of MRI, multiple lesions have outnumbered single lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis. There are no pathognomonic features on CT or MRI that distinguish brain metastases from primary malignant brain tumors or nonneoplastic conditions: therefore a tissue diagnosis by biopsy should be always obtained in patients with unknown primary tumor before undergoing radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some factors are prognostically important: a high Performance Status, a solitary brain metastasis, an absence of systemic metastases, a controlled primary tumor and a younger age. Based on these factors, subgroups of patients with different prognosis have been identified (RPA class I, II, III). Symptomatic therapy includes corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic cerebral edema and anticonvulsants to control seizures. In patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases prophylactic anticonvulsants should not be used routinely. The combination of surgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is superior to WBRT alone for the treatment of single brain metastasis in patients with limited or absent systemic disease and good neurological condition. Complete surgical resection allows a relief of intracranial hypertension, seizures and focal neurological deficits. Radiosurgery, alone or in conjunction with WBRT, yields results which are comparable to those reported after surgery followed by WBRT, provided that lesion's diameter does not exceed 3-3.5 cm. Radiosurgery offers the potential of treating patients with surgically inaccessible metastases. Still controversial is the need for WBRT after surgery or radiosurgery: local control seems better with the combined approach, but overall survival does not

  7. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  8. Evolution of brain elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Large, complex brains have evolved independently in several lineages of protostomes and deuterostomes. Sensory centres in the brain increase in size and complexity in proportion to the importance of a particular sensory modality, yet often share circuit architecture because of constraints in processing sensory inputs. The selective pressures driving enlargement of higher, integrative brain centres has been more difficult to determine, and may differ across taxa. The capacity for flexible, innovative behaviours, including learning and memory and other cognitive abilities, is commonly observed in animals with large higher brain centres. Other factors, such as social grouping and interaction, appear to be important in a more limited range of taxa, while the importance of spatial learning may be a common feature in insects with large higher brain centres. Despite differences in the exact behaviours under selection, evolutionary increases in brain size tend to derive from common modifications in development and generate common architectural features, even when comparing widely divergent groups such as vertebrates and insects. These similarities may in part be influenced by the deep homology of the brains of all Bilateria, in which shared patterns of developmental gene expression give rise to positionally, and perhaps functionally, homologous domains. Other shared modifications of development appear to be the result of homoplasy, such as the repeated, independent expansion of neuroblast numbers through changes in genes regulating cell division. The common features of large brains in so many groups of animals suggest that given their common ancestry, a limited set of mechanisms exist for increasing structural and functional diversity, resulting in many instances of homoplasy in bilaterian nervous systems. PMID:26554044

  9. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  10. Brain Research: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

  11. Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Stanhope, N; Crowley-Murphy, M

    1999-02-01

    A previous study (Stanhope et al. 1998) established that staff in two obstetric units reported less than a quarter of designated incidents to the units' risk managers. A questionnaire was administered to 42 obstetricians and 156 midwives at the same two obstetric units, exploring the reasons for low rates of reporting. Questions concerned their knowledge of their unit's incident reporting system; whether they would report a series of 10 designated adverse obstetric incidents to the risk manager; and their views on 12 potential reasons for not reporting incidents. Most staff knew about the incident-reporting system in their unit, but almost 30% did not know how to find a list of reportable incidents. Views on the necessity of reporting the 10 designated obstetric incidents varied considerably. For example, 96% of staff stated they would always report a maternal death, whereas less than 40% would report a baby's unexpected admission to the Special Care Baby Unit. Midwives said they were more likely to report incidents than doctors, and junior staff were more likely to report than senior staff. The main reasons for not reporting were fears that junior staff would be blamed, high workload and the belief (even though the incident was designated as reportable) that the circumstances or outcome of a particular case did not warrant a report. Junior doctors felt less supported by their colleagues than senior doctors. Current systems of incident reporting, while providing some valuable information, do not provide a reliable index of the rate of adverse incidents. Recommended measures to increase reliability include clearer definitions of incidents, simplified methods of reporting, designated staff to record incidents and education, feedback and reassurance to staff about the nature and purpose of such systems.

  12. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice.

  13. [Brain-gut interactions].

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B

    2010-08-01

    Our digestive tract has an autonomous functioning but also has a bidirectional relation with our brain known as brain-gut interactions. This communication is mediated by the autonomous nervous system, i.e., the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, with a mixed afferent and efferent component, and the circumventricular organs located outside the blood-brain barrier. The vagus nerve, known as the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 90% afferent fibers, which has physiological roles due to its putative vegetative functions. The vagus nerve has also anti-inflammatory properties both through the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (through its afferents) and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (through its efferents). The sympathetic nervous system has a classical antagonist effect on the parasympathetic nervous system at the origin of an equilibrated sympathovagal balance in normal conditions. The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex (insula, prefrontal, cingulate) and in return to modify the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the frame of physiological loops. A dysfunction of these brain-gut interactions, favoured by stress, is most likely involved in the pathophysiology of digestive diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A better knowledge of these brain-gut interactions has therapeutic implications in the domain of pharmacology, neurophysiology, behavioural and cognitive management.

