Science.gov

Sample records for incident congestive heart

  1. Congestive heart failure, spouses' support and the couple's sleep situation: a critical incident technique analysis.

    PubMed

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Dahlström, Ulf; Fridlund, Bengt

    2003-03-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders are common as well as a poor prognostic sign associated with higher mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). These patients often have a shorter total duration of sleep, disturbed sleep structure and increased daytime sleepiness, which can negatively affect all dimensions of the life situation. The spouse has an important role in supporting the patient in relation to sleep disorders, but this role may be adversely affected by the sleep situation of the couple. The aim of this study was to describe decisive situations that influence spouses' support to patients with CHF in relation to the couple's sleep situation. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Incidents were collected by means of interviews with 25 spouses of patients with CHF, strategically selected from two hospital-based specialist clinics in southern Sweden. Two main areas emerged in the analysis: support stimulating situations and support inhibiting situations. Support stimulating situations described how spouses' support was positively affected by their own adaptation in psychosocial or practical situations, and receiving help from others. Support inhibiting situations described how the spouses' support was negatively affected by sleep disturbances as a result of the patient's symptoms, anxiety in relation to the disease, limitations as a result of the sleeping habits, dissatisfaction with care related to the sleep situation, and being left to cope alone with the problems. An increased understanding of the stimulating and inhibiting situations influencing spouses' support for patients with CHF can guide health care personnel in deciding if an intervention is needed to improve the sleep situation for patient and spouse.

  2. Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and incidence of congestive heart failure in two prospective cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Steffen, Lyn M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Siscovick, David S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background Decades-old animal experiments suggested dietary long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) caused cardiotoxicity, leading, for example, Canada to develop Canadian-oil-low-in-erucic-acid (Canola) from rapeseed. However, potential cardiotoxicity in humans and contemporary dietary sources of LCMUFA are unknown. Methods and Results We prospectively investigated associations of plasma phospholipid LCMUFA (20:1, 22:1, and 24:1), objective biomarkers of exposure, with incidence congestive heart failure (CHF) in two independent cohorts: 3,694 older adults (mean age=75.2±5.2 years) in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, 1992–2006), and 3,577 middle-aged adults (mean age=54.1±5.8 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Minnesota subcohort (ARIC, 1987–2008). We further examined dietary correlates of circulating LCMUFA in CHS and ARIC, and US dietary sources of LCMUFA in the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In CHS, 997 CHF events occurred during 39,238 person-years; and in ARIC, 330 events during 64,438 person-years. After multivariable-adjustment, higher levels of 22:1 and 24:1 were positively associated with greater incident CHF in both CHS and ARIC: hazard ratios (95% confidence interval)=1.34 (1.02–1.76) and 1.57 (1.11–2.23) for highest vs. lowest quintiles of 22:1, respectively; and 1.75 (1.23–2.50) and 1.92 (1.22–3.03) for 24:1, respectively (P-trend≤0.03 each). A variety of foods related to circulating LCMUFA in CHS and ARIC, consistent with food sources of LCMUFA in NHANES, including fish, poultry, meats, whole grains, and mustard. Conclusions Higher circulating levels of 22:1 and 24:1, with apparently diverse dietary sources, were associated with incident CHF in two independent cohorts, suggesting possible cardiotoxicity of LCMUFA in humans. PMID:23487436

  3. Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael C; Winters, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Patients with acute decompensated heart failure are usually critically ill and require immediate treatment. However, most are not volume overloaded. Emergency department (ED) management is based on rapid initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and aggressive titration of nitrates. Afterload reduction with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor can be considered. A diuretic should not be administered before optimal preload and afterload reduction has been achieved. Short-term inotropic therapy can be considered in select patients with cardiogenic shock and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who fail to respond to standard therapy.

  4. [Anemia in congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Abassade, P; Rabenirina, F; Garcon, P; Antakly, Y; Cador, R

    2009-11-01

    Anemia is a common disorder in congestive heart failure and an independant prognostic factor. The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of anemia among a population of in-hospital congestive heart failure patients, to compare anemic patients (A) with non anemic patients (NA) and to study their cares. One hundred and thirty-two patients, 70 men (53%), et 62 women (47%) are enrolled. Mean age is 76.4+/-13.5 years. The prevalence of anemia (WHO criteria) is 49%. Patients A are older than NA: 79.1+/-13.8 years versus 73.8+/-12.9 years (p=0.025), renal function is more altered in A than in NA, creatinine clearance is 56.5 ml/min (A) versus 76.2 ml/min (NA) (p=0.003). Ejection fraction (EF) is lower in A than in NA: 35.1+/-15.3% versus 50.9+/-15.9%, (p<0.0001.) Anemia is less frequent in preserved EF (28%) than in low EF (63%) (p<0.0001). Hospitalization duration is longer in A than in NA: 10.7+/-10.1 days versus 6.9+/-3.7 days (p=0.005). There are more re hospitalized patients among A than NA: 38 versus 10 (p=0.0001). There is a significant difference of survival of NA versus A at day 614 (p=0.03). Anemia is frequent in our population, and is associated with others prognostic factors and comorbidity.

  5. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  6. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459

  7. [Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in congestive heart failure patients].

    PubMed

    Robles Perez-Monteoliva, Nicolás Roberto; Macías Núñez, Juan Francisco; Herrera Pérez de Villar, Julio

    2014-03-04

    Congestive heart failure is a disease of high incidence and prevalence in the elderly. Anemia is associated with an increased mortality in these patients. This article reviews the cumulated evidence about the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in congestive heart failure patients. Although some improvement in quality of life has been shown, it has not been found any decrement on mortality and, as a result, together with the high drug cost, it is not recommended the use of this kind of drugs in heart failure patients.

  8. Dietary sodium intake and incidence of congestive heart failure in overweight US men and women: first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Bazzano, Lydia A; Vupputuri, Suma; Loria, Catherine; Whelton, Paul K

    2002-07-22

    Cross-sectional epidemiologic studies suggest that a higher intake of dietary sodium is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy. We studied the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study participants. The study sample consisted of 5233 nonoverweight and 5129 overweight men and women without a history of CHF at their baseline examination. Dietary sodium and other nutrient intake estimates were obtained by a 24-hour dietary recall method at the baseline examination, conducted from 1971 to 1975. The incidence of CHF was assessed using medical records and death certificates obtained in 1982 to 1984, 1986, 1987, and 1992. During an average of 19 years of follow-up, we documented 413 cases of CHF in nonoverweight and 679 cases of CHF in overweight participants. After adjustment for known CHF risk factors, the relative risk of CHF among overweight participants was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.91) for those whose sodium intake was greater than 113.6 mmol/d compared with those whose intake was less than 50.2 mmol/d. The relative risks of CHF for a 100-mmol/d higher intake of sodium or per 1743 kcal (average energy intake in the study population) were 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.53) and 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.40), respectively. A higher intake of dietary sodium is a strong independent risk factor for CHF in overweight persons. A reduction in sodium intake may play an important role in the prevention of CHF in overweight individuals and populations.

  9. Congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  10. Bortezomib-induced Severe Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jerkins, James H.; Suciu, Anca; Mazimba, Sula; Calvo, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of anti-cancer drug associated cardiac side effects are diverse and can range from acutely induced cardiac arrhythmias to severe contractile dysfunction, and potentially fatal heart failure. Anthracyclines and trastuzumab cardiac toxicity have been well described and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) evaluation is commonly performed before their use. Bortezomib (Velcade), a potent, specific and reversible proteasome inhibitor is approved for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The incidence of cardiac failure associated with bortezomib therapy in clinical trials remains incidental. Acute exacerbation of pre-existing congestive cardiac failure has been associated with this therapy but de novo cardiomyopathy has been reported in only one patient receiving bortezomib for small cell lung cancer. As a result, cardiac evaluation is not normally ordered before its use. We describe a 50-year-old female with newly diagnosed MM and no risk factors for cardiac disease that unexpectedly developed florid heart failure after 2 cycles of bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone. 2-D echocardiogram showed dilated cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LVEF; no changes consistent with amyloid deposits or myocardial scarring were described. Coronary angiogram ruled out coronary artery disease. The mechanism of bortezomib-induced cardiomyopathy has been postulated to be through fluid retention. Based on literature review we hypothesize that the disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by bortezomib may cause cardiomyopathy and severe cardiac failure. As Bortezomib is a new and promising therapy for MM patients, we recommend routinely monitoring cardiac parameters in patients undergoing this treatment.

  11. Managing congestive heart failure using home telehealth.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nina M

    2004-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of rehospitalization and loss of revenue for home care agencies and hospitals. This article outlines how an agency used telehealth to provide CHF patients quality care and improved outcomes while decreasing the number of skilled home nursing visits and reducing rehospitalization rates to 1.2%.

  12. Cardiac CT Angiography in Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Levine, Avi; Hecht, Harvey S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac CT angiography has become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure. Differentiation of ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy; evaluation of myocardial perfusion; characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; and delineation of congenital heart defects and valvular abnormalities are the primary diagnostic applications. Therapeutic use includes visualization of the coronary venous anatomy for optimal implementation of cardiac resynchronization therapy and evaluation of left ventricular assist devices and transplant vasculopathy.

  13. Pharmacotherapy in congestive heart failure: ACE inhibitors and anemia in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sica, D S

    2000-01-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be accompanied by a number of adverse events, including cough, angioedema, and hyperkalemia, as well as a peculiar form of functional renal insufficiency. Other, less obvious side effects accompany ACE inhibitor use, such as a reduction in red blood cell production. This feature of ACE inhibitor use may be employed to good effect, as in the management of post-transplant erythrocytosis. Alternatively, the suppressive effect of ACE inhibitors on red blood cell production may intensify the anemia of chronic renal failure and/or congestive heart failure. The untreated congestive heart failure patient typically has an increased red blood cell mass as a consequence of increased erythropoietin levels, with the latter governed by congestive heart failure-related renal hypoxia. This is not expressed as an increase in hemoglobin concentration because of the increase in plasma volume that marks advanced congestive heart failure. ACE inhibitor therapy can be expected to both reduce plasma volume and decrease red blood cell production. As a result, the hemoglobin concentration changes very little in the ACE inhibitor-treated congestive heart failure patient and usually falls in the low normal range. Recently, erythropoietin has been employed to good effect in congestive heart failure patients with borderline anemia. (c)2000 by CHF, Inc.

  14. Can complexity decrease in congestive heart failure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Rondoni, Lamberto; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The complexity of a signal can be measured by the Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) from the reconstructed phase space. We have chosen a window based RPDE method for the classification of signals, as RPDE is an average entropic measure of the whole phase space. We have observed the changes in the complexity in cardiac signals of normal healthy person (NHP) and congestive heart failure patients (CHFP). The results show that the cardiac dynamics of a healthy subject is more complex and random compare to the same for a heart failure patient, whose dynamics is more deterministic. We have constructed a general threshold to distinguish the border line between a healthy and a congestive heart failure dynamics. The results may be useful for wide range for physiological and biomedical analysis.

  15. Current Management of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is still one of the most common causes of death in our society. Treatment should be approached systematically with a set of well-defined objectives, which include rest, a low-sodium diet, inotropic agents, diuretics, and peripheral vasodilators. Patients receiving treatment for congestive heart failure should be examined daily for symptomatic improvement, cardiac signs, and accurate recording of total fluid intake and output. Serum electrolyte levels and chest X-ray films should also be checked intermittently. When using powerful diuretics or vasodilators, the physician should be aware of the risk-benefit ratio because many of these drugs, alone or in combination, may produce undesirable or even fatal side-effects. PMID:20469506

  16. Abdominal contributions to cardiorenal dysfunction in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2013-08-06

    Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota.

  17. Advanced Congestive Heart Failure Associated With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarcon, Annahita; Liu, Xiaoli; Ton, David; Haywood, James; Hitchcock, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a complication of an underlying disease and not a primary illness. It is most commonly associated with sepsis, trauma, obstetrical complications, and malignancies. There are very few cases in the literature illustrating the association between DIC and congestive heart failure. Findings. In this report, we present a case of severe congestive heart failure, leading to biventricular thrombi and subsequently DIC. Conclusion. We suggest that the association between congestive heart failure and DIC is an underrecognized one. Congestive heart failure continues to remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical therapies. Thus far, the precise role of coagulation factors in congestive heart failure is unknown. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and coagulation factors.

  18. Prehospital management of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mattu, Amal; Lawner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of prehospital treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure has in some ways come full circle: rather than emphasizing a battery of new pharmacotherapies, out-of-hospital providers have a renewed focus on aggressive use of nitrates, optimization of airway support, and rapid transport. The use of furosemide and morphine has become de-emphasized, and a flurry of research activity and excitement revolves around the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Further research will clarify the role of bronchodilators and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the prehospital setting.

  19. Continuous ultrafiltration for congestive heart failure: the CUORE trial.

    PubMed

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Muratori, Manuela; Cosentino, Eugenio R; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Donghi, Valeria; Milazzo, Valentina; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Borghi, Claudio; Santoro, Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Background: There are limited data comparing ultrafiltration with standard medical therapy as first-line treatment in patients with severe congestive heart failure (HF). We compared ultrafiltration and conventional therapy in patients hospitalized for HF and overt fluid overload.Methods and Results: Fifty-six patients with congestive HF were randomized to receive standard medical therapy (control group; n = 29) or ultrafiltration (ultrafiltration group; = 27). The primary endpoint of the study was rehospitalizations for congestive HF during a 1-year follow-up. Despite similar body weight reduction at hospital discharge in the 2 groups (7.5 ± 4.5 and 7.9 ± 5.0 kg, respectively;P = .75), a lower incidence of rehospitalizations for HF was observed in the ultrafiltration-treated patients during the following year (hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.48; P = .002).Ultrafiltration-induced benefit was associated with a more stable renal function, unchanged furosemide dose, and lower B-type natriuretic peptide levels. At 1 year, 7 deaths (30%) occurred in the ultrafiltration group and 11 (44%) in the control group (P = .33).Conclusions: In HF patients with severe fluid overload, first-line treatment with ultrafiltration is associated with a prolonged clinical stabilization and a greater freedom from rehospitalization for congestive HF.

  20. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and prognostic significance of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in relation to cardiac disease and congestive heart failure in cats: 725 cases (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Peck, Courtney M; Nielsen, Lindsey K; Quinn, Rebecca L; Laste, Nancy J; Price, Lori Lyn

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether the presence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in cats with cardiomyopathy is associated with increased mortality. To establish whether specific types of cardiomyopathy are more often associated with SEC in an attempt to provide a risk-stratification scheme for cats with increased risk of thromboembolic events. Retrospective study 2006-2011. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Seven hundred twenty-five client-owned cats undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. Patient characteristics, including age, breed, clinical signs, type of cardiovascular disease, presence of SEC, and survival time were recorded. Thyroxine, HCT, and blood pressure were recorded when available. Among cats diagnosed with cardiac abnormalities based on echocardiographic findings, those with SEC were at significantly increased risk of death as compared to those without SEC. Cats with dilated cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were significantly more likely to have SEC compared to cats with other types of cardiac disease. Cats with cardiomyopathy and SEC have an increased risk of death compared to cats without SEC, although other previously identified factors such as the presence of congestive heart failure and increased left atrium to aorta ratio remain important determinants of mortality. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy may benefit from anticoagulant therapy due to the increased risk of SEC in these subpopulations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  1. Congestive heart failure in women in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Damluji, Salem F.; Al-Saffar, Ghanim; Thamer, Mahmoud A.; Mary, Adil S.

    1964-01-01

    Stimulated by the world-wide interest in cardiovascular diseases, the authors made a study of 1001 consecutive admissions to a female medical ward in Baghdad, Iraq, and found that 146 patients were in congestive failure on admission, and an additional 197 patients were suffering from primary cardiovascular disease without failure. Of the group in failure, 47.9% had rheumatic heart disease; none of these patients had been on chemoprophylaxis. Bilharziasis was associated with a considerable number of cases of hypertension and with a small percentage of cases of cor pulmonale. The authors feel that prevention of rheumatic fever and bilharziasis should constitute the corner-stone of any effective control programme of cardiovascular disease at this stage of medical development in Iraq. PMID:14267742

  2. Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure with Triamterene

    PubMed Central

    Wener, J.; Schucher, R.; Friedman, R.

    1965-01-01

    Triamterene, a newer oral diuretic, was administered to nine hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure for an average of 15 days, and to 22 ambulatory patients for a period of three to 11 months. The daily dosage of triamterene ranged from 50 to 250 mg., but usually 100-200 mg. was administered daily in two divided doses, with or without the addition of 50 mg. of hydrochlorothiazide daily. Triamterene is a safe and effective diuretic at doses of 100-200 mg. daily and no drug tolerance develops with long-term therapy. However, when used alone, it is not as effective as hydrochlorothiazide, but in combination with the latter drug the resultant diuresis is unsurpassed by any other oral diuretic therapy that we have used to date. Triamterene itself does not produce kaliuresis and it blocks thiazide-induced kaliuresis. Serum uric acid levels may rise slightly, but no clinical gout was seen in this study. PMID:14259336

  3. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY IN OKAPI (OKAPIA JOHNSTONI).

    PubMed

    Warren, Joshua D; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Weldon, Alan D; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren L; Garner, Michael M; Citino, Scott B

    2017-03-01

    Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea, dyspnea, flared nostrils, and productive coughing with copious amounts of foamy nasal discharge. Parenteral and oral treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and spironolactone controlled clinical signs in the three okapi allowing each to carry out one pregnancy to term. Two okapi carried the first pregnancy to term after showing signs, while one okapi aborted the first calf and gave birth to a healthy calf in a subsequent pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancy in one okapi ended with abortion and associated dystocia and endometritis. Following parturition, clinical signs associated with heart failure resolved in all three individuals; serial echocardiography in two individuals showed improvement in fractional shortening and left atrial size and all three okapi showed markedly decreased pleural effusion and resolution of pulmonary edema. However, subsequent pregnancies in all three okapi induced respiratory distress and recurrence of congestive heart failure; one okapi died from congestive heart failure associated with subsequent pregnancy. This case series describes the clinical presentation and pathologic findings of congestive heart failure during pregnancy in adult okapi.

  4. Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa (ENV): a complication of congestive heart failure and obesity.

    PubMed

    Baird, Drew; Bode, David; Akers, Troy; Deyoung, Zachariah

    2010-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) and obesity are common medical conditions that have many complications and an increasing incidence in the United States. Presented here is a case of a disfiguring skin condition that visually highlights the dermatologic consequences of poorly controlled CHF and obesity. This condition will probably become more common as CHF and obesity increase in the US.

  5. Congestive heart failure and other medical facts about ferrets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lavonn A

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure, the most common form of heart disease in aged ferrets, is only one of the diseases to which ferrets are susceptible. Congestive heart failure is an insidious, progressive disease for which there is no cure. Once the diagnosis is made and the proper medication is determined, the ferret must remain on the medication. The case report included with this article, which was submitted by a pet owner, and the accompanying formula is an example of how a compounding pharmacist can work with the veterinarian to aid in the treatment of a small veterinary patient by preparing specific medications.

  6. Congestive heart failure as a determinant of postoperative delirium.

    PubMed

    Parente, Daniela; Luís, Clara; Veiga, Dalila; Silva, Hugo; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent post-surgical complication that is associated with increased mortality and poor patient outcomes. POD is a complex disorder with multiple risk factors such as pre-existing patient comorbidities and perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POD and to identify risk factors for the development of POD in a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We enrolled 97 adult patients admitted to a PACU over a five-day period (start date September 6, 2010). Patient demographics and intraoperative and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Descriptive analyses of variables were used to summarize data, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables; the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons. Univariate analysis was performed using simple binary logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The significance level for multiple comparisons was controlled by applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and variables were deemed significant if p≤0.0025. Six percent of patients developed POD. These patients were older and more likely to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (83 vs. 22% with ASA III/IV, p=0.004) as well as a higher frequency of congestive heart failure (50 vs. 3%, p=0.003) and a higher Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score (33 vs. 6% with RCRI ≥2, p=0.039). The duration of anesthesia for patients with POD was also longer and they received a greater volume of crystalloids, colloids, and erythrocytes during surgery. Congestive heart disease was an independent risk factor for POD (OR 29.3, 95% CI 4.1-210.6; p<0.001). In addition, patients who developed POD had higher in-hospital mortality and longer PACU and hospital stays. Patients who developed POD had longer

  7. Involvement of systemic venous congestion in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2017-04-01

    Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. Stem cell therapy for chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheila A; Doree, Carolyn; Mathur, Anthony; Taggart, David P; Martin-Rendon, Enca

    2016-12-24

    full or partial commercial sponsorship (13 trials).Cell therapy reduced the incidence of long-term mortality (≥ 12 months) (risk ratio (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.87; participants = 491; studies = 9; I(2) = 0%; low-quality evidence). Periprocedural adverse events associated with the mapping or cell/placebo injection procedure were infrequent. Cell therapy was also associated with a long-term reduction in the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; participants = 345; studies = 5; I(2) = 0%; low-quality evidence) and incidence of arrhythmias (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.99; participants = 82; studies = 1; low-quality evidence). However, we found no evidence that cell therapy affects the risk of rehospitalisation for heart failure (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.09; participants = 375; studies = 6; I(2) = 0%; low-quality evidence) or composite incidence of mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and/or rehospitalisation for heart failure (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.08; participants = 141; studies = 3; I(2) = 0%; low-quality evidence), or long-term left ventricular ejection fraction when measured by magnetic resonance imaging (mean difference -1.60, 95% CI -8.70 to 5.50; participants = 25; studies = 1; low-quality evidence). This systematic review and meta-analysis found low-quality evidence that treatment with bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells reduces mortality and improves left ventricular ejection fraction over short- and long-term follow-up and may reduce the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction and improve New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification in people with chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. These findings should be interpreted with caution, as event rates were generally low, leading to a lack of precision.

  9. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P < 0.001, elderly controls vs young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  10. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P < 0.001, elderly controls vs young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  11. Teaching Congestive Heart Failure to Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a lecture given to pharmacy students that emphasizes the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing congestive heart failure and the effects of drugs on these mechanisms. The approach shows the importance of drug therapy in this disorder and how this knowledge can improve patient care. An appendix provides a case study. (GLR)

  12. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF). We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m3). The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P < 0.001). The HR for CHF was 1.38-fold greater in the pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P < 0.001) after the model was adjusted for age, sex, various comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m3). The relative risk for CHF in the sex-specific pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.62, P < 0.001). The incidence density rates of CHF increased with age; pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group. Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27336897

  13. Anaemia and congestive heart failure early post-renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Borrows, Richard; Loucaidou, Marina; Chusney, Gary; Borrows, Sarah; Tromp, Jen Van; Cairns, Tom; Griffith, Megan; Hakim, Nadey; McLean, Adam; Palmer, Andrew; Papalois, Vassilios; Taube, David

    2008-05-01

    Anaemia is common following renal transplantation and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). However the prevalence of anaemia in the first year following transplantation and the association between anaemia occurring early and the development of CHF have been understudied. In this study, 132 incident patients undergoing tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil-based renal transplantation were studied for the prevalence of, and risk factors for, anaemia and CHF in the early period post transplantation. Anaemia occurred in 94.5% and 53.1% of patients at 1 week and 12 months, respectively, and was associated with allograft dysfunction, hypoalbuminaemia, higher mycophenolic acid (MPA) levels, bacterial infection and hypoalbuminaemia. The association with hypoalbuminaemia may reflect the presence of chronic inflammation post-transplantation. Of patients displaying haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 41.1% and 29.4% were treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) at 1 and 12 months respectively. CHF developed in 26 patients beyond 1 month post-transplantation, with echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function preserved in all but one. CHF was associated with anaemia and lower haemoglobin, allograft dysfunction, duration of dialysis and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography prior to transplantation, suggesting the aetiology of CHF may involve the interplay of diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pre-load mismatch and after-load mismatch. Modification of risk factors may improve anaemia management post transplantation. Reducing the prevalence of anaemia may in turn reduce the incidence of CHF-these observations support the need for clinical trials to determine how anaemia management may impact CHF incidence.

  14. Ultrafiltration in the management of refractory congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, I A; Rae, A P; Simpson, K; Gribben, J; Boulton Jones, J M; Allison, M E; Hutton, I

    1986-01-01

    Ultrafiltration was performed in nine patients with congestive cardiac failure that was refractory to conventional medical treatment. A mean of 12 X 7 litres of fluid was removed, and there was a sustained symptomatic improvement in all patients. Weight loss continued after ultrafiltration and a sustained increase in serum sodium concentration was also noted. A transient fall in right atrial pressure was seen only at four hours after ultrafiltration. No adverse haemodynamic effects were seen four and eighteen hours after fluid removal. Intracardiac dimensions measured by echocardiography remained unchanged. Ultrafiltration can be used to relieve symptoms in patients with refractory congestive heart failure and gross oedema. PMID:3964500

  15. Management of anemia in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tim Goodnough, Lawrence; Comin-Colet, Josep; Leal-Noval, Santiago; Ozawa, Sherri; Takere, Jacqueline; Henry, David; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Hohmuth, Benjamin; Bisbe, Elvira; Gross, Irwin; Shander, Aryeh

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is an independent risk factor for adverse patient outcomes. There are no guidelines for management of anemia in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), despite its high incidence. Four objectives were defined by the International Anemia Management and Clinical Outcomes Expert Panel (AMCO), a multinational group of interdisciplinary experts identified by the Society for the Advancement of Blood Management (SABM) to: determine the prevalence of anemia in outpatients; to determine the prevalence of hospital-acquired anemia; to assess the impact of anemia management on clinical outcomes such as quality of life and functional status; and to provide recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists for the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of anemia in patients with CHF. Anemia and iron deficiency were confirmed to be highly prevalent in patients with CHF. Intravenous iron therapy improves anemia, cardiac function and exercise tolerance, leading to improvement in quality of life. Anemia management has been demonstrated to be cost-effective. Clinical care pathways to manage anemia in patients with CHF are recommended as best practices in order to improve patient outcomes. Am. J. Hematol. 92:88-93, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Water and Sodium in Heart Failure: A Spotlight on Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephen J.; Torres, Daniele; Alderman, Michael; Bonventre, Joseph Vincent; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Gargani, Luna; Nohria, Anju; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Despite all available therapies, the rates of hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF) remain unacceptably high. The most common reasons for hospital admission are symptoms related to congestion. During hospitalization, most patients respond well to standard therapy and are discharged with significantly improved symptoms. Post-discharge, many patients receive diligent and frequent follow-up. However, rehospitalization rates remain high. One potential explanation is a persistent failure by clinicians to adequately manage congestion in the outpatient setting. The failure to successfully manage these patients post-discharge may represent an unmet need to improve the way congestion is both recognized and treated. A primary aim of future HF management may be to improve clinical surveillance to prevent and manage chronic fluid overload while simultaneously maximizing the use of evidence-based therapies with proven long-term benefit. Improvement in cardiac function is the ultimate goal and maintenance of a “dry” clinical profile is important to prevent hospital admission and improve prognosis. This paper focuses on methods for monitoring congestion, and strategies for water and sodium management in the context of the complex interplay between the cardiac and renal systems. A rationale for improving recognition and treatment of congestion is also proposed. PMID:24942806

  17. Water and sodium in heart failure: a spotlight on congestion.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Greene, Stephen J; Torres, Daniele; Alderman, Michael; Bonventre, Joseph Vincent; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Gargani, Luna; Nohria, Anju; Fonarow, Gregg C; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Despite all available therapies, the rates of hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF) remain unacceptably high. The most common reasons for hospital admission are symptoms related to congestion. During hospitalization, most patients respond well to standard therapy and are discharged with significantly improved symptoms. Post-discharge, many patients receive diligent and frequent follow-up. However, rehospitalization rates remain high. One potential explanation is a persistent failure by clinicians to adequately manage congestion in the outpatient setting. The failure to successfully manage these patients post-discharge may represent an unmet need to improve the way congestion is both recognized and treated. A primary aim of future HF management may be to improve clinical surveillance to prevent and manage chronic fluid overload while simultaneously maximizing the use of evidence-based therapies with proven long-term benefit. Improvement in cardiac function is the ultimate goal and maintenance of a "dry" clinical profile is important to prevent hospital admission and improve prognosis. This paper focuses on methods for monitoring congestion, and strategies for water and sodium management in the context of the complex interplay between the cardiac and renal systems. A rationale for improving recognition and treatment of congestion is also proposed.

  18. Nontransplant surgical options for congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ferrão de Oliveira, J; Antunes, Manuel J

    2004-05-01

    Although advanced heart failure has been considered the main indication for heart transplantation, the increasing number of candidates and shortage of organs for transplantation, with accumulating waiting lists, has originated another look into more conventional surgery, previously considered of prohibitive risk. In fact, many cases are a result of anatomic lesions that can be corrected by conventional surgery, and in the past decade many surgical groups have obtained good and even excellent results in the treatment of aortic stenosis with low output, and in aortic and mitral regurgitation with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Also, ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy have been successfully treated by several types of LV remodeling surgery, with or without coronary grafting. Many of these procedures achieved excellent operative, medium-, and long-term results and survival, which match well those observed with cardiac transplantation, most often with advantages in the quality of life and, not unimportantly, in financial costs. For operated patients, especially those with ischemic cardiomyopathy, close follow-up for cardiac failure is extremely important in order to detect the right moment for heart transplantation, if it becomes necessary.

  19. Congestive heart failure detection using random forest classifier.

    PubMed

    Masetic, Zerina; Subasi, Abdulhamit

    2016-07-01

    Automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) heartbeat classification is substantial for diagnosing heart failure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of machine learning methods in creating the model which classifies normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) on the long-term ECG time series. The study was performed in two phases: feature extraction and classification phase. In feature extraction phase, autoregressive (AR) Burg method is applied for extracting features. In classification phase, five different classifiers are examined namely, C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, artificial neural networks and random forest classifier. The ECG signals were acquired from BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure and PTB Diagnostic ECG databases and classified by applying various experiments. The experimental results are evaluated in several statistical measures (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F-measure and ROC curve) and showed that the random forest method gives 100% classification accuracy. Impressive performance of random forest method proves that it plays significant role in detecting congestive heart failure (CHF) and can be valuable in expressing knowledge useful in medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology-assisted congestive heart failure care.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Toukhsati, S R; Biddagardi, N; Zimmet, H; J Atherton, J; Hare, D L

    2015-04-01

    The interface between eHealth technologies and disease management in chronic conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF) has advanced beyond the research domain. The substantial morbidity, mortality, health resource utilization and costs imposed by chronic disease, accompanied by increasing prevalence, complex comorbidities and changing client and health staff demographics, have pushed the boundaries of eHealth to alleviate costs whilst maintaining services. Whilst the intentions are laudable and the technology is appealing, this nonetheless requires careful scrutiny. This review aims to describe this technology and explore the current evidence and measures to enhance its implementation.

  1. Hypopituitarism presenting as congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Giri, S; Bansal, P; Malik, S; Bansal, R

    2017-03-03

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS) develops as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage and is characterized by various degrees of hypopituitarism. Although the occurrence of SS is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency any time following the event. Appropriate hormone replacement therapy results in marked clinical improvement. We present an unusual case of SS in a young lady who continued to have normal menstruation after the index event, had two spontaneous pregnancies, and was diagnosed only 11 years later when she presented to us with acute heart failure.

  2. Respiratory sleep disorders in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) occur in about 40-50% of patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered a cause of CHF, whereas central sleep apnea (CSA) is considered a response to heart failure, perhaps even compensatory. In the setting of heart failure, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has a definite role in treating OSA with improvements in cardiac parameters expected. However in CSA, CPAP is an adjunctive therapy to other standard therapies directed towards the heart failure (pharmacological, device and surgical options). Whether adaptive servo controlled ventilatory support, a variant of CPAP, is beneficial is yet to be proven. Supplemental oxygen therapy should be used with caution in heart failure, in particular, by avoiding hyperoxia as indicated by SpO2 values >95%.

  3. Optimal Use of Beta-Blockers for Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Young; Baek, Sang Hong

    2016-01-01

    Beta-blockers are the cornerstone treatment for congestive heart failure (HF). Current HF guidelines commonly recommend β-blockers for the treatment of HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The effect of β-blockers, however, is less clear for HF patients with preserved LVEF, unstable severe acute HF, or right ventricular failure. This review summarizes the effect of β-blockers in various clinical situations and suggests a strategy for optimal use. (Circ J 2016; 80: 565-571).

  4. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S. )

    1990-03-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by (3H)nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, (3H)PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks.

  5. Pleural effusions from congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José M

    2010-12-01

    In heart failure (HF), pleural effusion results from increased interstitial fluid in the lung due to elevated pulmonary capillary pressure. Rarely, pleural effusions may occur in association with isolated right HF. HF-associated effusions are typically bilateral, but if unilateral, they are more commonly seen on the right side. The fluid typically meets the biochemical characteristics of a transudate, although in 25% of the cases it may fall into the exudative range. Testing for natriuretic peptides, such as NT-proBNP, significantly aids in diagnosing or excluding HF in patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin. The measurement of pleural fluid NT-proBNP is the best way to identify pleural effusions that meet the exudative criteria of Light but are due to HF. However, if natriuretic peptide assays are not available, calculation of the serum to pleural fluid albumin gradient represents a good substitute for making this distinction. Loop diuretics are the mainstay of therapy, although a therapeutic thoracentesis for very large effusions may occasionally be required.

  6. Psychobiology of depression/distress in congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mustafa; Sheps, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure affects millions of Americans and new diagnosis rates are expected to almost triple over the next 30 years as our population ages. Affective disorders including clinical depression and anxiety are common in patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, the presence of these disorders significantly impacts quality of life, medical outcomes, and healthcare service utilization. In recent years, the literature has attempted to describe potential pathophysiologic mechanisms relating affective disorders and psychosocial stress to heart failure. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, inflammation, cardiac arrhythmias, and altered platelet function. These mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Additional novel mechanisms such as mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia are also discussed. PMID:18368481

  7. Atrial natriuretic factor binding sites in experimental congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor ((Ser99, Tyr126)ANF) binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF (des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2) (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease.

  8. [Juvenile haemochromatosis presenting as intractable congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Vas, Katalin; Hubay, Marta; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Zoltán, Sápi; Jánosi, András

    2005-12-18

    Juvenile haemochromatosis is an autosomal, recessive inherited iron metabolism disorder. The rapid deterioration and malignant prognosis differentiate juvenile haemochromatosis from hereditary haemochromatosis. The authors summarize the history of a 25 year old man, who worked in Hungary as a guest worker living in Romania. No significant illness has occurred in his previous history. The abdominal pain was his first symptom and he was treated in different institutions, where cholecystitis, alcoholic hepatic disease, hepatic cirrhosis were considered as a cause of his symptoms. Some weeks later atrial tachycardia, and congestive heart failure were observed and he was sent to our Cardiology Department. The echocardiography revealed diffuse hypokinesis, serious systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction: 21%), grade II mitral and tricuspid insufficiency with pulmonary hypertension. Considering the rapid deterioration of his cardiac function, myocarditis was suspected. Myocardial biopsy and coronary arteriography were performed. Coronary arteries were normal. Ventricular fibrillation occurred during coronary arteriography. Myocardial biopsy revealed juvenile haemochromatosis. Special laboratory examinations (transferrin saturation) were made after biopsy, that also confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile haemochromatosis. Cardiac transplantation was planned. Some days after the diagnosis was made the patient died of cardiogenic shock and intractable heart failure. Autopsy revealed hypogonadism and serious haemochromatosis in different parenchymal organs. Juvenile haemochromatosis should be considered in every young patient with congestive heart failure of unknown etiology.

  9. Anesthesia and congestive heart failure: pathology, medical, and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher S; Hoover, Jason M; Fox, Charles J; Field, Aaron M; Richards, Todd A; Islam, Sameer R; Kaye, Alan D

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasingly being recognized as a health problem in the United States. It is estimated that the lifetime risk for CHF is 1 in 5. The clinical anesthesiologist can expect to see several cases involving patients suffering from CHF. Because of the danger associated with surgery in a patient with CHF, a thorough knowledge of the disorder and the potential effects on the delivery of anesthetics must be considered. In addition, knowledge of the disease process and its manifestations is required for smooth guidance of the patient through the perioperative period. The understanding of current pharmacotherapies, surgical procedures and their implications related to interactions with anesthetics are all discussed.

  10. Congestive Heart Failure home monitoring pilot study in urban Denver.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Li, Xin; Semenov, Nikolay; Apodaca-Madrid, Jesús; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Newman, Kimberly E; Long, Carlin S; Neuman, Christine

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of low-income patients developing Congestive Heart Failure in urban Denver, accessible and affordable solutions are needed to provide home management options. A multidisciplinary team evaluated currently available options for telemonitoring and developed a solution for an initial pilot study. This system is currently used in the Denver Metro area (Colorado) for 44 CHF patients. Preliminary results show this approach is effective and has reduced the patients' average length of stay at the hospital compared to historical data and control patients who do not use a remote monitoring system.

  11. Germany's Disease Management Program: Improving Outcomes in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kottmair, Stefan; Frye, Christian; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J.

    2005-01-01

    Hospital admissions among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are a major contributor to health care costs. A comprehensive disease management program for CHF was developed for private and statutory health insurance companies in order to improve health outcomes and reduce rehospitalization rates and costs. The program comprises care calls, written training material, telemetric monitoring, and health reports. Currently, 909 members from six insurance companies are enrolled. Routine evaluation, based on medical data warehouse software, demonstrates benefits in terms of improved health outcomes and processes of care. Economical evaluation of claims data indicates significant cost savings in a pre/post study design. PMID:17288080

  12. Germany's disease management program: improving outcomes in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kottmair, Stefan; Frye, Christian; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J

    2005-01-01

    Hospital admissions among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are a major contributor to health care costs. A comprehensive disease management program for CHF was developed for private and statutory health insurance companies in order to improve health outcomes and reduce rehospitalization rates and costs. The program comprises care calls, written training material, telemetric monitoring, and health reports. Currently, 909 members from six insurance companies are enrolled. Routine evaluation, based on medical data warehouse software, demonstrates benefits in terms of improved health outcomes and processes of care. Economical evaluation of claims data indicates significant cost savings in a pre/post study design.

  13. Congestive heart failure from suspected ductal closure in utero.

    PubMed

    Arcilla, R A; Thilenius, O G; Ranniger, K

    1969-07-01

    This is the 1st case report of a ductal closure occurring during fetal growth. The case was a spontaneous delivery in cephalic presentation from a 31-year-old gravida 3, para 3 Black woman who had been treated with isoniazid and spreptomycin up to 2 months before her delivery. Gestational age was 37 weeks when the fetus was delivered weighing 3.15 kgm. The cord had been wrapped around the fetus's neck, and breathing was delayed 2 minutes. In the nursery, the baby's general condition was poor, and congestive heart failure was diagnosed. The newborn had trieuspid insufficiency, severe heart failure, and acidosis at birth. These disappeared the next day. Hemodynamic studies when the baby was 4 hours old showed a large cone-shaped ductus arteriousus extending from the pulmonary artery but ending blindly at the aortic end.

  14. A novel distributed model of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions.

    PubMed

    Ravanshadi, Samin; Jahed, Mehran

    2013-04-01

    Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison to clinical data, effect of congestive heart failure in the heart is quantified. Accumulated results for simulated ejection fraction percentage of the apex, mid and base regions of the left ventricle in congestive heart failure condition were 39 ± 6, 36 ± 9 and 38 ± 8, respectively. These results are shown to satisfactorily match those found through clinical measurements. The proposed analytical method can in effect be utilized as a preclinical and predictive tool for high-risk heart patients and candidates for heart transplant, assistive device and total artificial heart.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of congestive heart failure (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Clarkson, Peter B. M.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a research project analysing congestive heart failure in terms a stochastic coupled-oscillator model of the cardiovascular system. Measurements of blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have been processed by use of the wavelet transform to separate its oscillatory components, which number at least five. Particular attention was concentrated on the frequency content near 0.01 Hz, which is known to be associated with endothelial function. The LDF was carried out in conjunction with iontophoretically administered acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in order to evaluate endothelial reactivity. Measurements were made on 17 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (a) on first diagnosis, and (b) again several weeks later after their treatment with a β-blocker had been stabilised. The results of these two sets of measurements are being compared with each other, and with data from an age and sex-matched group of healthy controls. It is confirmed that endothelial reactivity is reduced in CHF patients, as compared to healthy controls, and it is found that one effect of the Beta-blocker is to ameliorate the loss of endothelial function in CHF. The implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Decrease of cardiac chaos in congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Merrill, Christopher K.

    1997-10-01

    The electrical properties of the mammalian heart undergo many complex transitions in normal and diseased states. It has been proposed that the normal heartbeat may display complex nonlinear dynamics, including deterministic chaos,, and that such cardiac chaos may be a useful physiological marker for the diagnosis and management, of certain heart trouble. However, it is not clear whether the heartbeat series of healthy and diseased hearts are chaotic or stochastic, or whether cardiac chaos represents normal or abnormal behaviour. Here we have used a highly sensitive technique, which is robust to random noise, to detect chaos. We analysed the electrocardiograms from a group of healthy subjects and those with severe congestive heart failure (CHF), a clinical condition associated with a high risk of sudden death. The short-term variations of beat-to-beat interval exhibited strongly and consistently chaotic behaviour in all healthy subjects, but were frequently interrupted by periods of seemingly non-chaotic fluctuations in patients with CHF. Chaotic dynamics in the CHF data, even when discernible, exhibited a high degree of random variability over time, suggesting a weaker form of chaos. These findings suggest that cardiac chaos is prevalent in healthy heart, and a decrease in such chaos may be indicative of CHF.

  17. Chronic vagal stimulation in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Sanzo, Antonio; Schwartz, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Experimentally, vagal stimulation (VS) is protective both during acute myocardial ischemia and in chronic heart failure. In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a strong rationale to investigate the effects of chronic VS in patients with CHF. We assesses the feasibility and safety of chronic VS with CardioFit (BioControl Medical), a VS implantable system delivering pulses synchronous with heart beats to the right cervical vagus nerve in a preliminary pilot study in eight advanced CHF patients with favorable results, and subsequently in a larger multicenter study. Overall, 32 patients have been successfully implanted (mostly in NYHA Class III; mean age 56 years, ischemic etiology in 69%; prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in 63%; concomitant beta blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in 100%). Preliminary results confirm feasibility of the study, an acceptable side effect profile and promising preliminary efficacy data. Several mechanisms may contribute to the beneficial effect observed in patients with heart failure. Should these results be confirmed in larger controlled studies, chronic vagal stimulation could be a further treatment option for CHF patients, possibly integrated with defibrillator and resynchronization therapies.

  18. Liver congestion in heart failure contributes to inappropriately increased serum hepcidin despite anemia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukako; Hanawa, Haruo; Jiao, Shuang; Hayashi, Yuka; Yoshida, Kaori; Suzuki, Tomoyasu; Kashimura, Takeshi; Obata, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Komei; Watanabe, Tohru; Minamino, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of mammalian iron metabolism and mainly produced by the liver. Hepcidin excess causes iron deficiency and anemia by inhibiting iron absorption from the intestine and iron release from macrophage stores. Anemia is frequently complicated with heart failure. In heart failure patients, the most frequent histologic appearance of liver is congestion. However, it remains unclear whether liver congestion associated with heart failure influences hepcidin production, thereby contributing to anemia and functional iron deficiency. In this study, we investigated this relationship in clinical and basic studies. In clinical studies of consecutive heart failure patients (n = 320), anemia was a common comorbidity (41%). In heart failure patients without active infection and ongoing cancer (n = 30), log-serum hepcidin concentration of patients with liver congestion was higher than those without liver congestion (p = 0.0316). Moreover, in heart failure patients with liver congestion (n = 19), the anemia was associated with the higher serum hepcidin concentrations, which is a type of anemia characterized by induction of hepcidin. Subsequently, we produced a rat model of heart failure with liver congestion by injecting monocrotaline that causes pulmonary hypertension. The monocrotaline-treated rats displayed liver congestion with increase of hepcidin expression at 4 weeks after monocrotaline injection, followed by anemia and functional iron deficiency observed at 5 weeks. We conclude that liver congestion induces hepcidin production, which may result in anemia and functional iron deficiency in some patients with heart failure.

  19. Problems of rapid digitalization in severe congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Haustein, K O; Assmann, I; Fiehring, H

    1980-02-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects (changes of systolic time intervals, STI, reaction of pulmonary arterial pressure) of digitoxin were studied in 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure in comparison with the corresponding plasma level. STI indicated glycoside-dependent changes, i.e. shortening of LVETc and QS2c and normalization of prolonged PEPc, while ICT shortening was less observed. In 2 patients with cor pulmonale a pulmonary oedema occurred accompanied with prolonged LVETc. During the early period of glycoside-dependent recompensation no significant correlation between STI shortening and glycoside plasma level was observed. Because of the retarded normalization of the haemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation and because of possible side-effects, rapid digitalization has to be reconsidered.

  20. Complexity in congestive heart failure: A time-frequency approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santo; Palit, Sanjay K.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Ariffin, MRK; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of phase space is an effective method to quantify the dynamics of a signal or a time series. Various phase space reconstruction techniques have been investigated. However, there are some issues on the optimal reconstructions and the best possible choice of the reconstruction parameters. This research introduces the idea of gradient cross recurrence (GCR) and mean gradient cross recurrence density which shows that reconstructions in time frequency domain preserve more information about the dynamics than the optimal reconstructions in time domain. This analysis is further extended to ECG signals of normal and congestive heart failure patients. By using another newly introduced measure—gradient cross recurrence period density entropy, two classes of aforesaid ECG signals can be classified with a proper threshold. This analysis can be applied to quantifying and distinguishing biomedical and other nonlinear signals.

  1. A perspective on the surgical management of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Massad, Malek G; Prasad, Sunil M; Chedrawy, Edgar G; Lele, Himalaya

    2008-03-01

    Surgical treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) has steadily advanced from rescue procedures such as aneurysmectomy, rupture repair, ventricular assist devices (VADs), and transplantation to procedures that can prevent or delay the progression of cardiac dysfunction and failure. The latter include operations such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and mitral valve repair for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) and mitral annular dilatation, ventricular restoration and remodeling, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. As the number of heart transplants reported worldwide continues to decline over the past decade (by over 30%), newer surgical therapies have emerged. A need arises for clinical registries such as the NIH-sponsored LVAD registry and registries for biventricular pacing and AICD implantation, for total artificial heart implants, and for mitral valve repair in patients with ICMP. Prospective trials comparing sole ventricular restoration therapy (SVR) to SVR with concomitant CABG/MVR, coronary sinus versus epicardial LV pacing for ventricular resynchronization therapy, trials comparing LVAD as destination therapy to AICD implants, mitral valve repair versus chordal-sparing valve replacement for ischemic and valvular cardiomyopathy, and off-pump versus on-pump CABG for patients with ICMP are urgently needed. Future research should also be directed toward drugs targeting "B-cell mediated" humeral vascular rejection--the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation, xenotransplantation, permanently implantable VADs, gene therapy, and myocardial cell regeneration therapy.

  2. [Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60%) among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF), and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD) and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF). Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP) are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°). In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable.

  3. Visibility graph analysis of heart rate time series and bio-marker of congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Anirban; Bhaduri, Susmita; Ghosh, Dipak

    2017-09-01

    Study of RR interval time series for Congestive Heart Failure had been an area of study with different methods including non-linear methods. In this article the cardiac dynamics of heart beat are explored in the light of complex network analysis, viz. visibility graph method. Heart beat (RR Interval) time series data taken from Physionet database [46, 47] belonging to two groups of subjects, diseased (congestive heart failure) (29 in number) and normal (54 in number) are analyzed with the technique. The overall results show that a quantitative parameter can significantly differentiate between the diseased subjects and the normal subjects as well as different stages of the disease. Further, the data when split into periods of around 1 hour each and analyzed separately, also shows the same consistent differences. This quantitative parameter obtained using the visibility graph analysis thereby can be used as a potential bio-marker as well as a subsequent alarm generation mechanism for predicting the onset of Congestive Heart Failure.

  4. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Brack, Thomas

    2003-12-13

    Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR) is a breathing pattern characterised by rhythmic oscillation of tidal volume with regularly recurring periods of hyperpnoea, hypopnoea and apnoea. CSR is no longer solely regarded as a symptom of severe congestive heart failure (CHF), but has been recognised as an independent risk factor for worsening heart failure and reduced survival in patients with CHF. CSR is associated with frequent awakening that fragment sleep and with concomitant sympathetic activation both of which may worsen CHF. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration is very common in patients with severe CHF and its prevalence may have been underestimated in the past due to technical limitations that precluded respiratory monitoring outside sleep laboratories. Since treatment of CSR appears to be beneficial and safe, patients at risk should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Treatment of CSR has been demonstrated to improve left ventricular ejection fraction and potentially prolongs survival in patients with severe CHF. This article briefly summarises the current knowledge of the patho-physiology, prevalence and therapy of Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

  5. A Remote Patient Monitoring System for Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Chen, Chien-An; Woodbridge, Jonathan; Tu, Michael Kai; Kim, Jung In; Nahapetian, Ani; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of death in the United States affecting approximately 670,000 individuals. Due to the prevalence of CHF related issues, it is prudent to seek out methodologies that would facilitate the prevention, monitoring, and treatment of heart disease on a daily basis. This paper describes WANDA (Weight and Activity with Blood Pressure Monitoring System); a study that leverages sensor technologies and wireless communications to monitor the health related measurements of patients with CHF. The WANDA system is a three-tier architecture consisting of sensors, web servers, and back-end databases. The system was developed in conjunction with the UCLA School of Nursing and the UCLA Wireless Health Institute to enable early detection of key clinical symptoms indicative of CHF-related decompensation. This study shows that CHF patients monitored by WANDA are less likely to have readings fall outside a healthy range. In addition, WANDA provides a useful feedback system for regulating readings of CHF patients. PMID:21611788

  6. Right heart failure after left ventricular assist device implantation in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nicholas C; Topkara, Veli K; Mercando, Michelle; Kay, Joy; Kruger, Kurt H; Aboodi, Michael S; Oz, Mehmet C; Naka, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) is not an infrequent complication of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Few studies have examined outcomes for LVAD patients who subsequently develop RHF. This study details one center's experience with RHF in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. One hundred eight patients with chronic CHF (>or=6 months) who underwent HeartMate LVAD implantation were identified during June 1996 to July 2004. Acute heart failure patients requiring LVADs were excluded to eliminate the impact of confounding non-cardiac factors. RHF was defined as the need for a subsequent right ventricular assist device (RVAD), >or=14 days of intravenous inotropes/pulmonary vasodilators, or both. Forty-two (38.9%) RHF patients were identified. Fourteen of these required RVAD insertion. Outcome parameters included early (incidence of re-operation for bleeding and acute renal failure, and stroke, bridge-to-transplantation rate and post-transplantation survival rate. More female patients developed RHF than not (73.3% vs 26.7%, p = 0.003). RHF patients had a higher early mortality rate, greater ICU LOS, higher rates of re-operation for bleeding and renal failure, and lower bridge-to-transplantation rate than non-RHF patients (19.0% vs 6.2%, p = 0.039; 23.8 +/- 23.7 vs 9.6 +/- 7.1 days, p < 0.001; 38.9% vs 18.3%, p = 0.026; 61.0% vs 22.6%, p < 0.001; 65.0% vs 89.9%, p = 0.003; respectively). Fourteen (33.3%) RHF patients required RVAD insertion. Elevated intra-operative central venous pressure (CVP) was found to be an independent predictor of post-LVAD RHF. Overall bridge-to-transplantation rate for the entire study cohort was 73.1%. The development of RHF after LVAD insertion confers significant morbidity and mortality. Judicious application of inotropes and pulmonary vasodilators and timely RVAD insertion, if necessary, should be maintained. Further investigations evaluating pre

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Theodore A.; Hebert, Kathy A.; Musselman, Dominique L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Major depressive disorder (MDD) can be challenging to diagnose in patients with congestive heart failure, who often suffer from fatigue, insomnia, weight changes, and other neurovegetative symptoms that overlap with those of depression. Pathophysiologic mechanisms (eg, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, and altered platelet function) connect depression and congestive heart failure. Objective: We sought to review the prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of depression associated with congestive heart failure. Data Sources: A search of all English-language articles between January 2003 and January 2013 was conducted using the search terms congestive heart failure and depression. Study Selection: We found 1,498 article abstracts and 19 articles (meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and original research articles) that were selected for inclusion, as they contained information about our focus on diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of depression associated with congestive heart failure. The search was augmented with manual review of reference lists of articles from the initial search. Articles selected for review were determined by author consensus. Data Extraction: The prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of depression associated with congestive heart failure were reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of antidepressant medications commonly used to treat depression and how their side-effect profiles impact the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. Drug-drug interactions between antidepressant medications and medications used to treat congestive heart failure were examined. Results: MDD is highly prevalent in patients with congestive heart failure. Moreover, the prevalence and severity of depression correlate with the degree of cardiac dysfunction and development of congestive heart failure. Depression increases the risk of congestive heart

  8. Body fluid distribution in elderly subjects with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Lupoli, Lucia; Volpato, Stefania; Bertani, Roberta; Coin, Alessandra; Perissinotto, Egle; Calliari, Irene; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Busetto, Luca; Enzi, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate body fluid changes in elderly patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF) and to identify the fluid measurement that best characterizes fluid overload states in CHF patients by comparison with normal hydration in the elderly. In a case-controlled experimental design, 72 elderly subjects (65-98 yr), 38 healthy and 34 with CHF, were studied. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were determined by dilution methods; fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In healthy subjects, the FFM hydration expressed as TBW% FFM (males 72.0 +/- 4.3 vs females 72.4 +/- 5.0%) and ECW% TBW (males 47.3 +/- 3.4 vs females 47.8 +/- 5.1) were similar in both genders. ECW in liters for FFM and for TBW (ECW% TBW), corrected for body weight, was greater in the group with CHF than in the control group, in both sexes. Among the relative fluid measures, only ECW% TBW [odds ratio (OR) 1.5] independently predicted fluid retention. Having an ECW% TBW greater than 50% corresponded to an OR of about 10. In conclusion, elderly patients suffering from CHF have a characteristic increase in body fluid levels, mainly affecting the extracellular compartment, and ECW% TBW is a useful indicator of fluid retention.

  9. Congestive heart failure in children with pneumonia and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Nimdet, Kachaporn; Techakehakij, Win

    2017-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Little is known, however, of CHF and pneumonia in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the characteristics and factors associated with CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand. The characteristics, therapeutic strategy, and clinical outcomes of CHF were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and basic laboratory investigations on admission were compared between the CHF and non-CHF groups. Of 135 patients, 14 (10%) had CHF. Compared with patients without CHF, the CHF group had prolonged intubation and hospital stay and high rates of associated complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, shock, and 30 day mortality. CHF was significantly associated with certain characteristics, including male sex and bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia with respiratory failure is associated with CHF even in healthy children without cardiac risks. The awareness and early recognition of CHF, particularly in male, and bacterial pneumonia, is important in order to provide immediate treatment to reduce complications. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Effects of bucindolol on neurohormonal activation in congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, E.J.; McGhie, A.L.; Bedotto, J.B.; Corbett, J.R.; Malloy, C.R.; Hatfield, B.A.; Deitchman, D.; Willard, J.E.; Grayburn, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    To examine the effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on neurohormonal activation in patients with congestive heart failure, 15 men had assessments of hemodynamics and supine peripheral renin and norepinephrine levels before and after 3 months of oral therapy with bucindolol, a nonselective beta antagonist. At baseline, plasma renin activity did not correlate with any hemodynamic parameter. However, norepinephrine levels had a weak correlation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (r = 0.74, p less than 0.01), stroke volume index (r = 0.61, p less than 0.02) and pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.54, p less than 0.05). Plasma renin decreased with bucindolol therapy, from 11.6 +/- 13.4 to 4.3 +/- 4.1 ng/ml/hour (mean +/- standard deviation; p less than 0.05), whereas plasma norepinephrine was unchanged, from 403 +/- 231 to 408 +/- 217 pg/ml. A wide diversity of the norepinephrine response to bucindolol was observed with reduction of levels in some patients and elevation in others. Although plasma norepinephrine did not decrease, heart rate tended to decrease (from 82 +/- 20 vs 73 +/- 11 min-1, p = 0.059) with beta-adrenergic blockade, suggesting neurohormonal antagonism at the receptor level. No changes in I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake occurred after bucindolol therapy, suggesting unchanged adrenergic uptake of norepinephrine with beta-blocker therapy. Despite reductions in plasma renin activity and the presence of beta blockade, the response of renin or norepinephrine levels to long-term bucindolol therapy did not predict which patients had improved in hemodynamic status (chi-square = 0.37 for renin, 0.82 for norepinephrine).

  11. Sodium and water balance in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Cody, R J; Covit, A B; Schaer, G L; Laragh, J H; Sealey, J E; Feldschuh, J

    1986-01-01

    As the characteristics of sodium and water balance in heart failure remain undefined, we evaluated the hemodynamic, metabolic, and hormonal effects of balanced sodium intake in 10 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. We discontinued diuretics to avoid their confounding influence, and all patients received 1 wk of 10 meq and 100 meq balanced sodium intake and controlled free water. Comparing sodium intake of 10 with 100 meq, the following observations were made. There was weight gain (2.0 kg) and increased sodium excretion (11 +/- 3 to 63 +/- 15 meq/24 h), unaccompanied by increase of blood volume. Both renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system activity were greater during the 10 meq diet, and suppressed with the 100 meq sodium diet. For both diets, plasma renin and urinary aldosterone excretion were correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = -0.768, r = -0.726, respectively; P less than 0.005). Systemic hemodynamics were minimally changed with increased sodium intake. However, reversal of vasoconstriction by captopril during the 10 meq diet, and its ineffectiveness during the 100 meq diet, indicated a renin-dependent mechanism in the former, and a renin-independent mechanism in the latter diet. There were two subgroups of response to the 100 meq diet: one group (n = 5) achieved neutral balance, while the second (n = 5) avidly retained sodium and water. Renin-angiotensin system activity was significantly higher in the latter group, and the mechanism for differences in sodium excretion for the subgroups could not be identified by blood volume or hemodynamic parameters. Orthostatic hypotension during tilt was greater during the 10 meq sodium diet, and in all cases, related to ineffective hemodynamic and hormonal compensatory responses. PMID:3517066

  12. Effects of tolvaptan on congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nikiko; Sugiura, Tokio; Nagasaki, Rika; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Takenori; Inukai, Sachiko; Saitoh, Shinji

    2015-10-01

    Tolvaptan is an oral vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist that can be used for heart failure patients with hyponatremia or symptomatic congestion. Although the effects of tolvaptan in adults have been well documented, only limited information is available in children. The case of a neonate with congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax after palliative surgery for transposition of the great arteries treated with tolvaptan is reported. Slow up-titration to 0.1 mg/kg successfully increased urine output and improved refractory congestive heart failure without hypernatremia. Subsequently, bodyweight and chylothorax decreased gradually. Moreover, the use of tolvaptan reduced the dosage of furosemide. Tolvaptan could be an alternative drug for neonates with congestive heart failure. Further large studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and identify the appropriate dose of tolvaptan in neonates.

  13. Does Thiazolidinedione therapy exacerbate fluid retention in congestive heart failure?

    PubMed

    Goltsman, Ilia; Khoury, Emad E; Winaver, Joseph; Abassi, Zaid

    2016-12-01

    The ever-growing global burden of congestive heart failure (CHF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as their co-existence necessitate that anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy will modulate the cardiovascular risk inherent to T2DM while complying with the accompanying restrictions imposed by CHF. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists initially provided a promising therapeutic option in T2DM owing to anti-diabetic efficacy combined with pleiotropic beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the utility of TZDs in T2DM has declined in the past decade, largely due to concomitant adverse effects of fluid retention and edema formation attributed to salt-retaining effects of PPARγ activation on the nephron. Presumably, the latter effects are potentially deleterious in the context of pre-existing fluid retention in CHF. However, despite a considerable body of evidence on mechanisms responsible for TZD-induced fluid retention suggesting that this class of drugs is rightfully prohibited from use in CHF patients, there is a paucity of experimental and clinical studies that investigate the effects of TZDs on salt and water homeostasis in the CHF setting. In an attempt to elucidate whether TZDs actually exacerbate the pre-existing fluid retention in CHF, our review summarizes the pathophysiology of fluid retention in CHF. Moreover, we thoroughly review the available data on TZD-induced fluid retention and proposed mechanisms in animals and patients. Finally, we will present recent studies challenging the common notion that TZDs worsen renal salt and water retention in CHF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreasing body temperature predicts early rehospitalization in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amany; Aboshady, Ibrahim; Munir, Shahzeb M; Gondi, Sreedevi; Brewer, Alan; Gertz, S David; Lai, Dejian; Shaik, Naushad A; Shankar, K J; Deswal, Anita; Casscells, S Ward

    2008-08-01

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), a low body temperature at hospital admission predicts in-hospital mortality. We hypothesized that a postdischarge reduction in body temperature predicts early CHF rehospitalization and death. We reviewed the records of 198 patients discharged after CHF hospitalization. We categorized the patients as hypothermic or normothermic (cutoff point, 36.3 degrees C/97.4 degrees F) according to body temperature at discharge. We classified the 2 groups according to the direction of temperature change between discharge and the first follow-up visit: normothermic/non-decreasing temperature (N+), normothermic/decreasing temperature (N-), hypothermic/non-decreasing temperature (H+), and hypothermic/decreasing temperature (H-). Ninety-three patients (47%) had decreasing temperatures, and 105 patients (53%) had non-decreasing temperatures. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant intergroup difference in survival (P = .01) and rehospitalization time (P = .005). On logistic regression, a decreasing temperature was significantly associated with rehospitalization within 180 days (odds ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-10.02; P = .003). On Cox regression, the hazard ratios for death were 3.19 (P = .07), 6.49 (P = .004), and 5.17 (P = .07), for the N-, H+, and H- groups, respectively, versus the N+ group. For rehospitalization time, the hazard ratios were 7.02 (P = .01), 4.24 (P = .08), and 13.43 (P = .005) for the N-, H+, and H- groups, respectively, versus the N+ group. Decreasing body temperatures can predict readmission, decreased time to rehospitalization, and (in combination with hypothermia) decreased survival.

  15. An intervention for VA patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Laurel A; Berg, Gregory D; Johnson, Donna M; Bauer, Richard L

    2010-03-01

    To assess the effect of a telephone intervention to improve quality of life among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Prospective randomized study. Single-site recruitment of 458 patients using Veterans Health Administration care into a randomized controlled trial with a 1-year preintervention data collection period and a 1-year intervention and follow-up period. To compensate for imbalanced study groups, propensity scores were included in adjusted models of quality of life, satisfaction with care, inpatient utilization, survival, and costs of care. Patients aged 45 to 95 years participated in the study; 22% were of Hispanic race/ethnicity, and 7% were African American. All but 5 were male, consistent with the older population among veterans. At baseline, 40% were in Goldman Specific Activity Scale class I, 42% were in class III, 6% were in class II or IV, and 12% were unclassified. Patients scored a mean (SD) of 14 (1.5) points below the norm on the physical component score. After the yearlong intervention, no differences in clinical outcomes were noted between the intervention group and the control group. The CHF-related costs were higher for the intervention group, as were overall costs that included the cost of the intervention. Intervention group patients reported better compliance with weight monitoring and exercise recommendations. A risk-stratified intervention for patients with CHF resulted in potential behavioral improvements but no survival benefit. A high-cost high-intensity intervention may be required to improve survival for patients with CHF. Inclusion of the costs of interventions is recommended for future researchers.

  16. Outcomes for older men and women with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Burns, R B; McCarthy, E P; Moskowitz, M A; Ash, A; Kane, R L; Finch, M

    1997-03-01

    To describe and compare outcomes for men and women discharged alive following a hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF). Prospective cohort study. A total of 519 patients, aged > or = 65, who were discharged alive after a hospitalization for CHF (DRG = 127). Outcomes (Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), shortness of breath when walking, perceived health, living situation, rehospitalization, and mortality) were measured at 3 times (6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year) post-discharge. The 205 men were, on average, younger (77 +/- 7 vs 80 +/- 8, P < .001), wealthier (46% vs 21% earned > or = $10,000, P < .001), and more often married (50% vs 19%, P < .001). Men were more likely than women to have a previous history of CHF (71% vs 63%, P = .052). Men also had higher 1-year mortality than women (48% vs 35%, P = .009), even after adjusting for age, comorbidity, physiological severity (APACHE II APS and RAND discharge instability), radiological evidence of CHF, prior ADLs, walking ability, living situation, and perceived health. Men and women survivors at 1-year had similar and substantial impairment for all non-fatal outcomes considered (all P values > or = .489). Their adjusted mean ADL scores were consistent with complete dependence on one essential activity (range 0-6 dependencies); 35% were short of breath walking less than 1 block; 62% had fair or poor perceived health; 32% received some formal care; and 46% were rehospitalized within 1 year of discharge. Men with CHF have a higher mortality than women with CHF. Men and women who survive have similar and substantial impairment for all non-fatal outcomes (ADLs, shortness of breath upon walking, perceived health, living situation, and rehospitalization).

  17. Effects of desipramine on norepinephrine clearance in congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Clemson, B.; Baily, R.G.; Davis, D.; Zelis, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) in congestive heart failure (CHF) is caused by increased NE spillover and decreased NE clearance. To evaluate the effects of neuronal uptake blockade on NE clearance, we studied NE kinetics during steady-state infusions of (3H)NE, before and after oral desipramine (DMI, 50 mg) in 11 patients with CHF and 8 normal volunteers. Baseline plasma NE was greater in the CHF group (637 +/- 56 vs. 271 +/- 32 pg/ml; P less than 0.001), NE clearance was lower in CHF (1.31 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.94 +/- 0.17 l.min-1.m-2; P = 0.026), and NE spillover was greater in CHF (4.71 +/- 0.78 vs. 3.04 +/- 0.35 nmol.min-1.m-2, P = 0.054). After DMI, plasma NE rose significantly in CHF (778 +/- 67; P = 0.008), and NE clearance decreased further in CHF (0.97 +/- 0.16; P = 0.024), but neither changed in normal subjects. NE spillover did not change in either group. There appears to be an enhanced effect of DMI on NE clearance in CHF patients. Two general mechanisms may be responsible for this finding, an increased concentration of drug, possibly caused by a decreased volume of distribution, and an increased sensitivity of neuronal amine pumps to DMI. Both mechanisms may reflect a more general abnormality of clearance of drugs and hormones related to abnormalities of tissue perfusion in CHF.

  18. Survival advantage of hemodialysis relative to peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.

  19. Pericardial and pleural effusions in congestive heart failure-anatomical, pathophysiologic, and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Natanzon, Alex; Kronzon, Itzhak

    2009-09-01

    Transudative pleural and pericardial effusions are not uncommon in patients with congestive heart failure. Pericardial effusion forms only with elevation of the right-sided filling pressure in the heart. In patients with biventricular failure, there is no evidence that elevated left-sided pressure, in the absence of elevated right-sided pressure, can cause a pericardial effusion. Pleural effusion forms with acute elevation of the right-sided or the left-sided filling pressure in the heart. In patients with congestive heart failure, elevated right-sided filling pressures are less common than elevated left-sided filling pressures, thus, explaining a lower prevalence of pericardial than pleural effusions. Pleural effusions in patients with congestive heart failure are typically bilateral. However, a unilateral pleural effusion is more commonly seen on the right side. Although multiple theories attempt to explain the right-sided preponderance of pleural effusion, to date, no mechanism has been universally accepted or experimentally proven.

  20. Venous Congestion, Endothelial and Neurohormonal Activation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Paolo C.; Doran, Amanda C.; Onat, Duygu; Wong, Ka Yuk; Ahmad, Myra; Sabbah, Hani N.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Venous congestion and endothelial and neurohormonal activation are known to occur in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), yet the temporal role of these processes in the pathophysiology of decompensation is not fully understood. Conventional wisdom presumes congestion to be a consequence of worsening cardiovascular function; however, the biomechanically driven effects of venous congestion are biologically plausible contributors to ADHF that remain largely unexplored in vivo. Recent experimental evidence from human models suggests that fluid accumulation and venous congestion are not simply consequences of poor cardiovascular function, but rather are fundamental pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and hemodynamic stimuli that contribute to acute decompensation. The latest advances in the monitoring of volume status using implantable devices allow for the detection of venous congestion before symptoms arise. This may ultimately lead to improved treatment strategies including not only diuretics, but also specific, adjuvant interventions to counteract endothelial and neurohormonal activation during early preclinical decompensation. PMID:25740404

  1. Prevalence of anemia in a Hispanic population with decompensated congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Santiago, Valentín; Santiago-Trinidad, Ricardo; Espinell-González, Nelson; Valentín-Nieves, Julio; Giugliano, Robert P; Rodriguez-Ospina, Luis; Vicenty-Rivera, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Anemia in patients with heart failure (HF is a frequent event, commonly associated with worse prognosis. Despite the high incidence and adverse outcomes associated with anemia no studies have been conducted amongst Hispanics with HF. The study aims to determine the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of anemia in Hispanics admitted to Veteran Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System with diagnosis of Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure (D-CHF). Retrospective review of 617 patient medical charts that had been previously discharged with a diagnosis of HF as per International Classification of Diseases-9 code. The clinical, demographic, laboratory and echocardiographic data was assessed for a total of 148 male patient electronic medical records that met the study inclusion criteria. The re-hospitalization and mortality rates were determined from the admission date until April 2010. The burden of anemia with HF is substantial, with anemia present in 68.2% of patients. Anemia was associated with hypoalbuminemia, higher New York Heart Association classification, elevated pro-BNP level at discharge, renal insufficiency and diastolic dysfunction, all of which demonstrated statistical significance. Anemia had 2.18 and 2.95 times likelihood of any-cause mortality (p = 0.003) and cardiovascular deaths (p = 0.02) when compared with HF patients without anemia. Anemia is a very frequent and serious finding in patients with D-CHF. The study reveals a higher prevalence of anemia in HF patients among Hispanics in comparison with formerly reported studies covering non-Hispanic populations.

  2. Biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: a boost toward finer living.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jerry C; Wolbrette, Deborah L; Boehmer, John P; Ulsh, Paula J; Silber, David; Naccarelli, Gerald V

    2002-01-01

    With 550,000 new cases each year, congestive heart failure is a major medical problem. Several medical therapies, including digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta-blockers, have reduced the number of re-hospitalizations and slowed the progression of congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, some beta-blockers, and the combination of hydralazine with nitrates have improved survival. Despite these benefits, medical therapy frequently fails to improve quality of life. Biventricular pacing has been introduced to resynchronize mechanical and electrical asynchrony frequently observed in patients with heart failure. The most recent pacing trials show an improvement in quality of life and functional class. Long-term data are needed to determine the effect of biventricular pacing on survival. The acute hemodynamic studies suggest that resynchronization pacing therapy may predict a positive long-term benefit for many patients with congestive heart failure.

  3. Hearing the Veteran's Voice in Congestive Heart Failure Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Pori, Daria; Payne, Kattie; Black, Mary; Taylor, Victoria E

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine congestive heart failure (CHF) readmissions from the veterans' perspective. The use of health care provider interventions, such as standardized education materials, home telehealth, and a CHF clinic, was able to reduce readmissions rates from 35% to 23%. Our objective was to use input from the veterans to fine-tune our efforts and achieve readmission rates for patients with CHF below the national average of 21%. We wanted to identify factors that result in CHF readmissions, including disease education, self-care management, and barriers to self-care. This study was directed toward answering two questions: 1. What is the veteran’s explanation for readmission? 2. According to the veteran, what are the barriers to following their treatment regimen? It was a rural 84-bed Veterans Health Administration hospital in the Western United States. Before this study, our efforts to reduce CHF readmissions were one-sided, all from the health care professionals' viewpoint. We wanted to hear what the veteran had to say; so, we interviewed 25 veterans. Four veterans were excluded due to issues with their consents. Ninety percent (n = 19/21) responded that they knew their CHF was worse by a change in their breathing (shortness of breath). They identified 48 signs/symptoms that indicated worsening CHF. Weight gain was noted as an indication of worsening CHF symptoms (n = 6/48) in 12.5% of the responses. Twenty-five percent (n = 12/48) of the veterans stated they recognized the early symptoms of worsening CHF. Thirty-eight percent (n = 8/21) of the veterans stated they had early symptoms of worsening CHF, but only two of them contacted their doctor. It is interesting to note that only 29% (n = 6/21) of the veterans recognized weight gain as a sign of worsening CHF and all of these veterans listed other symptoms (such as shortness of breath) along with weight gain. Weighing on a daily basis was practiced by only 30% of the group (n = 7/21); all but two of

  4. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Refractory Congestive Heart Failure Patients Treated with Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Margarita; Carmon, Vered; Arad, Michael; Levin-Iaina, Nomy; Freimark, Dov; Holtzman, Eli J; Dinour, Dganit

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in congestive heart failure. In this study, the effect of peritoneal dialysis treatment on inflammatory cytokines levels in refractory congestive heart failure patients was investigated. During the treatment, the patients reached a well-tolerated edema-free state and demonstrated significant improvement in NYHA functional class. Brain natriuretic peptide decreased significantly after 3 months of treatment and remained stable at 6 months. C-reactive protein, a plasma marker of inflammation, decreased significantly following the treatment. Circulating inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly after 3 months of peritoneal dialysis treatment and remained low at 6 months. The reduction in circulating inflammatory cytokines levels may be partly responsible for the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis for refractory congestive heart failure.

  5. Hyponatraemia and congestive heart failure refractory to diuretic treatment. Utility of tolvaptan.

    PubMed

    Pose, A; Almenar, L; Manzano, L; Gavira, J J; López Granados, A; Delgado, J; Aramburu, O; Arévalo, J C; Méndez, M; Comín, J; Manito, N

    2017-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is currently one of the most significant healthcare problems in Spain and has a continuously increasing prevalence. Advances in our understanding of the various biological responses that promote cardiac remodelling and pulmonary venous congestion constitute the basis of current treatment. This article, prepared by members of the HF groups of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, discusses the current therapeutic strategies for patients with congestion refractory to diuretic treatment. The article includes our clinical experience with the use of tolvaptan as an additional treatment for congestion associated with hyponatraemia. To this end, we propose an algorithm for the use of tolvaptan in patients with congestive HF, natraemia <130mEq/l and poor response to conventional diuretic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P <.001 and HR: 2.52, CI: 1.56 to 4.05, P <.001; respectively), sudden death (HR: 2.25, CI: 1.13 to 4.46, P = .021 for HRT2), and death due to heart failure progression (HR: 4.11, CI: 1.84 to 9.19, P <.001 for HRT2) after adjustment for clinical covariates in multivariate analysis. The prognostic value of TS for predicting total mortality was similar in various groups dichotomized by age, gender, NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and CHF etiology. TS was found to be predictive for total mortality only in patients with QRS > 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  7. Pathophysiological targets for beta-blocker therapy in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Just, H

    1996-04-01

    The treatment of congestive heart failure has seen considerable changes: while treatment with diuretics, digitalis glycosides and vasodilators has remained the mainstay of therapy, recently neurohumeral inhibition has been developed as an important principle: ACE-inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve quality of life and exercise performance and to substantially reduce mortality. Beta-blockers have been employed with increasing success mainly in congestive heart failure due to dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, in which a significant improvement in symptoms and life expectancy has been demonstrated. However, the precise mechanisms by which beta-blockade improves congestive heart failure remain to be elucidated. In addition to direct sympathoadrenal inhibition, reduction of heart rate may also play a major role in the therapeutic efficacy of beta-blockade in congestive heart failure. In the normal human heart increase in heart rate is accompanied by an increase in myocardial contractile performance (Bowditch-Treppe phenomenon). In chronic heart failure the myocardium undergoes a phenotype change which includes alterations of the activity of enzymes regulating calcium homoeostasis. The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) is depressed both in function, as well as in expression. At the same time the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger is increased both in function and in expression. The result is a characteristic change in calcium homoeostasis with decreased diastolic uptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum with subsequently reduced calcium release during the next systole, resulting in reduced contractile performance. At the same time increased capacity of the sodium-calcium exchanger extrudes intracellular calcium ions to the extra-cellular space, thereby rendering these ions unavailable for the contractile cycle. A result of these, seemingly specific, phenotype changes is an alteration of the force/frequency relationship. Instead of

  8. Baroreflex Activation Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure: Novel Findings and Future Insights.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Brambilla, GianMaria; Pizzalla, Daniela Prata; Seravalle, Gino

    2016-08-01

    Congestive heart failure is characterized by hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic abnormalities, the latter including an activation of the sympathetic influences to the heart and peripheral circulation coupled with an impairment of baroreceptor control of autonomic function. Evidence has been provided that both these alterations are hallmark features of the disease with a specific relevance for the disease progression as well as for the development of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a number of studies have documented in heart failure the adverse prognostic role of the sympathetic and baroreflex alterations, which both are regarded as major independent determinants of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This represents the pathophysiological and clinical background for the use of carotid baroreceptor activation therapy in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Promising data collected in experimental animal models of heart failure have supported the recent performance of pilot small-scale clinical studies, aimed at providing initial information in this area. The results of these studies demonstrated the clinical safety and efficacy of the intervention which has been tested in large-scale clinical studies. The present paper will critically review the background and main results of the published studies designed at defining the clinical impact of baroreflex activation therapy in congestive heart failure patients. Emphasis will be given to the strengths and limitations of such studies, which represent the background for the ongoing clinical trials testing the long-term effects of the device in heart failure patients.

  9. Bootstrapping Results of Exercise Therapy and Education for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Brubaker, Craig

    2003-01-01

    When studies are conducted over a period of time, the sample size typically decreases. In a study of the effects of exercise therapy and education with recovering congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (Brubaker, Witta, & Angelopoulus, 2003), the sample size decreased from over 40 to 9 participants after an 18-month time span. Although the…

  10. Post-Acute Home Care and Hospital Readmission of Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

    2004-01-01

    After inpatient hospitalization, many elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are discharged home and receive post-acute home care from informal (family) caregivers and formal service providers. Hospital readmission rates are high among elderly patients with CHF, and it is thought that use of informal and formal services may reduce…

  11. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  12. Effect of telemonitoring on re-admission in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amy Christine

    2013-01-01

    Interest in telemonitoring interventions to reduce re-admissions in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) is growing. This critical review of available evidence suggests telemonitoring may reduce CHF-related re-admissions, although a clear impact on all-cause re-admissions remains elusive.

  13. Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Inflammation in Congestive Heart Failure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lappegård, K T; Bjørnstad, H; Mollnes, T E; Hovland, A

    2015-09-01

    Congestive heart failure is associated with increased levels of several inflammatory mediators, and animal studies have shown that infusion of a number of cytokines can induce heart failure. However, several drugs with proven efficacy in heart failure have failed to affect inflammatory mediators, and anti-inflammatory therapy in heart failure patients has thus far been disappointing. Hence, to what extent heart failure is caused by or responsible for the increased inflammatory burden in the patient is still unclear. Over the past couple of decades, resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker has emerged as an effective treatment in a subset of heart failure patients, reducing both morbidity and mortality. Such treatment has also been shown to affect the inflammation associated with heart failure. In this study, we review recent data on the association between heart failure and inflammation, and in particular how resynchronization therapy can affect the inflammatory process.

  14. Inhibition of Apoptosis-Regulated Signaling Kinase-1 and Prevention of Congestive Heart Failure by Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Minoru; Matter, Christian M.; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Wang, Chao-Yung; Dorn, Gerald W.; Liao, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown gender differences in the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF); however, the role of estrogen in CHF is not known. We hypothesize that estrogen prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the development of CHF. Methods and Results 17β-Estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/60-day release) or placebo pellet was implanted subcutaneously into male Gαq transgenic (Gq) mice. After 8 weeks, E2 treatment decreased the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation and improved contractility in Gq mice. E2 treatment also attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and superoxide anion production via downregulation of Rac1. This correlated with reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of Gq mice. The antioxidative properties of E2 were also associated with increased expression of thioredoxin (Trx), Trx reductases, and Trx reductase activity in the hearts of Gq mice. Furthermore, the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and its downstream effectors, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in the hearts of Gq mice was reduced by long-term E2 treatment. Indeed, E2 (10 nmol/L)-treated cardiomyocytes were much more resistant to angiotensin II–induced apoptosis. These antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of E2 were blocked by an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and by a Trx reductase inhibitor (azelaic acid). Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term E2 treatment improves CHF by antioxidative mechanisms that involve the upregulation of Trx and inhibition of Rac1-mediated attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 /c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that estrogen may be a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with CHF. PMID:17562954

  15. When should we use nitrates in congestive heart failure?

    PubMed

    Vizzardi, Enrico; Bonadei, Ivano; Rovetta, Riccardo; D'Aloia, Antonio; Quinzani, Filippo; Curnis, Antonio; Dei Cas, Livio

    2013-02-01

    Organic nitrates remain among the oldest and most commonly employed drugs in cardiology. Although, in most cases, their use in acute and chronic heart failure is based on clinical practice, only a few clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate their use in acute and chronic heart failure, most of which compare them with other drugs to evaluate differing endpoints. The purpose of this review is to examine the various trials that have evaluated the use of nitrates in acute and chronic heart failure.

  16. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Allan Kardec; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart rate variability (HRV) from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods. PMID:27891509

  17. Treatment of congestive heart failure a neuroendocrine disorder.

    PubMed

    Martin, M W S

    2003-04-01

    The understanding of heart failure is no longer based on a supply and demand model of pump failure. Rather, heart failure is seen as a complex pathophysiological process with activation of various neuroendocrine systems. The goals of treatment have changed towards modifying these counterproductive neuroendocrine systems and slowing myocardial maladaptation. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are the only licensed drugs in veterinary practice that have a direct effect on neurohormones in heart failure. The range of drug options in human medicine is greater and some of these drugs are also increasingly being used in veterinary cardiology practice. This review describes the neuroendocrine systems involved in heart failure and discusses the range of drugs available in human and veterinary medicine. In doing so, it concentrates on the evidence available from good quality randomised trials in both the veterinary field and, where relevant, the human medical field.

  18. Pulmonary congestion evaluated by lung ultrasound predicts decompensation in heart failure outpatients.

    PubMed

    Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Picano, Eugenio; Badano, Luigi P; Sant'Anna, Roberto; Rover, Marciane; Zaffaroni, Facundo; Sicari, Rosa; Kalil, Renato K; Leiria, Tiago L; Gargani, Luna

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary congestion is the main cause of hospital admission among heart failure (HF) patients. Lung ultrasound (LUS) assessment of B-lines has been recently proposed as a reliable and easy tool for evaluating pulmonary congestion. To determine the prognostic value of LUS in predicting adverse events in HF outpatients. Single-center prospective cohort of 97 moderate-to-severe systolic HF patients (53±13years; 61% males) consecutively enrolled between November 2011 and October 2012. LUS evaluation was performed during the regular outpatient visit to evaluate the presence of pulmonary congestion, determined by B-lines number. Patients were followed up for 4months to assess admission due to acute pulmonary edema. During follow-up period (106±12days), 21 hospitalizations for acute pulmonary edema occurred. At Cox regression analysis, B-lines number≥30 (HR 8.62; 95%CI: 1.8-40.1; p=0.006) identified a group at high risk for acute pulmonary edema admission at 120days, and was the strongest predictor of events compared to other established clinical, laboratory and instrumental findings. No acute pulmonary edema occurred in patients without significant pulmonary congestion at LUS (number of B-lines<15). In a HF outpatient setting, B-line assessment by LUS identifies patients more likely to be admitted for decompensated HF in the following 4months. This simple evaluation could allow prompt therapy optimization in those patients who, although asymptomatic, carry a significant degree of extravascular lung water. Pulmonary congestion is the main cause of hospital admissions among heart failure patients. Lung ultrasound can be used as a reliable and easy way to evaluate pulmonary congestion through assessment of B-lines. In a cohort of heart failure outpatients, a B-lines cutoff≥30 (HR 8.62; 95%CI: 1.8-40.1) identified patients most likely to develop acute pulmonary edema at 120-days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J; Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-01

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity is enhanced and is associated with oscillatory (Cheyne–Stokes) breathing patterns, increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and increased arrhythmia incidence. We hypothesized that denervation of the CB (CBD) chemoreceptors would reduce SNA, reduce apnoea and arrhythmia incidence and improve ventricular function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Resting breathing, renal SNA (RSNA) and arrhythmia incidence were measured in three groups of animals: (1) sham CHF/sham–CBD (sham–sham); (2) CHF/sham–CBD (CHF–sham); and (3) CHF/CBD (CHF–CBD). Chemoreflex sensitivity was measured as the RSNA and minute ventilatory () responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory pattern was measured by plethysmography and quantified by an apnoea–hypopnoea index, respiratory rate variability index and the coefficient of variation of tidal volume. Sympatho-respiratory coupling (SRC) was assessed using power spectral analysis and the magnitude of the peak coherence function between tidal volume and RSNA frequency spectra. Arrhythmia incidence and low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability were assessed using ECG and blood pressure waveforms, respectively. RSNA and responses to hypoxia were augmented in CHF–sham and abolished in CHF–CBD animals. Resting RSNA was greater in CHF–sham compared to sham–sham animals (43 ± 5% max vs. 23 ± 2% max, P < 0.05), and this increase was not found in CHF–CBD animals (25 ± 1% max, P < 0.05 vs. CHF–sham). Low frequency/high frequency heart rate variability ratio was similarly increased in CHF and reduced by CBD (P < 0.05). Respiratory rate variability index, coefficient of variation of tidal volume and apnoea–hypopnoea index were increased in CHF–sham animals and reduced in CHF–CBD animals (P < 0.05). SRC (peak coherence) was increased in CHF–sham animals (sham–sham 0.49 ± 0.05; CHF–sham 0.79

  20. Contribution of ischemic mitral regurgitation to congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, Francesco; Detaint, Delphine; Avierinos, Jean-François; Scott, Christopher; Tajik, Jamil; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to define the contribution of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) to the occurrence of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). After MI, CHF is a frequent and serious complication, but its determinants and, particularly, the role of IMR are poorly defined. We analyzed 173 asymptomatic patients with previous Q-wave MI (>16 days) with echocardiographic quantitation of IMR (measuring effective regurgitant orifice [ERO] and regurgitant volume). The 102 patients with IMR were matched to 71 patients without IMR for age (71 +/- 11 years vs. 68 +/- 9 years; p = 0.11), gender (76% vs. 82% males; p = 0.41), and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (37 +/- 14% vs. 36 +/- 11%; p = 0.92). Five-year rates of CHF and of CHF or cardiac death (CD) were 36 +/- 5% and 52 +/- 5%, respectively. Independent determinants of CHF were EF, sodium plasma level, and presence and degree of IMR (p < 0.0001). Five-year CHF rates were 18 +/- 5% without mitral regurgitation (MR), 53 +/- 7% with IMR, 46 +/- 9% with ERO 1 to 19 mm(2) and 68 +/- 12% with ERO > or =20 mm(2) (all p < 0.0001). The adjusted relative risk of CHF was 3.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 7.75) for IMR presence and 4.42 (95% CI 1.9 to 10.5) for ERO > or =20 mm(2). The adjusted relative risk of CHF/CD was 2.97 (95% CI 1.77 to 5.16) for IMR presence and 4.4 (95% CI 2.4 to 8.2) for ERO > or =20 mm(2). After MI, incidence of CHF and of CHF/CD are high even in patients with no or minimal symptoms at baseline and are higher in patients with IMR. Congestive heart failure is independently determined by larger ERO of IMR. These data suggest that detecting and quantifying IMR is essential for risk stratification after MI. Value of IMR treatment in improving post-MI outcome should be investigated.

  1. A possible mechanism for the progression of chronic renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Re, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as various forms of chronic renal disease and systolic congestive heart failure, are among the most common progressive degenerative disorders encountered in medicine. Each disease follows a nearly relentless course, albeit at varying rates, driven by progressive cell dysfunction and drop-out. The neurologic diseases are characterized by the progressive spread of disease-causing proteins (prion-like proteins) from cell to cell. Recent evidence indicates that cell autonomous renin angiotensin systems operate in heart and kidney, and it is known that functional intracrine proteins can also spread between cells. This then suggests that certain progressive degenerative cardiovascular disorders such as forms of chronic renal insufficiency and systolic congestive heart failure result from dysfunctional renin angiotensin system intracrine action spreading in kidney or myocardium.

  2. [A rare cause of 2:1 atrioventricular block and congestive heart failure in preterm infants: Hypocalcemia].

    PubMed

    Azak, Emine; Tatar Aksoy, Hatice; Ünsal, Handan; Çetin, İbrahim İlker

    2017-01-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) block in the neonatal period is a rare disorder. It is frequently associated with underlying structural congenital heart disease and maternal lupus. Presently described is premature baby who developed 2:1 AV block and congestive heart failure due to hypocalcemia. Dramatic clinical improvement was observed following treatment of intravenous 10% calcium gluconate. Therefore, it is suggested that serum calcium level of newborns with AV block and congestive heart failure be measured.

  3. Myocardial myoglobin deficiency in various animal models of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; O'Grady, M; McCutcheon, L J; Shen, H; Nowack, L; Horne, R D; Mirsalimi, S M; Julian, R J; Grima, E A; Moe, G W

    1992-07-01

    Myoglobin is known to protect the mechanical function of the heart from hypoxia by acting as a sarcoplasmic oxygen reservoir and shuttle. We postulated a role for myoglobin in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Several models of congestive heart failure were employed to test the hypothesis, including spontaneous inherited dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers, and heart failure produced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs, volume overload in chickens and furazolidone toxicity in turkeys. Myocardial myoglobin was decreased by approximately 50% for all models (P less than 0.05). In Doberman Pinschers dogs which are predisposed to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and have mild subclinical depression of cardiac performance, myocardial myoglobin (1.05 +/- 0.22 mg/g) is approximately 50% decreased compared to healthy mongrel dogs (2.15 +/- 0.52 mg/g), approximately twice as much as dobermans with heart failure (0.47 +/- 0.25 mg/g) but similar to the concentration found in dogs paced to heart failure (1.09 +/- 0.34 mg/g). Myocardium from poultry had remarkably decreased myoglobin compared to mammals (34 +/- 4 micrograms/g) with heart failure produced either by furazolidone or salt toxicity causing a further 50% reduction. In the canine models of heart failure, myocardial myoglobin concentration was demonstrated to be correlated with biochemical and physiological indicators of myocardial performance, namely, mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular ATPase activities, and cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and mean arterial pressure, respectively. Our data implicates a role for myoglobin deficiency in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure and in the predisposition of doberman pinschers to dilated cardiomyopathy.

  4. [Parallel pharmacological correction of myocardial dysfunction, cognitive and psychopathological disordres in patients with congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Dotsenko, N Ia; Boev, S S; Shekhunova, I A; Dedova, V O

    2014-01-01

    Was examined 92 patients with congestive heart failure III-IV FC with fraction of emission left ventricle < 45% against coronary artery disease. Patients of control group received basic therapy (according to recommendations of the Ukrainian society of cardiology), the 1 group--in addition received a preparation of Vazonat within 15 days intravenously in a dose of 1000 mg a day further are out-patient within 1 month on 250 mg 3 times per os; the 2 group--under the same scheme a preparation of Vazonat and a day tranquilizer of Adapto in a dose of 500 mg twice a day throughout all term of supervision. It is established that addition of Vazonat to basic treatment leads to additional effect concerning improvement of indicators cardio-hemodynamic, to improvement congestive functions. Joint appointment of preparations of Vazonat and Adaptol against basic treatment leads to more expressed improvement congestive functions, to progressive reduction of degree of trouble, depression.

  5. Hyperthyroidism as a reversible cause of right ventricular overload and congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovambattista, Raniero

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of severe congestive heart failure and right ventricular overload associated with overt hyperthyroidism, completely reversed with antithyroid therapy in a few week. It represents a very unusual presentation of overt hyperthyroidism because of the severity of right heart failure. The impressive right ventricular volume overload made mandatory to perform transesophageal echo and angio-TC examination to exclude the coexistence of ASD or anomalous pulmonary venous return. Only a few cases of reversible right heart failure, with or without pulmonary hypertension, have been reported worldwide. In our case the most striking feature has been the normalization of the cardiovascular findings after six weeks of tiamazole therapy. PMID:18549503

  6. Treatment of feline asthma with ciclosporin in a cat with diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Leach, Stacey B

    2015-12-01

    A 5-year-old domestic shorthair cat that had been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus was presented for episodes of coughing and respiratory distress. Diagnostic testing revealed congestive heart failure secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and concurrent asthma. All clinical signs and eosinophilic airway inflammation resolved with oral ciclosporin while the cat was concurrently receiving medications for treatment of heart failure (furosemide and enalapril). Ciclosporin should be considered for treatment of feline asthma in patients with concurrent diseases (eg, diabetes mellitus, severe heart disease) that may contraindicate use of oral glucocorticoid therapy. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Cardiac Dysfunction, Congestion and Loop Diuretics: their Relationship to Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Cleland, John G F; Zhang, Jufen; Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Anna; Urbinati, Alessia; Shah, Parin; Kazmi, Syed; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-12-01

    Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day. Compared to patients with cardiac dysfunction (either LVEF ≤50 % or NT-proBNP >400 ng/L) but not taking a loop diuretic, those taking a loop diuretic were older and had more clinical evidence of congestion, renal dysfunction, anaemia and hyponatraemia. During a median follow-up of 934 (IQR: 513-1425) days, 450 patients were hospitalized for HF or died. Patients prescribed loop diuretics had a worse outcome. However, in multi-variable models, clinical, echocardiographic (inferior vena cava diameter), and biochemical (NTproBNP) measures of congestion were strongly associated with an adverse outcome but not the use, or dose, of loop diuretics. Prescription of loop diuretics identifies patients with more advanced features of heart failure and congestion, which may account for their worse prognosis. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between loop diuretic agents and outcome; imaging and biochemical measures of congestion might be better guides to diuretic dose than symptoms or clinical signs.

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilation of severe pulmonary valve stenosis in patients with cyanosis and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramón; Rubio, Lola

    2014-08-01

    This article reports outcomes of percutaneous balloon dilation in patients with severe pulmonary valve stenosis, in particular in those treated late with cyanosis, congestive heart failure, and pericardial effusion. Percutaneous balloon dilation is the treatment of choice for pulmonary valve stenosis. Although earlier intervention may produce better results, patients may present late with congestive heart failure and cyanosis. Fifty-five patients who underwent pulmonary valve balloon dilation, were grouped into two groups, based on the presence or absence of congestive right heart failure and/or central cyanosis. Group I included 33 patients with severe pulmonary valve stenosis, but without clinical evidence of congestive right heart failure in the form of liver enlargement, raised jugular venous pressure, and peripheral edema and/or central cyanosis and group II included 22 patients with severe pulmonary valve stenosis and congestive right heart failure and/or central cyanosis. Their outcomes were compared. Doppler measured transvalvar pressure gradient decreased from 110.2 ± 34.0 mm Hg before to 52.5 ± 28.7 mm Hg in group I after dilation (P < 0.001), and from 138.4 ± 32.3 mm Hg to 53.9 ± 19.3 mm Hg in group II, (P < 0.001). Complications included ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation in three patients and severe bradycardia in one patient in group II. Twelve patients in group II developed clinical and radiologic evidence of reperfusion injury/pulmonary edema within the first 24 hr of intervention and needed ventilation for 2-9 days. Three of these patients died from intractable pulmonary edema. On follow up, clinical and echocardiographic improvement parameters were similar in the two groups. Those patients with severe pulmonary valve stenosis with congestive right heart failure, especially those with pericardial effusion, ascites and cyanosis, represent an important technical and clinical challenge. They are a high-risk group with or

  9. Pioglitazone-induced congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema in a patient with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Jearath, Vaneet; Vashisht, Rajan; Rustagi, Vipul; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pioglitazone-induced heart failure is known in patients with underlying heart disease, but is not well documented in patients with normal left ventricular function. Pioglitazone has been very popular as it is an insulin sensitizer and insulin resistance is prevalent among Indians. Fluid retention exacerbates pre-existing heart failure or precipitates heart failure in a patient with underlying left ventricular dysfunction. However, pathogenesis of heart failure in a patient with normal left ventricular function is not known. Probably it is due to dose-related effect on pulmonary endothelial permeability, rather than alterations in left ventricular mass or ejection fraction. We report a patient who developed congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema with normal left ventricular function within 1 year of starting pioglitazone therapy. We have to be careful in monitoring all possible side effects during followup when patients are on pioglitazone therapy. PMID:27127397

  10. Pioglitazone-induced congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema in a patient with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Jearath, Vaneet; Vashisht, Rajan; Rustagi, Vipul; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pioglitazone-induced heart failure is known in patients with underlying heart disease, but is not well documented in patients with normal left ventricular function. Pioglitazone has been very popular as it is an insulin sensitizer and insulin resistance is prevalent among Indians. Fluid retention exacerbates pre-existing heart failure or precipitates heart failure in a patient with underlying left ventricular dysfunction. However, pathogenesis of heart failure in a patient with normal left ventricular function is not known. Probably it is due to dose-related effect on pulmonary endothelial permeability, rather than alterations in left ventricular mass or ejection fraction. We report a patient who developed congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema with normal left ventricular function within 1 year of starting pioglitazone therapy. We have to be careful in monitoring all possible side effects during followup when patients are on pioglitazone therapy.

  11. Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial design.

    PubMed

    Bartunek, Jozef; Davison, Beth; Sherman, Warren; Povsic, Thomas; Henry, Timothy D; Gersh, Bernard; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Hajjar, Roger; Behfar, Atta; Homsy, Christian; Cotter, Gad; Wijns, William; Tendera, Michal; Terzic, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Cardiopoiesis is a conditioning programme that aims to upgrade the cardioregenerative aptitude of patient-derived stem cells through lineage specification. Cardiopoietic stem cells tested initially for feasibility and safety exhibited signs of clinical benefit in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF) warranting definitive evaluation. Accordingly, CHART-1 is designed as a large randomized, sham-controlled multicentre study aimed to validate cardiopoietic stem cell therapy. Patients (n = 240) with chronic HF secondary to ischaemic heart disease, reduced LVEF (<35%), and at high risk for recurrent HF-related events, despite optimal medical therapy, will be randomized 1:1 to receive 600 × 10(6) bone marrow-derived and lineage-directed autologous cardiopoietic stem cells administered via a retention-enhanced intramyocardial injection catheter or a sham procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint is a hierarchical composite of mortality, worsening HF, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6 min walk test, LV end-systolic volume, and LVEF at 9 months. The secondary efficacy endpoint is the time to cardiovascular death or worsening HF at 12 months. Safety endpoints include mortality, readmissions, aborted sudden deaths, and serious adverse events at 12 and 24 months. The CHART-1 clinical trial is powered to examine the therapeutic impact of lineage-directed stem cells as a strategy to achieve cardiac regeneration in HF populations. On completion, CHART-1 will offer a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of chronic ischaemic HF. NCT01768702. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure in North American Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Neary, J M; Booker, C W; Wildman, B K; Morley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest the incidence of right-sided congestive heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle is increasing; however, the rate of occurrence and risk factors are largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk of RHF over time and among feedlots, to characterize some of the risk factors for RHF, and to investigate how risk factors may affect the timing of RHF occurrence. The population at risk consisted of 1.56 million cattle that were placed in 10 Canadian feedlots during the years 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012, and 5 US feedlots during the year 2012. A retrospective observational study was conducted. Variables, including year of feedlot entry, were evaluated for association with RHF using zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models. Factors affecting time to RHF were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyzes. Death from digestive disorders (DD) served as a control. The risk of RHF in Canadian feedlots doubled from the year 2000 to the year 2012 (P = .003). For every 10,000 cattle entering US feedlots in 2012, 11 cattle died from RHF and 45 cattle died from DD. The median time to RHF was 19 weeks. Cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease were 3 times more likely to die from RHF, and they died earlier in the feeding period. A doubling of the incidence of RHF over a short time period is concerning, particularly for US feedlots situated at moderate altitudes in the High Plains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. PPARdelta activation normalizes cardiac substrate metabolism and reduces right ventricular hypertrophy in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jucker, Beat M; Doe, Christopher P; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Olzinski, Alan R; Maniscalco, Kristeen; Williams, Carolyn; Hu, Tom C-C; Lenhard, Stephen C; Costell, Melissa; Bernard, Roberta; Sarov-Blat, Lea; Steplewski, Klaudia; Willette, Robert N

    2007-07-01

    Previously, it was shown that selective deletion of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) in the heart resulted in a cardiac lipotoxicity, hypertrophy, and heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic and selective pharmacological activation of PPARdelta in a model of congestive heart failure. PPARdelta-specific agonist treatment (GW610742X at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day for 6-9 weeks) was initiated immediately postmyocardial infarction (MI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy was used to assess cardiac function and energetics. A 1-(13)C glucose clamp was performed to assess relative cardiac carbohydrate versus fat oxidation. Additionally, cardiac hemodynamics and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis was performed. MI rats had significantly reduced left ventricle (LV) ejection fractions and whole heart phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio compared with Sham animals (reduction of 43% and 14%, respectively). However, GW610742X treatment had no effect on either parameter. In contrast, the decrease in relative fat oxidation rate observed in both LV and right ventricle (RV) following MI (decrease of 58% and 54%, respectively) was normalized in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with GW610742X. These metabolic changes were associated with an increase in lipid transport/metabolism target gene expression (eg, CD36, CPT1, UCP3). Although there was no difference between groups in LV weight or infarct size measured upon necropsy, there was a dramatic reduction in RV hypertrophy and lung congestion (decrease of 22-48%, P<0.01) with treatment which was associated with a >7-fold decrease (P<0.05) in aterial natriuretic peptide gene expression in RV. Diuretic effects were not observed with GW610742X. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a selective PPARdelta agonist normalizes cardiac substrate metabolism and reduces RV hypertrophy and pulmonary

  14. Simple platelet markers: Mean platelet volume and congestive heart failure coexistent with periodontal disease. Pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Czerniuk, Maciej R; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Iwona; Pilecki, Tomasz; Górska, Renata; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-07-17

    Conducted pilot study concerning mean platelet volume parameter among patients suffering from congestive heart failure and periodontal disease. Examination of dynamic changes of platelet and periodontal markers in group of 50 patients before and an average of 6 months subsequent to professional periodontal treatment. Both platelet and periodontal parameters decreased after periodontal treatment, what is more, the decrease of mean platelet volume (MPV) value due to periodontal disease/mm improvement was shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). Improvement of periodontal status may influence decrease of MPV value andincrease of congestive heart failure treatment efficacy and effect patient comfort. It is a new, not frequently used pattern of chronic disease treatment optimalization.