  14. Brain Imaging Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOWMAN, F. DUBOIS

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of brain imaging technologies has led to intense neuroscientific inquiry into the human brain. Studies often investigate brain function related to emotion, cognition, language, memory, and numerous other externally induced stimuli as well as resting-state brain function. Studies also use brain imaging in an attempt to determine the functional or structural basis for psychiatric or neurological disorders and, with respect to brain function, to further examine the responses of these disorders to treatment. Neuroimaging is a highly interdisciplinary field, and statistics plays a critical role in establishing rigorous methods to extract information and to quantify evidence for formal inferences. Neuroimaging data present numerous challenges for statistical analysis, including the vast amounts of data collected from each individual and the complex temporal and spatial dependence present. We briefly provide background on various types of neuroimaging data and analysis objectives that are commonly targeted in the field. We present a survey of existing methods targeting these objectives and identify particular areas offering opportunities for future statistical contribution. PMID:25309940

  15. Serotonin and brain development.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Monsheel S K; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The role of the serotonergic system in the neuroplastic events that create, repair, and degenerate the brain has been explored. Synaptic plasticity occurs throughout life and is critical during brain development. Evidence from biochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies demonstrates the huge importance of an intact serotonergic system for normal central nervous system (CNS)function. Serotonin acts as a growth factor during embryogenesis, and serotonin receptor activity forms a crucial part of the cascade of events leading to changes in brain structure. The serotonergic system interacts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100beta, and other chemical messengers, in addition to ts cross talk with the GABAergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Disruption of these processes may contribute to CNS disorders that have been associated with impaired development. Furthermore, many psychiatric drugs alter serotonergic activity and have been shown to create changes in brain structure with long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms for their therapeutic efficacy are still unclear. Treatments for psychiatric illness are usually chronic and alleviate psychiatric symptoms, rather than cure these diseases. Therefore, greater exploration of the serotonin system during brain development and growth could lead to real progress in the discovery of treatments for mental disorders.

  16. Modules and brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2011-05-01

    This review highlights the key role of modularity and the additive factors method in functional neuroimaging. Our focus is on structure-function mappings in the human brain and how these are disclosed by brain mapping. We describe how modularity of processing (and possibly processes) was a key point of reference for establishing functional segregation as a principle of brain organization. Furthermore, modularity plays a crucial role when trying to characterize distributed brain responses in terms of functional integration or coupling among brain areas. We consider additive factors logic and how it helped to shape the design and interpretation of studies at the inception of brain mapping, with a special focus on factorial designs. We look at factorial designs in activation experiments and in the context of lesion-deficit mapping. In both cases, the presence or absence of interactions among various experimental factors has proven essential in understanding the context-sensitive nature of distributed but modular processing and discerning the nature of (potentially degenerate) structure-function relationships in cognitive neuroscience.

  17. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  18. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multispectural glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system. The primary optical system further includes an optical axis having a primary focus at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus. A rotating carrier is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam. In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5A or longer. Each of the identifical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus at which a detector is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam.

  19. Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

    2005-06-01

    It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability.

  20. Incidence of shoulder pain in repetitive work

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, A; Chastang, J; Niedhammer, I; Landre, M; Roquelaure, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the predictiveness of personal and occupational factors for the onset of shoulder pain in occupations requiring repetitive work. Methods: A sample of 598 workers in five activity sectors completed a self administered questionnaire in 1993–94 and again three years later. Both questionnaires included questions about shoulder pain. The associations between various factors at baseline and subsequent shoulder pain were studied among subjects free from shoulder pain at baseline. Results: The incidence of shoulder pain was associated with several independent risk factors: depressive symptoms, low level of job control, and biomechanical constraints. After adjustment for other risk factors, the presence of depressive symptoms predicted occurrence of shoulder pain. A low level of job control was also associated with the onset of shoulder pain in both sexes. For men, repetitive use of a tool was a strong predictor, while the two most important biomechanical risk factors for women were use of vibrating tools and working with arms above shoulder level. Conclusion: This study used a longitudinal approach to examine different sets of risk factors for shoulder pain simultaneously. The results confirm the role of several biomechanical constraints. Psychological symptoms and a low level of job control also play a role. PMID:14691271