  15. Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk.

  16. L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bocchi, E A; Vilella de Moraes, A V; Esteves-Filho, A; Bacal, F; Auler, J O; Carmona, M J; Bellotti, G; Ramires, A F

    2000-03-01

    Stimulated endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated vasodilation and conduit artery distensibility are impaired in congestive heart failure (CHF). L-arginine could have a potentially beneficial role in CHF, acting through the nitric oxide (NO)-L-arginine pathway or by growth hormone increment. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of L-arginine on heart rate, hemodynamics, and left ventricular (LV) function in CHF. In seven patients (aged 39 +/- 8 years) with CHF, we obtained the following parameters using echocardiography and an LV Millar Mikro-Tip catheter simultaneously under four conditions: basal, during NO inhalation (40 ppm), in basal condition before L-arginine infusion, and after L-arginine intravenous infusion (mean dose 30.4 +/- 1.9 g). Nitric oxide inhalation increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure from 25 +/- 9 to 31 +/- 7 mmHg (p < 0.05), but did not change echocardiographic variables or LV contractility by elastance determination. L-arginine decreased heart rate (from 88 +/- 15 to 80 +/- 16 beats/min, p<0.005), mean systemic arterial pressure (from 84 +/- 17 to 70 +/- 18 mmHg, p < 0.007), and systemic vascular resistance (from 24 +/- 8 to 15 +/- 6 Wood units, p<0.003). L-arginine increased right atrial pressure (from 7 +/- 2 to 10 +/- 3 mmHg, p<0.04), cardiac output (from 3.4 +/- 0.7 to 4.1 +/- 0.8 l/min, p < 0.009), and stroke volume (from 40 +/- 9 to 54 +/- 14 ml, p < 0.008). The ratios of pulmonary vascular resistance to systemic vascular resistance at baseline and during NO inhalation were 0.09 and 0.075, respectively, and with L-arginine this increased from 0.09 to 0.12. L-arginine exerted no effect on contractility; however, by acting on systemic vascular resistance it improved cardiac performance. L-arginine showed a negative chronotropic effect. The possible beneficial effect of L-arginine on reversing endothelial dysfunction in CHF without changing LV contractility should be the subject of further investigations.

  17. Exercise training in congestive heart failure: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Keteyian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    After decades of concern about the safety and effectiveness of exercise training in patients with heart failure (HF) due to reduced ejection fraction, initial research demonstrated the feasibility and physiologic benefits associated with such an intervention. Subsequent controlled studies confirmed these results and suggested improved clinical outcomes as well. This review summarizes the findings from single-site and multisite trials and meta-analyses that addressed the effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and clinical outcomes. Conclusions from these studies indicate that exercise is safe, improves health status and exercise capacity, attenuates much of the abnormal physiology that develops with HF, and yields a modest reduction in clinical events. Future research needs to identify which patient subgroups might benefit the most, the optimal exercise dose needed to lessen disease-related symptoms and maximize clinical benefit, and the effects of exercise training in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction.

  18. RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AND SECONDARY CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN A MCDOWELL'S CARPET PYTHON (MORELIA SPILOTA MCDOWELLI).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Chetboul, Valérie; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python ( Morelia spilota mcdowelli), based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations. This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus.

  19. Congestive heart failure patient monitoring using wearable Bio-impedance sensor technology.

    PubMed

    Seulki Lee; Squillace, Gabriel; Smeets, Christophe; Vandecasteele, Marianne; Grieten, Lars; de Francisco, Ruben; Van Hoof, Chris

    2015-08-01

    A new technique to monitor the fluid status of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the hospital is proposed and verified in a clinical trial with 8 patients. A wearable Bio-impedance (BioZ) sensor allows a continuous localized measurement which can be complement clinical tools in the hospital. Thanks to the multi-parametric approach and correlation analysis with clinical reference, BioZ is successfully shown as a promising parameter for continuous and wearable CHF patient monitoring application.

  20. [Intraoperative fluid therapy in infants with congestive heart failure due to intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Fernández, F J; Calderón-Seoane, E; Rodríguez-Peña, F; Torres-Morera, L M

    2016-05-01

    Pial arteriovenous fistula is a rare intracranial congenital malformation (0.1-1: 100,000). It has a high blood flow between one or more pial arteries and drains into the venous circulation. It is usually diagnosed during the childhood by triggering an intracranial hypertension and/or congestive heart failure due to left-right systemic shunt. It is a rare malformation with a complex pathophysiology. The perioperative anaesthetic management is not well established. We present a 6-month-old infant diagnosed with pial arteriovenous fistula with hypertension and congestive heart failure due to left-right shunt. He required a craniotomy and clipping of vascular malformation. Anaesthetic considerations in patients with this condition are a great challenge. It must be performed by multidisciplinary teams with experience in paediatrics. The maintenance of blood volume during the intraoperative course is very important. Excessive fluid therapy can precipitate a congestive heart failure or intracranial hypertension, and a lower fluid therapy may cause a tissue hypoxia due to the bleeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring lung resistivity changes in congestive heart failure patients using the bioimpedance technique.

    PubMed

    Zlochiver, Sharon; Radai, Michal M; Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Ben-Gal, Tuiva; Yaari, Vicky; Strasberg, Boris; Abboud, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel, dedicated system for monitoring lung resistivity in congestive heart failure patients, implementing a hybrid approach of the bioimpedance technique, was assessed in this preliminary study. Thirty-three healthy volunteers and 34 congestive heart failure patients were measured with the PulmoTrace system (CardioInspect, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel) during tidal respiration, and the ability to monitor the respective lung resistivity values was assessed. Mean left and right lung resistivity values of 1205+/-163 and 1200+/-165 ohm.cm for the control group and 888+/-193 and 943+/-187 ohm.cm for the congestive heart failure group were found, indicating a significant (p<2.10(-7)) difference between the two groups. The results of long-term monitoring of two patients during medical treatment are also shown. This hybrid approach system is believed to improve diagnostic capabilities and help physicians to better adjust medication dosage on a frequent basis.

  2. Increased risk of congestive heart failure among infarctions with nighttime onset.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, K J; Muller, J E; Maclure, M; Sherwood, J B; Mittleman, M A

    2000-09-01

    The onset of acute myocardial infarction varies by time of day, with a peak in the morning and a trough at night. Whether infarct-related complications differ by the timing of the infarction is unknown. In the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, we performed chart reviews and face-to-face interviews with 3625 patients with acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms, the presence of ventricular tachycardia or congestive heart failure, and peak creatine kinase levels (in 1043 patients). We found significant circadian variation in the risk of congestive heart failure (P =.001). The risk dropped from 17% for infarctions that began between 6 PM and midnight to 10% for infarctions that began between 6 AM and noon. Adjustment for differences in the time from symptom onset to presentation for care and use of thrombolytic agents did not change the results. We found no circadian variation in the risk of ventricular tachycardia or in peak creatine kinase levels. The risk of congestive heart failure is highest among infarctions that begin at night. Further research may clarify whether this reflects differences in the pathophysiologic characteristics of infarction or the quality of medical care provided for daytime and nighttime infarctions.

  3. Cerebral blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure treated with captopril

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, O.B.; Jarden, J.O.; Godtfredsen, J.; Vorstrup, S.

    1984-05-31

    The effect of captopril on cerebral blood flow was studied in five patients with severe congestive heart failure and in five control subjects. Cerebral blood flow was measured by inhalation of /sup 133/xenon and registration of its uptake and washout from the brain by single photon emission computer tomography. In addition, cerebral (internal jugular) venous oxygen tension was determined in the controls. The measurements were made before and 15, 60, and 180 minutes after a single oral dose of captopril (6.25 mg in patients with congestive heart failure and 25 mg in controls). Despite a marked decrease in blood pressure, cerebral blood flow increased slightly in the patients with severe congestive heart failure. When a correction was applied to take account of a change in arterial carbon dioxide tension, however, cerebral blood flow was unchanged after captopril administration even in patients with the greatest decrease in blood pressure, in whom a decrease in cerebral blood flow might have been expected. In the controls, blood pressure was little affected by captopril, whereas a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease in cerebral blood flow was observed. The cerebral venous oxygen tension decreased concomitantly.

  4. Morbid Obesity and Congestive Heart Failure Increase Operative Time and Room Time in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gholson, J Joseph; Shah, Apurva S; Gao, Yubo; Noiseux, Nicolas O

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is increasingly common in patients having total hip arthroplasty, and previous studies have shown a correlation with increased operative time in total hip arthroplasty. Decreasing operative time and room time is essential to meeting the increased demand for total hip arthroplasty, and factors that influence these metrics should be quantified to allow for targeted reduction in time and adjusted reimbursement models. This is the first study to use a multivariate approach to identify which factors increase operative time and room time in total hip arthroplasty. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify a cohort of 30,361 patients having total hip arthroplasty between 2006 and 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities including body mass index, and anesthesia type were used to create generalized linear models identifying independent predictors of increased operative time and room time. Morbid obesity (body mass index >40) independently increased operative time by 13 minutes and room time 18 by minutes. Congestive heart failure led to the greatest increase in overall room time, resulting in a 20-minute increase. Anesthesia method further influenced room time, with general anesthesia resulting in an increased room time of 18 minutes compared with spinal or regional anesthesia. Obesity is the major driver of increased operative time in total hip arthroplasty. Congestive heart failure, general anesthesia, and morbid obesity each lead to substantial increases in overall room time, with congestive heart failure leading to the greatest increase in overall room time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A perspective on sympathetic renal denervation in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Madanieh, Raef; El-Hunjul, Mohammed; Alkhawam, Hassan; Kosmas, Constantine E; Madanieh, Abed; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Medical therapy has indisputably been the mainstay of management for chronic congestive heart failure. However, a significant percentage of patients continue to experience worsening heart failure (HF) symptoms despite treatment with multiple therapeutic agents. Recently, catheter-based interventional strategies that interrupt the renal sympathetic nervous system have shown promising results in providing better symptom control in patients with HF. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of HF for better understanding of the interplay between the cardiovascular system and the kidney. Subsequently, we will briefly discuss pivotal renal denervation (RDN) therapy trials in patients with resistant hypertension and then present the available evidence on the role of RDN in HF therapy.

  6. The impact of peripheral arterial disease on patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Amit N; White, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a prevalent disease with many comorbidities and is associated with high health care expenditures. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a known comorbidity of CHF and is associated with worse morbidity and mortality. CHF and PAD share risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and prognostic features. We review the impact of PAD on patients with CHF using several studies to support PAD's influence on outcomes in CHF. Based on the evidence and current guidelines, patients with heart failure who are smokers, and those who have known coronary artery disease and/or diabetes should be screened for PAD.

  7. Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Corapi, W V; Eden, K B; Edwards, J F; Snowden, K F

    2015-05-01

    The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs.

  8. Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in congestive heart failure☆

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722

  9. Use of Biomarkers to Predict Readmission for Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sudharshan, Sangita; Novak, Eric; Hock, Karl; Scott, Mitchell G; Geltman, Edward M

    2017-02-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a major reason for repeated hospitalizations. Identifying those patients with ADHF at risk for readmission is critical so that preventive interventions can be implemented. Biomarkers such as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity troponin I, and galectin-3 (Gal-3) assessed at discharge may be useful, although their role in predicting short-term readmission is not well defined in the literature. We enrolled and had follow-up data for 101 participants admitted to our facility from April 2013 to March 2015 with a primary diagnosis of ADHF. Gal-3, high-sensitivity troponin I, and BNP were obtained within 48 hours before hospital discharge after management of ADHF. Gal-3 was assessed using 2 commercially available assays. We compared subjects who were and were not readmitted. Discharge BNP was found to be a significant predictor of 30- and 60-day readmission (area under the curve [AUC] 0.69 [p = 0.046], AUC 0.7 [p = 0.005], respectively). The addition of Gal-3 to discharge BNP provided significantly improved prediction of 60-day readmission. Gal-3 alone was found to be a significant predictor of 60-day readmission in patients with preserved ejection fraction (AUC 0.85, p <0.001). The net reclassification improvement was 55.2 (p = 0.037). Using multivariate analysis, for every 100 pg/L BNP increase, the probability of readmission increased by approximately 10%, and for every 1-ng/ml Gal-3 increase, the probability further increased 8%. A statistically significant net reclassification improvement was not found on examination of 30-day readmission. In conclusion, measurement of both Gal-3 and BNP at hospital discharge provides significant prediction of hospital readmission within 60 days. When combined, the prediction of readmission is significantly improved.

  10. Multifractal properties of ECG patterns of patients suffering from congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Srimonti

    2010-12-01

    The multifractal properties of two-channel ECG patterns of patients suffering from severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III-IV) are studied and are compared with those for normal healthy people using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis methodology. Ivanov et al (1999 Nature 399 461) have studied the multifractality of human heart rate dynamics using the wavelet transformation modulus maxima (WTMM) methodology. But it has been observed by several scientists that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) works better than the WTMM method in the detection of monofractal and multifractal characteristics of the data. Galaska et al (2008 Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 13 155) have observed that MFDFA is more sensitive compared to the WTMM method in the differentiation between multifractal properties of the heart rate in healthy subjects and patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the present work the variation of two parameters of the multifractal spectrum—its width W (related to the degree of multifractality) and the value of the Hölder exponent α0—for the healthy and congestive heart failure patients is studied. α0 is a measure of the degree of correlation. The degree of multifractality varies appreciably (85-90% C.L.) for the normal and the CHF sets for channel I. For channel II no significant change in the values is observed. The degree of correlation is found to be comparatively high for the normal healthy people compared to those suffering from CHF.

  11. The Number of Perforators Included in Reversed Flow Posterior Interosseous Artery Flap: Does It Affect the Incidence of Venous Congestion?

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Ayman A.; Elbarbary, Amir S.; Sayed, Mohamed A.; Elghareeb, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to decrease the incidence of venous congestion occurring in the reversed flow posterior interosseous artery flap used for coverage of hand defects. Methods: This may be achieved by studying the incidence of venous congestion in flaps including only 1 perforator and comparing the results with others including more than 1 perforator both in small and large sized flaps. Results: This study showed that inclusion of only 1 perforator in the flap decreased the incidence of venous congestion with complete flap loss in flaps to 5%. Also, it decreased the incidence of venous congestion with partial flap loss in flaps to 10%. Conclusions: The small sized reversed flow posterior interosseous artery flap should be less than 40 cm2 and should include only 1 perforator to decrease the incidence of venous congestion with partial and complete loss of the flap. The level of evidence for this study is the type II prospective comparative study. PMID:28293513

  12. Estimating clinical morbidity due to ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure: the future rise of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bonneux, L; Barendregt, J J; Meeter, K; Bonsel, G J; van der Maas, P J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Many developed countries have seen declining mortality rates for heart disease, together with an alleged decline in incidence and a seemingly paradoxical increase in health care demands. This paper presents a model for forecasting the plausible evolution of heart disease morbidity. METHODS. The simulation model combines data from different sources. It generates acute coronary event and mortality rates from published data on incidences, recurrences, and lethalities of different heart disease conditions and interventions. Forecasts are based on plausible scenarios for declining incidence and increasing survival. RESULTS. Mortality is postponed more than incidence. Prevalence rates of morbidity will decrease among the young and middle-aged but increase among the elderly. As the milder disease states act as risk factors for the more severe states, effects will culminate in the most severe disease states with a disproportionate increase in older people. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing health care needs in the face of declining mortality rates are no contradiction, but reflect a tradeoff of mortality for morbidity. The aging of the population will accentuate this morbidity increase. PMID:8279606

  13. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging of the heart in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Glowniak, J.V.; Turner, F.E.; Gray, L.L.; Palac, R.T.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Woodward, W.R.

    1989-07-01

    Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((/sup 123/I)MIBG) is a norepinephrine analog which can be used to image the sympathetic innervation of the heart. In this study, cardiac imaging with (/sup 123/I)MIBG was performed in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and compared to normal controls. Initial uptake, half-time of tracer within the heart, and heart to lung ratios were all significantly reduced in patients compared to normals. Uptake in lungs, liver, salivary glands, and spleen was similar in controls and patients with cardiomyopathy indicating that decreased MIBG uptake was not a generalized abnormality in these patients. Iodine-123 MIBG imaging was also performed in cardiac transplant patients to determine cardiac nonneuronal uptake. Uptake in transplants was less than 10% of normals in the first 2 hr and nearly undetectable after 16 hr. The decreased uptake of MIBG suggests cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction while the rapid washout of MIBG from the heart suggests increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy.

  14. Renal replacement therapy in congestive heart failure requiring left ventricular assist device augmentation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bernadette A; Logar, Christine M; Anderson, Arthur E

    2012-01-01

    "Cardiorenal syndrome" is a term used to describe a dys-regulation of the heart affecting the kidneys, or vice versa, in an acute or chronic manner (1,2). Renal impairment can range from reversible ischemic damage to renal failure requiring short- or long-term renal replacement therapy (2). Patients who require mechanical circulatory support, such as a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), as definitive treatment for congestive heart failure or as a bridge to cardiac transplantation pose a unique challenge with respect to receiving dialysis, because they experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality from infection in the post-LVAD period (3-7). Acute dialysis access can pose an increased infection risk. In this article, we present a patient who required renal replacement therapy and a LVAD for management of acute-on-chronic cardiorenal syndrome while awaiting heart transplantation. A literature review to determine whether peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is superior for patients with profound hemodynamic dysfunction and the need to minimize risk of infection did not offer clear guidance about which modality is superior in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. However, there is clear evidence of the superiority of peritoneal dialysis in reducing the risk of systemic infection secondary to acute dialysis access. Given the high risk of LVAD infection, we therefore conclude that, to decrease mortality secondary to systemic infection, peritoneal dialysis should strongly be considered in patients who require renal replacement therapy before or after LVAD placement.

  15. Extracorporeal versus peritoneal ultrafiltration in diuretic-resistant congestive heart failure – a review

    PubMed Central

    Wańkowicz, Zofia; Próchnicka, Agnieszka; Olszowska, Anna; Baczyński, Daniel; Krzesiński, Paweł; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2011-01-01

    Summary Diuretic-resistant congestive heart failure in the form of type 2 cardiorenal syndrome is a problem of growing significance in everyday clinical practice because of high morbidity and mortality. There has been scant progress in the treatment of overhydration, the main cause of symptoms in this group of patients. The aim of our review is to present recent advances in the ultrafiltration therapy of congestive heart failure, with special attention to the new dedicated device for extracorporeal isolated ultrafiltration, as well as modifications of peritoneal dialysis in the form of peritoneal ultrafiltration with icodextrin solution and incremental peritoneal dialysis. Technical and clinical features, costs and potential risks of available devices for isolated ultrafiltration are presented. This method should be reserved for patients with true diuretic resistance as part of a more complex strategy aiming at the adequate control of fluid retention. Peritoneal ultrafiltration is presented as a viable alternative to extracorporeal ultrafiltration because of medical and psychosocial benefits of home-based therapy, lower costs and more effective daily ultrafiltration. In conclusion, large, properly randomized and controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up will be essential in assessing the logistics and cost-effectiveness of both methods. Most importantly, however, they should be able to evaluate the impact of both methods on preservation of renal function and delaying the progression of heart failure by interrupting the vicious circle of cardiorenal syndrome. Our review is supplemented with the case report of the use of peritoneal ultrafiltration with a single 12-hour nighttime icodextrin exchange as a life-saving procedure in a patient with congestive heart failure resistant to pharmacological treatment. PMID:22129914

  16. Extracorporeal versus peritoneal ultrafiltration in diuretic-resistant congestive heart failure--a review.

    PubMed

    Wańkowicz, Zofia; Próchnicka, Agnieszka; Olszowska, Anna; Baczyński, Daniel; Krzesiński, Paweł; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2011-12-01

    Diuretic-resistant congestive heart failure in the form of type 2 cardiorenal syndrome is a problem of growing significance in everyday clinical practice because of high morbidity and mortality. There has been scant progress in the treatment of overhydration, the main cause of symptoms in this group of patients. The aim of our review is to present recent advances in the ultrafiltration therapy of congestive heart failure, with special attention to the new dedicated device for extracorporeal isolated ultrafiltration, as well as modifications of peritoneal dialysis in the form of peritoneal ultrafiltration with icodextrin solution and incremental peritoneal dialysis. Technical and clinical features, costs and potential risks of available devices for isolated ultrafiltration are presented. This method should be reserved for patients with true diuretic resistance as part of a more complex strategy aiming at the adequate control of fluid retention. Peritoneal ultrafiltration is presented as a viable alternative to extracorporeal ultrafiltration because of medical and psychosocial benefits of home-based therapy, lower costs and more effective daily ultrafiltration. In conclusion, large, properly randomized and controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up will be essential in assessing the logistics and cost-effectiveness of both methods. Most importantly, however, they should be able to evaluate the impact of both methods on preservation of renal function and delaying the progression of heart failure by interrupting the vicious circle of cardiorenal syndrome. Our review is supplemented with the case report of the use of peritoneal ultrafiltration with a single 12-hour nighttime icodextrin exchange as a life-saving procedure in a patient with congestive heart failure resistant to pharmacological treatment.

  17. Prognostic value of residual pulmonary congestion at discharge assessed by lung ultrasound imaging in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Coiro, Stefano; Rossignol, Patrick; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Erberto; Alunni, Gianfranco; Murrone, Adriano; Tritto, Isabella; Zannad, Faiez; Girerd, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Residual pulmonary congestion at discharge is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF), but its quantification through physical examination is challenging. Ultrasound imaging of lung comets (B-lines) could improve congestion evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term prognostic value of B-lines after discharge from HF hospitalisation compared with other indices of haemodynamic congestion (BNP, E/e', and inferior vena cava diameter) or clinical status (NYHA class). Sixty consecutive HF inpatients underwent clinical examination, echocardiography, and lung ultrasound at discharge, independently of, and in addition to routine management by the attending physicians. The median B-line count was 8.5 (5-34). Three-month event-free survival for the primary endpoint (all-cause death or HF hospitalisation) was 27 ± 10% in patients with ≥30 B-lines and 88 ± 5% in those with <30 B-lines (P < 0.0001). In a multivariable model, ≥30 B-lines significantly predicted the combined endpoint (hazard ratio 5.66, 95% confidence interval 1.74-18.39, P = 0.04), along with NYHA ≥III and inferior vena cava diameter, while other indirect measures of congestion (BNP and E/e' ≥15) were not retained in the model; furthermore ≥30 B-lines independently also predicted the secondary outcomes (HF hospitalisation and death). Importantly, B-line addition to NYHA class and BNP was associated with improved risk classification (integrated discrimination improvement 15%, P = 0.02; continuous net reclassification improvement 65%, P = 0.03). Residual pulmonary congestion at discharge, as assessed by a B-line count ≥30, is a strong predictor of outcome. Lung ultrasonography may represent a useful tool to identify and monitor congestion and optimize therapy during and/or after hospitalisation for HF, which should be further validated in multicentre studies. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Cyclophilin A predicts clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure undergoing endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zuern, Christine S; Müller, Karin A L; Seizer, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Banya, Winston; Klingel, Karin; Kandolf, Reinhard; Bauer, Axel; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E

    2013-02-01

    Cyclophilin A (CyPA) represents a ubiquitous intracellular protein, which is secreted by inflammatory and by dying/necrotic cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of CyPA expression in endomyocardial biopsies of consecutive patients with congestive heart failure. A total of 227 unselected patients (age 53.9 ± 15 years) with congestive heart failure undergoing endomyocardial biopsy for diagnostic reasons were enrolled. Biopsies were analysed using established histopathological and immunohistological criteria together with CyPA staining. Virus genome was studied by polymerase chain reaction. CyPA was significantly enhanced in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 127) as compared with patients with non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 100, P < 0.0001). During a mean follow-up of 16.3 months, 60 patients (26.4%) reached the primary endpoint, a composite of all-cause death, heart transplantation, malignant arrhythmia, and heart failure-related rehospitalization. Of all clinical (ejection fraction, New York Heart Association functional class), laboratory (brain natriuretic peptide), and immunohistological parameters (CyPA, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, CD68, CD3, major hisocompatibility complex II, and virus genome) tested, only CyPA was identified as an independent predictor for the composite endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.2; P = 0.019] as well as for all-cause death and heart transplantation alone (HR 4.7; 95% CI 1.1-19.8; P = 0.036). Subgroup analysis revealed CyPA as a predictor in patients with non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy for the composite endpoint (HR 3.0; 95% CI 1.3-6.6; P = 0.007) as well as all-cause death or heart transplantation alone (HR 6.4; 95% CI 1.4-28.1; P = 0.014). CyPA is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure undergoing endomyocardial biopsy.

  19. Metabolic cardiology: an integrative strategy in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, Stephen T

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) and dilated cardiomyopathy are life-threatening conditions in which the heart muscle is so weak that effective pulsatile action is compromised. Pulmonary vascular congestion and swelling in the lower extremities as well as in the liver and lining of the gastrointestinal tract frequently cause overwhelming symptoms and disability. Millions of Americans suffer from CHF, and more than 500,000 cases are diagnosed annually. Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, and various cardiomyopathies can lead to the progressive onset of CHF. The purpose of this communication article is to introduce metabolic cardiology as a vital therapeutic strategy utilizing nutritional biochemical interventions that preserve and promote adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Treatment options that incorporate metabolic interventions targeted to preserve energy substrates (D-ribose) or accelerate ATP turnover (L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10) are indicated for at-risk populations or patients at any stage of CHF. The integration of these metabolic supports provides the missing link in CHF treatment that has been eluding physicians for decades.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy in a hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Delk, K W; Eshar, D; Garcia, E; Harkin, K

    2014-03-01

    A one-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was evaluated for severe respiratory distress. Physical examination findings included marked dyspnoea, cyanosis and tachypnoea. Radiographic findings included an enlarged heart and pulmonary oedema, and dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed via echocardiogram. The patient was treated for congestive heart failure because of dilated cardiomyopathy with furosemide, enalapril, pimobendan and l-carnitine. Within 24 hours of treatment, the pulmonary oedema and cyanosis had resolved. Following discharge, clinical improvement was noted by the owner and echocardiogram confirmed improved fractional shortening. Cardiomyopathy has been reported at post-mortem examination in hedgehogs, but there are no reports of ante-mortem diagnosis and treatment. Performing baseline cardiac assessment in hedgehogs is recommended, and treatment with l-carnitine and pimobendan may improve outcome, as carnitine deficiency is a possible cause of cardiomyopathy in hedgehogs. Successful emergency treatment of congestive heart failure in the hedgehog of this report may be effective for other hedgehogs presented with similar clinical signs.

  1. Ethacrynic acid can be effective for refractory congestive heart failure and ascites.

    PubMed

    Alisky, Joseph M; Tuttle, Thomas F

    2003-11-01

    Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic little used today because of its side-effect profile and the availability of multiple alternative agents. However, in our clinical experience, ethacrynic acid can alleviate acute congestive heart failure and ascites resistant to other diuretics. Two patients aged 89 and 94 in life-threatening pulmonary edema were stabilized by ethacrynic acid after furosemide proved ineffective. A third patient, aged 83, with a pleural effusion and ascites secondary to end-stage hepatitis B and C, responded to ethacrynic acid when spironolactone and furosemide produced little urine output. Ethacrynic acid may have a unique niche as a diuretic of last resort, especially in geriatric practice.

  2. Continuity of care prism process applied to the congestive heart failure population.

    PubMed

    Smoot, S M

    1998-01-01

    Emphasis in healthcare during the 1990s has been both to provide optimal wellness and function with quality in a cost-effective manner. The Continuity of Care Prism Process was developed to meet the need to guide clients along the continuum of care and to achieve continuity of care. Advanced practice nurses are the "expert" clinicians in a position to care manage clients and meet the financial and quality constraints currently being placed on healthcare agencies. In this article, the vehicle used to demonstrate the Continuity of Care Prism Process is a congestive heart failure clinical pathway.

  3. Administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics ameliorates congestion with improving renal dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hanatani, Akihisa; Shibata, Atsushi; Kitada, Ryouko; Iwata, Shinichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Takagi, Masahiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    In patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction, high dose of diuretics are necessary to improve congestion, which may progress to renal dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics to improve renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized study in 44 patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration ≥1.1 mg/dl) treated with conventional diuretics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: tolvaptan (15 mg) with a fixed dose of diuretics or with reducing to a half-dose of diuretics for 7-14 consecutive days. We examined the change of urine volume, body weight, serum creatinine and electrolyte concentrations in each group. Both groups demonstrated significant urine volume increase (724 ± 176 ml/day in the fixed-dose group and 736 ± 114 ml/day in the half-dose group) and body weight reduction (1.6 ± 1.5 kg and 1.6 ± 1.9 kg, respectively) from baseline, with no differences between the two groups. Serum creatinine concentration was significantly increased in the fixed-dose group (from 1.60 ± 0.47 to 1.74 ± 0.66 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and decreased in the half-dose group (from 1.98 ± 0.91 to 1.91 ± 0.97 mg/dl, p = 0.10). So the mean changes in serum creatinine concentration from baseline significantly differed between the two groups (0.14 ± 0.08 mg/dl in the fixed-dose group and -0.07 ± 0.19 mg/dl in the half-dose group, p = 0.006). The administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics was clinically effective to ameliorate congestion with improving renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

  4. Abnormalities of capillary microarchitecture in a rat model of coronary ischemic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiqiu; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Kagan, Heather J; Liang, Lifan; Hekmaty, Saboor; Giannarelli, Chiara; Hajjar, Roger

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study is to explore the role of capillary disorder in coronary ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by aortic banding plus ischemia-reperfusion followed by aortic debanding. Coronary arteries were perfused with plastic polymer containing fluorescent dye. Multiple fluorescent images of casted heart sections and scanning electric microscope of coronary vessels were obtained to characterize changes in the heart. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics. Stenosis was found in all levels of the coronary arteries in CHF. Coronary vasculature volume and capillary density in remote myocardium were significantly increased in CHF compared with control. This occurred largely in microvessels with a diameter of ≤3 μm. Capillaries in CHF had a tortuous structure, while normal capillaries were linear. Capillaries in CHF had inconsistent diameters, with assortments of narrowed and bulged segments. Their surfaces appeared rough, potentially indicating endothelial dysfunction in CHF. Segments of main capillaries between bifurcations were significantly shorter in length in CHF than in control. Transiently increasing preload by injecting 50 μl of 30% NaCl demonstrated that the CHF heart had lower functional reserve; this may be associated with congestion in coronary microcirculation. Ischemic coronary vascular disorder is not limited to the main coronary arteries, as it occurs in arterioles and capillaries. Capillary disorder in CHF included stenosis, deformed structure, proliferation, and roughened surfaces. This disorder in the coronary artery architecture may contribute to the reduction in myocyte contractility in the setting of heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Abnormalities of capillary microarchitecture in a rat model of coronary ischemic congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiqiu; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Kagan, Heather J.; Liang, Lifan; Hekmaty, Saboor; Giannarelli, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the role of capillary disorder in coronary ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by aortic banding plus ischemia-reperfusion followed by aortic debanding. Coronary arteries were perfused with plastic polymer containing fluorescent dye. Multiple fluorescent images of casted heart sections and scanning electric microscope of coronary vessels were obtained to characterize changes in the heart. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics. Stenosis was found in all levels of the coronary arteries in CHF. Coronary vasculature volume and capillary density in remote myocardium were significantly increased in CHF compared with control. This occurred largely in microvessels with a diameter of ≤3 μm. Capillaries in CHF had a tortuous structure, while normal capillaries were linear. Capillaries in CHF had inconsistent diameters, with assortments of narrowed and bulged segments. Their surfaces appeared rough, potentially indicating endothelial dysfunction in CHF. Segments of main capillaries between bifurcations were significantly shorter in length in CHF than in control. Transiently increasing preload by injecting 50 μl of 30% NaCl demonstrated that the CHF heart had lower functional reserve; this may be associated with congestion in coronary microcirculation. Ischemic coronary vascular disorder is not limited to the main coronary arteries, as it occurs in arterioles and capillaries. Capillary disorder in CHF included stenosis, deformed structure, proliferation, and roughened surfaces. This disorder in the coronary artery architecture may contribute to the reduction in myocyte contractility in the setting of heart failure. PMID:25659485

  6. Designing a Technology Enhanced Practice for Home Nursing Care of Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Gail R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; K.L., Calvin; Carayon, Pascale; Grenier, Anne-Sophie; Sebern, Margaret; Burke, Laura J.; Brennan, Patricia F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the process we used to design the HeartCare website to support Technology Enhanced Practice (TEP) for home care nurses engaged in providing care for patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). Composed of communication, information, and self-monitoring functions, the HeartCare website is aimed at supporting best practice nursing care for these patients. Its unique focus is professional practice, thus the scope of this project is greater and more abstract than those focusing on a task or set of activities. A modified macroergonomic analysis, design work system analysis, and focus groups utilizing participatory design methodology were undertaken to characterize the nursing practice model. Design of the HeartCare website required synthesizing the extant practice model and the agency’s evidence-based heart failure protocols, identifying aspects of practice that could be enhanced by supporting technology, and delineation of functional requirements of the Enhanced HeartCare technology. Validation and refinement of the website and planning for user training activities will be accomplished through a two-stage usability testing strategy. PMID:16779013

  7. Role of brain serotonin dysfunction in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Take, Sachiko; Zhan, Dong-Yun; Du, Cheng-Kun; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Xue-Li; Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2012-12-01

    Inherited or non-inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients develop varied disease phenotypes leading to death after developing congestive heart failure (HF) or sudden death with mild or no overt HF symptoms, suggesting that environmental and/or genetic factors may modify the disease phenotype of DCM. In this study, we sought to explore unknown genetic factors affecting the disease phenotype of monogenic inherited human DCM. Knock-in mice bearing a sarcomeric protein mutation that causes DCM were created on different genetic backgrounds; BALB/c and C57Bl/6. DCM mice on the BALB/c background showed cardiac enlargement and systolic dysfunction and developed congestive HF before died. In contrast, DCM mice on the C57Bl/6 background developed no overt HF symptoms and died suddenly, although they showed considerable cardiac enlargement and systolic dysfunction. BALB/c mice have brain serotonin dysfunction due to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2). Brain serotonin dysfunction plays a critical role in depression and anxiety and BALB/c mice exhibit depression- and anxiety-related behaviors. Since depression is common and associated with poor prognosis in HF patients, we examined therapeutic effects of anti-depression drug paroxetine and anti-anxiety drug buspirone that could improve the brain serotonin function in mice. Both drugs reduced cardiac enlargement and improved systolic dysfunction and symptoms of severe congestive HF in DCM mice on the BALB/c background. These results strongly suggest that genetic backgrounds involving brain serotonin dysfunction, such as TPH2 gene SNP, may play an important role in the development of congestive HF in DCM.

  8. Pacing mode and long-term survival in elderly patients with congestive heart failure: 1980-1985.

    PubMed

    Brady, P A; Shen, W K; Neubauer, S A; Hammill, S C; Hodge, D O; Hayes, D L

    1997-11-01

    Dual-chamber pacing may improve short-term hemodynamics and functional class in some patients with congestive heart failure, even in the absence of conventional indications for pacemaker implantation. However, the impact of different pacing modes on survival of patients with congestive heart failure is controversial. In this retrospective study we analyzed survival data from 546 elderly patients, aged 70 years and older, who underwent implantation of a permanent dual-chamber (DDD, n = 62, DVI, n = 102) or single-chamber (VVI) pacemaker (n = 382) between 1980 and 1985. Survival was further analyzed according to the presence of absence of congestive heart failure, and pacemaker mode (DDD vs. DVI vs. VVI). Overall, dual-chamber pacing (DDD and DVI) was associated with a more favorable long-term outcome when compared with single-chamber ventricular pacing, although differences were only significant for DDD pacing (P = 0.002). When patients with and without preexisting congestive heart failure were analyzed separately, survival following dual-chamber pacing (DDD and DVI) was significantly better than survival following single-chamber pacing in patients without congestive heart failure (P = 0.03), but not in patients with preexisting heart failure (P = 0.139). When patients were analyzed according to the electrophysiological indication for pacemaker implantation, overall survival of patients with AV block (P = 0.0025) but not sinus node dysfunction (P = 0.346) was improved with dual-chamber pacing. This survival advantage in patients with AV block following dual-chamber pacing was lost in the presence of heart failure (P = 0.11). These findings suggest that dual-chamber pacing, in particular DDD pacing, improves the survival in elderly patients without preexisting congestive heart failure. In contrast to the short-term hemodynamic improvement observed in selected patients with congestive heart failure, dual-chamber pacing in elderly patients with congestive heart failure

  9. Congestive heart failure in 6 African grey parrots (Psittacus e erithacus).

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, C; Soto, S; Garner, M M; Montesinos, A; Ardiaca, M

    2011-05-01

    Six African grey parrots (Psittacus e erithacus) were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure based on gross and microscopic findings. Ages ranged from 15 days to 8 years, and 5 of 6 parrots were either neonates or juveniles at the time of diagnosis. Two neonates and 2 juveniles came from the same breeding aviary; the 2 juveniles were born to the same breeding pair. The 2 other parrots were kept as pets. Clinical signs included distention of the coelomic cavity (4 of 6), rales (3 of 6), weakness (4 of 6), bradyarrhythmia (1 of 6), growth retardation (1 of 6), crop stasis (1 of 6), and regurgitation (1 of 6). Three parrots were euthanized and 3 died. Gross findings included cardiomegaly due to biventricular, right-, or left-sided cardiomyopathy (6 of 6); coelomic effusion (6 of 6); whitish or yellow foci in the liver (6 of 6); atrophy of the liver (particularly, the left lobe; 5 of 6); reddened or grey lungs (5 of 6); subcutaneous edema (2 of 6); hydropericardium (1 of 6); and bilateral thyroid gland enlargement (1 of 6). Relevant microscopic findings included passive hepatic congestion (6 of 6) and pulmonary congestion (2 of 6), lymphocytic thyroiditis (2 of 6), and diffuse thyroid follicular hyperplasia (2 of 6). Microscopically, the heart was unremarkable (2 of 6) or had mild lymphocytic myocarditis (2 of 6), mild multifocal cytoplasmic vacuolation of cardiomyocytes (2 of 6), mild lymphocytic myocardial (Purkinje cell) ganglioneuritis (1 of 6), and mild multifocal interstitial fibrosis and nuclear hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes (1 of 6). One parrot had concurrent proventricular dilatation disease (systemic ganglioneuritis). The cause of cardiomyopathy in these parrots was not determined.

  10. A Case of Fulminant Myocarditis With Preceding Repeated Episodes of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yuko; Uto, Kenta; Wada, Hiroshi; Sakakura, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Toshio; Ako, Junya; Momomura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of fulminant myocarditis that was considered to have smoldered for a few months before it finally exteriorized. An 80-year-old man had had two episodes of mild congestive heart failure with preserved ejection function (HFPEF) within 3 months before he was finally admitted for the treatment of rapidly progressive heart failure. Cardiac function deteriorated remarkably on the final admission. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support was used because of pump failure and conduction disability, however, the patient died on the 16th day. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed numerous inflammatory infiltrates in myocardium compatible with fulminant myocarditis. However, advanced fibrosis and increased number of B lymphocytes and plasma cells found in the present case were not typical for fulminant myocarditis. Considering several distinctive findings in clinical and laboratory findings together, two preceding HFPEF episodes were highly likely to be associated with myocarditis.

  11. Acute haemodynamic effects of ibopamine in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Ghirardi, P; Brusoni, B; Mangiavacchi, M; Bianco, L; Col, J; Metra, M; Dei Cas, L

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), in III and IV NYHA Class, were treated orally with a single dose of ibopamine ranging from 1.2-3.3 mg/kg, and were studied using the Swan-Ganz catheter and thermodilution technique. Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI) were increased, and mean pulmonary pressure (PAP), systemic vascular resistances (SVR) were lowered. Ibopamine increased CI (+33%) and SVI (+26%), and decreased PAP (-17%) and SVR (-24%). All changes were statistically significant. The maximum haemodynamic effect occurred 180 min after ibopamine administration. Blood pressure and heart rate were unaffected. Tolerability was good. This study shows that ibopamine when orally administered to human subjects improves cardiac performance and further investigations on its use as a therapeutic agent in the long term treatment of CHF are recommended. PMID:4005102

  12. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Education Material on Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Online health information is being used more ubiquitously by the general population. However, this information typically favors only a small percentage of readers, which can result in suboptimal medical outcomes for patients. Objective The readability of online patient education materials regarding the topic of congestive heart failure was assessed through six readability assessment tools. Methods The search phrase “congestive heart failure” was employed into the search engine Google. Out of the first 100 websites, only 70 were included attending to compliance with selection and exclusion criteria. These were then assessed through six readability assessment tools. Results Only 5 out of 70 websites were within the limits of the recommended sixth-grade readability level. The mean readability scores were as follows: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (9.79), Gunning-Fog Score (11.95), Coleman-Liau Index (15.17), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index (11.39), and the Flesch Reading Ease (48.87). Conclusion Most of the analyzed websites were found to be above the sixth-grade readability level recommendations. Efforts need to be made to better tailor online patient education materials to the general population. PMID:28656111

  13. [Renal dysfunction in heart failure and hypervolumenia : Importance of congestion and backward failure].

    PubMed

    Druml, W

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, renal dysfunction in congestive heart failure (cardiorenal syndrome type 1) has been attributed to reduced cardiac output and low mean arterial perfusion pressure, which elicit a series of neurohumoral activations resulting in increased renal vascular resistance and decreased renal function.During the last decade, several studies have shown that the extent of renal dysfunction is not so closely associated with indices of forward failure-such as the cardiac index or mean arterial pressure-but rather with indicators of congestion, such as left ventricular enddiasystolic pressure or central venous pressure (CVP), which are indicators of backward failure. The impact of backward failure on renal function is not confined to an elevation of CVP, the renal drainage pressure, but includes a broad spectrum of mechanisms. Involved are the organ systems right heart, lung, the liver, the proinflammatory signals originating from the intestines, but also renal interstitial edema (renal compartment syndrome) and the intraabdominal pressure.The therapeutic measures must focus on the modulation of the preload adapted to the specific situation of an individual patient. This includes diuretics aiming at different segments of the tubulus system including antagonists of aldosteron and ADH, extracorporeal fluid elimination by ultrafiltration or peritoneal dialysis.

  14. Early changes in contractility indices and fibrosis in two minimally invasive congestive heart failure models.

    PubMed

    de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; Petrucci, Orlando; Baker, R Scott; Vassallo, José; Schenka, André Almeida; Duffy, Jodie Y; de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Martins; Vieira, Reinaldo Wilson

    2010-02-01

    Heart failure is a common and often fatal disease. Numerous animal models are used to study its aetiology, progression and treatment. This article aims to demonstrate two minimally invasive models of congestive heart failure in a rabbit model and a precise method to assess cardiac performance. Fifty New Zealand White rabbits underwent cervicotomy incision and were then divided into three groups. Aortic regurgitation (AR group) was induced in 17 animals by catheter lesion through the right carotid artery, proximal aortic constriction (AC group) was created in 17 animals by metallic clip placement in the ascending aorta through a neck incision, while 16 animals served as controls (CO group). Eight weeks later, myocardial function and contractility indices were assessed by sonomicrometry crystals. Hearts were then collected for morphometric measurements and left ventricular tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of fibrosis, necrosis and apoptosis. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Dunnett's post hoc test or by Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post hoc test as appropriate, with significance at p< or =0.05. The model of aortic regurgitation indicated early stages of heart failure by volume overload with increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output and pressure-volume loop areas. The elastance was higher in the control group compared with that in the AC and AR groups (131.00+/-51.27 vs 88.77+/-40.11 vs 75.29+/-50.70; p=0.01). The preload recruitable stroke work was higher in the control group compared with that in the AC and AR groups (47.70+/-14.19 vs 33.87+/-7.46 vs 38.58+/-9.45; p=0.01). Aortic constriction produced left ventricular concentric hypertrophy. Fibrosis appeared in both heart failure models and was elevated by aortic constriction when compared with that in controls. Necrosis and apoptosis indices were very low in all the groups. Clinical signs of congestive heart failure were

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide as a preload depressor in acute renal failure secondary to congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Seta, K; Hayashi, T; Sugawara, A; Kasuno, K; Watanabe, S; Sumi, Y; Kijima, Y; Kawaguchi, K; Kotake, C; Seo, T; Toda, T; Kuwahara, T

    1998-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to verify the hypothesis that infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) might lower preload and be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary congestion even without a diuresis in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) secondary to severe congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 22 patients with ARF secondary to CHF. The mean age of the patients (14 men and 8 women) was 72 years (range 36 to 85 years). Seven of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy, ten had ischemic heart disease, and five had valvular heart disease. ANP was infused intravenously and the following data before and 1 hour after the start of ANP infusion were recorded; urinary output, systemic blood pressure (SBP), pulmonary blood pressure (PBP), right atrial pressure (RAP), cardiac index (CI), heart rate (HR), and arterial blood oxygen partial pressure. Diastolic PBP were employed as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Urinary output did not change. Mean SBP decreased from 92 to 85 mmHg (p < 0.05), and mean PBP decreased from 34 to 28 mmHg (p < 0.01). Mean RAP decreased from 11 to 9 mmHg (p < 0.01) and diastolic PBP decreased from 25 to 19 mmHg (p < 0.01). HR did not change significantly and CI increased 2.4 to 2.5 mi/min/m2 (p < 0.05). Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure increased significantly from 71 to 82 mmHg (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ANP decreased preload and improved arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, though diuretic response to ANP is attenuated in ARF secondary to CHE. Infusion of ANP will be very beneficial in cases in which dyspnea and pulmonary edema due to elevation of preload are the principal clinical problems.

  16. Autonomic function change following a supervised exercise program in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Diana; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have investigated changes in autonomic function after training in patients with cardiovascular diseases, particularly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a strong predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of supervised exercise training on autonomic function, which were assessed by heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and rate-pressure product (RPP) in CHF patients. 65 patients aged 57-82 years with CHF were assigned to two groups randomly. The first group received a supervised 8-week aerobic training program of 30-45 min sessions, 3 days per week on alternate days, while controls received standard medical care and were followed up. Body weight, body mass index, functional capacity, resting heart rate, HRR, resting systolic blood pressure, peak heart rate, peak systolic blood pressure, and RPP were measured before and after the study period. Medications and diet recommendations remained unchanged in both groups during the study period. The exercise group consisted of 33 patients with mean age of 61.54 ± 5.89 years and the controls were 32 patients with mean age of 60.94 ± 5.03 years. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed a statistically significant difference in the exercise group compared to the control group regarding body mass index, resting heart rate, heart rate recover, functional capacity, peak heart rate, peak systolic blood pressure, peak RPP after 8 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, a multidisciplinary CR program with supervised exercise training support significantly improves functional capacity and autonomic function in CHF patients. Therefore, a supervised and guided exercise training program is safe and beneficial for patients with CHF with different etiologies.

  17. Comparison of Iodixanol and Iopromide in Patients With Renal Insufficiency and Congestive Heart Failure Undergoing Coronary Angiography by Hemodynamic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Qian, Geng; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Dong, Wei; Cao, Feng; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contrast media (CM) with different osmolality on cardiac preload in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients with CKD and CHF were equally randomized to receive either iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) iodixanol or low-osmolar contrast media iopromide. We measured cardiac preload indexes by invasive hemodynamic monitoring before and after CM injection. Major adverse cardiac events postprocedures were recorded. Increase in extravascular lung water index was only seen in the iopromide group ( P < .001), while global end diastolic index and central venous pressure were all significantly increased from baseline in the both groups ( P < .001, respectively), and the increase in cardiac preload indexes was significantly greater in the iopromide group than in the iodixanol group ( P < 0.001). The overall incidence of acute heart failure was more frequently observed in the iopromide group ( P = 0.027). Low-osmolar contrast media iopromide significantly increased cardiac preload in patients with CKD and CHF undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures compared with IOCM iodixanol.

  18. The impact of anaemia and kidney function in congestive heart failure and preserved systolic function.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Sebastian; Ollmann, Henrike; Schink, Tania; Dietz, Rainer; Luft, Friedrich C; Willenbrock, Roland

    2005-05-01

    The importance of anaemia in chronic heart failure was highlighted recently by different cohort studies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia and its relationship to renal function, left ventricular function and symptoms of heart failure. We surveyed cases of patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology during 22 consecutive months. Laboratory measurements, blood pressure and echocardiographic parameters were obtained with standardized methods. Out of a total number of 2941 patients, 238 patients (8.1%) had haemoglobin values <11 g/dl. There was a positive association of anaemia with the symptoms of heart failure with a lowering of the median haemoglobin from 14.2 g/dl [New York Heart Association (NYHA) I] to 12.9 g/dl (NYHA IV, P<0.001). Interestingly, anaemia was not associated with left ventricular function or any left ventricular parameters. Symptoms of heart failure, however, were associated with kidney function. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 82 ml/min at NYHA I and 59 ml/min at NYHA IV, P<0.05. There was an association between impaired renal function and haemoglobin values. Haemoglobin was 14.2 g/dl in the group with normal renal function and 11.1 g/dl in the group with a GFR <25 ml/min (P<0.001). Even in patients with normal renal function (878 patients, GFR >85 ml/min), we still found an association of anaemia with the symptoms of heart failure. Haemoglobin was 14.5 g/dl at NYHA I and 13.4 g/dl at NYHA IV, P<0.0001. Anaemia is found in 8.1% of patients admitted to cardiology service. Anaemia was clearly associated with symptoms of congestive heart failure even in patients with normal renal function. Anaemia was not associated with left ventricular function.

  19. Electronic home monitoring of congestive heart failure patients: design and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Baer, C A; Di Salvo, T G; Cail, M I; Noyes, D; Kvedar, J C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of electronic monitoring in the home care of heart failure (HF) patients has not been widely reported. We developed a Vital Sign System (VSS) monitoring device capable of measuring the weight, blood pressure, and heart rate of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the home and transmitting these measurements via modem to a World Wide Web server. In this study of 22 CHF patients, we tested the reliability of the VSS electronic measurements compared to manual measurements taken by visiting home care nurses and ease of use of the VSS units as rated by both patients and home care nurses. The correlation of electronic to manual measurements was high (weight r=0.99; systolic blood pressure [SBP] r=0.84; diastolic blood pressure [DBP] r=0.54; heart rate [HR] r=0.88). The mean difference between electronic and manual measurements was within an acceptable range for clinical surveillance and care of CHF patients (weight 1.6 lbs; SBP 8.8 mm Hg; DBP 9.2 mm Hg; HR 0.7 bpm) The devices were rated favorably by both nurses and patients. The VSS monitoring device is a reliable, feasible, and favorably rated technology for home surveillance of CHF patients. (c)1999 by CHF, Inc.

  20. The kidney in congestive heart failure: 'are natriuresis, sodium, and diuretics really the good, the bad and the ugly?'.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Swennen, Quirine; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2014-02-01

    This review discusses renal sodium handling in heart failure. Increased sodium avidity and tendency to extracellular volume overload, i.e. congestion, are hallmark features of the heart failure syndrome. Particularly in the case of concomitant renal dysfunction, the kidneys often fail to elicit potent natriuresis. Yet, assessment of renal function is generally performed by measuring serum creatinine, which has inherent limitations as a biomarker for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Moreover, glomerular filtration only represents part of the nephron's function. Alterations in the fractional reabsorptive rate of sodium are at least equally important in emerging therapy-refractory congestion. Indeed, renal blood flow decreases before the GFR is affected in congestive heart failure. The resulting increased filtration fraction changes Starling forces in peritubular capillaries, which drive sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubules. Congestion further stimulates this process by augmenting renal lymph flow. Consequently, fractional sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubules is significantly increased, limiting sodium delivery to the distal nephron. Orthosympathetic activation probably plays a pivotal role in those deranged intrarenal haemodynamics, which ultimately enhance diuretic resistance, stimulate neurohumoral activation with aldosterone breakthrough, and compromise the counter-regulatory function of natriuretic peptides. Recent evidence even suggests that intrinsic renal derangements might impair natriuresis early on, before clinical congestion or neurohumoral activation are evident. This represents a paradigm shift in heart failure pathophysiology, as it suggests that renal dysfunction-although not by conventional GFR measurements-is driving disease progression. In this respect, a better understanding of renal sodium handling in congestive heart failure is crucial to achieve more tailored decongestive therapy, while preserving renal function.

  1. Left ventricular filling after long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Baur, L H; Schipperheyn, J J; Cats, V M; van der Wall, E E; Baan, J; van Dijk, A D; Bruschke, A V

    1992-11-01

    As a rule, left ventricular relaxation is impaired in patients with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. In addition, the passive elastic properties in early and late diastole change when the ventricle dilates. Diastolic properties of the left ventricle were studied in 11 patients with congestive heart failure class II-IV (NYHA) before and 3 months after 10-20 mg enalapril was added to their regimen of salt restriction, a diuretic and occasionally digitalis. Haemodynamic studies were performed using radionuclide angiography and simultaneous pressure-volume measurements. Systemic vascular resistance decreased from 1479 to 1182 dynes.s.-1 cm-5 (P < 0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19.2 to 15.9 mmHg (P < 0.05). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index decreased from 130 +/- 22 to 81 +/- 22 ml (P < 0.01). Indices of early diastolic relaxation, such as peak filling rate (1.43 +/- 0.46 to 1.49 +/- 0.84 EDV/s), time to peak filling rate (460 +/- 70 to 490 +/- 70 ms), peak negative dP/dt (-903 +/- 190 to -891 +/- 190 mmHg/s) and tau, the time constant of isovolumic pressure decay (58.7 +/- 14.4 to 48.4 +/- 15.2 ms) did not change significantly. In nine patients pressure-volume loops shifted to the left in all patients but one due to reduction in end-systolic and end-diastolic volume. The steepness of the diastolic part of the pressure-volume relationship increased, indicating an increase in chamber stiffness. The stiffness constant increased about 25% towards a more normal value. The alteration in stiffness seemed to be mainly due to the change of the geometry of the ventricle and not to a major change in the visco-elastic properties of the ventricular wall. In conclusion, regression of remodelling induced by enalapril does not change diastolic function parameters in patients with chronic congestive heart failure beyond the changes caused by regression of ventricular dilation.

  2. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-21

    understanding of the mechanical implications of congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by BBB.

  3. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    understanding of the mechanical implications of congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by BBB.

  4. Persistent pulmonary congestion before discharge predicts rehospitalization in heart failure: a lung ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Pang, P S; Frassi, F; Miglioranza, M H; Dini, F L; Landi, P; Picano, E

    2015-09-04

    B-lines evaluated by lung ultrasound (LUS) are the sonographic sign of pulmonary congestion, a major predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of B-lines at discharge to predict rehospitalization at 6 months in patients with acute HF (AHF). A prospective cohort of 100 patients admitted to a Cardiology Department for dyspnea and/or clinical suspicion of AHF were enrolled (mean age 70 ± 11 years). B-lines were evaluated at admission and before discharge. Subjects were followed-up for 6-months after discharge. Mean B-lines at admission was 48 ± 48 with a statistically significant reduction before discharge (20 ± 23, p < .0001). During follow-up, 14 patients were rehospitalized for decompensated HF. The 6-month event-free survival was highest in patients with less B-lines (≤ 15) and lowest in patients with more B-lines (> 15) (log rank χ(2) 20.5, p < .0001). On multivariable analysis, B-lines > 15 before discharge (hazard ratio [HR] 11.74; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.30-106.16) was an independent predictor of events at 6 months. Persistent pulmonary congestion before discharge evaluated by ultrasound strongly predicts rehospitalization for HF at 6-months. Absence or a mild degree of B-lines identify a subgroup at extremely low risk to be readmitted for HF decompensation.

  5. [Nursing diagnoses and interventions for patients with congestive heart failure using the ICNP ®].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Angela Amorim; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this descriptive exploratory study was to construct nursing diagnosis and intervention statements for patients with Congestive Heart Failure. To accomplish this aim, 53 terms were identified in the focus axis of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®), which guided the construction of these statements using the guidelines of the International Council of Nurses and ISO 18. 104. A total of 92 nursing diagnosis statements were constructed, which resulted in 66 statements after standardization. The standardized statements were separated according to the following pathophysiological models: 13 related to tachycardia, 20 related to dyspnea, 19 related to edema, and 14 related to congestion. A total of 234 interventions were constructed for these statements using the terms from the 7-Axis Model of the ICNP®, the literature in the area and the clinical experience of the authors. The nursing diagnosis and intervention statements designed are expected to facilitate the evaluation of CHF patients and assist in the construction of a terminological subset for the ICNP®.

  6. Association between glycated haemoglobin and the risk of congestive heart failure in diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Erqou, Sebhat; Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Suffoletto, Matthew; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Melle, Joost P; Adler, Amanda I

    2013-02-01

    Clinical trials to date have not provided definitive evidence regarding the effects of glucose lowering on the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). We synthesized available prospective epidemiological data on the association between glycaemia measured by haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and incident CHF in individuals with diabetes. We searched electronic databases and reference lists of selected articles for relevant prospective epidemiological studies. We abstracted data from relevant studies using standardized forms and obtained additional data from investigators when required. We pooled study-specific relative risk estimates using random-effects model meta-analysis. Of the 1044 citations identified, we included 10 studies comprising 178 929 participants with diabetes and 14 176 incident CHF cases. Five studies included only patients with type 2 diabetes, four studies had predominantly patients with type 2 diabetes, and one study included only patients with type 1 diabetes. All studies except one showed an increased risk of CHF with higher HbA(1c). The overall adjusted risk ratio (RR) for CHF was 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.21] for each percentage point higher HbA(1c). There was substantial heterogeneity across the 10 studies (I(2): 83%; 95% CI 69-91%; P < 0.001) not explained by available study-level characteristics such as study design or average HbA(1c) level. In seven studies reporting RRs with more than one degree of adjustment, the association was minimally altered after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors. In observational studies of individuals with diabetes, a higher HbA(1c) level was associated with a significantly increased incidence of CHF.

  7. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral levosimendan and its metabolites in patients with severe congestive heart failure: a dosing interval study.

    PubMed

    Põder, Pentti; Eha, Jaan; Sundberg, Stig; Antila, Saila; Heinpalu, Marika; Loogna, Imbrit; Planken, Ulle; Rantanen, Satu; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral levosimendan in patients with severe congestive heart failure. This was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Oral levosimendan 2 to 8 mg daily or placebo was administered to 25 patients with New York Heart Association class III-IV congestive heart failure for 4 weeks. Pharmacodynamic variables consisted of heart rate-corrected electromechanical systole, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The pharmacokinetics of levosimendan and its metabolites, OR-1855 and OR-1896, was assessed. The 4- to 8-mg daily doses of oral levosimendan showed moderate inotropic effects. Blood pressure remained unchanged with all doses. A moderate increase in heart rate was observed except with the 2-mg dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the metabolites increased linearly with the dose (P < or = .002 for Cmax and AUC0-8h for both treatment groups). It was concluded that oral levosimendan has inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Plasma concentrations of its metabolites increase dose dependently. Copyright 2004 American College of Clinical Pharmacology

  8. The use of B-type natriuretic peptide to diagnose congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeffery R

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the background and current use of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays to differentiate congestive heart failure (CHF) from other causes of dyspnea. With a large and growing elderly population, CHF is being diagnosed much more often in emergency rooms in the United States. Doctors need a way to quickly distinguish whether a patient with respiratory distress is suffering from cardiac insufficiency or another etiology. BNP is released from the ventricles in response cardiac overload from CHF or some other form of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Therefore, the detection and measurement of BNP is a fast and accurate method of determining if CHF is the cause of a patient's breathing difficulties.

  9. Congestive heart failure: a review and case report from a chiropractic teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Osterhouse, Melanie D; Kettner, Norman W; Boesch, Ron

    2005-06-01

    To discuss the case of a 62-year-old woman with congestive heart failure (CHF), precipitated by a previous arteriovenous malformation, and to review the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment options for patients with CHF. The patient complained of pain, rapid weight gain, and shortness of breath. The index event for this patient was known to be an arteriovenous malformation. Biventricular cardiomegaly with pulmonary venous hypertension was evident on chest radiographs. The patient received both medical care (drug therapy) and chiropractic care (manipulation and soft tissue techniques to alleviate symptoms and discomfort). Patients with known and undiagnosed CHF may visit the chiropractic physician; thus, knowledge of comprehensive care, differential diagnosis, and continuity of care are important. Chiropractic management may be helpful in alleviating patient discomfort. Further clinical investigations may help to clarify the role of complementary and alternative care in the diagnosis and treatment of CHF.

  10. Home telemonitoring for congestive heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Polisena, Julie; Tran, Khai; Cimon, Karen; Hutton, Brian; McGill, Sarah; Palmer, Krisan; Scott, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature about home telemonitoring compared with usual care. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify studies of home telemonitoring use in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Twenty-one original studies on home telemonitoring for patients with CHF were included (3082 patients). A random effects model was used to compute treatment efficacy to measure the average effect of the intervention across all studies where the quantitative pooling of results was appropriate. Home telemonitoring reduced mortality (risk ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.85) compared with usual care. Several studies suggested that home telemonitoring also helped to lower the number of hospitalizations and the use of other health services. Patient quality of life and satisfaction with home telemonitoring were similar or better than with usual care. More studies of higher methodological quality are required to give more precise information about the potential clinical effectiveness of home telehealth interventions.

  11. Impact of telemonitoring at home on the management of elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, Roberto; Testarmata, Paolo; Spazzafumo, Liana; Gagliardi, Cristina; Bilo, Grzegorz; Valentini, Mariaconsuelo; Olivieri, Fabiola; Parati, Gianfranco

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of home telemonitoring in elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) on mortality and rate of hospitalization, compliance with treatment, quality of life and costs of CHF management, by comparison with a group receiving usual care. Fifty-seven elderly CHF patients were randomized to standard care or to home telemonitoring-based care and followed for 12 months. In the subjects who were monitored, weekly reports on their clinical status were obtained and their management was modified accordingly. Home telemonitoring was associated with improvements in the composite endpoint of mortality and rate of hospitalizations (P = 0.006), a better compliance with therapy, more frequent use of beta-blockers and statins, lower total cholesterol level and a better reported health perception score. The improved results with home telemonitoring in CHF were probably due to better compliance and to closer monitoring of the patients.

  12. Feasibility of congestive heart failure telemanagement using a wii-based telecare platform.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey; Cha, Eunme; Orlov, Alexander; Dennison, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    A gaming platform has been used to implement a Home Automated Telemanagement (HAT) system for chronic disease management in the patient's home. The system questions patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) to monitor symptoms, weight changes, and quality of life while educating the patient on their disease. The system is designed to run on the Nintendo Wii videogame console using an active internet connection and the console's built in internet browser. It questions the patient daily on their condition, monitors their weight, and provides the patient with instant feedback on their condition in the form of a 3 zone CHF action plan. The system is designed to be as simple as possible, making it usable by patients with no prior computer or videogame experience. This telemanagement system has been successfully designed and implemented to optimize the care of patients with CHF.

  13. Atrioventricular Dissociation and Congestive Heart Failure in a Ring-Necked Pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Gacar, Ayhan; Demirci, Beste; Soylu, Sadettin Mehmet; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this clinical report was to describe a case of complete atrioventricular dissociation in a 9-month-old, male ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ). The case was incidentally determined during the evaluation of electrocardiograms recorded from pheasants. There were no observed clinical symptoms in the bird before or after the electrocardiogram. The PR interval varied, and there was no association of the P waves and QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram. Although the ventricular rhythm was regular (130 beats/min), atrial rhythm was irregular (approximately 91 beats/min). Pathological examination showed there was left ventricular hypertrophy with degeneration of the mitral valve of the heart and well-marked congestion in the liver and lung.

  14. Congestive Heart Failure and Noncardiac Operations: Risk of Serious Morbidity, Readmission, Reoperation, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Florence E; Sohn, Min-Woong; Jones, Rayford Scott

    2016-06-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) predicts surgical morbidity and mortality. However, few studies evaluate CHF's impact on noncardiac operations. Because of CHFs serious threat to health and survival, surgeons must understand risks CHF poses to patients undergoing a diverse array of operations. We used 2009 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Files to estimate the risk of serious morbidity, reoperation, readmission, mortality, and other postoperative complications associated with preoperative diagnosis of CHF. Multivariable logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for outcomes in 34 ACS NSQIP procedure groups, controlling for age, sex, race, emergency surgery status, American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification, body mass index, and selected laboratory values. Unadjusted ORs indicate adverse effects of CHF on surgical outcomes for most procedures considered. When adjusted for age and other confounders, CHF persists with adverse effects on most outcomes, including serious morbidity (OR 1.52, 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.61; p < 0.001); reoperation (OR 1.29, 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.42; p < 0.001); readmission (OR 1.39, 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.50; p < 0.001); and 30-day mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.13; p < 0.001). The impact of CHF on morbidity and mortality substantially affected those undergoing carotid endarterectomy and lower extremity endovascular repair. Cardiac arrest, mortality, unplanned intubation, and ventilator > 48 hours were complications most affected by CHF. Congestive heart failure strongly predicts serious morbidity, unplanned reoperation, readmission, and surgical mortality for noncardiac operations. Surgeons must pay particular attention to recognizing CHF and optimizing perioperative management when considering surgery. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Verapamil as an antiarrhythmic agent in congestive heart failure: hopping from rabbit to human?

    PubMed Central

    Stams, Thom RG; Bourgonje, Vincent JA; Vos, Marc A; van der Heyden, Marcel AG

    2012-01-01

    Repolarization-dependent cardiac arrhythmias only arise in hearts facing multiple ‘challenges’ affecting its so-called repolarization reserve. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one such challenge frequently observed in humans and is accompanied by altered calcium handling within the contractile heart cell. This raises the question as to whether or not the well-known calcium channel antagonist verapamil acts as an antiarrhythmic drug in this setting, as seen in arrhythmia models without CHF. According to the study of Milberg et al. in this issue of BJP, the answer is yes. The results of this study, using a rabbit CHF model, raise important questions. First, given that the model combines CHF with a number of other interventions that predispose towards arrhythmia, will similar conclusions be reached in a setting where CHF is a more prominent proarrhythmic challenge; second, what is the extent to which other effects of calcium channel block would limit the clinical viability of this pharmacological approach in CHF? In vivo studies in large animal CHF models are now required to further explore this interesting, but complex, approach to the treatment of arrhythmia. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Milberg et al., pp. 557–568 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01721.x PMID:22188337

  16. Increased expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in end-stage human congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    d'Amati, G; di Gioia, C R; Mentuccia, D; Pistilli, D; Proietti-Pannunzi, L; Miraldi, F; Gallo, P; Celi, F S

    2001-05-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an important role on myocardial development and function. The local effects of thyroid hormone are mediated by the receptor isoforms ultimately driving the expression of cardiac-specific genes. Although overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction causes well-known changes in the cardiovascular system, little is known about local thyroid hormone action in normal and failing human myocardium. With a newly developed multiplex competitive RT-PCR method, we evaluated the expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-1 in normal human hearts and in end-stage congestive heart failure. A statistically significant difference in the expression of all three TR isoforms was observed among samples from normal subjects, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In DCM, compared with normal, the studied TR isoforms were significantly increased. In IHD, the increased expression was found significant only for alpha-1 and alpha-2 isoforms. No differences were observed between the pathologic groups. In conclusion, a coordinated increment in the expression of the TR isoforms was observed in both DCM and IHD by multiplex competitive RT-PCR. The observed changes could represent a compensatory mechanism to myocardial failure or to locally altered thyroid hormone action.

  17. Reduced Data Dualscale Entropy Analysis of HRV Signals for Improved Congestive Heart Failure Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntamalla, Srinivas; Lekkala, Ram Gopal Reddy

    2014-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important dynamic variable of the cardiovascular system, which operates on multiple time scales. In this study, Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is applied to HRV signals taken from Physiobank to discriminate Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) patients from healthy young and elderly subjects. The discrimination power of the MSE method is decreased as the amount of the data reduces and the lowest amount of the data at which there is a clear discrimination between CHF and normal subjects is found to be 4000 samples. Further, this method failed to discriminate CHF from healthy elderly subjects. In view of this, the Reduced Data Dualscale Entropy Analysis method is proposed to reduce the data size required (as low as 500 samples) for clearly discriminating the CHF patients from young and elderly subjects with only two scales. Further, an easy to interpret index is derived using this new approach for the diagnosis of CHF. This index shows 100 % accuracy and correlates well with the pathophysiology of heart failure.

  18. A usability study of a mobile monitoring system for congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Svagård, I; Austad, H O; Seeberg, T; Vedum, J; Liverud, A; Mathiesen, B M; Keller, B; Bendixen, O C; Osborne, P; Strisland, F

    2014-01-01

    Sensor-based monitoring of congestive heart-failure (CHF) patients living at home can improve quality of care, detect exacerbations of disease at an earlier stage and motivate the patient for better self care. This paper reports on a usability study of the ESUMS system that provides continuous measurements of heart rate, activity, upper body posture and skin temperature via a sensor belt and a smartphone as patient terminal. Five CHF patients were included in the trial, all recently discharged from hospital. The nurses experienced continuous heart rate, activity and posture monitoring as useful and objective tools that helped them in their daily assessment of patient health. They also saw the system as an important educational tool to help patients gain insight into their own condition. Three patients liked that they could have a view of their own physiological and activity data, however the smartphones used in the study turned out to be too complicated for the patients to operate. A smartphone is built to be a multi-purpose device, and this may (conceptually and practically) be incompatible with the patients' demands for ease of use.

  19. Use of Wavelet Transform to Detect Compensated and Decompensated Stages in the Congestive Heart Failure Patient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratibha; Newman, Kimberly; Long, Carlin S; Gasiewski, A J; Barnes, Frank

    2017-09-20

    This research work is aimed at improving health care, reducing cost, and the occurrence of emergency hospitalization in patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) by analyzing heart and lung sounds to distinguish between the compensated and decompensated states. Compensated state defines stable state of the patient but with lack of retention of fluids in lungs, whereas decompensated state leads to unstable state of the patient with lots of fluid retention in the lungs, where the patient needs medication. Acoustic signals from the heart and the lung were analyzed using wavelet transforms to measure changes in the CHF patient's status from the decompensated to compensated and vice versa. Measurements were taken on CHF patients diagnosed to be in compensated and decompensated states by using a digital stethoscope and electrocardiogram (ECG) in order to monitor their progress in the management of their disease. Analysis of acoustic signals of the heart due to the opening and closing of heart valves as well as the acoustic signals of the lungs due to respiration and the ECG signals are presented. Fourier, short-time Fourier, and wavelet transforms are evaluated to determine the best method to detect shifts in the status of a CHF patient. The power spectra obtained through the Fourier transform produced results that differentiate the signals from healthy people and CHF patients, while the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) technique did not provide the desired results. The most promising results were obtained by using wavelet analysis. Wavelet transforms provide better resolution, in time, for higher frequencies, and a better resolution, in frequency, for lower frequencies.

  20. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  1. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  2. Asymptomatic Left Bundle Branch Block Predicts New-Onset Congestive Heart Failure and Death From Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Azadani, Peyman N.; Soleimanirahbar, Ata; Marcus, Gregory M.; Haight, Thaddeus J.; Hollenberg, Milton; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Lee, Byron K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Left bundle branch block (LBBB) has been proposed as a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We sought to characterize the strength of these associations in a population without preexisting clinical heart disease. Methods The association between LBBB and new-onset congestive heart failure (CHF) or death from cardiovascular diseases was examined in 1,688 participants enrolled in the SPPARCS study who were free of known CHF or previous myocardial infarction. SPPARCS is a community-based cohort study in residents of Sonoma, California that are > 55 years. Medical history and 12-lead ECGs were obtained every 2 years for up to 6 years of follow-up. LBBB at enrollment or year 2 was considered “baseline” and assessed as a predictor of CHF and cardiovascular death ascertained at years 4 and 6. Results The prevalence of LBBB at baseline was 2.5% (n = 42). During 6 years of follow-up, 70 (4.8%) people developed new CHF. Incidence of CHF was higher in patients with LBBB than in participants without LBBB. This association persisted after controlling for potential confounders (odds ratio (OR): 2.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 - 8.02; P = 0.047). A higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases was also found in participants with LBBB after adjusting for potential confounders (OR: 2.35, 95%CI: 1.02 - 5.41; P = 0.044). Conclusions LBBB in the absence of a clinically detectable heart disease is associated with new-onset CHF and death from cardiovascular diseases. Further study is warranted to determine if additional diagnostic testing or earlier treatment in patients with asymptomatic LBBB can decrease cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.

  3. The Current Prevalence of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Congestive Heart Failure Patients Treated with Beta-Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Mary; Fang, James; Pittman, Steven D.; White, David P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although sleep disordered breathing is thought to be common in patients with systolic heart failure, prior studies are difficult to interpret due to a variety of factors including small sample sizes, referral bias to sleep laboratories among participants, lack of modern medical therapy for congestive heart failure, and the failure to use modern techniques to assess breathing such as nasal pressure. Our objective was to determine the current prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in a state-of-the-art congestive heart failure clinic. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of consecutive patients who visited our heart failure clinic to assess the prevalence of sleep apnea in all eligible patients on maximal medical therapy. We used 4-channel recording equipment and modified Chicago criteria for scoring respiratory events (using heart rate response as a surrogate for arousal from sleep). Results: We observed that among the 108 participants, 61% had some form of sleep disordered breathing (31% central apnea with Cheyne Stokes respiration and 30% obstructive sleep apnea). Sleep disordered breathing was significantly associated with atrial fibrillation (OR = 11.56, p = 0.02) and worse functional heart failure class (OR = 2.77, p = 0.02), after adjusting for male sex, age over 60 years, body mass index, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions: We conclude that both obstructive and central sleep apnea remain common in congestive heart failure patients despite advances in medical therapy, and that the previously reported high prevalence values are unlikely to be explained by referral bias or participation bias in prior studies. These data have important clinical implications for practitioners providing CHF therapy. Citation: Macdonald M; Fang J; Pittman SD; White DP; Malhotra A. The current prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in congestive heart failure patients treated with beta-blockers. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(1):38–42. PMID

  4. Long- and short-time analysis of heartbeat sequences: Correlation with mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, P.; Balocchi, R.; Chillemi, S.; Grigolini, P.; Hamilton, P.; Maestri, R.; Palatella, L.; Raffaelli, G.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze RR heartbeat sequences with a dynamic model that satisfactorily reproduces both the long- and the short-time statistical properties of heart beating. These properties are expressed quantitatively by means of two significant parameters, the scaling δ concerning the asymptotic effects of long-range correlation, and the quantity 1-π establishing the amount of uncorrelated fluctuations. We find a correlation between the position in the phase space (δ,π) of patients with congestive heart failure and their mortality risk.

  5. Long- and short-time analysis of heartbeat sequences: correlation with mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, P; Balocchi, R; Chillemi, S; Grigolini, P; Hamilton, P; Maestri, R; Palatella, L; Raffaelli, G

    2003-06-01

    We analyze RR heartbeat sequences with a dynamic model that satisfactorily reproduces both the long- and the short-time statistical properties of heart beating. These properties are expressed quantitatively by means of two significant parameters, the scaling delta concerning the asymptotic effects of long-range correlation, and the quantity 1-pi establishing the amount of uncorrelated fluctuations. We find a correlation between the position in the phase space (delta, pi) of patients with congestive heart failure and their mortality risk.

  6. Fluid Volume Overload and Congestion in Heart Failure: Time to Reconsider Pathophysiology and How Volume Is Assessed.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wayne L

    2016-08-01

    Volume regulation, assessment, and management remain basic issues in patients with heart failure. The discussion presented here is directed at opening a reassessment of the pathophysiology of congestion in congestive heart failure and the methods by which we determine volume overload status. Peer-reviewed historical and contemporary literatures are reviewed. Volume overload and fluid congestion remain primary issues for patients with chronic heart failure. The pathophysiology is complex, and the simple concept of intravascular fluid accumulation is not adequate. The dynamics of interstitial and intravascular fluid compartment interactions and fluid redistribution from venous splanchnic beds to central pulmonary circulation need to be taken into account in strategies of volume management. Clinical bedside evaluations and right heart hemodynamic assessments can alert clinicians of changes in volume status, but only the quantitative measurement of total blood volume can help identify the heterogeneity in plasma volume and red blood cell mass that are features of volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure and help guide individualized, appropriate therapy-not all volume overload is the same. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Association of Holter-Derived Heart Rate Variability Parameters With the Development of Congestive Heart Failure in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaiibhav N; Pierce, Brian R; Bodapati, Rohan K; Brown, David L; Ives, Diane G; Stein, Phyllis K

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to determine whether Holter-based parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) are independently associated with incident heart failure among older adults in the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) as evidenced by an improvement in the predictive power of the Health Aging and Body Composition Heart Failure (Health ABC) score. Abnormal HRV, a marker of autonomic dysfunction, has been associated with multiple adverse cardiovascular outcomes but not the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). Asymptomatic CHS participants with interpretable 24-h baseline Holter recordings were included (n = 1,401). HRV measures and premature ventricular contraction (PVC) counts were compared between participants with (n = 260) and without (n = 1,141) incident CHF on follow-up. Significantly different parameters between groups were added to the components of the Health ABC score, a validated CHF prediction tool, using stepwise Cox regression. The final model included components of the Health ABC score, In PVC counts (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.19; p < 0.001) and the following HRV measures: abnormal heart rate turbulence onset (aHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.08; p = 0.009), short-term fractal scaling exponent (aHR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.53; p < 0.001), in very low frequency power (aHR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.60; p = 0.037), and coefficient of variance of N-N intervals (aHR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.99; p = 0.009). The C-statistic for the final model was significantly improved over the Health ABC model alone (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.0002). Abnormal HRV parameters were significantly and independently associated with incident CHF in asymptomatic, older adults. When combined with increased PVCs, HRV improved the predictive power of the Health ABC score. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiographic and echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size in 100 cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Schober, Karsten E; Wetli, Ellen; Drost, Wm Tod

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate left atrial size in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that left atrial size as determined by thoracic radiography can be normal in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. One hundred cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure in which thoracic radiography and echocardiography were performed within 12 h were identified. Left atrial size was evaluated using right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs. Measurements were compared to two-dimensional echocardiographic variables of left atrial size and left ventricular size. On echocardiography, left atrial enlargement was observed in 96% cats (subjective assessment) whereas maximum left atrial dimension was increased (>15.7 mm) in 93% cats. On radiographs left atrial enlargement (subjective assessment) was found in 48% (lateral view), 53% (ventrodorsal view), and 64% (any view) of cats whereas left atrial enlargement was absent in 36% of cats in both views. Agreement between both methods of left atrial size estimation was poor (Cohen's kappa 0.17). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a maximum echocardiographic left atrial dimension of approximately 20 mm as the best compromise (Youden index) between sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of radiographic left atrial enlargement. Left atrial enlargement as assessed by thoracic radiography may be absent in a clinically relevant number of cats with congestive heart failure. Therefore, normal left atrial size on thoracic radiographs does not rule out presence of left-sided congestive heart failure in cats with clinical signs of respiratory distress.

  9. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Egfjord, Martin; Berg Rasmussen, Henrik; Riis Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). Methods Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic scores A and B of ≤1, 2 and ≥3 each, and followed for up to 10 years. Difference in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death and all-cause death were assessed by the cumulative incidence estimator. Survival was modeled by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results We included 667 patients, of whom 80% were treated with ACEIs. Differences in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death (P = 0.346 and P = 0.486) and all-cause death (P = 0.515 and P = 0.486) were not significant for score A and B, respectively. There was no difference in risk of cardiovascular death or all-cause death between subjects with score A ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.79–1.34] and HR 1.11 [95% CI 0.88–1.42]), score A ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 0.80 [95% CI 0.59–1.08] and HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.70–1.20]), score B ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.78–1.32] and HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.77–1.24]), and score B ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.75–1.41] and HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.79–1.40]), respectively. Conclusions We found no association between either of the analyzed pharmacogenetic scores and fatal outcomes in ACEI

  10. Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with Refractory Congestive Heart Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Renhua; Muciño-Bermejo, María-Jimena; Ribeiro, Leonardo Claudino; Tonini, Enrico; Estremadoyro, Carla; Samoni, Sara; Sharma, Aashish; Zaragoza Galván, José de Jesús; Crepaldi, Carlo; Brendolan, Alessandra; Ni, Zhaohui; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background Refractory congestive heart failure (RCHF) is associated with a high mortality rate and is a major contributor to hospital admissions. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an option to control volume overload and perhaps improve outcomes in this challenging patient population. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the relative risk-benefit ratio based on data reported regarding the use of PD in RCHF. This study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. An electronic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify relevant studies published from January 1951 to February 2014. Eligible studies selected were prospective or retrospective adult population studies on PD in the setting of RCHF. The following clinical outcomes were used to assess PD therapy: (1) hospitalization rates; (2) heart function; (3) renal function; (4) fluid overload, and (5) adverse clinical outcomes. Summary Of 864 citations, we excluded 843 citations and included 21 studies (n = 673 patients). After PD, hospitalization days declined significantly (p = 0.0001), and heart function improved significantly (left ventricular ejection fraction: p = 0.0013; New York Heart Association classification: p = 0.0000). There were no statistically significant differences in glomerular filtration rate after PD treatment in non-chronic kidney disease stage 5D patients (p = 0.1065). Among patients treated with PD, body weight decreased significantly (p = 0.0006). The yearly average peritonitis rate was 14.5%, and the average yearly mortality was 20.3%. Key Messages This systematic review suggests that PD may be an effective and safe therapeutic tool for patients with RCHF. PMID:25999963

  11. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  12. Influence of Thoracic Fluid Compartments on Pulmonary Congestion in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven C; Taylor, Bryan J; Cross, Troy J; Coffman, Kirsten E; Olson, Lyle J; Johnson, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary congestion is a common finding of heart failure (HF), but it remains unclear how pulmonary and heart blood volumes (Vp and Vh, respectively) and extravascular lung water (EVLW) change in stable HF and affect lung function. Fourteen patients with HF (age 68 ± 11 y, LVEF 33 ± 8%) and 12 control subjects (age 65 ± 9 y) were recruited. A pulmonary function test, thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) scan, and contrast perfusion scan were performed. From the thoracic scan, a histogram of CT attenuation of lung tissue was generated and skew, kurtosis, and full-width half-max (FWHM) calculated as surrogates of EVLW. Blood volumes were calculated from the transit time of the contrast through the great vessels of the heart. Patients with HF had greater Vp and Vh (Vp 0.55 ± 0.21 L vs 0.41 ± 0.13 L; Vh 0.53 ± 0.33 L vs 0.40 ± 0.15 L) and EVLW (skew 3.2 ± 0.5 vs 3.7 ± 0.7; kurtosis 19.4 ± 6.6 vs 25.9 ± 9.4; FWHM 73 ± 13 HU vs 59 ± 9 HU). Spirometric measures were decreased in HF (percentage of predicted: forced vital capacity 86 ± 17% vs 104 ± 9%; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 83 ± 20% vs 105 ± 11%; maximal mid-expiratory flow 82 ± 42% vs 115 ± 43%). Vp was associated with decreased expiratory flows, and EVLW was associated with decreased lung volumes. Congestion in stable patients with HF includes expanded Vp and Vh and increased EVLW associated with reductions in lung volumes and expiratory flows. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Histology and Glutamine Synthetase Immunoreactivity in Liver Biopsies From Patients With Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Bela; Zhu, Lei; Allende, Daniela; Xie, Hao; Guirguis, John; Cruise, Michael; Patil, Deepa T.; O’Shea, Robert; Rivas, John; Yordanka, Reyna; Lan, Nan; Liu, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-standing congestive heart failure can induce a constellation of histopathology changes in the liver that can range from mild sinusoidal dilation to advanced fibrosis and loss of normal perivenular expression of glutamine synthetase (GS). Liver biopsies might be performed to assess the perioperative risk of these patients or to determine the need of synchronous liver transplant. We aimed to assess interobserver agreement in recognizing these liver histologic features in patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation and to examine whether immunohistochemistry of GS will aid the diagnosis of cardiac hepatopathy (CH). Methods Hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome-stained slides from 36 liver biopsies from patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation were reviewed by four liver pathologists. Histologic features of CH were reviewed and an overall fibrosis (stage) was assessed according to a recently proposed congestive hepatic fibrosis score (CHFS). In addition, 24 liver biopsies with a consensus diagnosis of CH and eight liver biopsies with no significant pathological changes were subjected to immunohistochemistry for GS. The Fleiss’ kappa coefficient (K) analysis was performed to determine the interobserver agreement. Further, histologic features of CH were correlated with the staining pattern of GS. Results Sinusoidal dilation, centrilobular hepatocyte atrophy, centrilobular fibrosis and hemorrhage were the most common findings in this cohort with a substantial-to-fair level of interobserver agreement among four reviewers. The overall agreement on the diagnosis of CH and CHFS was moderate (K = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 - 0.73) and fair (K = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.49), respectively. Twelve (of 24, 50%) cases of CH showed loss of the normal perivenular GS staining, while the remaining 12 cases of CH and all eight controls showed retained GS expression. Histologic features of CH (presence of sinusoidal dilation

  14. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor presenting with congestive heart failure and good response to dopaminergic agonist cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsi; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Huang, Tien-Shang

    2013-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an important inducing factor in patients with atrial fibrillation, and may trigger heart failure. Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH)-secreting pituitary tumors are rare causes of hyperthyroidism. Here, we report a 66-year-old man with a pituitary TSH-secreting tumor who presented with hyperthyroidism and congestive heart failure. Endonasal trans-sphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and congestive heart failure were relieved, associated with normalization of thyroid function tests. Unfortunately, hand tremor and progressively elevated free T4 and TSH concentrations recurred 5 months after surgery. A dopaminergic agonist, cabergoline was administered and euthyroidism was restored for at least 11 months.

  15. Effects of tolvaptan on systemic and renal hemodynamic function in dogs with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Onogawa, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Shigeki; Nakayama, Sunao; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Yoshitaka

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist, on diuretic response and systemic and renal hemodynamic characteristics in conscious dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF). We also compared these effects with those of furosemide, a loop diuretic. CHF was induced by rapid right-ventricular pacing at 260 beats/min for at least 3 weeks, and maintained with a pacing rate of 220-240 beats/min. CHF dogs were orally given tolvaptan (10 mg/kg), furosemide (10 mg/kg) and vehicle in random order during the stable CHF state. Urine excretion, systemic and renal hemodynamic parameters, and plasma hormone levels were measured over 6-hour periods after drug administration. Tolvaptan induced aquaresis with an increase in free water clearance, resulting in a significant increase in serum sodium concentrations and a decrease in cumulative water balance. Tolvaptan also decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure without affecting systemic vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate or renal blood flow. Tolvaptan tended to increase plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations but did not affect plasma renin activity. In contrast, furosemide induced clear saluresis with increased electrolyte excretion, resulting in decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. However, furosemide also decreased serum potassium concentration and increased plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations and plasma renin activity. Tolvaptan elicited a potent aquaretic response and reduced the cardiac preload without unfavorable effects on systemic or renal hemodynamics, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or the sympathetic nervous system in CHF dogs. Thus, tolvaptan may offer a novel approach to remove excess water congestion from patients with CHF.

  16. The direct factor Xa inhibitor Rivaroxaban reduces platelet activation in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Ulrike; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Micka, Jan; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    Platelet activation in congestive heart failure (CHF) contributes to an increased risk for thromboembolic complications. Rivaroxaban, the first oral direct FXa inhibitor is approved in Europe for prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and prevention of thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation. As heart failure is an important risk factor for thromboembolism and increased platelet activation is common in heart failure, we investigated the potential effect of Rivaroxaban treatment on platelets in an experimental CHF model. Chronic myocardial infarction was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary ligation. Rats were randomized to placebo or Rivaroxaban (3 and 10mg/kg once daily). After 10 weeks platelet activation was assessed. Platelet-bound fibrinogen, detected by flow-cytometry, was significantly increased in CHF-Placebo (p<0.05) and reduced following treatment with Rivaroxaban (p<0.05 vs. CHF-Placebo). ADP-induced aggregation was significantly enhanced in CHF-Placebo vs. sham-operated animals (p<0.05) and normalized following chronic FXa inhibition (p<0.05 vs. CHF-Placebo). In separate in vitro experiments, attenuated platelet aggregation was present after incubating whole blood directly with Rivaroxaban but absent when the experiment was performed in platelet-rich plasma only. Thus, a direct effect on platelets could be excluded. Chronic direct factor Xa inhibition using Rivaroxaban reduces platelet activation in CHF rats by attenuating the secondary phase of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Thus, Rivaroxaban may constitute a useful approach to prevent thromboembolic complications and reduce platelet activation in CHF at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term outcome of patients with acromegaly and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bihan, Hélène; Espinosa, Consuelo; Valdes-Socin, Hernan; Salenave, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Levasseur, Suzanne; Assayag, Patrick; Beckers, Albert; Chanson, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acromegaly. Normalization of GH secretion is associated with an improvement in structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. However, the long-term cardiac effects of treatment for acromegaly have not been studied in patients who have already developed chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We reviewed the charts of 330 consecutive patients with acromegaly treated in two French and Belgian centers since 1985. Ten patients with both acromegaly and CHF (eight men, two women, mean age 49.7 yr) were studied retrospectively. One of them was excluded because CHF was due to severe aortic stenosis.CHF (New York Heart Association stages III-IV and echocardiography showing dilated hypokinetic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45%) was diagnosed before, concomitantly, or after acromegaly in, respectively, two, five, and two patients. Three patients were referred with terminal heart failure requiring transplantation.One patient had transient CHF associated with a hypertensive crisis. The other eight patients had symptomatic chronic CHF. Control of GH hypersecretion failed, totally or partially, in three patients: one had a long-term survival, and the two others died at 1 and 5 yr. Good GH control was achieved in five patients: four of these are still alive 2-16 yr after diagnosis of CHF, their clinical status is stable or improved, and their quality of life is good. Overall, the 1- and 5-yr mortality (or transplantation) rates for patients with chronic symptomatic CHF were 25% (2 of 8 patients) and 37.5% (3 of 8 patients), respectively. In conclusion, less than 3% of acromegalic patients developed CHF in this study. Although effective treatment of acromegaly improved short-term cardiovascular status, its impact on long-term survival is questionable.

  18. Generalized discriminant analysis for congestive heart failure risk assessment based on long-term heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are summarized in the following items: first, to investigate the class discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability (HRV) features for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF); second, to introduce the most discriminative features of HRV to discriminate low risk patients (LRPs) and high risk patients (HRPs), and third, to examine the influence of feature dimension reduction in order to achieve desired accuracy of the classification. We analyzed two public Holter databases: 12 data of patients suffering from mild CHF (NYHA class I and II), labeled as LRPs and 32 data of patients suffering from severe CHF (NYHA class III and IV), labeled as HRPs. A K-nearest neighbor classifier was used to evaluate the performance of feature set in the classification. Moreover, to reduce the number of features as well as the overlap of the samples of two classes in feature space, we used generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) as a feature extraction method. By applying GDA to the discriminative nonlinear features, we achieved sensitivity and specificity of 100% having the least number of features. Finally, the results were compared with other similar conducted studies regarding the performance of feature selection procedure and classifier besides the number of features used in training.

  19. Blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio is associated with congestion and mortality in heart failure patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Testani, Jeffrey M; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Bellanca, Michele; Pizzo, Giuseppina; Cuttitta, Francesco; Pinto, Antonio; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) and venous congestion are related and common in heart failure (HF). Studies suggest that venous congestion may be the primary driver of RD in HF. In this study, we sought to investigate retrospectively the relationship between common measures of renal function with caval congestion and mortality among outpatients with HF and RD. We reviewed data from 103 HF outpatients (45 males, mean age 74 years, ejection fraction 41.8 ± 11.6 %) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 ml/min in a single centre. During an ambulatory visit, all patients underwent blood test and ultrasonography of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Caval congestion was defined as IVC with both dilatation and impaired collapsibility. The best values of renal metrics in predicting caval congestion were determined with receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The BUN/Cr ratio is moderately correlated with IVC expiratory maximum diameter (r = 0.31, p < 0.0007). In a multiple logistic regression model, BUN/Cr > 25.5 (adjusted OR 2.98, p 0.015) and eGFR ≤ 45.8 (adjusted OR 5.38, p 0.002) identify patients at risk for caval congestion; a BUN/Cr > 23.7 was the best predictor of impaired collapsibility (adjusted OR 4.41, p 0.001). a BUN/Cr > 25.5 (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.21-3.94, p < 0.001) and NYHA class 3 (HR 2.91, 95 % CI 1.60-5.31, p < 0.0005) were independent risk factors associated with all-cause death during a median follow-up of 31 months. In outpatients with HF and RD, a higher BUN/Cr and lower eGFR are reliable renal biomarkers for caval congestion. The BUN/Cr is associated with long-term mortality and may help to stratify HF severity.

  20. Coronary heart disease incidence in sleep disordered breathing: the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hla, Khin Mae; Young, Terry; Hagen, Erika W; Stein, James H; Finn, Laurel A; Nieto, F Javier; Peppard, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) in a nonclinical population. Longitudinal analysis of a community-dwelling cohort followed up to 24 y. Sleep laboratory at the Clinical Research Unit of the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. There were 1,131 adults who completed one or more overnight polysomnography studies, were free of CHD or HF at baseline, were not treated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and followed over 24 y. None. In-laboratory overnight polysomnography was used to assess SDB, defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep. Incident CHD or HF was defined by new reports of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedures, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular deaths. We used baseline AHI as the predictor variable in survival analysis models predicting CHD or HF incidence adjusted for traditional confounders. The incidence of CHD or HF was 10.9/1,000 person-years. The mean time to event was 11.2 ± 5.8 y. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, estimated hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident CHD or HF were 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for AHI > 0-5, 1.9 (1.05-3.5) for AHI 5 ≤ 15, 1.8 (0.85-4.0) for AHI 15 ≤ 30, and 2.6 (1.1-6.1) for AHI > 30 compared to AHI = 0 (P trend = 0.02). Participants with untreated severe sleep disordered breathing (AHI > 30) were 2.6 times more likely to have an incident coronary heart disease or heart failure compared to those without sleep disordered breathing. Our findings support the postulated adverse effects of sleep disordered breathing on coronary heart disease and heart failure. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Association between atrial fibrillatory rate and heart rate variability in patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Corino, Valentina D A; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Mainardi, Luca T; Stridh, Martin; Vasquez, Rafael; Bayes de Luna, Antonio; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Zareba, Wojciech; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2013-01-01

    Even if atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) has been related to clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), its relation with ventricular response has not been deeply studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between AFR and RR series variability in patients with AF. Twenty-minute electrocardiograms in orthogonal leads were processed to extract AFR, using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time frequency analysis, and RR series in 127 patients (age 69 ± 11 years) with congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III) enrolled in the MUSIC study (MUerte Subita en Insufficiencia Cardiaca). Heart rate variability and irregularity were assessed by time domain parameters and entropy-based indices, respectively and their correlation with AFR investigated. Variability measures seem not to be related to AFR, while irregularity measures do. A significant correlation between AFR and variability parameters of heart rate variability during AF was found only in patients not treated with antiarrhythmics drugs (correlation = 0.56 P < 0.05 for pNN50), while this correlation was lost in patients taking rate- or rhythm-control drugs. A significant positive correlation between AFR and indices of RR irregularity was found, showing that a higher AFR is related to a less organized RR series (correlation = 0.33 P < 0.05 for regularity index for all patients, correlation increased in subgroups of patients treated with the same drug). These results suggest that a higher AFR is associated with a higher degree of irregularity of ventricular response that is observed regardless of the use of rate-controlling drugs. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Novel and Effective Method for Congestive Heart Failure Detection and Quantification Using Dynamic Heart Rate Variability Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenhui; Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Guanzheng; Jiang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment of congestive heart failure (CHF) is essential for detection, especially helping patients make informed decisions about medications, devices, transplantation, and end-of-life care. The majority of studies have focused on disease detection between CHF patients and normal subjects using short-/long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures but not much on quantification. We downloaded 116 nominal 24-hour RR interval records from the MIT/BIH database, including 72 normal people and 44 CHF patients. These records were analyzed under a 4-level risk assessment model: no risk (normal people, N), mild risk (patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-II, P1), moderate risk (patients with NYHA III, P2), and severe risk (patients with NYHA III-IV, P3). A novel multistage classification approach is proposed for risk assessment and rating CHF using the non-equilibrium decision-tree–based support vector machine classifier. We propose dynamic indices of HRV to capture the dynamics of 5-minute short term HRV measurements for quantifying autonomic activity changes of CHF. We extracted 54 classical measures and 126 dynamic indices and selected from these using backward elimination to detect and quantify CHF patients. Experimental results show that the multistage risk assessment model can realize CHF detection and quantification analysis with total accuracy of 96.61%. The multistage model provides a powerful predictor between predicted and actual ratings, and it could serve as a clinically meaningful outcome providing an early assessment and a prognostic marker for CHF patients. PMID:27835634

  3. A Novel and Effective Method for Congestive Heart Failure Detection and Quantification Using Dynamic Heart Rate Variability Measurement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhui; Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Guanzheng; Jiang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment of congestive heart failure (CHF) is essential for detection, especially helping patients make informed decisions about medications, devices, transplantation, and end-of-life care. The majority of studies have focused on disease detection between CHF patients and normal subjects using short-/long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures but not much on quantification. We downloaded 116 nominal 24-hour RR interval records from the MIT/BIH database, including 72 normal people and 44 CHF patients. These records were analyzed under a 4-level risk assessment model: no risk (normal people, N), mild risk (patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-II, P1), moderate risk (patients with NYHA III, P2), and severe risk (patients with NYHA III-IV, P3). A novel multistage classification approach is proposed for risk assessment and rating CHF using the non-equilibrium decision-tree-based support vector machine classifier. We propose dynamic indices of HRV to capture the dynamics of 5-minute short term HRV measurements for quantifying autonomic activity changes of CHF. We extracted 54 classical measures and 126 dynamic indices and selected from these using backward elimination to detect and quantify CHF patients. Experimental results show that the multistage risk assessment model can realize CHF detection and quantification analysis with total accuracy of 96.61%. The multistage model provides a powerful predictor between predicted and actual ratings, and it could serve as a clinically meaningful outcome providing an early assessment and a prognostic marker for CHF patients.

  4. Processes and Outcomes of Congestive Heart Failure Care by Different Types of Primary Care Models.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yong-Fang; Adhikari, Deepak; Eke, Chiemeziem G; Goodwin, James S; Raji, Mukaila A

    2017-09-01

    Having nurse practitioners (NPs) as primary care providers for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) is one way to address the growing shortage of primary care physicians (PCPs). We used inverse probability of treatment weighted with propensity score to examine the processes and outcomes of care for patients under three care models. Approximately 72.9%, 0.8%, and 26.3% of CHF patients received care under the PCP model, the NP model, and the shared care model, respectively. Patients under the NP or shared care models were more likely than those under the PCP model to be referred to cardiologists (OR=1.35, 95%CI:1.32-1.37 and OR=1.32, 95%CI:1.30-1.35) and to get guideline-recommended medications. NPs and PCPs had similar rates of ER visits and Medicare spending after adjusting for processes of care. Patients under the shared care model had a higher burden of comorbidity and experienced a higher rate of ER visits and hospitalizations than those under the PCP model. The delivery of CHF care mirrors the severity of comorbidity in these patients. The high rate of hospitalization and ER visits in the shared care model underscores the need to design and implement more effective chronic disease management and integrated care programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Congestive heart failure self-management among US veterans: The role of personal and professional advocates.

    PubMed

    Skaperdas, Eleni; Tuepker, Anaïs; Nicolaidis, Christina; Robb, Jessica K; Kansagara, Devan; Hickam, David H

    2014-06-01

    Understand patients' experiences with primary care services for congestive heart failure (CHF) and explore the relationship between health services and self-management. We conducted semi-structured interviews with thirty-nine patients with CHF receiving care at one Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VA). We analyzed data using thematic content analysis. Participants acknowledged the importance of ongoing engagement in the plan of care for CHF. They attributed success in this effort to be greatly influenced by personal advocates. The advocates included both members of the healthcare team with whom they had a continuity relationship and friends or family members who assisted on a daily basis. Participants also identified psychological symptoms as a major barrier to carrying out self-care. Patients identify relationships with health care workers, help from family and friends, and mental health problems as major influences on the ability to manage their CHF. Efforts to optimize CHF self-management should attend to health system and psychosocial barriers to care. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Direct and indirect assessment of skeletal muscle blood flow in chronic congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    LeJemtel, T.H.; Scortichini, D.; Katz, S.

    1988-09-09

    In patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF), skeletal muscle blood flow can be measured directly by the continuous thermodilution technique and by the xenon-133 clearance method. The continuous thermodilution technique requires retrograde catheterization of the femoral vein and, thus, cannot be repeated conveniently in patients during evaluation of pharmacologic interventions. The xenon-133 clearance, which requires only an intramuscular injection, allows repeated determination of skeletal muscle blood flow. In patients with severe CHF, a fixed capacity of the skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate appears to limit maximal exercise performance. Moreover, the changes in peak skeletal muscle blood flow noted during long-term administration of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, appears to correlate with the changes in aerobic capacity. In patients with CHF, resting supine deep femoral vein oxygen content can be used as an indirect measurement of resting skeletal muscle blood flow. The absence of a steady state complicates the determination of peak skeletal muscle blood flow reached during graded bicycle or treadmill exercise in patients with chronic CHF. Indirect assessments of skeletal muscle blood flow and metabolism during exercise performed at submaximal work loads are currently developed in patients with chronic CHF.

  7. Continuous renal replacement therapy for congestive heart failure: the wearable continuous ultrafiltration system.

    PubMed

    Gura, Victor; Beizai, Masoud; Ezon, Carlos; Rambod, Edmond

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafiltration is effective in the treatment of fluid and sodium overload in congestive heart failure. There is no available device to provide this therapy to ambulatory patients. We built and tested in vivo a wearable belt that can provide continuous ultrafiltration, 168 hours a week. Nine pigs underwent ureteral ligation and subsequently were allowed fluids ad lib, producing fluid overload. Next day, ultrafiltration was performed for 8 hours. The device consists of a hollow-fiber filter, a 9 V battery-operated pulsatile blood pump, a micro pump for heparin infusion, and another micro pump to control ultrafiltration rate. Blood flow was 65 ml/min and the weight of the device is less than 2.5 lb. Fluid removal rate ranged from 0 to 700 ml/h and averaged 106 ml/h. Salt removed was 7.6 g. No complications were observed. The potential impact on the quality of life of these patients by reducing the shortness of breath, leg swelling, and returning their ability to enjoy salt in their food might be significant, and a reduction in morbidity could be expected. The economic impact in reducing hospital admissions and length of stay, intensive care unit utilization, and drug consumption could be significant. Further studies are needed to compare this innovative approach with traditional drug-based therapy.

  8. Efficacy of pimobendan on survival and reoccurrence of pulmonary edema in canine congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masashi; YAMANO, Shigeki; CHIMURA, Shuichi; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; TAKUSAGAWA, Yoshimi; SAWADA, Tamotsu; MAETANI, Shigeki; TAKAHASHI, Arane; MIZUNO, Takeshi; HARADA, Kayoko; SHINODA, Asako; UCHIDA, Shuhei; TAKEUCHI, Junichiro; MIZUKOSHI, Takahiro; ENDO, Masaaki; UECHI, Masami

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pimobendan with conventional therapies on survival and reocurrence of pulmonary edema in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Records of 197 client-owned dogs from 14 veterinary hospitals were included in this study. Dogs were administered conventional treatments with or without pimobendan. Sixty-four dogs received a standard dose of pimobendan (0.20–0.48 mg/kg every 12 hr (q12hr)), 49 dogs received a low dose of pimobendan (0.05–0.19 mg/kg q12hr), and 84 dogs received conventional therapy alone. Dogs in the standard-dose and low-dose pimobendan groups had significantly longer median survival times than dogs in the conventional group (334, 277 and 136 days, respectively; P<0.001). The reoccurrence rate of pulmonary edema in the standard-dose group was significantly lower than in the low-dose and conventional groups (43%, 59% and 62%, respectively; P<0.05). Combination of pimobendan with a conventional treatment regimen significantly prolonged survival time after an initial episode of pulmonary edema in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. There was no difference in survival between dogs administered standard and low doses of pimobendan, but pimobendan did prevent the reoccurrence of pulmonary edema in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27644192

  9. Left lateral decubitus position on patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Ramasamy, Mouli

    2017-04-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a cardiovascular disease that affects about 5.7 million people in the US. The most prevalent comorbidity to CHF is Atrial Fibrillation (AF). These two pathologies present in a mutually worsening manner in that patients diagnosed with CHF are more likely to develop AF and patients who are diagnosed with AF are more likely to develop CHF. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied for several years and the most recent efforts are in the cellular and molecular basis. In this paper, we focus on manifestation of CHF and AF symptoms as influenced by the posture assumed by a patient. We consider three postures - Left lateral decubitus, right lateral decubitus and supine. We review the clinical evidence gathered thus far relating enhanced sympathetic activity to the left lateral decubitus and supine positions with equivalent evidence on the enhanced vagal activity when the right lateral decubitus posture is assumed. We conclude with a compilation of all the hypotheses on the mechanism by which the right lateral decubitus posture alleviates the symptoms of CHF and AF, and future avenues for investigation.

  10. Effects of ascites on outcomes of colorectal surgery in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    There are limited data regarding the effects of ascites on outcome of patients undergoing colorectal resection. We sought to identify complications related to ascites. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate congestive heart failure (CHF) patients who had ascites before colorectal resection between 2005 and 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify affected outcomes. We sampled a total of 2,178 patients who suffered CHF and underwent colorectal resection, of which 195 (9%) had preoperative ascites. The mortality rate of patients who had preoperative ascites was 46.2% compared to 25.7% for patients without ascites (adjusted odd ratio [AOR], 3.38; P < .01). Complications affected by ascites include (P < .05) ventilator dependency (AOR, 2.40), acute renal failure (AOR, 2.18), and wound disruption (AOR, 2.44; P < .05). There was no increase in superficial surgical site infection rate in patients with ascites (AOR, 1.01; P = .9). The presence of ascites in CHF patients is associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. There is no correlation between ascites and surgical site infection but wound disruption increases in the presence of ascites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vasodilator therapy in refractory congestive heart failure: a comparative analysis of hemodynamic and noninvasive studies.

    PubMed

    Haq, A; Rakowski, H; Baigrie, R; McLaughlin, P; Burns, R; Tihal, H; Hilton, D; Feiglin, D

    1982-02-01

    The response to vasodilator therapy was assessed in 12 patients with chronic severe congestive heart failure refractory to conventional treatment. Cardiac output and intraarterial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures were recorded continuously to assess the hemodynamic response to the vasodilators used. Control and post-treatment M mode echocardiograms and radionuclide angiograms were obtained to assess the change in left ventricular size and ejection fraction concurrent with the hemodynamic improvement. Despite a 33 percent decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (p less than 0.001) and a 35 percent increase in cardiac index (p less than 0.001), no significant change occurred in left ventricular end-diastolic or end-systolic chamber size on echocardiography or in ejection fraction measured with radionuclide angiography. In this study M mode echocardiography and radionuclide angiography were of no value in monitoring the actual hemodynamic response to vasodilator therapy in this group of patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 30 percent.

  12. Disparities in Patterns of Health Care Travel Among Inpatients Diagnosed With Congestive Heart Failure, Florida, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Xierali, Imam M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major public health problem in the United States and is a leading cause of hospitalization in the elderly population. Understanding the health care travel patterns of CHF patients and their underlying cause is important to balance the supply and demand for local hospital resources. This article explores the nonclinical factors that prompt CHF patients to seek distant instead of local hospitalization. Methods Local hospitalization was defined as inpatients staying within hospital service areas, and distant hospitalization was defined as inpatients traveling outside hospital service areas, based on individual hospital discharge data in 2011 generated by a Dartmouth–Swiss hybrid approach. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were used to compare the travel patterns of different groups of inpatients in Florida. Results Black patients, no-charge patients, patients living in large metropolitan areas, and patients with a low socioeconomic status were more likely to seek local hospitalization than were white patients, those who were privately insured, those who lived in rural areas, and those with a high socioeconomic status, respectively. Conclusion Findings indicate that different populations diagnosed with CHF had different travel patterns for hospitalization. Changes or disruptions in local hospital supply could differentially affect different groups in a population. Policy makers could target efforts to CHF patients who are less likely to travel to seek treatment. PMID:26378896

  13. Wavelet Based Method for Congestive Heart Failure Recognition by Three Confirmation Functions.

    PubMed

    Daqrouq, K; Dobaie, A

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and arrhythmia characterization by wavelet energy is proposed. This study employs a wavelet based feature extraction method for congestive heart failure (CHF) obtained from the percentage energy (PE) of terminal wavelet packet transform (WPT) subsignals. In addition, the average framing percentage energy (AFE) technique is proposed, termed WAFE. A new classification method is introduced by three confirmation functions. The confirmation methods are based on three concepts: percentage root mean square difference error (PRD), logarithmic difference signal ratio (LDSR), and correlation coefficient (CC). The proposed method showed to be a potential effective discriminator in recognizing such clinical syndrome. ECG signals taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset and other databases are utilized to analyze different arrhythmias and normal ECGs. Several known methods were studied for comparison. The best recognition rate selection obtained was for WAFE. The recognition performance was accomplished as 92.60% accurate. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve as a common tool for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy was illustrated, which indicated that the tests are reliable. The performance of the presented system was investigated in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment, where the recognition rate was 81.48% for 5 dB.

  14. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Mortality among Veterans Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Banta, Jim E.; Andersen, Ronald M.; Young, Alexander S.; Kominski, Gerald; Cunningham, William E.

    2011-01-01

    A Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization approach was used to examine the impact of comorbid mental illness on mortality of veterans admitted to Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in fiscal year 2001 with a primary diagnosis of congestive heart failure (n= 15,497). Thirty percent had a psychiatric diagnosis, 4.7% died during the index hospitalization and 11.5% died during the year following discharge. Among those with mental illness, 23.6% had multiple psychiatric disorders. Multivariable logistic regression models found dementia to be positively associated with inpatient mortality. Depression alone (excluding other psychiatric disorders) was positively associated with one-year mortality. Primary care visits were associated with a reduced likelihood of both inpatient and one-year mortality. Excepting dementia, VA patients with a mental illness had comparable or higher levels of primary care visits than those having no mental illness. Patients with multiple psychiatric disorders had more outpatient care than those with one psychiatric disorder. PMID:20968262

  15. Exploring feasibility of home telemanagement in African Americans with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eunme; Dennison, Cheryl R

    2010-01-01

    Existing telemonitoring systems provide limited support in implementing personalized treatment plans. We developed a Home Automated Telemanagement (HAT) system for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) to provide support in following individualized treatment plans as well as to monitor symptoms, weight changes, and quality of life, while educating the patient on their disease. The system is designed to be placed in the patient's home and to communicate all patient data to a central server implementing real-time clinical decision support. The system questions the patient daily on their condition, monitors their weight, and provides the patient with instant feedback on their condition in the form of a 3-zone CHF action plan. Their medication regimen and suggested actions are determined by their care management team and integrated into the system, keeping a personalized approach to disease management while taking advantage of the technology available. The system is designed to be as simple as possible, making it usable by patients with no prior computer experience. A feasibility assessment in African American patients with CHF and without prior computer experience demonstrated high level of acceptance of the CHF HAT system.

  16. Wavelet Based Method for Congestive Heart Failure Recognition by Three Confirmation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Daqrouq, K.; Dobaie, A.

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and arrhythmia characterization by wavelet energy is proposed. This study employs a wavelet based feature extraction method for congestive heart failure (CHF) obtained from the percentage energy (PE) of terminal wavelet packet transform (WPT) subsignals. In addition, the average framing percentage energy (AFE) technique is proposed, termed WAFE. A new classification method is introduced by three confirmation functions. The confirmation methods are based on three concepts: percentage root mean square difference error (PRD), logarithmic difference signal ratio (LDSR), and correlation coefficient (CC). The proposed method showed to be a potential effective discriminator in recognizing such clinical syndrome. ECG signals taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset and other databases are utilized to analyze different arrhythmias and normal ECGs. Several known methods were studied for comparison. The best recognition rate selection obtained was for WAFE. The recognition performance was accomplished as 92.60% accurate. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve as a common tool for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy was illustrated, which indicated that the tests are reliable. The performance of the presented system was investigated in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment, where the recognition rate was 81.48% for 5 dB. PMID:26949412

  17. Interpretation and Use of Natriuretic Peptides in Non-Congestive Heart Failure Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Yue; Chu, Shi-Jye; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Cheng, Shu-Meng

    2010-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been found to be useful markers in differentiating acute dyspneic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and emerged as potent prognostic markers for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The best-established and widely used clinical application of BNP and NT-proBNP testing is for the emergent diagnosis of CHF in patients presenting with acute dyspnea. Nevertheless, elevated NPs levels can be found in many circumstances involving left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or hypertrophy; right ventricular (RV) dysfunction secondary to pulmonary diseases; cardiac inflammatory or infectious diseases; endocrinology diseases and high output status without decreased LV ejection fraction. Even in the absence of significant clinical evidence of volume overload or LV dysfunction, markedly elevated NP levels can be found in patients with multiple comorbidities with a certain degree of prognostic value. Potential clinical applications of NPs are expanded accompanied by emerging reports regarding screening the presence of secondary cardiac dysfunction; monitoring the therapeutic responses, risk stratifications and providing prognostic values in many settings. Clinicians need to have expanded knowledge regarding the interpretation of elevated NPs levels and potential clinical applications of NPs. Clinicians should recognize that currently the only reasonable application for routine practice is limited to differentiation of acute dyspnea, rule-out-diagnostic-tests, monitoring of therapeutic responses and prognosis of acute or decompensated CHF. The rationales as well the potential applications of NPs in these settings are discussed in this review article. PMID:20191004

  18. Integrative Medical Care Plus Mindfulness Training for Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Carmin, Cheryl; Mehta, Bella; Binkley, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is often accompanied by other medical and psychosocial comorbidities that complicate treatment and adherence. We conducted a proof of concept pilot project to determine the feasibility of providing integrative group medical visits plus mindfulness training for patients recently discharged with CHF. Patients were eligible if they had been discharged from an inpatient stay for CHF within the 12 months prior to the new program. The Compassionate Approach to Lifestyle and Mind-Body (CALM) Skills for Patients with CHF consisted of 8 weekly visits focusing on patient education about medications, diet, exercise, sleep, and stress management; group support; and training in mind-body skills such as mindfulness, self-compassion, and loving-kindness. Over two 8-week sessions, 8/11 (73%) patients completed at least 4 visits. The patients had an average age of 57 years. The most common comorbidities were weight gain, sleep problems, and fatigue. After the sessions, 100% of patients planned to make changes to their diet, exercise, and stress management practices. Over half of the patients who met with a pharmacist had a medication-related problem. Improvements were observed in depression, fatigue, and satisfaction with life. Integrative group visits focusing on healthy lifestyle, support, and skill-building are feasible even among CHF patients and should be evaluated in controlled trials as a patient-centered approach to improving outcomes related to improving medication management, depression, fatigue, and quality of life.

  19. Cortical Brain Connectivity and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Valeriani, Lavinia; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Mecarelli, Oriano; Rossini, Paolo M

    2015-07-01

    The brain has a high level of complexity and needs continuous oxygen supply. So it is clear that any pathological condition, or physiological (aging) change, in the cardiovascular system affects functioning of the central nervous system. We evaluated linear aspects of the relationship between the slowness of cortical rhythms, as revealed by the modulation of a graph connectivity parameter, and congestive heart failure (CHF), as a reflection of neurodegenerative processes. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 10 patients with CHF were recorded by 19 electrodes positioned according the international 10-20 system. Graph theory function (normalized characteristic path length λ) was applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software, therefore getting rid of volumetric propagation influences. The EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The analysis between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and λ showed positive correlation in delta, associated with a negative correlation in alpha 2 band. Namely, the higher the severity of the disease (as revealed by the BNP vales), the higher the λ in delta, and lower in alpha 2 band. Results suggest that delta and alpha λ indices are good markers of the severity of CHF.

  20. Exogenous midkine administration prevents cardiac remodeling in pacing-induced congestive heart failure of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masahide; Hojo, Mayumi; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kodama, Itsuo; Horiba, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, has been shown to prevent cardiac remodeling after ischemic injury through its anti-apoptotic effect. Cell apoptosis is central to the pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling in congestive heart failure (CHF) of ischemic as well as non-ischemic origin. We hypothesized that MK exerts the anti-apoptotic cardioprotective effect in CHF of non-ischemic etiology. MK protein or vehicle (normal saline) was subcutaneously administered in tachycardia-induced CHF rabbits (right ventricular pacing, 350 beats/min, 4 weeks). The vehicle-treated rabbits (n = 19, control) demonstrated severe CHF and high mortality rate, whereas MK (n = 16) demonstrated a well-compensated state and a lower mortality rate. In echocardiography, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension decreased in MK versus control, whereas LV systolic function increased. In histological analysis (picrosirius red staining), MK decreased collagen deposition area compared with control. TUNEL staining showed that MK prevented cell apoptosis and minimized myocyte loss in the CHF rabbit ventricle, associated with activation of PI3-K/Akt signaling, producing a parallel decrease of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. MK prevented progression of cardiac remodeling in the CHF rabbit, likely by activation of anti-apoptotic signaling. Exogenous MK application might be a novel therapeutic strategy for CHF due to non-ischemic origin.

  1. Efficacy of pimobendan on survival and reoccurrence of pulmonary edema in canine congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masashi; Yamano, Shigeki; Chimura, Shuichi; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Takusagawa, Yoshimi; Sawada, Tamotsu; Maetani, Shigeki; Takahashi, Arane; Mizuno, Takeshi; Harada, Kayoko; Shinoda, Asako; Uchida, Shuhei; Takeuchi, Junichiro; Mizukoshi, Takahiro; Endo, Masaaki; Uechi, Masami

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pimobendan with conventional therapies on survival and reocurrence of pulmonary edema in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Records of 197 client-owned dogs from 14 veterinary hospitals were included in this study. Dogs were administered conventional treatments with or without pimobendan. Sixty-four dogs received a standard dose of pimobendan (0.20-0.48 mg/kg every 12 hr (q12hr)), 49 dogs received a low dose of pimobendan (0.05-0.19 mg/kg q12hr), and 84 dogs received conventional therapy alone. Dogs in the standard-dose and low-dose pimobendan groups had significantly longer median survival times than dogs in the conventional group (334, 277 and 136 days, respectively; P<0.001). The reoccurrence rate of pulmonary edema in the standard-dose group was significantly lower than in the low-dose and conventional groups (43%, 59% and 62%, respectively; P<0.05). Combination of pimobendan with a conventional treatment regimen significantly prolonged survival time after an initial episode of pulmonary edema in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. There was no difference in survival between dogs administered standard and low doses of pimobendan, but pimobendan did prevent the reoccurrence of pulmonary edema in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. The NF-kB regulates the SHP-1 expression in monocytes in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Mirko; Franceschelli, Sara; Ferrone, Alessio; Patruno, Antonia; Grilli, Alfredo; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Pluchinotta, Francesca R; Bergante, Sonia; Tettamanti, Guido; Riccioni, Graziano; Felaco, Mario; Speranza, Lorenza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that functional recovery of patients with acute congestive heart failure (ACHF) after treatment with conventional drugs (CD) is mediated by suppression of inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles of monocytes from symptomatic ACHF patients (NYHA Class III-IV) before and after pharmacological treatment with CD. The treatment was associated with selective down-regulation of "TNFR signaling" and pro-inflammatory mediators CCL5, MIP-1α receptor, CD14, ITGAM, and significant up-regulation of "TNFR signaling" as evidenced by increase in anti-inflammatory factors including NF-kBIA, TNFAIP3 and SHP-1. In monocyte TNF-alpha-stimulated there is a down-regulation of the phosphatase SHP-1 which induces a significant activation of TAK-1/IKK/NF-kB signaling. These findings suggest that the therapeutic impact of CD treatment in symptomatic ACHF includes negative regulation of the NF-kB signaling in monocytes and the improvement of the SHP-1 activity.

  3. Different Factors Affecting Human ANP Amyloid Aggregation and Their Implications in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Millucci, Lia; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Laschi, Marcella; Consumi, Marco; Spreafico, Adriano; Tanganelli, Piero; Lupetti, Pietro; Magnani, Agnese; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Aims Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)-containing amyloid is frequently found in the elderly heart. No data exist regarding ANP aggregation process and its link to pathologies. Our aims were: i) to experimentally prove the presumptive association of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Isolated Atrial Amyloidosis (IAA); ii) to characterize ANP aggregation, thereby elucidating IAA implication in the CHF pathogenesis. Methods and Results A significant prevalence (85%) of IAA was immunohistochemically proven ex vivo in biopsies from CHF patients. We investigated in vitro (using Congo Red, Thioflavin T, SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy) ANP fibrillogenesis, starting from α-ANP as well as the ability of dimeric β-ANP to promote amyloid formation. Different conditions were adopted, including those reproducing β-ANP prevalence in CHF. Our results defined the uncommon rapidity of α-ANP self-assembly at acidic pH supporting the hypothesis that such aggregates constitute the onset of a fibrillization process subsequently proceeding at physiological pH. Interestingly, CHF-like conditions induced the production of the most stable and time-resistant ANP fibrils suggesting that CHF affected people may be prone to develop IAA. Conclusions We established a link between IAA and CHF by ex vivo examination and assessed that β-ANP is, in vitro, the seed of ANP fibrils. Our results indicate that β-ANP plays a crucial role in ANP amyloid deposition under physiopathological CHF conditions. Overall, our findings indicate that early IAA-related ANP deposition may occur in CHF and suggest that these latter patients should be monitored for the development of cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:21814559

  4. Congestive heart failure patients' perceptions of quality of life: the integration of physical and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, H B; Steinhauser, K E; Orr, M; Lindquist, J H; Grambow, S C; Oddone, E Z

    2004-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) lowers survival and worsens the quality of life (QOL) of over four million older Americans. Both clinicians and standardized instruments used to assess the QOL of patients with CHF focus primarily on physical symptoms rather than capturing the full range of psychosocial concerns. The purpose of this study was to gather descriptions of the components of QOL as understood by patients living with CHF. Focus groups were conducted with patients with known CHF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-IV, and left ventricular fraction of <40%. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and reviewed for common and recurrent themes using the methods of constant comparisons. We conducted three focus groups (n = 15) stratified by NYHA stage with male patients ranging in age from 47-82 years of age. Five patients were classified with NYHA stage III/IV and ten with NYHA stage I/II. Thirty attributes of QOL were identified which fell into five broad domains: symptoms, role loss, affective response, coping, and social support. Expectedly, patients reported the importance of physical symptoms; however, participants also identified concern for family, the uncertainty of prognosis, and cognitive function as dimensions of QOL. Changes in patients' lives attributed to CHF were not always considered deficiencies; rather, methods of coping with CHF were identified as important attributes representing possible opportunities for personal growth. Clinicians must understand the full range of concerns affecting the QOL of their older patients with CHF. The findings suggest that psychosocial aspects and patient uncertainty about their prognosis are important components of QOL among CHF patients.

  5. Fluid loss, venous congestion, and worsening renal function in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Doron; Abassi, Zaid; Allon, Eyal; Burger, Andrew J

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between decongestion, central venous pressure, and risk of worsening renal function (WRF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 475 patients with ADHF, of whom 238 underwent right heart catheterization. Right atrial pressure (RAP) was measured at baseline and at 24 h. Net fluid loss was recorded in the first 24 h. WRF was defined as a >0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine above baseline. WRF occurred in 84 catheterized patients (35.3%). There was a weak correlation between baseline RAP and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.17, P = 0.009). The amount of fluid removed during the first 24 h did not correlate with the magnitude of RAP reduction (r = 0.06, P = 0.35). No association was observed between WRF and baseline RAP [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.41, P = 0.68 per 6.6 mmHg] or the decrease in RAP (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.85-1.49, P = 0.40 per 5.3 mmHg reduction in RAP). In contrast, smaller net fluid loss was strongly associated with increased WRF risk. Compared with the first net fluid loss tertile, the adjusted OR was 1.85 (95% CI 0.90-3.80, P = 0.10) and 2.58 (95% CI 1.27-5.25; P = 0.009) for the second and third tertile, respectively (P for trend <0.0001). Smaller early net fluid loss is associated with increased risk for WRF. RAP is not a reliable surrogate of the magnitude of decongestion and risk of WRF. Future research is necessary to determine if targeting congestion may help prevent WRF.

  6. The nitric oxide donor pentaerythritol tetranitrate reduces platelet activation in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Ulrike; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Widder, Julian D; Micka, Jan; Neuser, Jonas; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Platelet activation associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired endogenous platelet inhibition is part of the cardiovascular phenotype of congestive heart failure (CHF) and contributes to the increased risk for thromboembolic complications. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to release nitric oxide without development of nitrate tolerance. We investigated the effect of chronic PETN treatment on platelet activation and aggregation in an experimental CHF model. Chronic ischemic heart failure was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary artery ligation. Starting 7 days thereafter, rats were randomised to placebo or PETN (80 mg/kg twice daily). After 9 weeks, activation of circulating platelets was determined measuring platelet bound fibrinogen, which requires activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on the platelet surface. Binding was quantified by flow-cytometry using a FITC-labelled anti-fibrinogen antibody. Platelet-bound fibrinogen was significantly increased in CHF-Placebo (mean fluorescence intensity: Sham 88±4, CHF-Placebo 104±6, p<0.05) and reduced following treatment with PETN (89±7, p<0.05 vs. CHF-Placebo). Maximal and final ADP-induced aggregation was significantly enhanced in CHF-Placebo vs. Sham-operated animals and normalized / decreased following chronic PETN treatment. Moreover, platelet adhesion was significantly reduced (number of adherent platelets: control: 85.6±5.5, PETN: 40±3.3; p<0.001) and VASP phosphorylation significantly enhanced following in vitro PETN treatment. Chronic NO supplementation using PETN reduces platelet activation in CHF rats. Thus, PETN may constitute a useful approach to prevent thromboembolic complications in CHF.

  7. The Nitric Oxide Donor Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Reduces Platelet Activation in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Ulrike; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Widder, Julian D.; Micka, Jan; Neuser, Jonas; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet activation associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired endogenous platelet inhibition is part of the cardiovascular phenotype of congestive heart failure (CHF) and contributes to the increased risk for thromboembolic complications. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to release nitric oxide without development of nitrate tolerance. We investigated the effect of chronic PETN treatment on platelet activation and aggregation in an experimental CHF model. Methods and Results Chronic ischemic heart failure was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary artery ligation. Starting 7 days thereafter, rats were randomised to placebo or PETN (80 mg/kg twice daily). After 9 weeks, activation of circulating platelets was determined measuring platelet bound fibrinogen, which requires activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on the platelet surface. Binding was quantified by flow-cytometry using a FITC-labelled anti-fibrinogen antibody. Platelet-bound fibrinogen was significantly increased in CHF-Placebo (mean fluorescence intensity: Sham 88±4, CHF-Placebo 104±6, p<0.05) and reduced following treatment with PETN (89±7, p<0.05 vs. CHF-Placebo). Maximal and final ADP-induced aggregation was significantly enhanced in CHF-Placebo vs. Sham-operated animals and normalized / decreased following chronic PETN treatment. Moreover, platelet adhesion was significantly reduced (number of adherent platelets: control: 85.6±5.5, PETN: 40±3.3; p<0.001) and VASP phosphorylation significantly enhanced following in vitro PETN treatment. Conclusion Chronic NO supplementation using PETN reduces platelet activation in CHF rats. Thus, PETN may constitute a useful approach to prevent thromboembolic complications in CHF. PMID:25928879

  8. Assessing elderly patients with congestive heart failure via in-home interactive telecommunication.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, R L; McSweeney, M

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of telemedicine technology was tested for equivalence of nursing assessment with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) home care patients (N = 28). The equivalence of nurses' physical assessment findings was estimated using an innovative two-way, telemedicine audiovisual system. Nurses were randomly assigned to a method of client assessment: on-site (real time) or telemedicine (monitor time). Each assessment was performed within 10 minutes of each other. Assessment variables compared were auscultation of lung sounds, heart sounds, rate and rhythm, blood pressure, weight, edema, respiratory effort, and client's face, lip, and nail color. Eighteen physiological parameters were analyzed, using either the Wilcoxon signed ranks test or the McNemar test. Results indicate few significant differences between the assessments of the real time and monitor time nurses. The monitor nurse was more likely to claim abnormality than the real nurse was when assessing the color of nails (p = .048). The real nurse picked up ankle edema (p = .024), pedal edema (p = .099), and inspiratory wheeze (p = .01) more frequently than did the monitor nurse. Kappa coefficients to determine the extent of agreement between nurse's assessments were significant. Nurses' comments were favorable, but they recommended altering the interview to elicit symptoms not easily observed by the monitor nurse such as diaphoresis. Exit interviews of the elderly patients revealed a favorable reaction to using the telemedicine monitor, citing a quick connection to a nurse and response to their concerns and questions. Both nurses and patients reported the need to have real nurse home visits along with telemedicine visits.

  9. A Natural Language Processing System to Extract and Code Concepts Relating to Congestive Heart Failure from Chest Radiology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a natural language processing system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. The system is designed to be easily modified and adapted to a variety of free text clinical reports such as admission notes, radiology and pathology reports, and discharge summaries. This report presents the results of this system to extract and code clinical concepts related to congestive heart failure from 39,000 chest radiology reports. The system detects the presence or absence of six concepts: congestive heart failure, Kerley B lines, cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vasculature, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion. We compared its output to a gold standard which consisted of specially trained human coders as well as an experienced physician. Results indicate that the system had high specificity, recall and precision for each of the concepts it is designed to detect. PMID:17238345

  10. Hyponatremia in refractory congestive heart failure patients treated with icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Margarita; Ganon, Liat; Holtzman, Eli J; Dinour, Dganit

    2017-07-28

    Severe congestive heart failure (CHF) patients are prone to hyponatremia. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is increasingly used for long-term management of refractory CHF patients. The glucose polymer icodextrin was proposed to be a good option for fluid removal in such patients. A small, although statistically significant reduction in serum sodium (∼2mmol/l) consistently observed in multiple trials, is considered as not clinically relevant. Here we reported five refractory CHF patients who demonstrated sodium drop by median of 8meq/l (range 5.4-8.3meq/l) after icodextrin was added to their program. It seems that icodextrin may contribute to clinically relevant hyponatremia if the hyponatremia is compounded by other factors. Patients with extremely severe congestive heart failure are susceptible to this complication. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Xamoterol in severe congestive heart failure: long-term oral treatment, a double-blind randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J; Svendsen, T L; Trap-Jensen, J

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise.

  12. Tunneled Pleural Catheter Placement with and without Talc Poudrage for Treatment of Pleural Effusions Due to Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Majid, Adnan; Kheir, Fayez; Fashjian, Meghan; Chatterji, Sumit; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastian; Ochoa, Sebastian; Cheng, George; Folch, Erik

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the role of tunneled pleural catheters in pleural effusions caused by congestive heart failure that is refractory to medical management. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of tunneled pleural catheter drainage for treatment of refractory pleural effusions associated with congestive heart failure, either when used alone or with concomitant talc pleurodesis performed during thoracoscopy. This was a retrospective cohort study. We identified patients with congestive heart failure and recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions who were treated between 2005 and 2015 by placement of a tunneled pleural catheter. Patients underwent either thoracoscopy followed by talc poudrage and pleural catheter placement (group 1) or catheter insertion alone (group 2). Forthy-three catheters were inserted in 36 patients, with 15 placed in group 1 and 28 in group 2. Successful pleurodesis was seen in 80% in group 1 and 25% in group 2. The median time of catheter placement was 11.5 days in group 1 and 66 days in group 2. There was a significant decrease in hospital admissions and pleural interventions after catheter placement compared with before insertion (P < 0.05). This single-center, retrospective study demonstrated the feasibility of catheter placement used alone or with talc poudrage for the treatment of refractory pleural effusions associated with congestive heart failure. The addition of talc poudrage might increase the pleurodesis rate and reduce the days to catheter removal in highly selected patients. Prospective studies on a larger number of patients are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of this intervention.

  13. Correlation between negative near-wall shear stress in human aorta and various stages of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Morteza; Beizaie, Masoud

    2003-06-01

    The critical effect of advanced congestive heart failure is reduced blood flow in descending aorta resulting from mild to severe reduction in cardiac output, usually accompanying low ejection fraction. In these patients the heart tries to compensate by beating faster, but reduced blood flow combined with increased heart rate can lead to retrograde flow and negative shear stress along the vessel walls during each cardiac cycle. Our studies show that near-wall negative shear stress can result from an entire-retrograde flow at normal heart rates or a Womersley-type phase delayed near-wall retrograde flow at high heart rate and low ejection fraction conditions. In our experiments, a compliant aortic loop with appropriate pressure and flow instrumentation was used, running on either various aqueous glycerin solutions or property filtered, anticoagulated diluted bovine blood. The flow field was mapped using a General Electric Vingmed System 5 platform. The resulting images were analyzed with Caltech's digital ultrasound speckle image velocimetry technique. We showed the occurrence of near-wall retrograde flow under certain aortic flow rates and frequencies, charted via an empirical relationship between Reynolds and Womersley numbers. Also, we demonstrated a strong correlation between retrograde flow level and transition from preliminary to advanced congestive heart failure patients.

  14. [Congestive heart failure caused by the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Yanaka, K; Tomono, Y; Kamezaki, T; Kujiraoka, Y; Nose, T

    2001-08-01

    A 42-year-old man and a 31-year-old man with congestive heart failure caused by the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma were reported. Heart failure was improved after transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma in each patient. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH causes hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone acts directly on cardiac muscle to increase the stroke volume. Hyperthyroidism itself reduces the peripheral vascular resistance and an elevated basal metabolism which is the basic physiologic change in hyperthyroidism dilates small vessels and reduces vascular resistance. The reduced vascular resistance contributes to increase stroke volume. Thyroid hormone also acts directly on the cardiac pacemakers to be apt to cause tachycardiac atrial fibrillation. These mechanical changes in hyperthyroidism increase not only the cardiac output but also the venous return. The increased blood volume and the shortened ventricular filling time due to tachycardia result in congestive heart failure. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare tumor, however heart failure is common disease. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma should be taken into consideration in patients with heart failure. The presented cases were very enlightening to understand the relation between brain tumor and heart disease.

  15. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Falk, Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Pedersen, Henrik D

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta and pulmonary artery. Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (P < .003), lung (P < .0001), and kidney (P < .02); intimal-medial thickening in the pulmonary artery (P = .04); and fibrosis in the left ventricle (P < .0001) than control dogs. However, they did not have more plaque formation or intimal-medial thickening in the aorta than controls. There was significantly more arterial narrowing in papillary muscles than in all other locations in dogs with congestive heart failure (P < .002). In control dogs, arterial changes were less pronounced and did not differ in different locations. Dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease have significantly more arterial changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney, and significantly more fibrosis in the myocardium than control dogs. This could have important implications in the management of myxomatous mitral valve disease and raises interesting questions about the occurrence and importance of intramural small vessel disease in humans with primary mitral valve prolapse.

  16. Congestive heart failure disease management program: 1-Year population experience from a tertiary center heart failure registry in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salem, Khal; Fallata, Dania; ElSebaie, Maha; Montasser, Ahmad; ElGedamy, Khaled; ElKhateeb, Osama

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate congestive heart failure (CHF) multidisciplinary disease management program (DMProg) impact on mortality, readmission rates, length of stay (LOS), and gender health characteristics. This was a quasi-observational, pre- and post-trial with a parallel nonequivalent group. We enrolled 174 inpatients having CHF with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV, and a total of 197 hospital admissions. A comparative follow-up was performed from 15 December 2014 to 15 December 2015. Among 197 consecutive hospital admissions, 76 (39%) were included in the preintervention or usual care group and 121 (61%) were assigned to the postintervention group. After 1 year, in comparison with the preintervention group, the postintervention group had shorter average LOS in days (7.6 days vs. 11.1 days, p < 0.002), lower 1-year readmission rate (36% vs. 57%, p < 0.003), and lower in-house mortality (1.6% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03), but similar baseline mortality scores (38.2 vs. 38.6, p = 0.7), 30-day and 90-day readmission rates (15% vs. 18.3%, p = 0.62 and 27.6% vs. 30%, p = 0.65), and 30-day readmission risk score (24.9% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.09). By regression analysis, the DMProg intervention was an independent factor for 1-year readmission reduction (p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis favored the postintervention group (log-rank, p < 0.001). DMProg significantly decreased 1-year readmission rates, LOS, and in-house mortality.

  17. Congestive heart failure risk in cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Xiang; Shen, Zan; Tang, Li-Na; Yao, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) associated with vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) has emerged as a relevant problem in clinical and scientific communities. We performed an up-to-date, comprehensive meta-analysis to determine the overall incidence and risk of CHF in cancer patients receiving VEGFR-TKIs. The databases of PubMed, Web of Science and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology up to August 31 2013 were searched for relevant articles. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. A total of 10 553 patients from 36 clinical trials were included. The overall incidence of all grade and high grade CHF associated with VEGFR-TKIs was 3.2% (95% CI 1.8%, 5.8%) and 1.4% (95% CI 0.9%, 2.3%), respectively. The use of VEGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of developing all grade (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.76, 3.20, P < 0.001) and high grade (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.74, 7.05, P < 0.001) CHF. In subgroup analyses, the risk of CHF did not significantly vary with tumour types (P = 0.071 for all grade; P = 0.72 for high grade) and VEGFR-TKIs (P = 0.55 for all grade; P = 0.99 for high grade). Meta-regression indicated that CHF might possibly occur early in the treatment of VEGFR-TKIs. No evidence of publication bias was observed. The use of VEGFR-TKIs is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing congestive heart failure in cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and provide close monitoring in patients receiving these therapies. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity moderates prognostic importance of rhythm-control versus rate-control strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure: insights from the Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure Trial.

    PubMed

    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Talajic, Mario; Khairy, Paul; Dorian, Paul; O'Meara, Eileen; Roy, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Patients with high anxiety sensitivity (AS) become extremely anxious with heart rate increases, palpitations, and symptoms of psychological arousal. AS predicts panic attacks. In atrial fibrillation (AF), AS correlates with symptom preoccupation and reduced quality of life. We assessed whether AS is associated with outcomes of rhythm-control versus rate-control in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients with AF. Before random assignment, 933 participants (172 women) in the Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure Trial completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory (ASI). Cox proportional hazards models showed no main effects of treatment (P=0.61) or AS (P=0.72) for time to cardiovascular death, but these factors interacted significantly (P=0.020). High AS patients (upper quartile, ASI ≥33) randomly assigned to rhythm-control had significantly lower cardiovascular mortality than those receiving rate-control (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.93; P=0.022). With lower ASI scores (<33), treatments did not differ (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.51; P=0.46). The interaction between treatment and dichotomized ASI scores remained significant (P=0.009) after adjustment for covariates including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, creatinine, ejection fraction, time since first diagnosis of AF, New York Heart Association functional class, depression symptoms, marital status, and baseline β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure patients with high AS had better long-term prognosis with rhythm- than rate-control. If replicated, AS should be considered in treatment selection. Research is also needed concerning mechanisms and possible joint AS-AF treatments. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT88597077.

  19. A multi-layer monitoring system for clinical management of Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Gabriele; Pollonini, Luca; Dacso, Clifford C; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a serious cardiac condition that brings high risks of urgent hospitalization and death. Remote monitoring systems are well-suited to managing patients suffering from CHF, and can reduce deaths and re-hospitalizations, as shown by the literature, including multiple systematic reviews. The monitoring system proposed in this paper aims at helping CHF stakeholders make appropriate decisions in managing the disease and preventing cardiac events, such as decompensation, which can lead to hospitalization or death. Monitoring activities are stratified into three layers: scheduled visits to a hospital following up on a cardiac event, home monitoring visits by nurses, and patient's self-monitoring performed at home using specialized equipment. Appropriate hardware, desktop and mobile software applications were developed to enable a patient's monitoring by all stakeholders. For the first two layers, we designed and implemented a Decision Support System (DSS) using machine learning (Random Forest algorithm) to predict the number of decompensations per year and to assess the heart failure severity based on a variety of clinical data. For the third layer, custom-designed sensors (the Blue Scale system) for electrocardiogram (EKG), pulse transit times, bio-impedance and weight allowed frequent collection of CHF-related data in the comfort of the patient's home. We also performed a short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis on electrocardiograms self-acquired by 15 healthy volunteers and compared the obtained parameters with those of 15 CHF patients from PhysioNet's PhysioBank archives. We report numerical performances of the DSS, calculated as multiclass accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in a 10-fold cross-validation. The obtained average accuracies are: 71.9% in predicting the number of decompensations and 81.3% in severity assessment. The most serious class in severity assessment is detected with good sensitivity and specificity (0

  20. Impact of home patient telemonitoring on use of β-blockers in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, Roberto; Mazzanti, Ilaria; Abbatecola, Angela M; Parati, Gianfranco

    2010-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF), which typically affects older people, is characterized by high short- and mid-term mortality rates. However, despite accumulating evidence showing that administration of β-blockers (β-adrenoceptor antagonists) can improve the clinical status of CHF patients, use of these agents in adequate dosages in this setting is not routine. One reason for this appears to be a concern about a possible risk of bradyarrhythmia associated with use of β-blockers. Telecardiology has recently been investigated as a means of constantly monitoring the heart rate of CHF patients in their homes. Its use may allay concerns about the risk of bradyarrhythmia and facilitate a more widespread use of β-blockers in this context. The primary objectives of this study were to assess the impact of telemonitoring on patients' adherence to prescribed therapeutic regimens, particularly β-blockers, and to explore whether use of home telemonitoring reduces mortality and rate of re-admission to hospital in elderly CHF patients compared with normal specialized CHF team care. A total of 57 patients with CHF (31 New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II, 23 NYHA class III and 3 NYHA class IV), with a mean ± SD age of 78.2 ± 7.3 years, were randomized to a control group who received standard care, based on routinely scheduled clinic visits, from a team specialized in CHF patient management, or to a home telemonitoring group (TM group), managed by the same specialized CHF team. Patients were followed up over 12 months. Compared with the control group, the TM group had a significant increase in the use of β-blockers, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and aldosterone receptor antagonists. A reduction in nitrate administration compared with baseline was also seen in the TM group. The 12-month occurrence of the primary combined endpoint of mortality and hospital re-admission for CHF was significantly lower in the TM group than in the control group (p < 0

  1. Comparison between immunoradiometric and fluorimetric brain natriuretic peptide determination in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Feola, M; Valeri, L; Menditto, E; Nervo, E; Bianco, F; Aspromonte, N; Valle, R; Visconti, G

    2010-09-01

    This study compared two different methods, namely the immunoradiometric (IRMA) and fluorimetric (FIA), in order to determine plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. CHF in-patients underwent echocardiography and plasma BNP determination using both two methods. The echocardiograms analysed left ventricular end-systolic (LVESV) and end-diastolic (LVEDV) volumes and systolic dysfunction [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%]. Seventy-three (71% males, age 67 ± 9.6 yr) patients were enrolled, 31.5% affected by valvular heart disease. The mean LVEF was 39.8 ± 14.1%; in 26 (35%) a hypertensive etiology emerged. The immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) BNP was found to be significantly lower than the FIA determination 116.5 ± 149 pg/ml vs 267.3 ± 285.6 pg/ml; p=0.0001) and the two methods were closely correlated (r=0.89; p=0.00001). Logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between BNP, LVEF, and LVESV/LVEDV (r=-0.45, p=0.0003; r=-0.48, p=0.00001; r=0.22 p=0.003; r=0.34 p=0.0001; r=0.13 p=0.02; r=0.28 p=0.001 IRMA and FIA, respectively). IRMA BNP and FIA BNP significantly increased according to the worsening functional class [from 34.3 ± 60.2 pg/ml in NYHA (New York Heart Association) I to 555.5 ± 273.1 pg/ml in NYHA IV; from 86.1 ± 162.1 pg/ml in NYHA I to 1070 ± 42.2 pg/ml in NYHA IV, respectively]. In severe systolic dysfunction (LVEF<30%), receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a satisfactorily sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 50.6 pg/ml with IRMA and 243 pg/ml with FIA. In mild systolic dysfunction (LVEF<50%), a good sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 42 pg/ml with IRMA and 182 pg/ml with FIA emerged. In CHF patients both BNP methods correlated with NYHA class, LVEF, and ventricular volumes.

  2. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Patients had a lower proportion of slow twitch, type I fibers than did control subjects (36 +/- 3% vs. 46 +/- 5%, p = 0.048) and a higher proportion of fast twitch, type IIab fibers (18 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%, p = 0.004). Fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and single-fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity, a mitochondrial oxidative marker, was lower in patients (both p < or = 0.034). Likewise, the ratio of average fast twitch to slow twitch fiber cross-sectional area was lower in patients (0.780 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.08, p = 0.019). Peak VO2 was strongly related to integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity in patients (r = 0.896, p = 0.001). Peak VO2, resistance to fatigue and strength also correlated significantly with several measures of fiber size, especially of fast twitch fibers, in

  3. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Patients had a lower proportion of slow twitch, type I fibers than did control subjects (36 +/- 3% vs. 46 +/- 5%, p = 0.048) and a higher proportion of fast twitch, type IIab fibers (18 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%, p = 0.004). Fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and single-fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity, a mitochondrial oxidative marker, was lower in patients (both p < or = 0.034). Likewise, the ratio of average fast twitch to slow twitch fiber cross-sectional area was lower in patients (0.780 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.08, p = 0.019). Peak VO2 was strongly related to integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity in patients (r = 0.896, p = 0.001). Peak VO2, resistance to fatigue and strength also correlated significantly with several measures of fiber size, especially of fast twitch fibers, in

  4. Reliability of bioelectrical impedance methods in detecting body fluids in elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sergi, G; Lupoli, L; Enzi, G; Volpato, S; Perissinotto, E; Bertani, R; Inelmen, E M; Bonometto, P; Busetto, L; Berton, A; Coin, A

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimating total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in elderly patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). In 72 elderly subjects, 34 with CHF (aged 83.9+/-6.9 years) and 38 healthy controls (78.7+/-7.5 years), TBW and ECW values were assessed using dilution methods, and bioelectrical variables were measured using single frequency BIA (SF-BIA) at 1 and 50 kHz, and bioelectrical spectroscopy (BIS). In CHF patients, Ht(2)/R(1) correlated weakly with TBW (r = 0.56) and ECW (0.47). In both healthy controls and CHF patients, TBW correlated strongly with Ht(2)/R(50), Ht(2)/R(0), Ht(2)/R(8) and Ht(2)/Zc. Using multiple regression analysis and the Bland-Altmann approach, SF-BIA at 50 kHz and BIS proved similar in predicting TBW for both the explained variance (R(2)~0.89) and the limits of agreement. In all subjects, ECW was estimated best by including height, weight and Ht(2)/R(0 )(R(2) 0.75) or Ht(2)/Zc (R(2) 0.77) in multivariate models, while SF-BIA at 50 kHz did not explain more than 71 % of ECW variability. The SEE % was nonetheless about twice the SEE % for estimating TBW. SF-BIA at 1 kHz is unreliable in predicting body fluids in elderly people with CHF. SF-BIA at 50 kHz and BIS are useful for estimating TBW in healthy elderly people and in cases of water imbalance, but both methods are less reliable in estimating ECW, particularly in conditions of fluid overload.

  5. Impaired isotonic contractility and structural abnormalities in the diaphragm of congestive heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Hieronymus W H; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; Hafmans, Theo; Ennen, Leo; Heunks, Leo M A; Verheugt, Freek W A; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2008-08-29

    Metabolic alterations and decreased isometric force generation have been demonstrated in different animal models for congestive heart failure (CHF). However, as few morphological examinations have been performed on the CHF diaphragm, it is unknown if structural abnormalities comprise a substrate for diaphragm dysfunction in CHF. Therefore, we investigated CHF diaphragm isometric and isotonic contractility together with the presence of structural abnormalities. Isometric twitch (P(t)) and maximal (P(o)) force, shortening velocity and power generation were determined in diaphragm bundles from rats with CHF, induced by myocardial infarction, and sham-operated rats. Immunofluorescence staining of myosin and sarcolemmal components fibronectin, laminin and dystrophin was performed on diaphragm cryosections. Electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructure of diaphragm fibres. P(t) and P(o) were respectively approximately 30% and approximately 20% lower in CHF diaphragm bundles than sham. Maximal shortening velocity was reduced by approximately 20% and maximal power generation by approximately 35%. Structural abnormalities were frequently observed in CHF diaphragm fibres and were mainly marked by focal degradation of sarcomeric constituents and expansion of intermyofibrillar spaces with swollen and degenerated mitochondria. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed reduced staining intensities of myosin in CHF diaphragm fibres compared to sham. No differences were found regarding the distribution of fibronectin, laminin and dystrophin, indicating an intact sarcolemma in both groups. This study demonstrates impaired isometric and isotonic contractility together with structural abnormalities in the CHF diaphragm. The sarcolemma of CHF diaphragm fibres appeared to be intact, excluding a role for sarcolemmal injuries in the development of CHF diaphragm dysfunction.

  6. Ability of physicians to diagnose congestive heart failure based on chest X-ray.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sarah; Simon, Barry; Alter, Harrison J; Cheung, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Chest X-ray interpretation is an important skill in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) by emergency physicians. This study evaluated the ability of emergency physicians to recognize CHF on chest X-ray and the effect of level of training and confidence upon accuracy of interpretation. This was a prospective, blinded study in which 24 patients with an elevated brain natriuretic peptide, low ejection fraction, and diagnosis of CHF were retrospectively identified. In addition, 31 patients without CHF were identified and used as controls. These 55 chest X-rays were presented to emergency attending and housestaff and a radiologist. We calculated the accuracy of the raters' diagnoses, and measured their confidence in that diagnosis and their level of training. Physicians correctly identified the CHF chest X-rays 79% of the time (sensitivity 59%, specificity 96%; positive likelihood ratio 14.6, negative likelihood ratio 0.43). Accuracy ranged from a low of 78% among first-year residents to a high of 85% among attending, and from 73% (confidence rating of 3/5) to 91% (confidence rating of 5/5). Increasing confidence was significantly correlated with accuracy across the spectrum (p = 0.001). An accuracy of 95% among radiologists suggests that a negative X-ray does not rule out CHF. High specificity (96%) and low sensitivity (59%) suggest that emergency physicians are excellent at identifying CHF on X-ray when present, but under-call it frequently. Sensitivity may be much higher in real life given clinical correlation. Both increased level of training and higher confidence significantly improved accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency diagnosis of congestive heart failure: impact of signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Frana, Barbara; Rodriguez, Daniel; Laule-Kilian, Kirsten; Perruchoud, André P

    2005-09-01

    The most useful features in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) have been poorly investigated. To determine the utility of signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of CHF in the emergency department. Detailed clinical data were collected prospectively from 452 consecutive patients presenting with acute dyspnea to the emergency department. By using logistic regression analysis, significant predictors for the final discharge diagnosis of CHF (adjudicated after review of all patient records, including response to therapy) were assessed. In 217 of 452 patients (48%), CHF was the cause of acute dyspnea. Among symptoms, the OR for CHF was highest for weight gain (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.9 to 7.0), nocturia (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.7) and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.5), and lowest for fever (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.56). Among signs, the OR was highest for elevated jugular venous pressure (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.3 to 7.9), rales (OR 3.1; 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), lower extremity edema (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.9 to 4.3) and hepatojugular reflux (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.2), and lowest for wheezing (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.61). The overall sensitivity was low. The specificity was highest for elevated jugular venous pressure and hepatojugular reflux. Signs and symptoms are only moderately helpful in the diagnosis of CHF in patients with acute dyspnea. This emphasizes the need for additional diagnostic tools, such as echocardiography or B-type natriuretic peptide testing.

  8. The role of neutral endopeptidase in dogs with evolving congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Margulies, K B; Barclay, P L; Burnett, J C

    1995-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that neurohumoral mechanisms including decreased renal responses to increases in atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) play a central role in the progression from asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction to advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) with sodium retention, vasoconstriction, and reduced exercise tolerance. Recognizing that neutral endopeptidase 24.11 degrades ANF and may be enhanced in CHF, we hypothesized that chronic neutral endopeptidase inhibition (NEP-I) would potentiate renal responses to exogenous ANF and alter the temporal evolution of sodium retention in evolving CHF by potentiation of increased endogenous ANF. We studied 13 conscious dogs with evolving CHF produced by rapid ventricular pacing at 250 beats per minute. Six of these dogs received NEP-I with candoxatril, 10 mg/kg PO BID, throughout evolving CHF. Responses to exogenous ANF, 10 micrograms/kg IV bolus, were assessed at baseline and after 6 days of CHF. Daily metabolic studies during evolving CHF with chronic NEP-I showed increased sodium excretion and renal cGMP generation consistent with enhanced renal activity of endogenous ANF compared with untreated controls. In addition, renal natriuretic and cGMP responses to exogenous ANF were intact in CHF with chronic NEP-I in contrast to markedly attenuated renal responses to exogenous ANF in untreated CHF. Despite enhanced ANF responsiveness and improved sodium balance in evolving CHF, a moderate degree of sodium retention was observed during chronic NEP-I in evolving CHF. Enzymatic degradation by neutral endopeptidase limits local renal responses to increases in endogenous and exogenous ANF in CHF independent of changes in systemic hemodynamics or augmented plasma concentrations of ANF. The moderate sodium retention observed during evolving CHF despite chronic NEP-I probably reflects the antinatriuretic effects of hemodynamic and humoral factors independent of ANF activity.

  9. Congestive Heart Failure: Predictors of Health Related Quality of Life in Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Rahnavard, Zahra; Nodeh, Zahra Hosseini; Hatamipour, Khadijeh

    2014-04-08

    Abstract Background and Objectives: Identify the factors affecting quality of life (QOL) is one of the major goals for improving the Health Related Quality Of Life (HR-QOL) in patients suffering from Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). Considering the fact that there are few published studies in this regard in Iran, as a developing country, this research was designed to determine the HR-QOL in Iranian CHF patients and its related factors. Methods and Materials: In this cross-sectional study, random sampling was used to select 1840 female CHF patients. After obtaining informed consent, patients' demographic and disease-related data (using a researcher-made questionnaire which assessed eight dimensions including role-physical, physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, role-emotional, social functioning and mental health), and the HR-QOL data (using the SF-36 questionnaire) were assessed and analyzed with SPSS version 15. Results: A high proportion of the participants had an unfavorable HR-QOL in physical functioning (44.56%), role-physical (49.55%), role-emotional (59.83%), mental health (54.50%), and general health (53.36%) dimensions and a relatively favorable HR-QOL in social functioning (50.57%), vitality (49.26%), and body pain dimensions (52.55%). A significant relationship was found between the HR-QOL and the employment status, level of education, being cared for at home, functional capacity, disease duration, frequency of medical encounter and hospitalization, duration of hypertension and concurrent CHF, presence of edema, presence of disease symptoms and morbidities, intensity of fatigue at the study time and previous months, and the type of medications. Conclusion: According to the results, QOL in CHF patients was unfavorable in the scales of general health, role-emotional, and mental health.

  10. Economic evaluation of Manitoba Health Lines in the management of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Doupe, Malcolm; Katz, Alan; Nyhof, Paul; Forget, Evelyn L

    2013-11-01

    This one-year study investigated whether the Manitoba Provincial Health Contact program for congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cost-effective intervention relative to the standard treatment. Individual patient-level, randomized clinical trial of cost-effective model using data from the Health Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba. A total of 179 patients aged 40 and over with a diagnosis of CHF levels II to IV were recruited from Winnipeg and Central Manitoba and randomized into three treatment groups: one receiving standard care, a second receiving Health Lines (HL) intervention and a third receiving Health Lines intervention plus in-house monitoring (HLM). A cost-effectiveness study was conducted in which outcomes were measured in terms of QALYs derived from the SF-36 and costs using 2005 Canadian dollars. Costs included intervention and healthcare utilization. Bootstrap-resampled incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed to take into account the uncertainty related to small sample size. The total per-patient mean costs (including intervention cost) were not significantly different between study groups. Both interventions (HL and HLM) cost less and are more effective than standard care, with HL able to produce an additional QALY relative to HLM for $2,975. The sensitivity analysis revealed that there is an 85.8% probability that HL is cost-effective if decision-makers are willing to pay $50,000. Findings demonstrate that the HL intervention from the Manitoba Provincial Health Contact program for CHF is an optimal intervention strategy for CHF management compared to standard care and HLM. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Economic Evaluation of Manitoba Health Lines in the Management of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Doupe, Malcolm; Katz, Alan; Nyhof, Paul; Forget, Evelyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This one-year study investigated whether the Manitoba Provincial Health Contact program for congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cost-effective intervention relative to the standard treatment. Design: Individual patient-level, randomized clinical trial of cost-effective model using data from the Health Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba. Methods: A total of 179 patients aged 40 and over with a diagnosis of CHF levels II to IV were recruited from Winnipeg and Central Manitoba and randomized into three treatment groups: one receiving standard care, a second receiving Health Lines (HL) intervention and a third receiving Health Lines intervention plus in-house monitoring (HLM). A cost-effectiveness study was conducted in which outcomes were measured in terms of QALYs derived from the SF-36 and costs using 2005 Canadian dollars. Costs included intervention and healthcare utilization. Bootstrap-resampled incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed to take into account the uncertainty related to small sample size. Results: The total per-patient mean costs (including intervention cost) were not significantly different between study groups. Both interventions (HL and HLM) cost less and are more effective than standard care, with HL able to produce an additional QALY relative to HLM for $2,975. The sensitivity analysis revealed that there is an 85.8% probability that HL is cost-effective if decision-makers are willing to pay $50,000. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate that the HL intervention from the Manitoba Provincial Health Contact program for CHF is an optimal intervention strategy for CHF management compared to standard care and HLM. PMID:24359716

  12. Implementing home telemanagement of congestive heart failure using Xbox gaming platform.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Gaming platforms have been recognized for user-friendly interface which does not require previous computer-related experience. Easy to use and wide availability of these platforms at patient households make them an attractive means to facilitate consumer health. The potential of such widely used platforms as Xbox for self-management of chronic health conditions has not yet been fully uncovered. We developed a Home Automated Telemanagement (HAT) system which utilizes Xbox to access personal health record, receive self-care support and exchange information with health care providers. The system questions patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) to monitor symptoms, weight changes, medication adherence and quality of life while educating the patient on their disease. The patients receive an instant feedback on their condition in the form of a 3-zone CHF action plan. The patient self-management information can be reviewed by a provider on a designated web site. The system is programmed to run on the Microsoft Xbox videogame console using an active internet connection and a connection to a computer running Windows Media Center. The system is designed to be as simple as possible making it usable by patients with no prior computer or videogame experience. The feasibility of this approach was tested in ten adults with no previous Xbox experience who completed attitudinal surveys and semi-structured qualitative interviews after using the system. All participants claimed that they did not have any problems in using the system and that they would use the system in the future if necessary. An Xbox-based telemanagement system has potential to optimize the care of patients with CHF and other chronic conditions.

  13. Impact of Consultation on Hospital Outcomes and Resource Utilization for Patients with Acute Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zoltan; Sabzwari, Syed Ali Rafay; Abusaada, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    Consultation is an important tool for acquiring subspecialty support when managing patients with acute congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of consultation on hospital outcomes and resource utilization in CHF is unknown. The objectives of our study were to determine the effect of consultation on outcomes in CHF and to evaluate factors affecting the frequency of consultation. Our study was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to Florida Hospital Orlando for CHF between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013. Data on demographics, number of consultations, length of stay (LOS), readmissions within 30 days, cost of care, and mortality were compared according to the number of consultations. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance, the χ(2) test, and multivariate linear regression analysis were used. Risk-adjusted outcomes were reported as observed/expected. A total of 1554 patients were included; 103 (6.6%) patients received no consultation; 482 (31%) received 1; 365 (23.5%) received 2; 229 (14%) received 3; and 375 (24%) received ≥4. Teaching service, age, and African American race were associated with decreased consultation (P < 0.001 for all) and high case-mix index was associated with increased consultation (P < 0.001). Adjusted LOS and costs increased with an increased number of consultations (P < 0.001 for both). There was no difference in adjusted mortality or 30-day readmission rate based on the number of consultations (P = 0.35 and 0.98, respectively). Increased consultation with patients with CHF is associated with increased costs and LOS without improved mortality or readmission rate. Decreased utilization of consultations by the teaching service suggests that there is an opportunity to decrease utilization of healthcare resources by streamlining the utilization of consultations.

  14. Transitional Care for Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vedel, Isabelle; Khanassov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the impact of transitional care interventions (TCIs) on acute health service use by patients with congestive heart failure in primary care and to identify the most effective TCIs and their optimal duration. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, searching the Medline, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of TCI on all-cause hospital readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits. We developed a taxonomy of TCIs based on intensity and assessed the methodologic quality of the trials. We calculated the relative risk (RR) and a 95% confidence interval for each outcome. We conducted a stratified analysis to identify the most effective TCIs and their optimal duration. RESULTS We identified 41 randomized controlled trials. TCIs significantly reduced risks of readmission and ED visits by 8% and 29%, respectively (relative risk = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.98; P = .006 and relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.98; P = .04). High-intensity TCIs (combining home visits with telephone followup, clinic visits, or both) reduced readmission risk regardless of the duration of follow-up. Moderate-intensity TCIs were efficacious if implemented for a longer duration (at least 6 months). In contrast, low-intensity TCIs, entailing only followup in outpatient clinics or telephone follow-up, were not efficacious. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians and managers who implement TCIs in primary care can incorporate these results with their own health care context to determine the optimal balance between intensity and duration of TCIs. High-intensity interventions seem to be the best option. Moderate-intensity interventions implemented for 6 months or longer may be another option. PMID:26553896

  15. A Case of Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Congestive Heart Failure Without Evidence of Acute Cardiac Decompensation.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Kalyan; Akinseye, Oluwaseun A; Shrestha, Prakash; Chandnani, Madhuri; Munankarmi, Raiko; Ripin, Vivian; Yee, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    There are so far only a few reported cases of acute fulminant hepatic failure resulting from acute cardiomyopathy. This is a rare occurrence, especially in patients that do not exhibit any signs and symptoms of acute cardiac decompensation. We report a case of fulminant liver failure with nondiagnostic work up for the common causes of liver failure. This patient had concurrent history of congestive heart failure, but did not have acute decompensation. Right upper quadrant sonogram revealed hepatomegaly of 15 cm, trace amount of perihepatic ascites, pericholecystic fluid, and also thickened edematous gallbladder wall with no stones, no common bile duct stones, and no portal vein thrombosis. Echocardiogram revealed dilated left atrium and ventricle, severe mitral regurgitation, severe tricuspid regurgitation, grade 4 diastolic dysfunction, diffuse hypokinesis of left ventricle, and severely and newly reduced systolic function with an ejection fraction of 10 percent (decreased from 25 percent on last ECHO 18 months prior). Liver biopsy demonstrated marked centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis and dropout accompanied by congestion, some areas of bridging necrosis and focal confluent necrosis which was suggestive of severe congestive hepatopathy. With initiation of heart failure medications, liver function improved significantly. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  16. The Occurrence of Cheyne–Stokes Respiration in Congestive Heart Failure: The Effect of Age

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Avivit; Lorber, Abraham; Suraiya, Suheir; Malhotra, Atul; Pillar, Giora

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Up to 50% of adults with congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular dysfunction demonstrate Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR), although the mechanisms remain controversial. Because CSR has been minimally studied in children, we sought to assess the prevalence of CSR in children with low and high output cardiac failure. We hypothesized that the existence of CSR only in children with low output CHF would support the importance of circulatory delay as a CSR mechanism. Methods: Thirty patients participated: 10 children with CHF, 10 matched children with no heart disease, and 10 adults with CHF. All participants underwent an in-laboratory polysomnographic sleep study. Results: CHF children's average age (±SEM) was 3.6 ± 2.1 years vs. 3.7 ± 2 years in the age-matched control group. The average ejection fraction of three children with low output CHF was 22 ± 6.8%. The remaining seven had normal-high cardiac output. Compared to control children, CHF children were tachypneic and tachycardic during stable sleep (55.1 ± 6.7 vs. 26.9 ± 3 breath/min and 127.6 ± 8.7 vs. 97.6 ± 6.9 beats/min, respectively, p < 0.05 for both). They had shorter total sleep time (195 ± 49 vs. 373 ± 16 min, p < 0.05) with a low sleep efficiency of 65.6 ± 6%. None of the children had a pattern of CSR at any time during the studies while the adults with CHF had 40% prevalence of CSR. Conclusions: The complete absence of CSR in our sample of children with CHF compared to the 40% prevalence in the adults with CHF we studied, suggests that CSR may be an age-dependent phenomenon. Thus, we speculate that regardless of the exact mechanism which drives CSR, age is an over-riding factor. PMID:21423443

  17. Clinical importance of elevated CK-MB and troponin I levels in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yalta, Kenan; Turgut, Okan Onur; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Ozyol, Ali; Kendirlioglu, Omer; Karadas, Filiz; Tandogan, Izzet

    2006-01-01

    Myocyte necrosis has been considered to play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF), which has usually evolved as a consequence of depletion of compensatory mechanisms and contractile reserve of myocardium. Elevated levels of creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and troponin I (Tn-I) have been regarded as biochemical markers of myocyte necrosis. This study was planned to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of Tn-I and CK-MB in CHF and to examine the correlation of these markers with disease severity. A total of 104 patients (38 female, 66 male; mean age, 66 y [range, 36-89]) with symptoms and signs of heart failure on admission and with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF; by transthoracic echocardiography) were labeled "the patient group," and 58 patients (40 female,18 male; mean age, 61 y [range, 34-77]) with no signs or symptoms of CHF and with a normal EF detected by transthoracic echocardiography were included in the study as "the control group." Left ventricular EFs, end-diastolic diameters, and end-systolic diameters of patients in both groups were measured. Blood samples were drawn from all patients in both groups on admission, so that levels of CK-MB and Tn-I could be measured. All patients in both groups also underwent coronary angiography. Conditions leading to elevation of CK-MB or Tn-I were considered exclusion criteria. The 2 groups failed to show any significant differences in terms of mean age and the presence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus (P>.05). Mean EF in the patient group was lower than that in the control group (P<.05). Mean CK-MB and Tn-I in the patient group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<.05). In the patient group, hypertensive patients were found to have significantly higher mean values of CK-MB than were seen in normotensive patients in the same group (P<.05). In the patient group, 52 cases were considered to be class I-II (New York

  18. Firefighter Incident Rehabilitation: Interpreting Heart Rate Responses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this observational study was to document the heart rate (HR) responses of firefighters during incident rehabilitation following firefighting activity in a high-rise building with a simulated fire on the 10th floor. Additionally, the study investigated potential factors, including firefighting workload, ambient temperature, firefighter movement, and individual characteristics, that may have affected HR during recovery. Firefighters (n = 198) were assigned to perform a simulation of fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support during one of six firefighting trials that involved different crew sizes and ascent modes, and were performed in different environmental conditions. After completing the simulated firefighting activity, firefighters reported to a rehabilitation area on the 8th floor. The rehabilitation area was staffed by firefighter/paramedics. HR was monitored continuously during simulated firefighting activity and a 15-minute rehabilitation period. Average HR during rehabilitation (HRmean) was calculated and compared across trials. Simulated firefighting activity was performed in the summer in Virginia, USA, and ambient conditions varied among trials (mean ± SD: 31 ± 4°C; 46 ± 15% relative humidity; 32 ± 4°C heat index). Duration of simulated firefighting activity ranged from 12.0 to 20.3 minutes among trials (mean: 15.4 ± 5.2 minutes). Over all trials, mean peak HR during simulations was 173 ± 18 beats·min(-1). Mean HR over all trials at entry into rehabilitation was 149 ± 24 beats·min(-1). Following 15 minutes of recovery, mean HR over all trials was 126 ± 23 beats·min(-1). Exploratory analyses revealed that higher workload during firefighting (stair trials), higher ambient temperature (≥30°C), greater movement during rehabilitation (≥0.1 g-force), higher age (≥45 years), and higher BMI (≥30.0 kg·m(-2)) were associated with higher HR responses during rehabilitation. During complex emergency

  19. A new Doppler method of assessing left ventricular ejection force in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Isaaz, K; Ethevenot, G; Admant, P; Brembilla, B; Pernot, C

    1989-07-01

    A noninvasive method using Doppler echocardiography was developed to determine the force exerted by the left ventricle in accelerating the blood into the aorta. The value of this new Doppler ejection index in the assessment of left ventricular (LV) performance was tested in 36 patients with chronic congestive heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization and in 11 age-matched normal control subjects. The 36 patients were subgrouped into 3 groups based on angiographic ejection fraction (LV ejection fraction greater than 60, 41 to 60 and less than or equal to 40%). According to Newton's second law of motion (force = mass X acceleration), the LV ejection force was derived from the product of the mass of blood ejected during the acceleration time with the mean acceleration undergone during that time. In patients with LV ejection fraction less than or equal to 40%, LV ejection force, peak aortic velocity and mean acceleration were severely depressed when compared with the other groups (p less than 0.001). In patients with LV ejection fraction of 41 to 60%, LV ejection force was significantly reduced (22 +/- 3 kdynes) when compared with normal subjects (29 +/- 5 kdynes, p = 0.002) and with patients with LV ejection fraction greater than 60% (29 +/- 7 kdynes, p = 0.009); peak velocity and mean acceleration did not differ between these 3 groups. The LV ejection force showed a good linear correlation with LV ejection fraction (r = 0.86) and a better power fit (r = 0.91). Peak aortic blood velocity and mean acceleration showed less good linear correlations with LV ejection fraction (r = 0.73 and r = 0.66, respectively). The mass of blood ejected during the acceleration time also showed a weak linear correlation with LV ejection fraction (r = 0.64). An LV ejection force less than 20 kdynes was associated with a depressed LV performance (LV ejection fraction less than 50%) with 91% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Thus, these findings suggest that LV ejection force is a new

  20. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac dyssynchrony in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zi-Ming; Wang, Bin; Ye, Zhou; Wang, Yong; Nanda, Navin C; Xie, Ming-Xing

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the application of echocardiography to evaluation of cardiac dyssynchrony in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). A total of 348 consecutive CHF patients who were admitted for cardiac resynchronization (CRT) and presented with low ejection fraction (EF) and wide QRS duration were enrolled in this study, along with 388 healthy individuals. Dyssynchrony was assessed based on filling time ratio (FT/RR), left ventricular pre-ejection delay (PED), interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), longitudinal opposing wall delay (LOWD) and radial septal to posterior wall delay (RSPWD). Response to CRT was defined as a ≥15% increase in EF. The results showed that FT/RR was decreased while PED, IVMD, LOWD and RSPWD were increased in the CHF group compared with the control group (P<0.01). In the CHF group, FT/RR was negatively correlated with the QRS duration, LV end-diastolic diameter (LVESd), LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) (P<0.01), but positively with the LVEF (P<0.01). Additionally, PED, IVMD, LOWD and RSPWD were positively correlated with the QRS duration, LVESd, LVEDV and LVESV (P<0.01), but negatively with the LVEF (P<0.01). The CHF group was divided into three subgroups according to the varying degrees of LVEF. FT/RR decreased successively from the LVEF-1 group to the LVEF-2 group to the LVEF-3 group, while the PED, IVMD, LOWD and RSPWD successively increased in the same order (P<0.01). The CHF group was divided into three subgroups according to the varying degrees of QRS duration, and FT/RR decreased successively in a sequence from the QRS-1 group to the QRS-2 group to the QRS-3 group, while the PED, IVMD, LOWD and RSPWD successively increased in the same order (P<0.01). Speckle tracking radial dyssynchrony ≥130 ms was predictive of an EF response in patients in QRS-1 group (78% sensitivity, 83% specificity), those in QRS-2 group (83% sensitivity, 77% specificity) and in QRS-3 group (89

  1. Laparoscopy is safe among patients with congestive heart failure undergoing general surgery procedures

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, Paul J.; Ganapathi, Asvin M.; Englum, Brian R.; Vaslef, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past 2 decades, laparoscopy has been established as a superior technique in many general surgery procedures. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of the use of a laparoscopic approach in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Because pneumoperitoneum has known effects on cardiopulmonary physiology, patients with CHF may be at increased risk. This study examines current trends in approaches to patients with CHF and effects on perioperative outcomes. Methods The 2005–2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User File was used to identify patients who underwent the following general surgery procedures: Appendectomy, segmental colectomy, small bowel resection, ventral hernia repair, and splenectomy. Included for analysis were those with newly diagnosed CHF or chronic CHF with new signs or symptoms. Trends of use of laparoscopy were assessed across procedure types. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The independent effect of laparoscopy in CHF was estimated with a multiple logistic regression model. Results A total of 265,198 patients were included for analysis, of whom 2,219 were identified as having new or recently worsened CHF. Of these patients, there were 1,300 (58.6%) colectomies, 486 (21.9%) small bowel resections, 216 (9.7%) ventral hernia repairs, 141 (6.4%) appendectomies, and 76 (3.4%) splenectomies. Laparoscopy was used less frequently in patients with CHF compared with their non-CHF counterparts, particularly for nonelective procedures. Baseline characteristics were similar for laparoscopy versus open procedures with the notable exception of urgent/emergent case status (36.4% vs 71.3%; P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, laparoscopy seemed to have a protective effect against mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; P = .04), but no differences in other secondary endpoints. Conclusion For patients with CHF, an open operative approach seems to be utilized more frequently in

  2. Laparoscopy is safe among patients with congestive heart failure undergoing general surgery procedures.

    PubMed

    Speicher, Paul J; Ganapathi, Asvin M; Englum, Brian R; Vaslef, Steven N

    2014-08-01

    Over the past 2 decades, laparoscopy has been established as a superior technique in many general surgery procedures. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of the use of a laparoscopic approach in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Because pneumoperitoneum has known effects on cardiopulmonary physiology, patients with CHF may be at increased risk. This study examines current trends in approaches to patients with CHF and effects on perioperative outcomes. The 2005-2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User File was used to identify patients who underwent the following general surgery procedures: Appendectomy, segmental colectomy, small bowel resection, ventral hernia repair, and splenectomy. Included for analysis were those with newly diagnosed CHF or chronic CHF with new signs or symptoms. Trends of use of laparoscopy were assessed across procedure types. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The independent effect of laparoscopy in CHF was estimated with a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 265,198 patients were included for analysis, of whom 2,219 were identified as having new or recently worsened CHF. Of these patients, there were 1,300 (58.6%) colectomies, 486 (21.9%) small bowel resections, 216 (9.7%) ventral hernia repairs, 141 (6.4%) appendectomies, and 76 (3.4%) splenectomies. Laparoscopy was used less frequently in patients with CHF compared with their non-CHF counterparts, particularly for nonelective procedures. Baseline characteristics were similar for laparoscopy versus open procedures with the notable exception of urgent/emergent case status (36.4% vs 71.3%; P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, laparoscopy seemed to have a protective effect against mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; P = .04), but no differences in other secondary endpoints. For patients with CHF, an open operative approach seems to be utilized more frequently in general surgery procedures, particularly

  3. Lung sound patterns help to distinguish congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xiong, Ying Xia

    2012-01-01

    Although congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, respiratory sounds are not normally subjected to rigorous analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail the distribution of respiratory sound intensity in CHF, COPD, and asthma patients during acute exacerbation. Respiratory sounds throughout the respiratory cycle were captured and displayed using an acoustic-based imaging technique. Breath sound distribution was mapped to create a gray-scale sequence of two-dimensional images based on intensity of sound (vibration). Consecutive CHF (n = 22), COPD (n = 19), and asthma (n = 18) patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department (ED). Twenty healthy subjects were also enrolled as a comparison group. Geographical area of the images and respiratory sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed. In healthy volunteers and COPD patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) geographical areas of the vibration energy images were similar, at 75.6 (IQR = 6.0) and 75.8 (IQR = 10.8) kilopixels, respectively (p > 0.05). Compared to healthy volunteers and COPD patients, areas for CHF and asthma patients were smaller, at 66.9 (IQR = 9.9) and 53.9 (IQR = 15.6) kilopixels, respectively (p < 0.05). The geographic area ratios between the left and right lungs for healthy volunteers and CHF and COPD patients were 1.0 (IQR = 0.2), 1.0 (IQR = 0.2), and 1.0 (IQR = 0.1), respectively. Compared to healthy volunteers, the geographic area ratio between the left and right lungs for asthma patients was 0.5 (IQR = 0.4; p < 0.05). In healthy volunteers and CHF patients, the ratios of vibration energy values at peak inspiration and expiration (peak I/E ratio) were 4.6 (IQR = 4.4) and 4.7 (IQR = 3.5). In marked contrast, the peak I/E ratios of COPD and asthma patients were 3.4 (= 2.1) and 0.1 (IQR = 0.3; p < 0.05), respectively. The

  4. [Prevalence and significance of anaemia in patients with chronic congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Egelykke, Katrine; Petersen, Helle; Haghfelt, Torben H

    2006-05-08

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and significance of anaemia in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), as well as the prevalence of impaired renal function. We did a retrospective study of 50 women and 113 men with systolic CHF. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records. Age at inclusion was 70 +/- 8 years. The follow-up period was 30 +/- 7.5 months. Patients in NYHA class IV were not included in this study. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) count of < or = 8 mmol/l for both sexes. At inclusion 23% and at follow-up 35% were anemic. Forty-nine patients' Hb was measured at both inclusion and follow-up; their Hb was 8.8 +/- 1.1 mmol/l at inclusion and 8.3 +/- 1.1 mmol/l at follow-up (p < 0.001). Of these 49 patients, 10 were anemic at both inclusion and follow-up (group A), 10 developed anemia in the follow-up period (group B), 26 did not have anemia at either inclusion or follow-up (group C) and 3 had anemia at inclusion but not at follow-up (group D). A decrease in Hb in group A, B and C and an elevation in S-creatinine in all four groups was observed. In group B and C the decrease in Hb and S-creatinine was significant. Ninety-six patients' S-creatinine was measured at both inclusion and follow-up, and a significant decrease was observed. 18% of the patients died in the intervening period, and 7% were lost to follow-up. This study showed that both anaemia and impaired renal function are found in CHF patients (23-32% and 20-27%, respectively) and that these may influence patients' quality of life and functional level. In the future, there should be a greater focus on both anaemia and impaired renal function in CHF patients.

  5. A case of severe hypoalbuminemia associated with chronic congestive heart failure: the role of the tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Ioana Dana; Ilie, Adina Carmen; Moroşanu, Anca; Crăcană, Irina; Onuţu, Ramona; Voica, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is considered an independent predictor of mortality, especially in elderly patients. It is common in patients with congestive heart failure, when is due to several mechanisms: increased volume of distribution, significant stasis in the mesenteric circulation and altered protein metabolism in the liver. These alterations are even more pregnant when tricuspid regurgitation is associated or aggravated by different risk factors (recent infections, anemia, hyperthyroidism). We present the case of an elderly patient with severe hypoproteinemia and important hypoalbuminemia associated with congestive heart failure and aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation. The differential diagnosis concluded that hypoalbuminemia was influenced by tricuspid regurgitation as it enhanced liver dysfunction and enteral protein absorption due to increased stasis in mesenteric system. On the other hand, hypoalbuminemia contributed to the progression of heart failure by favoring myocardial edema, volume overload, and diuretic resistance. This is why correct management of this situation should include removal of subclinical excess of fluid and renutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to achieve a good control of the symptoms and a significant improvement of quality of life.

  6. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcomes in congestive heart failure at the Hospital of The State University of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Malebranche, Rodolphe; Tabou Moyo, Christian; Morisset, Paul-Henry; Raphael, Nernst-Atwood; Wilentz, James Robert

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and epidemiologic profile of congestive heart failure at the principal free-care hospital in Haiti. Cardiovascular disease represents the most prevalent cause of admissions to the medical service of the University Hospital of the State of Haiti. No previous study has examined the demographics of congestive heart failure in urban Haiti. Two hundred forty-seven patients presented to the inpatient service between May 2011 and May 2013. Evaluation included history and physical, CBC, renal/metabolic profile, serum glucose, anti-HIV antibody, ECG, chest radiograph and echocardiogram. Treatment included angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, furosemide and spironolactone, carvedilol, digoxin and anticoagulation. Women (62.4%) outnumbered men; patients were relatively young (mean age 50.1) and from the lowest socio-economic levels of the population. Nearly all (98.8%) presented with NYHA III-IV status, with correspondingly high mortality (23.3%). Echocardiography showed 73% dilated cardiomyopathy; 83% showed moderate to severe LV systolic dysfunction (mean EF 36.5 +/- 15%) and 17% preserved LV systolic function. The three principal etiologies were dilated cardiomyopathy (29%) hypertensive cardiomyopathy (27%) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (20%). Ischemic cardiomyopathy was rare (3.4%). At 27 months follow-up, 76.7% of the patients were alive and well. Among those who died, mean survival time was 113 days. Readmission carried a poor prognosis. This congestive heart failure study from Haiti shows an unusually high proportion of young women, primarily due to peripartum cardiomyopathy. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is rare, as in Africa. Further study is warranted to address the particular problem of the high frequency of peripartum cardiomyopathy in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of isosorbide dinitrate on response to submaximal and maximal exercise in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, J A; Cohn, J N

    1979-05-01

    Isosorbide dinitrate is an effective vasodilator that improves resting left ventricular performance in patients with congestive heart failure, but little is known of the effect of the drug on the response to exercise. Bicycle exercise to symptomatic maximum was performed by 18 patients with class II to IV congestive heart failure before and 90 minutes after administration of isosorbide dinitrate, 40 mg orally. Although resting pulmonary wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance were significantly reduced after isosorbide dinitrate, exercise duration was not altered and maximal oxygen consumption was not significantly changed (13.6 +/- 1.3 [SEM] standard error of the mean versus 13.8 +/- 1.2 ml/kg per min). At peak exercise pulmonary wedge pressure of 37.1 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, cardiac index of 4.19 +/- 0.35 liters/min per m2, and systemic vascular resistance of 14.7 +/- 1.3 units were not significantly different after nitrate administration. However, at submaximal loads, pulmonary wedge pressure was reduced from 33.6 +/- 1.7 to 27.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (P less than 0.01), and systemic resistance from 16.5 +/- 1.5 to 13.7 +/- 1.0 units (P less than 0.01) after administration of isosorbide dinitrate. Thus, short-term administration of nitrates does not improve maximal exercise capacity or left ventricular performance at maximal exercise in patients with congestive heart failure, but it does appear to improve pump function at submaximal work loads and may therefore enable patients to perform limited exercise more comfortably.

  8. Skills review: the CHF patient. A review of BLS ssessment and care of the congestive heart failure patient.

    PubMed

    Brophy, John R

    2009-08-01

    As an EMT-B, there will be times when your assessment and treatment skills will be put to the test as you find yourself on scene with a critical patient and no ALS backup. Your ability to recognize patients with critical symptoms and do the most good for them within the EMT-B scope of practice could have a tremendous impact on patient survival. The importance of rapid but accurate assessment of both the clinical presentation and the patient's history cannot be overemphasized. This article will review BLS assessment and care of the congestive heart failure (CHF) patient.

  9. B-type Natriuretic Peptide Assay in Differentiating Congestive Heart Failure from Lung Disease in Patients Presenting with Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bari, M S; Islam, M N; Bari, M A; Siddique, S R; Islam, M Z; Begum, M S; Ahammed, S U; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After fulfilling the exclusion & inclusion criteria, B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in a convenience sample of 100 predominantly male (94%) dyspnic patients who got admitted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014. The diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) was based on generally accepted Framingham criteria with corroborative information including hospital course (response to diuretics, vasodilators, inotropes or hemodynamic monitoring) and results of further cardiac testing, including echocardiography. Patients with right heart failure from cor pulmonale were classified as having CHF. Pulmonary disease was confirmed by using the following diagnostic tools: i) A chest X-ray without signs of heart enlargement or pulmonary venous hypertension or a chest X-ray with signs of chronic obstructive lung disease, ii) Normal heart function as seen by echocardiography, iii) Abnormal pulmonary function tests or follow-up results and iv) A positive response to treatment with steroids, nebulizers or antibiotics in hospital. Patients with CHF (n=50) had mean BNP level 1146.72pg/ml (range 103 to 5000pg/ml), which is significantly higher than the group of patients with a final diagnosis of pulmonary disease (n=50) whose BNP was 34pg/ml (range 10 to 90pg/ml) (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was found that B-type natriuretic peptide is an important biomarker for differentiating congestive heart failure from lung disease in patients presenting with dyspnea.

  10. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights From Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARESS-HF).

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E; Mentz, Robert J; Dunlay, Shannon M; Vader, Justin M; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F; DeVore, Adam D; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M; Goldsmith, Steven R; Bart, Bradley A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Felker, G Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Stevenson, Lynne W

    2015-07-01

    Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure. Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (eg, peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. A post hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARRESS-HF) trials during hospitalization with acute decompensated heart failure and clinical congestion. A simple orthodema congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1-2), and high-grade (score of 3-4), and the association with death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score=0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared with those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively; P=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. © 2015 American Heart

  11. Disease management 360 degrees: a scorecard approach to evaluating TRICARE's programs for asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Hogan, Paul F; Arday, David R; Gantt, Cynthia J

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effect of TRICARE's asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes disease management programs using a scorecard approach. EVALUATION MEASURES: Patient healthcare utilization, financial, clinical, and humanistic outcomes. Absolute measures were translated into effect size and incorporated into a scorecard. Actual outcomes for program participants were compared with outcomes predicted in the absence of disease management. The predictive equations were established from regression models based on historical control groups (n = 39,217). Z scores were calculated for the humanistic measures obtained through a mailed survey. Administrative records containing medical claims, patient demographics and characteristics, and program participation status were linked using an encrypted patient identifier (n = 57,489). The study time frame is 1 year prior to program inception through 2 years afterward (October 2005-September 2008). A historical control group was identified with the baseline year starting October 2003 and a 1-year follow-up period starting October 2004. A survey was administered to a subset of participants 6 months after baseline assessment (39% response rate). Within the observation window--24 months for asthma and congestive heart failure, and 15 months for the diabetes program--we observed modest reductions in hospital days and healthcare cost for all 3 programs and reductions in emergency visits for 2 programs. Most clinical outcomes moved in the direction anticipated. The scorecard provided a useful tool to track performance of 3 regional contractors for each of 3 diseases and over time.

  12. Serum procollagen type III is associated with elevated right-sided filling pressures in stable outpatients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Biolo, Andréia; Rohde, Luis E; Goldraich, Livia A; Mascarenhas, Marcello; Palombini, Dora V; Clausell, Nadine

    2009-09-01

    Elevated filling pressures are associated with heart failure deterioration, but mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. We sought to investigate whether or not elevated filling pressures are associated with increased collagen turnover, evaluated by procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP) levels, in stable systolic heart failure. Eighty patients with heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 26 +/- 7%) were included. Patients underwent simultaneous echocardiogram with evaluation of haemodynamic parameters and blood sampling for PIIINP measurement. Mean PIIINP level was 6.11 +/- 2.62 microg l(-1). PIIINP was positively associated with estimated right atrial pressure (RAP) (r = 0.36; p = 0.001). Mean PIIINP values were 5.04 +/- 2.42 microg l(-1) in patients with estimated RAP < or = 5 mmHg, and 7.59 +/- 2.54 microg l(-1) in those with RAP > 15 mmHg (p < 0.01). In conclusion, elevated right-side filling pressures are associated with evidence of active extracellular matrix turnover, as indicated by elevated PIIINP levels, in stable systolic heart failure. Activation of extracellular matrix turnover may be implicated in the accelerated progression of heart failure syndromes seen in patients with persistent congestion.

  13. Congestive Heart Failure During Osimertinib Treatment for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kano, Hirohisa; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2017-08-15

    We herein report a case of congestive heart failure which developed during osimertinib treatment. A 78-year-old woman presented with mild exertional dyspnea three weeks after starting osimertinib for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer. She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure caused by the osimertinib. In contrast to trastuzumab, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody that often causes cardiac dysfunction, the causal relationship between osimertinib and cardiotoxicity has so far received little attention and thus remains unclear. However, it inhibits HER2 in addition to mutant EGFR, thereby potentially causing cardiotoxicity.

  14. Reduction of psycho-spiritual distress of an elderly with advanced congestive heart failure by life review interview in a palliative care day center

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Ying; Lau, Vikki Wai-Kee; Cheung, Ka-Chi; Chang, Richard Shek-Kwan; Chan, Man-Lui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Major depression is common in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure and is independently associated with increased re-hospitalization and mortality. Methods: Hereby, we report the treatment for an elderly congestive heart failure patient with frequent emergency department visits having major depression and hopelessness. Results: Treatment outcomes measured showed that depressed scores of psychosocial needs were reduced with life review interview therapy in a palliative care day center. Conclusion: We hypothesize that multidisciplinary team’s approach to treatment was important for this case. PMID:27621805

  15. Role of biological and non biological factors in congestive heart failure mortality: PREDICE-SCORE: a clinical prediction rule.

    PubMed

    de la Cámara, Agustín Gómez; Guerravales, Juan Manuel; Tapia, Purificación Magán; Esteban, Eva Andrés; del Pozo, Silvia Vázquez Fernández; Sandubete, Enrique Calderón; Ortega, Francisco J Medrano; Puerto, Asunción Navarro; Marín-León, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF) is a chronic, frequent and disabling condition but with a modifiable course and a large potential for improving. The aim of this project was to develop a clinical prediction model of biological and non biological factors in patients with first diagnosis of HF that facilitates the risk-stratification and decision-making process at the point of care. Historical cohort analysis of 600 patients attended at three tertiary hospitals and diagnosed of a first episode of HF according Framingham criteria. There were followed 1 year. We analyzed sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data with potential prognostic value. The modelling process concluded into a logistic regression multivariable analysis and a predictive rule: PREDICE SCORE. Age, dependency for daily basic activities, creatinine clearance, sodium levels at admission and systolic dysfunction diagnosis (HF with left ventricular ejection fraction 〈 40%) were the selected variables. The model showed a c-statistic of 0.763. PREDICE Score, has range of 22 points to stratifications of 1-year mortality. The follow-up of 600 patients hospitalized by a first episode of congestive HF, allowed us to obtain a predictive 1 year mortality model from the combination of demographic data, routine biochemistry and easy handling social and functional variables at the point of care. The variables included were non-invasive, undemanding to collect, and widely available. It allows for risk stratification and therapeutical targeting and may help in the clinical decisions process in a sustainable way.

  16. A novel approach to monitoring pulmonary congestion in heart failure: initial animal and clinical experiences using remote dielectric sensing technology.

    PubMed

    Amir, Offer; Rappaport, Dan; Zafrir, Barak; Abraham, William T

    2013-01-01

    Despite current therapies and disease management approaches, rates of heart failure (HF) rehospitalization remain high. New tools are needed to assess preclinical (asymptomatic) pulmonary congestion to enable outpatient management. Hence, a novel monitoring system based on noninvasive remote dielectric sensing (ReDS) technology was developed. Validation of the ReDS technology was conducted in preclinical and clinical studies. In a porcine HF model, acute fluid overload followed by administration of diuretics were performed. Changes in ReDS values were correlated to serial computed tomographic (CT) assessments of lung fluid concentrations. In hospitalized decompensated HF patients, changes in ReDS values were correlated to net fluid balance changes. A nearly linear pattern between the changes in ReDS and CT fluid concentration values was observed in 6 discrete experiments (Intraclass correlation=0.95). Results from 24 patients demonstrated a reduction in ReDS values of 17.53%±11% throughout hospitalization, consistent with a reduction in pulmonary congestion. This finding strongly correlated with changes in net fluid balance (Pearson correlation=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.94; R(2) =0.74). These findings suggest that ReDS technology accurately quantifies lung fluid concentration and has potential for monitoring HF patients through hospitalization and possibly at home. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Paravalvular mitral valve leakage presenting as congestive heart failure, missed by TTE but diagnosed by TEE: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Burzyantseva, Olga; Sinnapunayagm, Selvaratnam

    2008-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of prosthetic valve leakage by the transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) technique is more difficult. These limitations are diminished with the use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) techniques. Case report A 71 year old Caucasian male presented with symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure. Past medical history included a bio-prosthetic mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation. TTE showed possible mitral regurgitation. As the TTE did not correlate with the finding of a high E-velocity, a TEE was performed, which showed a significant paravalvular leak of moderate severity around the bio-prosthetic mitral valve. Conclusion There should be a high degree of suspicion to diagnose a paravalvular leak. PMID:18838002

  18. Participation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in the cardiovascular system in elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Kanda, T; Kuwabara, A; Shinohara, H; Kobayashi, I

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the pituitary-thyroid axis and the cardiovascular system in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remains unknown. Therefore, we attempted to determine serum levels of thyroid hormones in relation to plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels and left ventricular (LV) function in patients with CHF. The echocardiographic ejection fraction significantly correlated with the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p < 0.005) and free triiodothyronine (FT3)/free thyroxine (FT4) ratio (p < 0.005), respectively, in patients with CHF but not in control subjects. TSH was positively correlated with the FT3/FT4 ratio (p < 0.01) in CHF. In patients with CHF, TSH and thyroid hormones may participate in regulatory mechanisms of the cardiovascular system and altered thyroid hormone metabolism, which was characterized by a euthyroid sick syndrome.

  19. How length of stay for congestive heart failure patients was reduced through six sigma methodology and physician leadership.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kathy; Sherman, Bradley; Backus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Unnecessary variation and overuse in care are associated with increased length of stay. Efforts to improve efficiency without physician leadership and buy-in have been unsuccessful. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most frequent admitting diagnosis and is associated with increased hospital length of stay. This performance improvement initiative used Six Sigma methodology to reduce CHF length of stay at a community hospital. Daily rounding, prioritization of CHF patients for left-ventricular (LV) assessments, and standardization of orders accounted for improvements in delivery of care. Turnaround time for LV assessments was reduced from a mean of 2.2 days to a mean of 0.78 days. Use of standardized CHF order sets by physicians rose from 25% to 72.6%, and length of stay was reduced from 7 days to 4 days (P = .00). Physician leadership, interdisciplinary team dynamics, and standardization of practice play crucial roles in reducing length of stay.

  20. Prognostic value of pulmonary congestion assessed by lung ultrasound imaging during heart failure hospitalisation: A two-centre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Coiro, Stefano; Porot, Guillaume; Rossignol, Patrick; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Erberto; Tritto, Isabella; Huttin, Olivier; Lemoine, Simon; Sadoul, Nicolas; Donal, Erwan; Zannad, Faiez; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary congestion assessed at discharge by lung ultrasonography predicts poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. We investigated the association of B-lines with indices of hemodynamic congestion [BNP, E/e’, pulmonary systolic arterial pressure (PAPs)] in HF patients, and their prognostic value overall and according to concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), reduced (≤40%) ejection fraction (EF), and timing of quantification during hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF). In 110 HHF patients, B-lines were highly discriminative of BNP >400 pg/ml (AUC ≥ 0.80 for all), and moderately discriminative of PAPs >50 mmHg (AUC = 0.68, 0.56 to 0.80); conversely, B-lines poorly discriminated average E/e’ ≥ 15, except at discharge. B-line count significantly predicted mid-term recurrent HHF or death (overall and in subgroups), regardless of AF status, EF, and timing of quantification during HHF (all p for interaction >0.10). regardless, B-lines ≥30 at discharge were most predictive of outcome (HR = 7.11, 2.06–24.48; p = 0.002) while B-lines ≥45 early during HHF were most predictive of outcome (HR = 9.20, 1.82–46.61; p = 0.007). Lung ultrasound was able to identify patients with high BNP levels, but not with increased E/e’, also showing a prognostic role regardless of AF status, EF or timing of quantification; best B-line cut-off appears to vary according to the timing of quantification during hospitalization. PMID:27995971

  1. What is the economic value of digoxin therapy in congestive heart failure patients? Results from the DIG trial.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Yusuf, Salim; Bindal, Vishal; Bourassa, Martial G; Horney, Anne; Collins, Joseph F; Mark, Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    The Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) clinical train randomized 6800 congestive heart failure patients (ejection fraction > or =45%) to a daily regimen of either digoxin or placebo. At 37 months average follow-up, patients in both groups had similar mortality. We determined the incremental costs associated with the use of digoxin in this high-risk population. Hospitalizations and medical costs were compared by using a societal perspective. Hospitalizations were assigned Medicare DRG codes by using descriptive information from the clinical trial. Digoxin use was assigned a cost by using the 1998 average wholesale price as reported by Red Book. On average, there were fewer hospitalizations in digoxin-treated patients. These patients had lower heart failure yet higher non-heart failure hospitalization costs than placebo patients. Digoxin therapy was cost saving versus placebo in only 27% of 1000 bootstrap samples using Medicare costs (mean costs 12,648 dollars vs. 12,362 dollars) and in 44% of samples using commercial carrier costs (mean costs 17,400 dollars vs. 17,306 dollars). How ever, digoxin was cost saving in >50% of samples for several higher-risk patient subgroups. The use of digoxin therapy versus placebo was associated with reduced hospitalizations. Moreover, the resulting cost-savings could cover the costs of this inexpensive therapy in selected subgroups of higher-risk patients. In the remainder, there is a modest cost associated with this therapy.

  2. Apoptosis and the systolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure. Story of apoptosis interruptus and zombie myocytes.

    PubMed

    Narula, J; Arbustini, E; Chandrashekhar, Y; Schwaiger, M

    2001-02-01

    Although previously it was believed that apoptosis could not occur in the terminally differentiated tissue, such as adult heart muscle cells, recent studies in endomyocardial biopsies from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing cardiac transplantation have demonstrated histologic evidence of apoptosis. Whereas neurohormonal activation during heart failure leads to compensatory hemodynamic alterations, coupled with ventricular dilatation, it induces transcription factors and myocyte hypertrophy. Persistent growth stimulation in terminally differentiated cells may lead paradoxically to apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis in cardiomyopathic hearts is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of proteolytic caspase-8 and -3. Although the caspases are duly processed, the fragmentation of the nuclear proteins (including DNA) is completed less frequently, and only a variable degree of fragmentation of cytoplasmic proteins (including contractile proteins) is observed. It is hypothesized that release of cytochrome c from mitochondria should interfere with energy production and lead to functional impairment and variable loss of contractile proteins in a living heart muscle cell should contribute to systolic dysfunction. Because a nuclear blueprint is retained, however, the dysfunctional cell may continue to exist and in favorable conditions, such as with LVAD support, the apoptotic process may subside. Potential feasibility of reversal of heart failure should renew efforts to develop more targeted pharmaceutical intervention within the apoptotic cascade and allow newer paradigm for the management of heart failure.

  3. Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy by Central Venous Pressure-Guided Fluid Administration in Chronic Kidney Disease and Congestive Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Qian, Geng; Fu, Zhenhong; Guo, Jun; Cao, Feng; Chen, Yundai

    2016-01-11

    This study aimed to explore the hemodynamic index-guided hydration method for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and at the same time to avoid the acute heart failure. Patients at moderate or high risk for CIN should receive sufficient hydration before contrast application. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trial enrolled 264 consecutive patients with CKD and CHF undergoing coronary procedures. These patients were randomly assigned to either central venous pressure (CVP)-guided hydration group (n = 132) or the standard hydration group (n = 132). In the CVP-guided group, the hydration infusion rate was dynamically adjusted according to CVP level every hour. CIN was defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine (SCr) >0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/l) or a relative increase >25% compared with baseline SCr. Baseline characteristics were well-matched between the 2 groups. The total mean volume of isotonic saline administered in the CVP-guided hydration group was significantly higher than the control group (1,827 ± 497 ml vs. 1,202 ± 247 ml; p < 0.001). CIN occurred less frequently in CVP-guided hydration group than the control group (15.9% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.006). The incidences of acute heart failure during the hydration did not differ between the 2 groups (3.8% vs. 3.0%; p = 0.500). CVP-guided fluid administration can safely and effectively reduce the risk of CIN in patients with CKD and CHF. (Central Venous Pressure Guided Hydration Prevention for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy; NCT02405377). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of spironolactone added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a loop diuretic for severe chronic congestive heart failure (the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study [RALES]).

    PubMed

    1996-10-15

    The present study enrolled 214 patients, aged 26 to 83 years, with symptomatic New York Heart Association class II through IV congestive heart failure. Patients were continued on their previous therapeutic regimens, which included an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a loop diuretic with or without digitalis. Patients were randomized to 1 of 5 parallel treatment groups: placebo or spironolactone at a single daily dose of 12.5, 25, 50, or 75 mg for 12 weeks. Serum levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, potassium, plasma renin activity, and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic factor (pro-ANF), as well as urinary aldosterone levels, were measured periodically. Measurements at 12 weeks versus baseline values indicated significant increases in plasma renin activity and aldosterone excretion and significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pro-ANF. Hypokalemia (serum potassium < 3.4 mmol/L) occurred in 10% of placebo-treated patients and in 0.5% of the spironolactone group. The incidence of hyperkalemia (serum potassium > or = 5.5 mmol/L) was 5% for the placebo group, whereas it was 5%, 13%, 20%, and 24% for the 12.5-, 25-, 50- and 75-mg spironolactone treatment groups, respectively. Predictors of hyperkalemia included the use of ACE inhibitors other than captopril, ACE inhibitor dose, and baseline elevation of serum creatinine or potassium levels. Thus, daily doses of 12.5 to 25 mg of spironolactone coadministered with conventional therapy of ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, and digitalis are relatively safe (provided that serum potassium levels are monitored) and effective in blocking the effects of aldosterone, while reducing the potential for hypokalemia in patients with heart failure.

  5. Common variants in IL-17A/IL-17RA axis contribute to predisposition to and progression of congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sandip, Chaugai; Tan, Lun; Huang, Jin; Li, Qing; Ni, Li; Cianflone, Katherine; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure is characterized by immune activation leading to production and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine and multiple lines of evidence from animal and human studies suggest crucial roles of IL-17A in heart failure. Therefore, we investigated whether common polymorphisms of genes IL17A and IL17RA (coding interleukin 17 receptor A) contribute to genetic predisposition to heart failure and adverse clinical outcomes associated with it. A total of 1713 adult patients with congestive heart failure and 1713 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2275913 and rs8193037 in IL17A and rs4819554 in IL17RA, to assess the relationship between individual SNPs and the risk of congestive heart failure. Results showed that rs8193037 in IL17A was associated with the risk of congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.90, adjusted P = 0.002) after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors including age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This association was evident in both ischemic and nonischemic heart failure (P = 0.005 and P = 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, prospective follow-up of 12.7 months for the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes showed that rs4819554 in IL17RA was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02–1.59, adjusted P = 0.03) after adjustments for multiple cardiovascular risk factors and New York Heart Association functional class. This study demonstrated associations of rs8193037 in the promoter of IL17A with the risk of congestive heart failure, and of rs4819554 in the promoter of IL17RA with the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. These data lend further support to the notion that immune activation and genetic polymorphisms contribute to heart failure

  6. Common variants in IL-17A/IL-17RA axis contribute to predisposition to and progression of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sandip, Chaugai; Tan, Lun; Huang, Jin; Li, Qing; Ni, Li; Cianflone, Katherine; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure is characterized by immune activation leading to production and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine and multiple lines of evidence from animal and human studies suggest crucial roles of IL-17A in heart failure. Therefore, we investigated whether common polymorphisms of genes IL17A and IL17RA (coding interleukin 17 receptor A) contribute to genetic predisposition to heart failure and adverse clinical outcomes associated with it.A total of 1713 adult patients with congestive heart failure and 1713 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2275913 and rs8193037 in IL17A and rs4819554 in IL17RA, to assess the relationship between individual SNPs and the risk of congestive heart failure. Results showed that rs8193037 in IL17A was associated with the risk of congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.90, adjusted P = 0.002) after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors including age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This association was evident in both ischemic and nonischemic heart failure (P = 0.005 and P = 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, prospective follow-up of 12.7 months for the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes showed that rs4819554 in IL17RA was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02-1.59, adjusted P = 0.03) after adjustments for multiple cardiovascular risk factors and New York Heart Association functional class.This study demonstrated associations of rs8193037 in the promoter of IL17A with the risk of congestive heart failure, and of rs4819554 in the promoter of IL17RA with the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. These data lend further support to the notion that immune activation and genetic polymorphisms contribute to heart failure pathogenesis

  7. Secular trends in the etiology and comorbidity of hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure: A single-center retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Yu-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yue; Xue, Qiao; Gao, Lei; Wang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the secular trends in the etiology and comorbidity of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods Data of 7,319 patients (mean age 59.6 years, 62.1% male) with a primary discharge diagnosis of CHF, hospitalized from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2007 at the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital were extracted and analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups according to hospitalization period: 1993–1997 (n = 1623), 1998–2002 (n = 2444), and 2003–2007 (n = 3252). The etiological characteristics and comorbidities were assessed. Results Over the study period, the proportion of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) increased from 37.2% during the period 1993–1997 to 46.8% during the period 2003–2007, while that with valvular heart disease (VHD) decreased from 35.2% during the period 1993–1997 to 16.6% during the period 2003–2007 (both P < 0.05). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common comorbidity of heart failure (23.2%, 23.0% and 20.6%, respectively, in the three periods). Compared to that of the period of 1993–1997 with that of, the proportion of patients with myocardial infarction, pneumonia, renal function impairment and hepatic cirrhosis of the period of 2003–2007 increased significantly (P < 0.05) and the proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study implies that IHD has became a more common etiology of CHF, while VHD has deceased as an etiology of CHF in Chinese patients during the last two decades. PMID:23341841

  8. Beneficial effects of testosterone therapy on functional capacity, cardiovascular parameters, and quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mirdamadi, Ahmad; Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Bahmani, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Hamideh; Gharipour, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    According to the present evidences suggesting association between low testosterone level and prediction of reduced exercise capacity as well as poor clinical outcome in patients with heart failure, we sought to determine if testosterone therapy improves clinical and cardiovascular conditions as well as quality of life status in patients with stable chronic heart failure. A total of 50 male patients who suffered from congestive heart failure were recruited in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomized to receive an intramuscular (gluteal) long-acting androgen injection (1 mL of testosterone enanthate 250 mg/mL) once every four weeks for 12 weeks or receive intramuscular injections of saline (1 mL of 0.9% wt/vol NaCl) with the same protocol. The changes in body weight, hemodynamic parameters, and left ventricular dimensional echocardiographic indices were all comparable between the two groups. Regarding changes in diastolic functional state and using Tei index, this parameter was significantly improved. Unlike the group received placebo, those who received testosterone had a significant increasing trend in 6-walk mean distance (6MWD) parameter within the study period (P = 0.019). The discrepancy in the trends of changes in 6MWD between study groups remained significant after adjusting baseline variables (mean square = 243.262, F index = 4.402, and P = 0.045). Our study strengthens insights into the beneficial role of testosterone in improvement of functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients.

  9. Epidemiologic burden of hospitalisation for congestive heart failure among adults aged ≥19 years in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Tumanan-Mendoza, Bernadette A; Mendoza, Victor L; Bermudez–Delos Santos, April Ann A; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Pestaño, Noemi S; Natividad, Rudy Boy; Shiu, Louie Alfred; Macabeo, Renelene

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study determined the prevalence of hospitalisation due to congestive heart failure (CHF) among adult patients aged 19 years and above in the Philippines and its 17 regions in 2014. It also determined the demographic profile of these patients, aetiology and type of CHF, comorbidities, duration of hospitalisation and the overall in-hospital mortality rate. Methods Data collection was done using the hospitalisation claims database of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth). All patient claims for CHF, that is, patients who were admitted from 1 January to 31 December 2014, were included. Descriptive statistics were utilised to obtain the results. Results The prevalence rate was 1.6% or 1648 cases of CHF for every 100 000 patient claims for medical conditions in 2014. The mean age was 52.6±15.1 years. There was no sex predilection. Only 22.67% of the hospitalisation claims for CHF listed possible specific aetiologies, the most common of which was hypertensive heart disease (86.7%). There were more cases of systolic compared to diastolic heart failure. The mean length of hospital stay was 5.9 days (+8.2) days (median 4 days), with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 8.2%. Conclusions There were 16 cases of heart failure for every 1000 Filipino patients admitted due to a medical condition in 2014. Hypertension was possibly the most common aetiologic factor. Compared to western and Asia-Pacific countries, the local mortality rate was relatively higher. PMID:28405229

  10. Systemic arterial and venous determinants of renal hemodynamics in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Braam, Branko; Cupples, William A; Joles, Jaap A; Gaillard, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Heart and kidney interactions are fascinating, in the sense that failure of the one organ strongly affects the function of the other. In this review paper, we analyze how principal driving forces for glomerular filtration and renal blood flow are changed in heart failure. Moreover, renal autoregulation and modulation of neurohumoral factors, which can both have repercussions on renal function, are analyzed. Two paradigms seem to apply. One is that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and extracellular volume control are the three main determinants of renal function in heart failure. The other is that the classical paradigm to analyze renal dysfunction that is widely applied in nephrology also applies to the pathophysiology of heart failure: pre-renal, intra-renal, and post-renal alterations together determine glomerular filtration. At variance with the classical paradigm is that the most important post-renal factor in heart failure seems renal venous hypertension that, by increasing renal tubular pressure, decreases GFR. When different pharmacological strategies to inhibit the RAS and SNS and to assist renal volume control are considered, there is a painful lack in knowledge about how widely applied drugs affect primary driving forces for ultrafiltration, renal autoregulation, and neurohumoral control. We call for more clinical physiological studies.

  11. Hemodynamic effect and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression leg sleeves in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Amitai; Shturman, Alexander; Sergeiev, Michael; Ivry, Shimon; Eitan, Arieh; Atar, Shaul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic leg sleeves are widely used after prolonged operations for prevention of venous stasis. In healthy volunteers they increase cardiac function. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression (ISPC) leg sleeves in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 19 patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction and CHF. ISPC leg sleeves, each with 10 air cells, were operated by a computerized compressor, exerting 2 cycles/min. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters were measured before, during, and after ISPC activation. The baseline mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29 ± 9.2%, median 32%, range 10%-40%. Cardiac output (from 4.26 to 4.83 L/min; P = .008) and stroke volume (from 56.1 to 63.5 mL; P = .029) increased significantly after ISPC activation, without a reciprocal increase in heart rate, and declined after sleeve deactivation. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly (from 1,520 to 1,216 dyne-s/cm5; P = .0005), and remained lower than the baseline level throughout the study. There was no detrimental effect on diastolic function and no adverse clinical events, despite increased pulmonary venous return. ISPC leg sleeves in patients with chronic CHF do not exacerbate symptoms and transiently improve cardiac output through an increase in stroke volume and a reduction in SVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A new approach to detect congestive heart failure using Teager energy nonlinear scatter plot of R-R interval series.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Chandrakar

    2012-09-01

    A novel approach to distinguish congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects from healthy subjects is proposed. Heart rate variability (HRV) is impaired in CHF subjects. In this work hypothesizing that capturing moment to moment nonlinear dynamics of HRV will reveal cardiac patterning, we construct the nonlinear scatter plot for Teager energy of R-R interval series. The key feature of Teager energy is that it models the energy of the source that generated the signal rather than the energy of the signal itself. Hence, any deviations in the genesis of HRV, by complex interactions of hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and humoral variables, as well as by the autonomic and central nervous regulations, get manifested in the Teager energy function. Comparison of the Teager energy scatter plot with the second-order difference plot (SODP) for normal and CHF subjects reveals significant differences qualitatively and quantitatively. We introduce the concept of curvilinearity for central tendency measures of the plots and define a radial distance index that reveals the efficacy of the Teager energy scatter plot over SODP in separating CHF subjects from healthy subjects. The k-nearest neighbor classifier with RDI as feature showed almost 100% classification rate.

  13. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  14. A new approach to early diagnosis of congestive heart failure disease by using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Altan, Gokhan; Kutlu, Yakup; Allahverdi, Novruz

    2016-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a degree of cardiac disease occurring as a result of the heart's inability to pump enough blood for the human body. In recent studies, coronary artery disease (CAD) is accepted as the most important cause of CHF. This study focuses on the diagnosis of both the CHF and the CAD. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), which is effective on non-linear and non-stationary signals, is used to extract the features from R-R intervals obtained from the raw electrocardiogram data. The statistical features are extracted from instinct mode functions that are obtained applying the HHT to R-R intervals. Classification performance is examined with extracted statistical features using a multilayer perceptron neural network. The designed model classified the CHF, the CAD patients and a normal control group with rates of 97.83%, 93.79% and 100%, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Also, early diagnosis of the CHF was performed by interpretation of the CAD with a classification accuracy rate of 97.53%, specificity of 98.18% and sensitivity of 97.13%. As a result, a single system having the ability of both diagnosis and early diagnosis of CHF is performed by integrating the CAD diagnosis method to the CHF diagnosis method.

  15. Rationale, design and organisation of an efficacy and safety study of oxypurinol added to standard therapy in patients with NYHA class III - IV congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Freudenberger, Ronald S; Schwarz, Richard P; Brown, Joanne; Moore, Alan; Mann, Douglas; Givertz, Michael M; Colucci, Wilson S; Hare, Joshua M

    2004-11-01

    Oxypurinol, the active metabolite of allopurinol and a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI), is under evaluation as a novel agent for the treatment of congestive heart failure (HF). Several lines of evidence provide the rationale for the hypothesis that XOIs will improve clinical outcomes in patients with HF. First, XOIs have unique positive inotropic effects, improving myocardial contraction and performance while simultaneously improving myocardial energy metabolism. Second, XOIs ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in humans with HF. Finally, XO activity is upregulated in the heart and vasculature of subjects with HF, which may in turn contribute to oxidative stress and/or increased uric acid levels. Together these findings form the rationale for the Controlled Efficacy and Safety Study of Oxypurinol Added to Standard Therapy in Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III - IV Congestive Heart Failure (OPT-CHF) trial (Food and Drug Administration IND 65,125), a Phase II - III prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which will include patients with stable symptomatic HF in NYHA class III - IV congestive HF who are deemed clinically stable on a standard and appropriately maximised heart failure therapy regimen. The efficacy end point for OPT-CHF is a composite that incorporates measures of patient outcome and well-being.

  16. Continuous infusion or bolus injection of loop diuretics for congestive heart failure?

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Patricio; Rain, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Paola

    2016-04-22

    Loop diuretics are widely used in acute heart failure. However, there is controversy about the superiority of continuous infusion over bolus administration. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews including 11 pertinent randomized controlled trials overall. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded continuous administration of loop diuretics probably reduces mortality and length of stay compared to intermittent administration in patients with acute heart failure.

  17. Measuring impedance in congestive heart failure: Current options and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tong, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of impedance is becoming increasingly available in the clinical setting as a tool for assessing hemodynamics and volume status in patients with heart failure. The 2 major categories of impedance assessment are the band electrode method and the implanted device lead method. The exact sources of the impedance signal are complex and can be influenced by physiologic effects such as blood volume, fluid, and positioning. This article provides a critical review of our current understanding and promises of impedance measurements, the techniques that have evolved, as well as the evidence and limitations regarding their clinical applications in the setting of heart failure management. PMID:19249408

  18. Thoracic radiography in the cat: Identification of cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Diana, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic radiography is one of the most commonly employed diagnostic tools for the clinical evaluation of cats with suspected heart disease and is the standard diagnostic method in the confirmation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the past, interpretation of feline radiographs focused on a description of the qualitative radiographic features of feline heart disease or the measurement of the cardiac silhouette in healthy cats and cats with different cardiovascular disorders. More recently, studies have begun to critically address the issue of the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnostic work-up of cats with heart disease. In these studies, qualitative and quantitative radiographic parameters were compared to echocardiographic findings to evaluate the usefulness of thoracic radiography for the identification of cardiac enlargement and pulmonary edema in the cat. Thoracic radiography is reasonably specific but has a low sensitivity when identifying cardiomegaly in cats with mild structural heart disease. Feline cardiogenic pulmonary edema has a variable radiographic presentation and several specific radiographic findings (i.e., enlargement of the left atrium and the pulmonary veins) can be absent or non-recognizable in affected cats.

  19. [Effects of hot water bath or sauna on patients with congestive heart failure: acute hemodynamic improvement by thermal vasodilation].

    PubMed

    Tei, C; Horikiri, Y; Park, J C; Jeong, J W; Chang, K S; Tanaka, N; Toyama, Y

    1994-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of thermal vasodilation caused by exposure to hot water bath or sauna in chronic congestive heart failure were investigated in 32 patients (mean age 57 +/- 15 years old) with dilated cardiomyopathy (25 idiopathic and 7 ischemic). The clinical symptoms were New York Heart Association Class II in 2 patients, III in 17 and IV in 13, and the mean ejection fraction was 25 +/- 9% (9-44%). Exposure to hot water bath was for 10 minutes at 41 degrees C in a semi-sitting position, and to sauna for 15 minutes at 60 degrees C in a supine position using a special far infrared ray sauna chamber. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms, expiration gas, and intracardiac pressure tracings were recorded before (control), during, and 30 minutes after hot water bath or sauna. 1. The increase in oxygen consumption was only 0.3 Mets during hot water bath or sauna, and returned to the control level 30 minutes later. 2. The deep temperature in the main pulmonary artery increased by 1.0-1.2 degrees C on average at the end of hot water bath or sauna. 3. Heart rate increased significantly (p < 0.01) by 20-25/min during bathing and still increased 30 min later. 4. Systolic blood pressure did not change significantly during and after hot water bath or sauna, while, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly during (p < 0.05) and after sauna (p < 0.01), and after hot water bath (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Usefulness of verapamil for congestive heart failure associated with abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling and normal left ventricular systolic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Setaro, J.F.; Zaret, B.L.; Schulman, D.S.; Black, H.R.; Soufer, R. )

    1990-10-15

    Normal left ventricular systolic performance with impaired left ventricular diastolic filling may be present in a substantial number of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the effect of oral verapamil in this subset, 20 men (mean age 68 +/- 5 years) with CHF, intact left ventricular function (ejection fraction greater than 45%) and abnormal diastolic filling (peak filling rate less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes per second (edv/s)) were studied in a placebo-controlled, double-blind 5-week crossover trial. All patients underwent echocardiography to rule out significant valvular disease, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy to exclude major active ischemia. Compared to baseline values, verapamil significantly improved exercise capacity by 33% (13.9 +/- 4.3 vs 10.7 +/- 3.4 minutes at baseline) and peak filling rate by 30% (2.29 +/- 0.54 vs 1.85 +/- 0.45 edv/s at baseline) (all p less than 0.05). Placebo values were 12.3 +/- 4.0 minutes and 2.16 +/- 0.48 edv/s, respectively (difference not significant for both). Improvement from baseline in an objective clinico-radiographic heart failure score (scale 0 to 13) was significantly greater with verapamil compared to placebo (median improvement in score: 3 vs 1, p less than 0.01). Mean ejection fraction and systolic blood pressure were unchanged from baseline; diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased to a small degree. Verapamil may have therapeutic efficacy in patients with CHF, preserved systolic function and impaired diastolic filling.

  1. CD28/B7 Deficiency Attenuates Systolic Overload-Induced Congestive Heart Failure, Myocardial and Pulmonary Inflammation, and Activated T Cell Accumulation in the Heart and Lungs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Hou, Lei; Xu, Xin; Burbach, Brandon J; Thenappan, Thenappan; Xu, Yawei; Ge, Jun-Bo; Shimizu, Yoji; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory response regulates congestive heart failure (CHF) development. T cell activation plays an important role in tissue inflammation. We postulate that CD28 or B7 deficiency inhibits T cell activation and attenuates CHF development by reducing systemic, cardiac, and pulmonary inflammation. We demonstrated that chronic pressure overload-induced end-stage CHF in mice is characterized by profound accumulation of activated effector T cells (CD3(+)CD44(high) cells) in the lungs and a mild but significant increase of these cells in the heart. In knockout mice lacking either CD28 or B7, there was a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of activated effector T cells in both hearts and lungs of mice under control conditions and after transverse aortic constriction. CD28 or B7 knockout significantly attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced CHF development, as indicated by less increase of heart and lung weight and less reduction of left ventricle contractility. CD28 or B7 knockout also significantly reduced transverse aortic constriction-induced CD45(+) leukocyte, T cell, and macrophage infiltration in hearts and lungs, lowered proinflammatory cytokine expression (such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in lungs. Furthermore, CD28/B7 blockade by CTLA4-Ig treatment (250 μg/mouse every 3 days) attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced T cell activation, left ventricle hypertrophy, and left ventricle dysfunction. Our data indicate that CD28/B7 deficiency inhibits activated effector T cell accumulation, reduces myocardial and pulmonary inflammation, and attenuates the development of CHF. Our findings suggest that strategies targeting T cell activation may be useful in treating CHF.

  2. Investigation of iron deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure: A medical practice that requires greater attention.

    PubMed

    Belmar Vega, Lara; de Francisco, Alm; Albines Fiestas, Zoila; Serrano Soto, Mara; Kislikova, María; Seras Mozas, Miguel; Unzueta, Mayte García; Arias Rodríguez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency in congestive heart failure (CHF), with or without concomitant anaemia, is associated with health-related quality of life, NYHA functional class, and exercise capacity. Prospective, randomised studies have demonstrated that correcting iron deficiency improves the quality of life and functional status of patients with CHF, including those who do not have anaemia. The aim of this study was to analyse how frequently these iron parameters are tested and thus determine the extent to which this quality improvement tool has been implemented in patients admitted with CHF. Retrospective observational study of patients from a university hospital diagnosed with CHF on admission between 01/01/2012 and 11/06/2013. Iron parameters were tested in 39% (324) of the 824 patients analysed. There was no significant difference in age between the patients whose iron was tested and those whose iron was not tested, but the difference in terms of gender was significant (P=.007). Glomerular filtration rate and haemoglobin, were significantly lower in the group of patients whose iron was tested (P<.001). The proportion of patients with anaemia, renal failure or both was significantly higher in the group of patients who had iron tests (P<.001). Of the 324 patients whose iron parameters were tested, 164 (51%) had iron deficiency. There were no differences between patients with and without iron deficiency in terms of age or gender. The iron parameters in both groups, ferritin and transferrin saturation index were significantly lower among the patients with iron deficiency (P<.001). The glomerular filtration rate values were significantly lower in patients with no iron deficiency (P<.001). Significant differences were also observed between those with and without iron deficiency in the proportion of patients with renal failure (79 vs. 66%, respectively, P=.013), but not in terms of haemoglobin concentration. Congestive heart failure is very frequently associated with anaemia, iron

  3. The five-point Likert scale for dyspnea can properly assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and predict adverse events in heart failure outpatients.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cristina K; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Moraes, Maria A P de; Sant'anna, Roberto T; Rover, Marciane M; Kalil, Renato A K; Leiria, Tiago Luiz L

    2014-01-01

    Proper assessment of dyspnea is important in patients with heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the use of the 5-point Likert scale for dyspnea to assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and to determine the prognostic value of this scale for predicting adverse events in heart failure outpatients. We undertook a prospective study of outpatients with moderate to severe heart failure. The 5-point Likert scale was applied during regular outpatient visits, along with clinical assessments. Lung ultrasound with ≥15 B-lines and an amino-terminal portion of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level >1000 pg/mL were used as a reference for pulmonary congestion. The patients were then assessed every 30 days during follow-up to identify adverse clinical outcomes. We included 58 patients (65.5% male, age 43.5 ± 11 years) with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 27 ± 6%. In total, 29.3% of these patients had heart failure with ischemic etiology. Additionally, pulmonary congestion, as diagnosed by lung ultrasound, was present in 58% of patients. A higher degree of dyspnea (3 or 4 points on the 5-point Likert scale) was significantly correlated with a higher number of B-lines (p = 0.016). Patients stratified into Likert = 3-4 were at increased risk of admission compared with those in class 1-2 after adjusting for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association functional class and levels of NT-proBNP >1000 pg/mL (HR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.33-18.64, p = 0.017). In our series, higher baseline scores on the 5-point Likert scale were related to pulmonary congestion and were independently associated with adverse events during follow-up. This simple clinical tool can help to identify patients who are more likely to decompensate and whose treatment should be intensified.

  4. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  5. Should All Congestive Heart Failure Patients Have a Routine Sleep Apnea Screening? Pro.

    PubMed

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in heart failure (HF) patients. These breathing disturbances are independent predictors of increased morbidity and comorbid conditions that improve with SDB treatment. Considering the overlap between SDB-related and HF clinical symptoms reported by patients, objective tests need to be conducted for a diagnosis to be firmly established and to determine the type and severity of SDB that will dictate treatment alternatives. Considering the high success rate and diagnostic value of ambulatory monitoring techniques, they represent a practical, cost-effective, and accurate alternative to diagnosing SDB in HF patients.

  6. Spontaneous closure of the human fetal ductus arteriosus--A cause of fetal congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hofstadler, G; Tulzer, G; Altmann, R; Schmitt, K; Danford, D; Huhta, J C

    1996-03-01

    Closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus, which is usually due to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, may be detrimental. Therefore prenatal and postnatal clinical and echocardiographic findings in four human fetuses with spontaneous ductus arteriosus occlusion are reported. Echocardiographic and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Spontaneous closure of the ductus arterious was discovered in four fetuses (gestational age 34 to 38 weeks). No mother had received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Enlargement of the right heart and pulmonary arteries and tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation were present in all cases. Two fetuses had right ventricular hypertension. Postnatally their right ventricular function recovered promptly. The others had severe right heart failure with abnormal umbilical venous pulsations. After immediate delivery none had signs of persistent pulmonary hypertension. However, they have echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction 2 to 6 months after delivery. Occlusion of the fetal ductus arteriosus may also occur in the absence of treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Immediate delivery resulted in good clinical outcome, although right ventricular dysfunction may persist.

  7. Circulating levels of cytokines and their endogenous modulators in patients with mild to severe congestive heart failure due to coronary artery disease or hypertension.

    PubMed

    Testa, M; Yeh, M; Lee, P; Fanelli, R; Loperfido, F; Berman, J W; LeJemtel, T H

    1996-10-01

    This study sought to determine the circulating levels of cytokines and their respective endogenous modulators in patients with congestive heart failure of variable severity. Activation of immune elements localized in the heart or periphery, or both, may promote release of cytokines in patients with congestive heart failure. Although an increased circulating level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble receptor type II (sTNF-RII) is well documented, less is known about other cytokines (i.e., interleukin-1-beta [IL-1-beta], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and interleukin-2 [IL-2] and their soluble receptor/receptor antagonists). Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and sTNF-RII, IL-1-beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1-Ra), IL-6, IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6-sR), IL-2 and IL-2 soluble receptor-alpha were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (Quantikine, R&D Systems) in 80 patients with congestive heart failure due to coronary artery disease or hypertension. The severity of their symptoms, which ranged from New York Heart Association functional class I to IV, was confirmed by measurement of peak oxygen consumption. The percentage of patients with elevated levels of cytokines and their corresponding soluble receptor/receptor antagonists significantly increased with functional class. For TNF-alpha and IL-1-beta, the percentage of patients with elevated levels of soluble receptor/receptor antagonists was higher than that of patients with elevated levels of the cytokine itself. For IL-6, the percentage of patients with elevated levels of IL-6-sR tended to be lower than that of patients with elevated levels of IL-6. All but two patients had undetectable levels of IL-2, and all but seven had levels of IL-2-sR within a normal range. In patients with congestive heart failure, circulating levels of cytokines increased with the severity of symptoms. In these patients, circulating levels of sTNF-RII and IL-1-Ra are more sensitive markers of immune activation

  8. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  9. Role of bioelectrical impedance analysis in follow-up of hospitalized elderly patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Berton, Linda; Carraro, Sara; Cardin, Fabrizio; Manzato, Enzo; Coin, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by high levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), expanded total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in CHF but no information is available for older patients. We hypothesized that, in the follow-up of patients with CHF, body fluid changes estimated by BIA are related to BNP variations rather than with body weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between variations in body fluid compartments, body weight and BNP in hospitalized elderly patients with decompensated CHF. 49 elderly patients admitted to the Geriatric Department for decompensated CHF were included in the study. On admission and at discharge, all patients underwent clinical and functional assessment and BNP dosage. TBW and ECW were also determined by the BIA method. At discharge, all patients showed reductions in TBW (ΔTBW -2.9 ± 3.0 liters), ECW (ΔECW 1.9 ± 2.1 liters) and BNP levels (ΔBNP -219.6 ± 458.1 pg/mL). Variations in TBW and ECW were correlated with BNP changes (r=0.65 and 0.62, respectively) rather than with body weight variations and BNP changes (r=0.51). The stronger relationship between fluid variations determined by BIA and BNP changes may make BIA a useful method in the follow-up of decompensated CHF elderly patients.

  10. Respiratory sound energy and its distribution patterns following clinical improvement of congestive heart failure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Baumann, Brigitte M; Slutsky, Karen; Gruber, Karen N; Jean, Smith

    2010-01-15

    Although congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, respiratory sounds are not normally subjected to additional analysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine respiratory sound patterns of CHF patients using acoustic-based imaging technology. Lung vibration energy was examined during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement. Respiratory sounds throughout the respiratory cycle were captured using an acoustic-based imaging technique. Twenty-three consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created (a larger image represents more homogeneously distributed vibration energy of respiratory sound). Geographical area of the images and respiratory sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed. Data from the CHF patients were also compared to healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were 66.9 (9.0) and 64.1(9.0) kilo-pixels, respectively (p < 0.05). After clinical improvement, the geographical area of the vibration energy image of CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were increased by 18 +/- 15% (p < 0.05) and 25 +/- 16% (p < 0.05), respectively. With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula in the Pediatric Patients Presenting Congestive Heart Failure and Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Four pediatric patients with congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAVF) were reported to remind pediatric practitioners and cardiologists of its diagnosis and management. Materials and Methods Four pediatric patients with congenital CAVF from June 1999 to November 2007 were included in this retrospective study. Study modalities included reviews of patients' profiles of clinical features, chest radiograph, Doppler echocardiography, cardiac catheterization with angiography, myocardial perfusion scan, and computed tomography. Results All 4 patients were symptomatic. The clinical symptoms and signs were feeding problem, continuous murmur, tachycardia, tachypnea, cardiomegaly, and exertional chest pain. Myocardial enzyme was elevated in 1 patient. Echocardiography showed dilatation of the coronary artery in all 4 patients, and traced down its origin in 3 and drainage in 4. The fistulas originated from the right coronary artery in 2 patients and left coronary artery in 2, and were drained into the right ventricle in 2, right atrium in 1, and pulmonary artery in 1. Single left coronary artery was found in 1 patient. The pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.5. Transcatheter coil occlusion was successfully performed in 4 patients through a coaxial delivery system. The symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure and myocardial ischemia disappeared after the procedure. Conclusion Diagnosis of congenital CAVF could be achieved by appreciation of continuous murmur over area unusual for the ductus, and by scrupulous examination of echocardiography as well as angiography of the coronary artery through which coaxial transcatheter coil occlusion could be performed successfully. PMID:19259355

  12. A case of unilateral pleural effusion secondary to congestive heart failure successfully treated with traditional Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Dao; Chiu, Hsien-Hsueh Elley

    2012-05-01

    A case is presented that illustrates the potential effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas on treatment for unilateral pleural effusion secondary to congestive heart failure (CHF). A 79-year-old woman experienced episodic dyspnea with unilateral pleural effusion for 2 years. Thoracocentesis with pleural fluid analysis revealed no infection, tuberculosis, or malignancy. She had received conventional treatment for CHF but the symptoms persisted. Therefore, she visited the authors' TCM clinic for help. This patient was treated with TCM herbal granules including Shengmaisan, Xiebaisan, and Tinglizi, 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The daily dosage was adjusted on the basis of the patient's clinical response and her follow-up chest x-ray studies. After 8 months of treatment, her symptoms improved and the pleural effusion showed significant regression. It is suggested that TCM herbal formulas could play an important role in preventing the progression of unilateral pleural effusion secondary to CHF, in case of poor response to conservative treatment. Additional studies about the mechanism of action of the medication involved are warranted.

  13. Automated quality measurement in Department of the Veterans Affairs discharge instructions for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Jennifer H; Elkin, Peter L; Shen, Shuying; Brown, Steven; Trusko, Brett; Wang, Enlai; Hoke, Linda; Quiaoit, Ylenia; Lajoie, Joan; Weiner, Mark G; Graham, Pauline; Speroff, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important issue for the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In this study, we piloted the use of an informatics tool, the Multithreaded Clinical Vocabulary Server (MCVS), which extracted automatically whether the VA Office of Quality and Performance measures of quality of care were met for the completion of discharge instructions for inpatients with congestive heart failure. We used a single document, the discharge instructions, from one section of the medical records for 152 patients and developed a reference standard using two independent reviewers to assess performance. When evaluated against the reference standard, MCVS achieved a sensitivity of 0.87, a specificity of 0.86, and a positive predictive value of 0.90. The automated process using the discharge instruction document worked effectively. The use of the MCVS tool for concept-based indexing resulted in mostly accurate data capture regarding quality measurement, but improvements are needed to further increase the accuracy of data extraction. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  14. Influence of renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in patients with congestive heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Seong; Kim, Min Jee; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Soo Wan

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course and medical treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not well established, especially in patients with concomitant renal dysfunction. We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospective Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry to assess the medical treatments and clinical outcomes of patients with CHF (Killip classes II or III) complicated by AMI, in the presence or absence of renal dysfunction. Of 13,498 patients with AMI, 2769 (20.5%) had CHF on admission. Compared to CHF patients with preserved renal function, in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events were increased both at 1 month and at 1 year after discharge in patients with renal dysfunction (1154; 41.7%). Postdischarge use of aspirin, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins significantly reduced the 1-year mortality rate for CHF patients with renal dysfunction; such reduction was not observed for those without renal dysfunction, except in the case of aspirin. Patients with CHF complicating AMI, which is accompanied by renal dysfunction, are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes than patients without renal dysfunction. However, they receive fewer medications proven to reduce mortality rates.

  15. Vibrational and thermal characterisation of a new chiral drug under investigation for the therapy of congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Paola; Torreggiani, Armida; Fini, Giancarlo

    2002-12-01

    Racemic (5,6-bis 2-methyl propanoic acid-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphtalen-2-yl)-methylammonium chloride, CHF-1035, under clinical investigation for the treatment of congestive heart failure, was here characterised by Raman and IR spectroscopies coupled with thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry). These techniques proved suitable for investigating the presence of different polymorphic forms, their relative stability and interconversion tendency in relation to industrial manufacturing processes undergone by the drug (i.e. grinding, compression, heating). Crystallisation experiments were carried out and two different CHF-1035 polymorphic forms were identified. Both grinding and heating revealed to cause a polymorphic transformation of the drug crystal form. It was hypothesised that a change in molecular packing occurs in the drug by effect of both treatments. The possible sources of polymorphism were identified in the -OCOCH(CH 3) groups and in the saturated ring. The non-ground sample showed two endothermic transitions; since they are reversible and not due to desolvation processes the system is probably enantiotropic.

  16. Effect of pimobendan on case fatality rate in Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, M R; Minors, S L; O'Sullivan, M L; Horne, R

    2008-01-01

    Despite traditional therapy of a diuretic, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, digoxin, or a combination of these drugs, survival of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is low. Pimobendan, an inodilator, has both inotropic and balanced peripheral vasodilatory properties. Pimobendan when added to conventional therapy will improve morbidity and reduce case fatality rate in Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by DCM. Sixteen Doberman Pinschers in CHF caused by DCM. A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with treatment failure as the primary and quality of life (QoL) indices as secondary outcome variables. Therapy consisted of furosemide (per os [PO] as required) and benazepril hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h) and dogs were randomized in pairs and by sex to receive pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg PO q12h) or placebo (1 tablet PO q12h). Pimobendan-treated dogs had a significant improvement in time to treatment failure (pimobendan median, 130.5 days; placebo median, 14 days; P= .002; risk ratio = 0.35, P= .003, lower 5% confidence limit = 0.13, upper 95% confidence limit = 0.71). Number and rate of dogs reaching treatment failure in the placebo group precluded the analysis of QoL. Pimobendan should be used as a first-line therapeutic in Doberman Pinschers for the treatment of CHF caused by DCM.

  17. Differential aspects of stroke and congestive heart failure in quality of life reduction: a case series with three comparison groups

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To assess QOL of patients with stroke in comparison to other groups (caregivers and CHF patients), to identify which items of QOL are more affected on each group and what is the functional profile of patients with stroke. Methods Consecutive stroke or congestive heart failure (CHF) patients were evaluated and compared to their caregivers (caregivers). The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) scale were applied. Results We evaluated 67 patients with stroke, 62 with CHF and 67 caregivers. For stroke patients, median NIHSS score was four. EQ-5D score was significantly worse in stroke, as compared to CHF and caregivers (0.52, 0.69 and 0.65, respectively). Mobility and usual activity domains were significantly affected in stroke and CHF patients as compared to caregivers; and self-care was more affected in stroke as compared with the other two groups. Conclusions Despite a mild neurological deficit, there was a significantly worse QOL perception in stroke as compared to CHF patients, mostly in their perception of self-care. PMID:21831270

  18. T-wave amplitude attenuation/augmentation in patients with changing edematous states: implications for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E

    2007-01-01

    Since peripheral edema impacts the entire electrocardiographic curve, it was hypothesized that it would also affect T waves. The amplitude of T waves were measured in all electrocardiographic leads and a sum (SigmaT) was calculated in 28 patients with and 28 patients without peripheral edema (controls). For patients with peripheral edema, SigmaT on admission was 21.9+/-10.6 mm and SigmaT at peak weight was 8.3+/-6.3 mm (P=.0005). For patients with peripheral edema who subsequently lost weight, SigmaT at peak weight was 7.2+/-6.1 mm and SigmaT at the lowest weight was 14.1+/-12.2 (P=.006). For controls, SigmaT from admission and SigmaT from discharge were 24.4+/-16.9 mm and 24.7+/-15.7 mm (P=.82), respectively. Percent change (Delta%SigmaT) from admission to peak weight correlated with Delta% in weight (r=0.58; P=.001) and Delta% in the sum of QRS complexes (SigmaQRS) (r=0.71; P=.00005). Delta%SigmaT from peak weight to the lowest weight correlated with the corresponding Delta%SigmaQRS (r=0.65; P=.02). Changes in T waves with development and alleviation of peripheral edema mirror the changes shown by the QRS complexes and may be useful in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure or other edematous states.

  19. Bilateral basal Xe-133 retention and ventilation/perfusion patterns in mild and subclinical congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Skarzynski, J.J.; Spadaro, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The Xe-133 ventilation pattern in congestive heart failure (CHF) was assessed using 24 inpatient ventilation/perfusion studies performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. Patients with histories of CHF, myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiomyopathy were included in the study. Frank pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, and other known lung diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, tumor, and pneumonia were excluded. Fifteen of the 24 patients had abnormal ventilation scans. Twelve of the 15 showed bilateral basal Xe-133 retention on washout; the remaining 3 showed diffuse, posterior regional retention. On perfusion scans, 14 of the 15 abnormal ventilation patients showed evidence of CHF such as inverted perfusion gradient, enlarged cardiac silhouette, or patchy perfusion, and all of them had a history of CHF or cardiac disease. Nine of the 24 patients had normal ventilation scans, including normal washout patterns. Seven of the nine had normal perfusion (p less than 0.01). Four of the nine normal ventilation patients had a history of cardiac disease or CHF but no recent acute MI. Bilateral basal regional Xe-133 retention, coupled with perfusion scan evidence of CHF such as inverted perfusion gradient, enlarged cardiac silhouette, and patchy perfusion pattern, appears to be a sensitive and characteristic ventilation/perfusion finding in mild or subclinical CHF.

  20. Right ventricular ejection fraction: an indicator of increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure associated with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Colucci, W.S.

    1983-08-01

    The predictive value of radionuclide ventriculography was studied in 34 patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and clinically evident congestive heart failure secondary to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In addition to left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular ejection fraction and extent of left ventricular paradox were obtained in an attempt to identify a subgroup at increased risk of mortality during the ensuing months. The 16 patients who were alive after a 2 year follow-up period had a higher right ventricular ejection fraction and less extensive left ventricular dyskinesia. When a right ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% was used as a discriminant, mortality was significantly greater among the 21 patients with a depressed right ventricular ejection fraction (71 versus 23%), a finding confirmed by a life table analysis. It appears that the multiple factors contributing to the reduction in right ventricular ejection fraction make it a useful index not only for assessing biventricular function, but also for predicting patient outcome.

  1. The function and significance of SERA2a in congestive heart failure: an analysis of gene therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Zhai, Yuting; Li, Dongye

    2017-01-30

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a widespread disease that has a negative impact on health, worldwide. Despite advances in therapies, morbidity, mortality and hospital discharges due to CHF remain high. Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of CHF and the development of gene transfer technology have made gene therapy a realistic potential therapeutic method for CHF. Among the various potential targets, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), which is an important protein in the regulation of Ca2+ cycling, has piqued the interest of many researchers. Restoring decreased SERCA2a activity in CHF could improve cardiac contractions and energetics, as well as reduce myocardial fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias, and these benefits have been confirmed by studies using both in vivo and in vitro models. Following these promising preclinical results, SERCA2a gene therapy advanced to clinical trials. However, results of the clinical trials were controversial, leading some to question whether SERCA2a is the right target for CHF treatment. In this review, we illustrate the function and significance of SERCA2a in CHF, and more importantly, analyze possible causes of the controversial clinical trials results, with the aim of stimulating future research on the relationship between SERCA2a and CHF.

  2. Methamphetamine-Associated Congestive Heart Failure: Increasing Prevalence and Relationship of Clinical Outcomes to Continued Use or Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sliman, Sean; Waalen, Jill; Shaw, David

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of methamphetamine-associated congestive heart failure (MAC) and to evaluate the relationship between methamphetamine abuse and EF and functional status over time. A retrospective review of records from 2009 to 2014 was carried out. Prevalence of methamphetamine abuse among all patients admitted with CHF was calculated for each of the 6 years of the study (n = 141) and was compared with prevalence of cocaine abuse and alcohol abuse. For patients with two or more admissions during the entire time period, the trajectories of NYHA functional class and EF over time were determined (n = 58). MAC has significantly increased from 1.8 to 5.6 % of total CHF patients admitted (n = 3705). Among patients who stopped using methamphetamine, NYHA functional class significantly improved, while among patients who continued methamphetamine use, NYHA was significantly worsened (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients with improved EF stopped using methamphetamine than continued (p = 0.05). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of MAC during the study period for all CHF patients admitted in our hospital system. Continued methamphetamine use is associated with worsening functional status, while cessation of methamphetamine is associated with improvement in functional status.

  3. Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in incidence of congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Rachel L; Ridout, Deborah; Crowe, Sonya; Bull, Catherine; Wray, Jo; Tregay, Jenifer; Franklin, Rodney C; Barron, David J; Cunningham, David; Parslow, Roger C; Brown, Katherine L

    2017-06-01

    Ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) have been reported; however, studies of the contemporary UK population are lacking. We investigated ethnic variations in incidence of serious CHDs requiring cardiac intervention before 1 year of age. All infants who had a cardiac intervention in England and Wales between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010 were identified in the national congenital heart disease surgical audit and matched with paediatric intensive care admission records to create linked individual child records. Agreement in reporting of ethnic group by each audit was evaluated. For infants born 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for CHDs by ethnicity and investigated age at intervention, antenatal diagnosis and area deprivation. We identified 5350 infants (2940 (55.0%) boys). Overall CHD incidence was significantly higher in Asian and Black ethnic groups compared with the White reference population (incidence rate ratios (IRR) (95% CIs): Asian 1.5 (1.4 to 1.7); Black 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)); incidence of specific CHDs varied by ethnicity. No significant differences in age at intervention or antenatal diagnosis rates were identified but affected children from non-White ethnic groups were more likely to be living in deprived areas than White children. Significant ethnic variations exist in the incidence of CHDs, including for specific defects with high infant mortality. It is essential that healthcare provision mitigates ethnic disparity, including through timely identification of CHDs at screening, supporting parental choice and effective interventions. Future research should explore the factors underlying ethnic variation and impact on longer-term outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Global mortality variations in patients with heart failure: results from the International Congestive Heart Failure (INTER-CHF) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; AlHabib, Khalid F; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo-Villaneuva, Lia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Balasubramanian, Kumar; Islam, Shofiqul; Yacoub, Magdi H; Huffman, Mark D; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-07-01

    Most data on mortality and prognostic factors in patients with heart failure come from North America and Europe, with little information from other regions. Here, in the International Congestive Heart Failure (INTER-CHF) study, we aimed to measure mortality at 1 year in patients with heart failure in Africa, China, India, the Middle East, southeast Asia and South America; we also explored demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic variables associated with mortality. We enrolled consecutive patients with heart failure (3695 [66%] clinic outpatients, 2105 [34%] hospital in patients) from 108 centres in six geographical regions. We recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and followed up patients at 6 months and 1 year from enrolment to record symptoms, medications, and outcomes. Time to death was studied with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, medications, socioeconomic variables, and region. We used the explained risk statistic to calculate the relative contribution of each level of adjustment to the risk of death. We enrolled 5823 patients within 1 year (with 98% follow-up). Overall mortality was 16·5%: highest in Africa (34%) and India (23%), intermediate in southeast Asia (15%), and lowest in China (7%), South America (9%), and the Middle East (9%). Regional differences persisted after multivariable adjustment. Independent predictors of mortality included cardiac variables (New York Heart Association Functional Class III or IV, previous admission for heart failure, and valve disease) and non-cardiac variables (body-mass index, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). 46% of mortality risk was explained by multivariable modelling with these variables; however, the remainder was unexplained. Marked regional differences in mortality in patients with heart failure persisted after multivariable adjustment for cardiac and non-cardiac factors. Therefore, variations in mortality

  5. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities, Cachexia and Exercise Intolerance in Mice with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Call, Jarrod A.; Lira, Vitor A.; Zhang, Mei; Donet, Jean A.; French, Brent A.; Martin, Kyle S.; Peirce-Cottler, Shayn M.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Annex, Brian H.; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cachexia (muscle wasting) and the hallmark symptom, exercise intolerance. We have previously shown that a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent antioxidant defense renders oxidative skeletal muscle resistant to catabolic wasting. Here, we aimed to identify and determine the functional role of the NO-inducible antioxidant enzyme(s) in protection against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. Methods and Results We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-Nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis [muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-EcSOD] in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF [α-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-calsequestrin] MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced heart failure. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression, loss of mitochondria and vascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle. Conclusions EcSOD plays an important antioxidant defense function in skeletal muscle against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. PMID:24523418

  6. Effects of a family centered program on perceived social support in patients with congestive heart failure: An interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Mohsen; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Congestive heart failure is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases that have a progressive and chronic trend and influences individuals’ and their families’ various dimensions. Social support is one of the psychosocial factors that can have a positive effect on individuals’ physical, mental and social status. Despite the existence of evidences, revealing the importance of family's support on patients’ condition, family centered supportive interventions with goal of clinical outcomes improvement have been less conducted among these patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of family supportive intervention on the level of the support, received among heart failure patients. Materials and Methods: This is a two-group two-stage clinical trial, conducted on 64 patients with cardiac failure, referring to selected educational centers and meeting the inclusion criteria, who were selected through convenient sampling. They were assigned to study (n = 32) and control (n = 32) groups through random allocation. Data were collected by questioning through a two-section medical records questionnaire and were analyzed by SPSS. Results: Results of the study showed that mean scores of received support score were 13.7 (3.8) in the study and 0.8 (2.4) in the control group. Independent t-test showed a significant difference in mean changes of perceived support scores after the intervention between study and control groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on familial dimension in social support have a positive effect on patients’ perceived support. Nurses, as professional members of health care team, and with an important role in education and care of cardiac failure patients, can support, educate and guide these patients through designing appropriate care plans and educating their family members. PMID:27512698

  7. Perspectives of Health-Care Providers Toward Advance Care Planning in Patients With Advanced Cancer and Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Manisha; Brockstein, Bruce; Zunamon, Alan; Silverman, Irwin; Dlouhy, Sarah; Ashlevitz, Kathryn; Tabachow, Cory; Lapin, Brittany; Ewigman, Bernard; Mazzone, Theodore; Obel, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) discussions afford patients and physicians a chance to better understand patients' values and wishes regarding end-of-life care; however, these conversations typically take place late in the course of a disease. The goal of this study was to clarify attitudes of oncologists, cardiologists, and primary care physicians (PCPs) toward ACP and to identify persistent barriers to timely ACP discussion following a quality improvement initiative at our health system geared at improvement in ACP implementation. A 20-question, cross-sectional online survey was created and distributed to cardiologists, oncologists, PCPs, and cardiology and oncology support staff at the NorthShore University HealthSystem (NorthShore) from February to March 2015. A total of 117 individuals (46% of distributed) completed the surveys. The results were compiled using an online survey analysis tool (SurveyMonkey, Inc., Palo Alto, California, USA). Only 15% of cardiologists felt it was their responsibility to conduct ACP discussions with their patients having congestive heart failure (CHF). In contrast, 68% of oncologists accepted this discussion as their responsibility in patients with terminal cancer ( P < .01). These views were mirrored by PCPs, as 68% of PCPs felt personally responsible for ACP discussion with patients having CHF, while only 34% felt the same about patients with cancer. Reported documentation of these discussions in the electronic health record was inconsistent between specialties. Among all surveyed specialties, lack of time was the major barrier limiting ACP discussion. Perceived patient discomfort and discomfort of the patient's family toward these discussions were also significant reported barriers. Attitudes toward ACP implementation vary considerably by medical specialty and medical condition, with oncologists in this study tending to feel more personal responsibility for these discussions with patients having cancer than cardiologists with their

  8. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values <30 breaths/min. However, little is known about SRR and RRR in dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats.

  9. Weight Management Belief is the Leading Influential Factor of Weight Monitoring Compliance in Congestive Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Xia; Zhang, Yan-Yun; Jiang, Jun-Fang; Ju, Yang; Wu, Qing; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Daily weight monitoring is frequently recommended as a part of heart failure self-management to prevent exacerbations. This study is to identify factors that influence weight monitoring compliance of congestive heart failure patients at baseline and after a 1-year weight management (WM) program. Methods This was a secondary analysis of an investigative study and a randomized controlled study. A general information questionnaire assessed patient demographics and clinical variables such as medicine use and diagnoses, and the weight management scale evaluated their WM abilities. Good and poor compliance based on abnormal weight gain from the European Society of Cardiology (> 2 kg in 3 days) were compared, and hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing weight monitoring compliance. Results A total of 316 patients were enrolled at baseline, and 66 patients were enrolled after the 1-year WM program. Of them, 12.66% and 60.61% had good weight monitoring compliance at baseline and after 1 year of WM, respectively. A high WM-related belief score indicated good weight monitoring compliance at both time points [odds ratio (OR), 1.043, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.023-1.063, p < 0.001; and OR, 2.054, 95% CI, 1.209-3.487, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with a high WM-related practice score had good weight monitoring compliance at baseline (OR, 1.046, 95% CI, 1.027-1.065, p < 0.001), and patients who had not monitored abnormal weight had poor weight monitoring compliance after the 1-year WM program (OR, 0.244, 95% CI, 0.006-0.991, p = 0.049). Conclusions Data from this study suggested that belief related to WM plays an important role in weight monitoring compliance. PMID:27899858

  10. Plasma renin activity and its association with ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, and cerebrovascular disease in a large hypertensive cohort.

    PubMed

    Sim, John J; Shi, Jiaxiao; Al-Moomen, Rushdy; Behayaa, Hind; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-11-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA) may be a surrogate for vascular damage. The authors hypothesize that PRA is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CED). A cross-sectional study (January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009) was performed on hypertensive individuals 18 years and older using multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and CED based on PRA quartiles controlling for age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus (DM), and medication use. Among 7887 individuals (60% women; 34% whites, 23% blacks, and 19% Hispanics; and 29% with DM), the adjusted ORs (95% CI) for IHD were 0.94 (0.80-1.10), 1.09 (0.92-1.29), and 1.18 (1.00-1.39); for CHF were 1.23 (0.99-1.53), 1.27 (1.01-1.61), and 1.41 (1.13-1.77); and for CED were 0.95 (0.78-1.17), 0.77 (0.61-0.97), and 0.97 (0.78-1.20) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile. Higher PRA was associated with greater likelihood for prevalent IHD and CHF but not CED in this large ethnically diverse population of hypertensive individuals.

  11. Congestive Heart Failure With Apparently Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function: A 10-Year Observational Study.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Shabana, Adel; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Asaad, Nidal; AlBinALi, Hajar; Singh, Rajvir; Gomaa, Mohammed; Gehani, A

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the clinical presentation and outcomes (from 2003 to 2013) of heart failure (HF) with apparently normal systolic function (HFPEF). Based on the echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), patients were divided into 2 groups, group 1 (<50%) and group 2 (≥50%). Of 2212 patients with HF, 20% were in group 2. Patients in group 2 were more likely to be older, females, Arabs, hypertensive, and obese (P = .001). Patients in group 1 were mostly Asians and had more troponin-T positivity (P = .001). Inhospital cardiac arrest, shock, and deaths were significantly greater in group 1. On multivariate analysis, age, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, lack of on-admission β-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors use were independent predictors of mortality. HFPEF is associated with less mortality compared to those who presented with reduced LVEF. On admission, use of evidence-based medications could in part predict this difference in the hospital outcome.

  12. Chronic administration of an endothelin-A receptor antagonist improves exercise capacity in rats with myocardial infarction-induced congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Takashi; Fujimori, Akira; Maeda, Seiji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sakai, Satoshi; Shikama, Hisataka; Tanabe, Takumi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Goto, Katsutoshi; Yamaguchi, Iwao

    2004-11-01

    The effects of long-term administration of YM598, a selective endothelin-A antagonist, on improving the exercise tolerance of chronic heart failure model rats were examined using a treadmill exercise loading test. Rats were acclimatized to the treadmill apparatus and the coronary artery was ligated to prepare a myocardial infarction-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) model. Starting 10 days postoperatively, when the acute phase of infarction was over, YM598 was administered orally once daily for approximately 25 weeks at a dose of 1 mg/kg. At weeks 20 and 24 the treadmill test was performed. YM598 prolonged running time, which had been shortened as a result of heart failure. The weights, relative to the body weight, of the left and right ventricles and lungs of surviving rats with CHF were significantly greater than those of sham-operated rats, suggesting hypertrophy of the ventricles and congestion of the lungs. Administration of YM598 markedly reduced ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion. Examination of cardiac function revealed that, in surviving CHF rats, the peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure was significantly lower, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, right ventricular systolic pressure and central venous pressure were significantly higher in comparison to sham-operated rats. These data demonstrate that, in rats with CHF, the contractile and diastolic capacity of the left ventricle decreased and pulmonary hypertension and systemic congestion occurred. Long-term administration of YM598 improved left ventricular function of CHF rats to the level of sham-operated rats, and reduced the workload placed on the right side of the heart. Histological examination revealed that long-term treatment with YM598 prevented fibrosis of the surviving left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, long-term administration of YM598 to rats with CHF improved exercise tolerance and inhibited remodeling of cardiac muscles, leading to

  13. The C of CHADS: Historical perspective and clinical applications for anticoagulation in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Y; Faillace, R T

    2016-12-01

    The risk stratification of patients with coexisting non valvular atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, is often a clinical challenge, as the definitions of congestive heart failure in the popular CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scoring systems, and amongst major clinical trials on Warfarin and Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC) have heterogeneity. Available evidence reveals that any heart failure and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction is associated with higher rates of stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation compared to patients without heart failure and normal left ventricular function. Most standard dose NOAC regimens have a better safety and efficacy profile over warfarin in most heart failure sub-group types with a few exceptions including patients with NYHA III/IV on Dabigatran 150mg BID from the RE-LY trial, who had higher major bleeding events, and patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on 20mg of Rivaroxaban in the ROCKET-AF trial, when compared to patients on Warfarin in the corresponding groups. With the gaining popularity and use of NOACs, understanding their safety profile in such situations is paramount.

  14. [Cardiopulmonary exercise test and heart rate variability in patients with congestive heart failure who underwent physical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Aleksandra; Bacior, Bogumiła; Szot, Wojclech; Klecha, Artur; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2003-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation of patients with heart diseases is a well-known therapeutical method used in patients with heart failure. However there is no consensus regarding rehabilitation program for these patients. The aim of this study was to assess tolerance of physical exercise and parameters of heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure who were exercised using different models of training. 42 patients (mean age 55.9 +/- 8.2) with chronic heart failure (NYHA class II and III) were included into this study. They were divided randomly into three groups, each number 14 patients: group A--patients who were trained according to model with progressive increase of workload, group B--patients with interval training, and group C--patients who were not trained at all. The study groups did not differ in average age, BMI, NYHA class, or pharmacological treatment. All patients from groups A and B were rehabilitated during six months, 3 times per week for 1.0 hour each time. All patients were submitted to the following examinations before and after six months of training: echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise test and 24-hour ECG recording with evaluation of time-domain HRV parameters. In groups A and B we observed an improvement in exercise capacity, which was more pronounced in group A. This improvement was observed as increase in total exercise time when compared with group B and C (839.1 +/- 98.3 sec vs 472.4 +/- 39.7 sec vs 347.92 +/- 61.0 sec respectively at p < 0.0001), and increase in workload (6.28 +/- 0.8 MET vs 3.9 +/- 0.2 MET vs 2.6 +/- 0.63 MET respectively in the study groups). We also found improved cardiopulmonary exercise test. After six months we observed significant differences in all parameters between group A and C, and in VO2max between group B and C (16.5 +/- 1.9 vs 14.1 +/- 1.9 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01) and in VE/VCO2 (37.8 +/- 4.2 vs 40.4 +/- 6.7 l/min, p < 0.01). After 6 months we also found significant differences between group A

  15. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights from DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF

    PubMed Central

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E.; Mentz, Robert J.; Dunlay, Shannon; Vader, Justin M.; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F.; DeVore, Adam D.; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M.; Goldsmith, Steven R.; Bart, Bradley A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Felker, Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stevenson, Lynne W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (e.g., peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. Methods and Results A post-hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF trials during hospitalization with ADHF and clinical congestion. A simple “orthodema” congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1–2), and high-grade (score of 3–4), and the association with death, rehospitalization or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score = 0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared to those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively, p=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Conclusions Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. PMID:26041600

  16. The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Mara; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Zanolla, Luisa; Nicoletti, Ilaria; Muraglia, Simone; Zardini, Piero

    2004-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase, with primary known functions of converting angiotensin I into the vasoactive and aldosterone-stimulating peptide angiotensin II and inactivating bradykinin. There is high variability among individuals in ACE concentrations, mainly due to the presence of a genetic polymorphism. The ACE gene has, in fact, insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 16, consisting of a 287-base pair Alu repeat sequence, with three genotypes: insertion polymorphism, insertion/deletion polymorphism, and deletion polymorphism. The genetic effect accounts for 47% of the total variance of serum ACE. The determination of this polymorphism has allowed researchers to study the implications of the ACE gene in many case-control studies of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy. We review the current knowledge about the ACE gene polymorphism and its implications in heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Interpretation of the results of studies about the role of this polymorphism are controversial. The repetition of epidemio-genetic studies and the creation of adequate experimental studies will help to definitively establish the pathogenetic role of the permanent increase in ACE expression associated with the deletion polymorphism genotype.

  17. Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Kabuto, Hideaki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on normal cardiac function (part 1) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (part 2) through electrocardiogram analysis and determination of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in rat hearts. In part 2, pathologic assessments were also performed. For part 1 of this study, 4-wk-old male rats were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups. The rats daily were orally administered (1 g/kg body weight) saline, EPA-ethyl ester (EPA-Et; E group), or DHA-ethyl ester (DHA-Et; D group), respectively, for 28 d. ECGs revealed that QT intervals were significantly shorter for groups E and D compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the control group, the concentration of EPA was higher in the E group and concentrations of EPA and DHA were higher in the D group, although AA concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05). In part 2, CHF was produced by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline into 5-wk-old rats. At 3 d before monocrotaline injection, rats were administered either saline, EPA-Et, or DHA-Et as mentioned above and then killed at 21 d. The study groups were as follows: normal + saline (control), CHF + saline (H group), CHF + EPA-Et (HE group), and CHF + DHA-Et (HD group). QT intervals were significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.05) in the control and HD groups compared with the H and HE groups. Relative to the H group, concentrations of EPA were higher in the HE group and those of DHA were higher in the control and HD groups (P ≤ 0.05). There was less mononuclear cell infiltration in the myocytes of the HD group than in the H group (P = 0.06). The right ventricles in the H, HE, and HD groups showed significantly increased weights (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. The administration of EPA-Et or DHA-Et may affect cardiac function by modification of heart fatty acid composition, and the administration of DHA-Et may ameliorate CHF.

  18. Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: Findings from the Cohort of Swedish Men.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B; Dorans, Kirsten S; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries. During 14 years of follow-up, 2,157 men were hospitalized (n=1,901) or died from incident HF (n=256). Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99) for those consuming 1-3 servings per month, 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.94) for those consuming 1-2 servings per week, 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.99) for those consuming 3-6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95% CI 0.84-1.45) for those consuming ≥1 serving per day (P for quadratic trend=.001). In this large prospective cohort study, there was a J-shaped relationship between chocolate consumption and HF incidence. Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed among individuals consuming ≥1 serving per day. Journal Subject Codes: Etiology: Epidemiology, Heart failure: Congestive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of congestive heart failure--state of the art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Parmley, W W

    1989-01-01

    1. Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome of symptoms and signs, which can be confirmed by imaging or invasive haemodynamic techniques. It may be caused by systolic or diastolic dysfunction, but systolic dysfunction rarely occurs alone. It is important to ascertain the degree to which each contributes, and the precise aetiology of the condition, particularly in relation to surgically correctable lesions. 2. Non-pharmacological approaches including weight loss, salt restriction and lifestyle changes may be beneficial in some patients, and diuretics, which reduce the load on the heart, are the traditional baseline therapy. 3. Digitalis has been used where problems with contractility predominate, but its beneficial effect has been disputed, and expectations of improvement in patients in sinus rhythm should not be too high. 4. Vasodilators have been considered as the next line of treatment. Arteriolar dilators tend to increase cardiac output, but have little effect on pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and venodilators tend to have the opposite effect. Probably both actions are necessary and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which have both, have proved effective in terms of symptoms and survival. 5. Various other inotropic agents have been tried. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors improve exercise tolerance, but may increase the probability of serious arrhythmias, already a significant cause of sudden death. beta 1-partial adrenoceptor agonists such as xamoterol have shown some promise, and anti-arrhythmic therapy has also been considered. 6. Drugs which prevent progression of myocardial damage would prove a great advance, and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and calcium channel blockers appear to have considerable potential in this area.

  20. Improvement of congestive heart failure by upgrading of conventional to resynchronization pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Marai, Ibrahim; Gurevitz, Osnat; Carasso, Shemy; Nof, Eyal; Bar-Lev, David; Luria, David; Arbel, Yaron; Freimark, Dov; Feinberg, Micha S; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2006-08-01

    To compare the clinical response of patients with right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) upgraded to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) to that of previously nonpaced heart failure (HF) patients who had de novo CRT implantation. The role of CRT in patients with wide QRS and HF due to RVAP is less well established than in other CRT candidates. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with CRT were studied (mean age 70, mean ejection fraction 0.23). Group A: patients having RVAP prior to CRT implantation (n = 25), group B: patients without prior RVAP (n = 73). Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded prior to, and 3 months after, CRT implantation. Group A patients had a wider QRS at baseline compared to group B (203 +/- 32 ms vs 163 +/- 30 ms respectively, P < 0.001), and a shorter 6-minute walking distance (222 +/- 118 m vs 362 +/- 119 m, respectively, P < 0.005). Otherwise, clinical and echocardiographic parameters were not different. At follow up, group A patients had an average 0.7 +/- 0.5 decrease in their NYHA functional class, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.7 in group B patients (P < 0.05). Six-minute walking distance increased by 93 +/- 113 m in group A, versus 36 +/- 120 m in group B (P = 0.22). There was no difference in echocardiographic response to CRT between the groups. HF patients with prior RVAP demonstrate clinical improvement after upgrading to CRT that is comparable, and in some aspects, even better than that observed in HF patients with native conduction delay who undergo de novo CRT implantation.

  1. A re-appraisal of volume status and renal function impairment in chronic heart failure: combined effects of pre-renal failure and venous congestion on renal function.

    PubMed

    Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-03-01

    The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least

  2. Disease management produces limited quality-of-life improvements in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence from a randomized trial in community-dwelling patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad; Forkner, Emma; Zaslow, Barbara; Krasuski, Richard A; Stajduhar, Karl; Kwan, Michael; Ellis, Robert; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Freeman, Gregory L

    2005-11-01

    Disease management programs are reported to improve clinical and quality-of-life outcomes while simultaneously lowering healthcare costs. To examine the effectiveness of disease management in improving health-related quality of life (HRQL) among patients with heart failure beyond 12 months. A total of 1069 community-dwelling patients 18 years and older in South Texas with echocardiographic evidence of congestive heart failure were randomly assigned to disease management, augmented disease management, and control groups. They were followed up 18 months. Patients in the control group received usual care. Patients in the intervention groups were assigned a registered nurse as a disease manager who performed telephonic patient education and medication management. Health-related quality-of-life data (based on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]) were collected 4 times, at 6-month intervals. Disease management has a limited effect on HRQL. Analysis of the SF-36 health transition measure showed a positive effect of the intervention on self-reported improvement in health at 6 months and at 12 months (P = .04 and P = .004, respectively). However, no effect of disease management was observed across any of the SF-36 components. Women and patients with diastolic heart failure had poorer HRQL scores. Participation in disease management has little effect on HRQL outcomes in congestive heart failure. Beneficial effects on the SF-36 scale scores seen at 6 and 12 months were not sustained. Therefore, it is unclear whether disease management can provide long-term improvement in HRQL for patients with congestive heart failure.

  3. Loss of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase general control nonderepressible 2 protects mice from pressure overload-induced congestive heart failure without affecting ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Fassett, John; Kwak, Dongmin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinli; Wang, Huan; Guo, Haipeng; Xu, Dachun; Yan, Shuo; McFalls, Edward O; Lu, Fei; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    In response to several stresses, including nutrient deprivation, general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2) attenuates mRNA translation by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor 2α(Ser51). Energy starvation is known to exacerbate congestive heart failure, and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α(Ser51) phosphorylation is increased in the failing heart. However, the effect of GCN2 during the evolution of congestive heart failure has not been tested. In this study, we examined the influence of GCN2 expression in response to a cardiac stress by inducing chronic pressure overload with transverse aortic constriction in wild-type and GCN2 knockout mice. Under basal conditions, GCN2 knockout mice had normal left ventricular structure and function, but after transverse aortic constriction, they demonstrated less contractile dysfunction, less increase in lung weight, less increase in lung inflammation and vascular remodeling, and less myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis compared with wild-type mice, despite an equivalent degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. As expected, GCN2 knockout attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac eukaryotic initiation factor 2α(Ser51) phosphorylation and preserved sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase expression compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly elevated in GCN2 knockout hearts, whereas in isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes, selective knockdown of GCN2 increased Bcl-2 protein expression and enhanced myocyte resistance to an apoptotic stress. Collectively, our data support the notion that GCN2 impairs the ventricular adaptation to chronic pressure overload by reducing Bcl-2 expression and increasing cardiomyocyte susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. Our findings suggest that strategies to reduce GCN2 activity in cardiac tissue may be a novel approach to attenuate congestive heart failure development.

  4. Hemodynamic management of congestive heart failure by means of a multiple mode rule-based control system using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Held, C M; Roy, R J

    2000-01-01

    A rule-based system was designed to control the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the cardiac output (CO) of a patient with congestive heart failure (CHF), using two vasoactive drugs: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and dopamine (DPM). The controller has three different modes, that engage according to the hemodynamic state. The critical conditions control mode (CCC) determines the initial infusion rates, and continues active if the MAP or the CO fall outside of the defined criticality thresholds: an upper and a lower boundary for the MAP and a lower boundary for the CO. Inside the boundaries the control is performed by noncritical conditions control modes (NCC's), which are fuzzy logic controllers. If the CO is within normal range and the MAP is close to the goal range, then the MAP is driven using only SNP, in a single-input-single-output mode (NCC-SISO). Otherwise the NCC multiple-input-multiple-output is active (NCC-MIMO). The goal values for the controlled variables are defined as a band of 5 mmHg for the MAP and 5 mL/kg/min for the CO, but there is little concern for this application if the CO is too high (i.e., in practical terms the CO only needs to achieve a necessary minimum rate). The NCC-MIMO includes a gain adaptation algorithm to cope with the wide variety in sensitivities to SNP. Supervisory capabilities to ensure adequate drug delivery complete the controller scheme. After extensive testing and tuning on a CHF-hemodynamics nonlinear model, the control system was applied in dog experiments, which led to further enhancements. The results show an adequate control, presenting a fast response to setpoint changes with an acceptable overshoot.

  5. Analysis on mechanism of ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener natakalim improving congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The action mechanism of natakalim, a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, was studied in ameliorating the congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction. A total of 25 healthy Wistar male rats (age, 10 weeks; average weight, 300 g) were selected, and the CHF models after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were prepared by ligation of left anterior descending branch. They were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the model group and the groups of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day natakalims. Each group had 5 mice that were sacrificed after 8 weeks. We compared left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), left ventricular mass index, myocardial cell cross-sectional area, myocardial collagen content, plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels. Compared with the sham operation, the LVEDD and NT-proBNP in the model group and each natakalim group were elevated. LVEF decreased significantly, while the left ventricular mass index, myocardial cell cross-sectional area, myocardial collagen content, plasma ET-1 and eNOS levels increased. Natakalim intervention improved the above changes and the improvement effect of 3 mg/kg/day group was the highest. The mechanism of natakalim against the endothelin system can be explained by the fact that inhibiting ET-1 synthesis can reduce the ET-1 levels in circulation leading to the release of NO and PGI2. Inhibition of the vasoconstriction effect of ET-1 can improve the hemodynamics of high-load status and ameliorate the cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. In conclusion, natakalim can improve the ventricular remodeling of CHF after AMI, and 3 mg/kg/day was the most effective dose. PMID:28101177

  6. Stroke history and Chagas disease are independent predictors of silent cerebral microembolism in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Pedro A P; Neville, Iuri; Cincurá, Carolina; Menezes, Daniela F; Vieira-de-Melo, Rodrigo M; Lacerda, Amanda M; Viana, Leila C; Pereira, Davidson F; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Valter; Reis, Francisco J F B; Macedo, Cristiano; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in South and Central America, where 18 million individuals are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, causing congestive heart failure (CHF) and cardioembolic stroke. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is able to detect real-time microembolic signals (MES) to the brain vessels and may represent a surrogate marker of stroke risk. We aimed to determine predictors of MES in a population of patients with CHF. Consecutive CHF patients from a university-based cardiomyopathy clinic underwent TCD recording of the middle cerebral artery for 60 min by a single investigator who was blinded to all clinical data including cardiomyopathy etiology. Predictors of MES were sought by multivariable logistic regression analysis. From April 2004 to February 2009, 144 patients were studied, including 62 (44.6%) patients with Chagas disease. MES were detected in 9 (6.2%) patients and were more frequent in patients with Chagas disease than in patients with other causes of CHF (12.9 vs. 1.2%, p = 0.005). In multivariate analysis corrected for age and left-ventricular ejection fraction, predictors of MES were Chagas disease (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.26, p = 0.004) and stroke history (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.50, p = 0.005). Chagas disease and stroke history are risk factors for MES independent of cardiac disease severity. Other mechanisms besides structural cardiac disease may be operative, increasing embolic risk in Chagas disease. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Carbon monoxide and hospital admissions for congestive heart failure: evidence of an increased effect at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Morris, R D; Naumova, E N

    1998-10-01

    The combined effects of carbon monoxide and low temperature on daily variation in hospital admissions for congestive heart failure (CHF) were examined for a 4-year period in Chicago, Illinois. Medicare hospital admissions for CHF were analyzed as a function of the maximum hourly temperature, maximum hourly levels of carbon monoxide (CO), and other criteria pollutants in Chicago for each day of the 4-year period (1986-1989). The regression analyses for the time series were conducted using single and multipollutant models with interaction terms and adjustments for weather, weekly cycles, seasonal effects, and secular trend. The data were also grouped into three temperature ranges, <40 degrees, 40 degrees-75 degrees, and >75 degrees F, and the relationship between CO and CHF admissions was evaluated for each range. For the 4-year time series, the CO level was positively associated with hospital admissions for CHF in the single pollutant and multipollutant models after adjustment for seasonal effects and weather pattern. The relative risks of hospital admissions for CHF in Chicago associated with the 75th percentile of exposure to CO in the high, medium, and low temperature ranges were 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-1.10], 1.09 (CI, 1.04-1.14), and 1.15 (CI, 1.09-1.22), respectively. In these data, the effect of CO on hospital admissions for CHF was temperature dependent, with the magnitude of the effect increasing with decreasing temperature. This synergy may help to explain the association between ambient CO and CHF admissions demonstrated in other studies.

  8. Cognitive Dysfunction and Malnutrition Are Independent Predictor of Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Yoshimi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Onoue, Noriko; Ishizuka, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Early detection and intervention for dysphagia is important in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, previous studies have focused on how many patients with dysphagia develop CHF. Studies focusing on the comorbidity of dysphagia in patients with CHF are rare. Additionally, risk factors for dysphagia in patients with CHF are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF. A total of 105 patients, who were admitted with acute exacerbation of CHF, were enrolled. Clinical interviews, blood chemistry analysis, electrocardiography, echocardiography, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), exercise tolerance tests, phonatory function tests, and evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and nutrition were conducted on admission. After attending physicians permitted the drinking of water, swallowing screening tests were performed. Patients were divided into a dysphagia group (DG) or a non-dysphagia group (non-DG) based on Functional Oral Intake Scale level. Among the 105 patients, 38 had dysphagia. A greater number of patients had history of aspiration pneumonia and dementia, and there was a higher age, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level in the DG compared with the non-DG. MMSE scores, exercise tolerance, phonatory function, status of ADL, nutrition, albumin, and transthyretin were lower in the DG compared with the non-DG. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age and sex, MMSE, BI score, and transthyretin was independently associated with dysphagia. Comorbidity of dysphagia was 36.1% in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF, and cognitive dysfunction and malnutrition may be an independent predictor of dysphagia. PMID:27898735

  9. Estimation of cardiac output in patients with congestive heart failure by analysis of right ventricular pressure waveforms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiac output (CO) is an important determinant of the hemodynamic state in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We tested the hypothesis that CO can be estimated from the right ventricular (RV) pressure waveform in CHF patients using a pulse contour cardiac output algorithm that considers constant but patient specific RV outflow tract characteristic impedance. Method In 12 patients with CHF, breath-by-breath Fick CO and RV pressure waveforms were recorded utilizing an implantable hemodynamic monitor during a bicycle exercise protocol. These data were analyzed retrospectively to assess changes in characteristic impedance of the RV outflow tract during exercise. Four patients that were implanted with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) implementing the algorithm were studied prospectively. During a two staged sub-maximal bicycle exercise test conducted at 4 and 16 weeks of implant, COs measured by direct Fick technique and estimated by the ICD were recorded and compared. Results At rest the total pulmonary arterial resistance and the characteristic impedance were 675 ± 345 and 48 ± 18 dyn.s.cm-5, respectively. During sub-maximal exercise, the total pulmonary arterial resistance decreased (Δ 91 ± 159 dyn.s.cm-5, p < 0.05) but the characteristic impedance was unaffected (Δ 3 ± 9 dyn.s.cm-5, NS). The algorithm derived cardiac output estimates correlated with Fick CO (7.6 ± 2.5 L/min, R2 = 0.92) with a limit of agreement of 1.7 L/min and tracked changes in Fick CO (R2 = 0.73). Conclusions The analysis of right ventricular pressure waveforms continuously recorded by an implantable hemodynamic monitor provides an estimate of CO and may prove useful in guiding treatment in patients with CHF. PMID:21569499

  10. Effects and safety of oral tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Yi; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, Ying-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Wu, Yun-Chun; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported treatment benefits of tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the optimal dosage remains unclear. We aimed to compare different dosage of tolvaptan to determine the optimal dosage in terms of the efficacy and safety. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov through Aug 31, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tolvaptan of different dosages or to placebo in patients with CHF were included. We used network meta-analysis to look for the optimal dosage in terms of effectiveness and safety. Urine output, body weight change and change in serum sodium were the main outcomes of efficacy. Adverse effects were the secondary outcomes. Quality was assessed by Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Twelve RCTs reporting 14 articles with 5793 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 11.9 years; 73.7% man) were included. Compared with placebo, the tolvaptan 30 mg had similar effects to tolvaptan 45-90 mg in terms of urine output (mean difference [MD] 2.03 liter; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 2.71), body weight change (MD -1.12 kg; 95% CI -1.37 to -0.88) and change in serum sodium (MD 3.06 meq/L; 95% CI 2.43 to 3.68). Compared with placebo, tolvaptan of different dosage showed a non-significant higher risk of adverse effects. These findings suggest that tolvaptan 30 mg and 45 mg may be the optimum dosage for CHF patients, because of its ability to provide favourable clinical results without greater adverse effects. However, tolvaptan is not beneficial for reducing all-cause mortality in CHF patients.

  11. Policy expectations and reality of telemedicine - a critical analysis of health care outcomes, costs and acceptance for congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Achelrod, Dmitrij

    2014-06-01

    A critical review of evidence was carried out to discover whether the actual performance of telemedicine fulfils the expectations of German policy-makers. The analysis was conducted using the example of telemedicine for congestive heart failure (CHF). It was based on both German and international evidence. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as public sources from the German Federal Ministry of Health. Forty-five studies reporting patient outcomes, costs or acceptance of telemedicine for CHF were included in the review, of which 28 were interventional. The policy expectations of telemedicine generally are: high technology acceptance and improved patient outcomes at lower costs. However, in the field of CHF, policy-makers underestimate the complexity of telemedicine and the technology has not yet lived up to its expectations. Although some studies show improvements in all-cause mortality and CHF-related hospitalisations, there is excessive study heterogeneity and vagueness in the areas of costs and acceptance. Methodological insufficiencies as well as the scarcity of evidence in the German context do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. Policy-makers and other stakeholders should increase their efforts to consolidate isolated telemedicine projects, establish guidelines for clinical treatment procedures and economic evaluations, and define industry/technical device standards to enhance the comparability of interventions. Imposing the use of telemedicine on patients and physicians is not likely to be fruitful. A successful adaptation requires an analysis of needs and continuous education on both sides. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Reducing the cost of frequent hospital admissions for congestive heart failure: a randomized trial of a home telecare intervention.

    PubMed

    Jerant, A F; Azari, R; Nesbitt, T S

    2001-11-01

    The high cost of caring for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) results primarily from frequent hospital readmissions for exacerbations. Home nurse visits after discharge can reduce readmissions, but the intervention costs are high. To compare the effectiveness of three hospital discharge care models for reducing CHF-related readmission charges: 1) home telecare delivered via a 2-way video-conference device with an integrated electronic stethoscope; 2) nurse telephone calls; and 3) usual outpatient care. One-year randomized trial. English-speaking patients 40 years of age and older with a primary hospital admission diagnosis of CHF. Our primary outcome was CHF-related readmission charges during a 6-month period after randomization. Secondary outcomes included all-cause readmissions, emergency department (ED) visits, and associated charges. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized: 13 to home telecare, 12 each telephone care and 12 to usual care. Mean CHF-related readmission charges were 86% lower in the telecare group ($5850, SD $21,094) and 84% lower in the telephone group ($7320, SD $24,440) than in the usual care group ($44,479, SD $121,214). However, the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Both intervention groups had significantly fewer CHF-related ED visits (P = 0.0342) and charges (P = 0.0487) than the usual care group. Trends favoring both interventions were noted for all other utilization outcomes. Substantial reductions in hospital readmissions, emergency visits, and cost of care for patients with CHF might be achieved by widespread deployment of distance technologies to provide posthospitalization monitoring. Home telecare may not offer incremental benefit beyond telephone follow-up and is more expensive.

  13. Cognitive Dysfunction and Malnutrition Are Independent Predictor of Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junichi; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Yoshimi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Onoue, Noriko; Ishizuka, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Early detection and intervention for dysphagia is important in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, previous studies have focused on how many patients with dysphagia develop CHF. Studies focusing on the comorbidity of dysphagia in patients with CHF are rare. Additionally, risk factors for dysphagia in patients with CHF are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF. A total of 105 patients, who were admitted with acute exacerbation of CHF, were enrolled. Clinical interviews, blood chemistry analysis, electrocardiography, echocardiography, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), exercise tolerance tests, phonatory function tests, and evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and nutrition were conducted on admission. After attending physicians permitted the drinking of water, swallowing screening tests were performed. Patients were divided into a dysphagia group (DG) or a non-dysphagia group (non-DG) based on Functional Oral Intake Scale level. Among the 105 patients, 38 had dysphagia. A greater number of patients had history of aspiration pneumonia and dementia, and there was a higher age, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level in the DG compared with the non-DG. MMSE scores, exercise tolerance, phonatory function, status of ADL, nutrition, albumin, and transthyretin were lower in the DG compared with the non-DG. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age and sex, MMSE, BI score, and transthyretin was independently associated with dysphagia. Comorbidity of dysphagia was 36.1% in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF, and cognitive dysfunction and malnutrition may be an independent predictor of dysphagia.

  14. Identification of normal neurohormonal activity in mild congestive heart failure and stimulating effect of upright posture and diuretics.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S H; Clark, M; Laragh, J H; Borer, J S; Cody, R J

    1987-12-01

    To characterize further the pathophysiology of the neurohormonal vasoconstrictor pathways in congestive heart failure (CHF), plasma renin activity, plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure, blood volume and renal hemodynamics were measured in 12 patients with mild to moderate CHF. In addition, the response to the gravitational stress of head-up tilt and the influence of 3 weeks of furosemide treatment as stimuli of neurohormonal activity were assessed. Supine plasma renin activity before diuretics was relatively normal at 1.94 +/- 1.6 ng/ml/hr and was significantly increased to 3.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml/hr after diuretics. During tilt, there was a significant reflex increase in plasma renin activity both before and after diuretics. Plasma norepinephrine was also relatively normal before diuretics (325 +/- 211 pg/ml), did not increase after diuretics, but showed significant increases during tilt both before and after diuretics. Diuretic administration led to decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, but there was no change in body weight or total blood volume. In addition, diuretic administration did not result in any significant changes of renal blood flow (546 +/- 119 to 634 +/- 204 ml/min/1.73m2), glomerular filtration rate (81 +/- 22 to 90 +/- 27 ml/min/1.73m2) or filtration fraction (0.26 to 0.25). The present study demonstrates that the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system were not activated in the early symptomatic stages of CHF and that baroreceptor stimulation of these pathways during head-up tilt was relatively preserved. Renin secretion increased during diuretic administration, suggesting that the macula densa signal for renin release was also preserved in patients with relatively mild CHF.

  15. New Results in Magnitude and Sign Correlations in Heartbeat Fluctuations for Healthy Persons and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diosdado, A. Muñoz; Cruz, H. Reyes; Hernández, D. Bueno; Coyt, G. Gálvez; González, J. Arellanes

    2008-08-01

    Heartbeat fluctuations exhibit temporal structure with fractal and nonlinear features that reflect changes in the neuroautonomic control. In this work we have used the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze heartbeat (RR) intervals of 54 healthy subjects and 40 patients with congestive heart failure during 24 hours; we separate time series for sleep and wake phases. We observe long-range correlations in time series of healthy persons and CHF patients. However, the correlations for CHF patients are weaker than the correlations for healthy persons; this fact has been reported by Ashkenazy et al. [1] but with a smaller group of subjects. In time series of CHF patients there is a crossover, it means that the correlations for high and low frequencies are different, but in time series of healthy persons there are not crossovers even if they are sleeping. These crossovers are more pronounced for CHF patients in the sleep phase. We decompose the heartbeat interval time series into magnitude and sign series, we know that these kinds of signals can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign and the magnitude series relates to nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. Magnitude series are long-range correlated, while the sign series are anticorrelated. Newly, the correlations for healthy persons are different that the correlations for CHF patients both for magnitude and sign time series. In the paper of Ashkenazy et al. they proposed the empirical relation: αsign≈1/2(αoriginal+αmagnitude) for the short-range regime (high frequencies), however, we have found a different relation that in our calculations is valid for short and long-range regime: αsign≈1/4(αoriginal+αmagnitude).

  16. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril in patients with congestive heart failure and chronic renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, R; Zucchelli, P; Caspi, A; Nouriel, H; Paz, R; Sclarovsky, S; O'Grady, P; Yee, K-F; Liao, W-C; Mangold, B

    2000-01-01

    Aims To compare the serum pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril after 1 and 10 days of dosing with fosinopril, enalapril and lisinopril. Methods Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF, NYHA Class II–IV) and chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≤30 ml min−1) were randomized to receive fosinopril, enalapril or lisinopril in two parallel-group studies. In the first study 24 patients were treated with 10 mg fosinopril (n = 12 patients) or 2.5 mg enalapril (n = 12) every morning for 10 consecutive days. In the second study 31 patients were treated with 10 mg fosinopril (n = 16 patients) or 5 mg lisinopril (n = 15) every morning for 10 consecutive days. Samples of blood were collected for determination of pharmacokinetic parameters. The area under the curve (AUC) between the first and last days of treatment and the accumulation index (AI) were the primary outcome measures. Results All three angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors exhibited a significant increase in AUC between the first and last days of treatment in both studies. The difference between the AI for fosinoprilat (1.41) and enalaprilat (1.96) was statistically significant (95% CI: 1.05, 1.84). Similarly, the difference between the AI for fosinoprilat (1.21) and lisinopril (2.76) was statistically significant (95% CI: 1.85, 2.69). All three ACE inhibitors completely inhibited serum ACE for 24 h. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Fosinoprilat exhibits significantly less accumulation than enalaprilat or lisinopril in patients with CHF and renal insufficiency, most probably because fosinoprilat is eliminated by both the kidney and liver, and increased hepatic elimination can compensate for reduced renal clearance in patients with kidney dysfunction. PMID:10606834

  17. Cilazapril Treatment in a Cohort of Seven Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Şeref; Erk, Osman; Ünal, Mehmet; Vatansever, Sezai; Oflaz, Hüseyin; Yücesir, İlker; Florinalı, Nursal; Adalet, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to prolong life in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. Objective: The purpose of the study was to reevaluate a cohort of patients with CHF after 7 years of follow-up with cilazapril therapy to assess the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), anatomic and functional capacity of the heart, and aldosterone escape. Methods: Surviving patients from a cohort hospitalized for CHF between January 1994 and December 1994 who were treated with cilazapril in our center were included in this study. Exercise testing was carried out using the Kattus protocol, and breath-by-breath oxygen analysis, echocardiography, and hormonal analysis were done. Results: Seven patients (5 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [4.4]) were included in the study. Compared with the early effects (at 15 days) of cilazapril therapy, only mean (SD) peak exercise time decreased significantly at the 7-year follow-up (8.9 [2.4] minutes vs 5.1 [1.9] minutes; P = 0.02). Mean (SD) anaerobic threshold (AT) oxygen consumption and AT ratio increased slightly from 15 days, although these changes were not statistically significant (12.86 [3.5] mL/kg·min vs 13.57 [2.6] mL/kg·min; 70.3% [7.7%] vs 78.9% [9.8%], respectively). Compared with the early effect of therapy, patients had slightly lower mean (SD) ejection fractions (EFs), but the decrease did not reach statistical significance (52% [4%] vs 48% [4%]). Aldosterone levels were within normal limits in all patients, and 2 patients had increased RAS activity. Conclusions: In this study, the observed lack of aldosterone escape, as well as patient survival during ACEI therapy, may be due to selection bias of the surviving patients, who had better EFs and lack of aldosterone escape. Therefore, the remaining issue seems to be the selection of patients who will not show aldosterone escape during chronic ACEI treatment. PMID:24944363

  18. Hand osteoarthritis in relation to mortality and incidence of cardiovascular disease: data from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Ida K; Ramachandran, Vasan S; Misra, Devyani; Neogi, Tuhina; Niu, Jingbo; Yang, Tianzhong; Zhang, Yuqing; Felson, David T

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study whether hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular events in a large community based cohort (Framingham Heart Study) in which OA, mortality and cardiovascular events have been carefully assessed. Methods We examined whether symptomatic (≥1 joint (s) with radiographic OA and pain in the same joint) and radiographic hand OA (≥1 joint(s) with radiographic OA without pain) were associated with mortality and incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and/or atherothrombotic brain infarction) using Cox proportional hazards models. In the adjusted models, we included possible confounding factors from baseline (eg, metabolic factors, medication use, smoking/alcohol). We also adjusted for the number of painful joints in the lower limb and physical inactivity. Results We evaluated 1348 participants (53.8% women) with mean (SD) age of 62.2 (8.2) years, of whom 540 (40.1%) and 186 (13.8%) had radiographic and symptomatic hand OA, respectively. There was no association between hand OA and mortality. Although there was no significant relation to incident cardiovascular events overall or a relation of radiographic hand OA with events, we found a significant association between symptomatic hand OA and incident coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction/coronary insufficiency syndrome) (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.18). The association remained after additional adjustment for pain in the lower limb or physical inactivity. Conclusions Symptomatic hand OA, but not radiographic hand OA, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease events. The results suggest an effect of pain, which may be a possible marker of inflammation. PMID:24047870

  19. Novel application of multi dynamic trend analysis as a sensitive tool for detecting the effects of aging and congestive heart failure on heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E.; Yang, Cheryl C. H.; Kuo, Terry B. J.

    2016-02-01

    The complex fluctuations in heart rate variability (HRV) reflect cardiac autonomic modulation and are an indicator of congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper proposes a novel nonlinear approach to HRV investigation, the multi dynamic trend analysis (MDTA) method, based on the empirical mode decomposition algorithm of the Hilbert-Huang transform combined with a variable-sized sliding-window method. Electrocardiographic signal data obtained from the PhysioNet database were used. These data were from subjects with CHF (mean age = 59.4 ± 8.4), an age-matched elderly healthy control group (59.3 ± 10.6), and a healthy young group (30.3 ± 4.8); the HRVs of these subjects were processed using the MDTA method, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Among all HRV parameters, the MDTA absolute value slope (MDTS) and MDTA deviation (MDTD) exhibited the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics in distinguishing between the CHF group and the healthy controls (AUC = 1.000) and between the healthy elderly subject group and the young subject group (AUC = 0.834 ± 0.067 for MDTS; 0.837 ± 0.066 for MDTD). The CHF subjects presented with lower MDTA indices than those of the healthy elderly subject group. Furthermore, the healthy elderly subjects exhibited lower MDTA indices than those of the young controls. The MDTA method can adaptively and automatically identify the intrinsic fluctuation on variable temporal and spatial scales when investigating complex fluctuations in the cardiac autonomic regulation effects of aging and CHF.

  20. Heart failure in low- and middle-income countries: background, rationale, and design of the INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study (INTER-CHF).

    PubMed

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; Al-Habib, Khalid; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo, Lia; Jaramillo, Patricio Lopez; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Dorairaj, Prabhakar; Huffman, Mark; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-10-01

    Although heart failure (HF) has been referred to as a global epidemic, most HF information comes from high-income countries, with little information about low-income countries (LIC) and middle-income countries (MIC) in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America, which make up the majority of the world's population. The INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study is a cohort study of 5,813 HF patients enrolled in 108 centers in 16 LIC and MIC. At baseline, data were recorded on sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, HF etiology, laboratory variables, management, and barriers to evidence-based HF care at the patient, physician, and system levels. We sought to enroll consecutive and consenting patients ≥18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of HF seen in outpatient clinics (2/3 of patients) or inpatient hospital wards (1/3 of patients). Patients were followed up at 6 and 12 months post-enrollment to record clinical status, treatments, and clinical outcomes such as death and hospitalizations. In the 5,813 enrolled HF patients, the mean age was 59 ± 15 years, 40% were female, 62% had a history of hypertension, 30% had diabetes, 21% had prior myocardial infarction, 64% were recruited from outpatient clinics, 36% lived in rural areas, and 29% had HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This unique HF registry aims to systematically gather information on sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, etiologies, treatments, barriers to evidence-based care, and outcomes of HF in LIC and MIC. This information will help improve the management of HF globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacotherapy for atrial fibrillation in elderly hospitalized patients with comorbid congestive heart failure in australia: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lexin; Curran, Shane; Ball, Patrick; White, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Background: Despite the proven effectiveness of antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF), their use has been suboptimal in practice, particularly in rural areas of Australia. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe medication use in the management of AF in elderly hospitalized patients with comorbid congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: The hospital records of patients with a diagnosis of AF and CHF were reviewed in a rural Australian medical center. All the patients were hospitalized because of significant systolic ventricular dysfunction. The collected data included age, sex, weight, presenting symptoms of AF, and principle diagnosis on admission; medical history; and history of smoking and alcohol consumption. Electrocardiogram before hospital discharge was also retrieved from patient's medical records and was analyzed by the investigators. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular drugs administered during the hospital stay and at discharge were also documented. Comparison of antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant drugs was made between patients who had AF while hospitalized and those who had a history of AF but were in sinus rhythm while hospitalized. When patients had ≥2 moderate risk factors (eg, age ≥75 years, hypertension, CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, diabetes mellitus) or ≥1 high risk factor (eg, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack or embolism, mitral valve stenosis, or prosthetic heart valve), they were defined as being eligible for anticoagulation treatment. Results: One hundred forty patients (74 men, 66 women; mean [SD] age, 77.1 [6.9] years; all were white) had a diagnosis of AF and were selected for the study. Of these, 92 patients (65.7%) (47 women, 45 men; mean [SD] age, 77.4 [9–2] years) had continuous AF and 48 patients (34.3%) (29 men, 19 women; mean [SD] age, 76.3 [12.4] years) had a history of AF but were in sinus rhythm at admission and discharge. The most commonly used

  2. The five-point Likert scale for dyspnea can properly assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and predict adverse events in heart failure outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Cristina K; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; de Moraes, Maria A P; Sant'anna, Roberto T; Rover, Marciane M; Kalil, Renato A K; Leiria, Tiago Luiz L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Proper assessment of dyspnea is important in patients with heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the use of the 5-point Likert scale for dyspnea to assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and to determine the prognostic value of this scale for predicting adverse events in heart failure outpatients. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study of outpatients with moderate to severe heart failure. The 5-point Likert scale was applied during regular outpatient visits, along with clinical assessments. Lung ultrasound with ≥15 B-lines and an amino-terminal portion of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level >1000 pg/mL were used as a reference for pulmonary congestion. The patients were then assessed every 30 days during follow-up to identify adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We included 58 patients (65.5% male, age 43.5±11 years) with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 27±6%. In total, 29.3% of these patients had heart failure with ischemic etiology. Additionally, pulmonary congestion, as diagnosed by lung ultrasound, was present in 58% of patients. A higher degree of dyspnea (3 or 4 points on the 5-point Likert scale) was significantly correlated with a higher number of B-lines (p = 0.016). Patients stratified into Likert = 3-4 were at increased risk of admission compared with those in class 1-2 after adjusting for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association functional class and levels of NT-proBNP >1000 pg/mL (HR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.33-18.64, p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: In our series, higher baseline scores on the 5-point Likert scale were related to pulmonary congestion and were independently associated with adverse events during follow-up. This simple clinical tool can help to identify patients who are more likely to decompensate and whose treatment should be intensified. PMID:24838900

  3. [Incidence of surgical site infection after open heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Marković-Denić, Lj; Mihajlović, B; Cemerlić-Adjić, N; Nićin, S; Pavlović, K; Golubović, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite modem surgical techniques, preoperative preventive use of antibiotics and optimal treatment of operative site, surgical site infections (SSI) are significant medical problem in the countries worldwide. The aim of this paper was to estimate the frequency of SSI after open heart surgery and to identify the most frequent causes of these infections. A prospective cohort study was performed during the period from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Vojvodina. The surveillance was consistent throughout the study period. During hospitalization, patients were evaluated daily by the infection control nurse. Isolation, identification and sensitivity tests of causative agents to antimicrobial drugs, obtained from patients' material, were carried out by standard microbiological methods. The descriptive epidemio-logical method was used. The incidence rates of hospital infections were calculated. During the study period, among 23 patients, 24 SSIs were registered. The average incidence rate of patients with SSI was 0.98% and SSI rate was 1.02% (ranged from 0% to 3.7%). There was no difference in the incidence rates according to gender (p = 0.65).The mean age of patients with SSI was 64.7 years. Except one, all patients had the ASA score higher than 2. The patients with SSIs were hospitalized approximately 3.8 times longer than the patient without SSI (p = 0.03). The most common causes of SSI were: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), coagulasa-negative Staphylococcus spp, Acinetobacter spp (8%), Enterococcus spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although the incidence rate of hospital infections is low, it is necessary to maintain continuous surveillance of surgical site infections and to implement the preventive measures.

  4. Can common exercise indices determine peak exercise oxygen consumption and anaerobic threshold during stress testing in patients with chronic congestive heart failure?

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Y; Anand, I S

    1993-01-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is one of the most important predictors of prognosis in chronic heart failure and is now used to define degree of heart failure. While most centres can routinely do treadmill exercise testing (TMT), VO2 max measurements are not widely available. We, therefore, analysed the ability to predict VO2 max from common TMT variables: Peak exercise heart rate, exercise time, and METS achieved in 26 patients with chronic congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III, ejection fraction 43 +/- 2%) in whom exercise VO2 studies were simultaneously done by breath to breath expiratory gas analysis using a metabolic cart. METS achieved during exercise and exercise time correlated reasonably well although not perfectly (r = 0.78 & 0.73 respectively, tail critical value +/-0.41). Resting ejection fraction did not correlate at all (r = 0.0004). The regression equation (2.7) (METS) + 5.8 defined VO2 max with SE of 0.47. Although in unvariate analysis, exercise time, METS achieved & peak heart rate predicted VO2 max, only METS achieved was predictive in step wise regression. None of the parameters predicted the anaerobic threshold accurately although there was a modest relation between AT and peak exercise VO2. We conclude that most exercise variables do not accurately predict VO2 max in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. METS achieved is the best predictor and the VO2 max can be predicted using a regression equation. Anaerobic threshold cannot be predicted without tests involving expiratory gas analysis.

  5. Pulpal inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Douglass, Chester W

    2006-02-01

    Pulpal inflammation is primarily caused by coronal caries, and leads to root canal therapy (RCT). Chronic inflammation has been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the association between pulpal inflammation (using RCT as a surrogate) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We report results among males from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), excluding participants with prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes. We obtained RCT data from the HPFS cohort (n = 34,683). Compared to men without RCT, those with >/=1 RCT had a multivariate RR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.40) for CHD. The association was limited to dentists (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67). There was no association among nondentists (RR = 1.03). Dental caries was not associated with CHD. The results suggest a possible modest association between pulpal inflammation and CHD.

  6. Prognostic Value of Different Allelic Polymorphism of Aldosterone Synthase Receptor in a Congestive Heart Failure European Continental Ancestry Population.

    PubMed

    Feola, Mauro; Monteverde, Martino; Vivenza, Daniela; Testa, Marzia; Leto, Laura; Astesana, Valentina; Mussapi, Francesco; Vado, Antonello; Merlano, Marco; Lo Nigro, Cristiana

    2017-02-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is as an 9-exon gene on chromosome 8q22 and exists as a common single nucleotide polymorphism C-T transition for position -344. The aim of this study was to assess the -344T/C polymorphism of the aldosterone synthase promoter in a European continental ancestry congestive heart failure (CHF) population. Patients discharged after an acute decompensation were enrolled and underwent echocardiography, determination of BNP, evaluation of non-invasive cardiac outputs and determination of -344 T/C SNP in the aldosterone synthase gene. 175 patients (137 male; age 69.9 ± 10.2 years) were enrolled. The genotype distribution of -344 T/C SNP demonstrated a TT genotype in 61 patients (34.9%), CT in 80 (45.7%) and finally CC in 34 (19.4%) CHF patients. According to presence of C allele, CHF patients were divided into C group (-CT/CC genotype, 114 subjects) and T Group (-TT genotype, 61 subjects). The two groups did not differ in term of age, non-invasive cardiac output at rest, creatinine level or end-systolic or diastolic left ventricle diameter, LVEF and BNP. In group C patients in comparison than in group T a higher degree of disability (Barthel Index p = 0.004), NYHA class (p = 0.02) and a lower cardiac index (p = 0.01) emerged. Moreover, the two groups showed a similar clinical outcome (death for any cause/hospital readmission for CHF) at 48 month follow-up (p = 0.16; log-rank 1.99). In European continental ancestry patients the C allele (CC or CT) at -344T/C SNP in the aldosterone synthase gene does not significantly influence clinical prognosis of CHF. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacodynamic Impact of Carboxylesterase 1 Gene Variants in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Treated with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Peter; Ferrero, Laura; Bjerre, Ditte; Bruun, Niels E.; Egfjord, Martin; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in the carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) may contribute to the efficacy of ACEIs. Accordingly, we examined the impact of CES1 variants on plasma angiotensin II (ATII)/angiotensin I (ATI) ratio in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that underwent ACEI dose titrations. Five of these variants have previously been associated with drug response or increased CES1 expression, i.e., CES1 copy number variation, the variant of the duplicated CES1 gene with high transcriptional activity, rs71647871, rs2244613, and rs3815583. Additionally, nine variants, representatives of CES1Var, and three other CES1 variants were examined. Methods Patients with CHF, and clinical indication for ACEIs were categorized according to their CES1 genotype. Differences in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between genotype groups after ACEI dose titration, expressed as the least square mean (LSM) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were assessed by analysis of variance. Results A total of 200 patients were recruited and 127 patients (63.5%) completed the study. The mean duration of the CHF drug dose titration was 6.2 (SD 3.6) months. After ACEI dose titration, there was no difference in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between subjects with the investigated CES1 variants, and only one previously unexplored variation (rs2302722) qualified for further assessment. In the fully adjusted analysis of effects of rs2302722 on plasma ATII/ATI ratios, the difference in mean ATII/ATI ratio between the GG genotype and the minor allele carriers (GT and TT) was not significant, with a relative difference in LSMs of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43–1.07; P = 0.10). Results of analyses that only included enalapril-treated patients remained non-significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple parallel comparisons (difference in LSM 0.60 [95% CI 0.37–0.98], P = 0.045). Conclusion These findings indicate that the included single variants of CES1 do not significantly influence plasma ATII/ATI ratios in CHF

  8. Increased serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Reimann, M J; Ljungvall, I; Hillström, A; Møller, J E; Hagman, R; Falk, T; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Olsen, L H

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease in humans and dogs is associated with mildly increased circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Few studies have evaluated associations between circulating CRP and canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and the results reported have been divergent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of CRP, determined using a novel automated canine-specific high-sensitivity CRP assay (Gentian hsCRP), were associated with severity of MMVD and selected clinical variables in dogs. The study included 188 client-owned dogs with different severities of MMVD. Dogs were classified based on ACVIM consensus statement guidelines (group A, n = 58; group B1, n = 56; group B2, n = 38; group C, n = 36). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had significantly higher CRP concentrations (median, 2.65 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, 1.09-5.09) compared to dogs in groups A (median, 0.97 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.97; P = 0.001), B1 (median, 0.78 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.73, P <0.0001) and B2 (median, 0.60 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.23; P <0.0001). Other variables reflecting disease severity, including left atrial to aortic root ratio (P = 0.0002, adjusted r(2) = 0.07) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalised for bodyweight (P = 0.0005, adjusted r(2) = 0.06), were positively associated with CRP concentration, but the association disappeared if dogs with CHF were excluded from analysis. In conclusion, slightly higher CRP concentrations were found in dogs with CHF whereas severity of asymptomatic MMVD showed no association with CRP concentrations.

  9. Use of the short form 36 in a primary care based disease management program for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Jaan; Shull, Robert D; Girolami, Sabrina; Mensch, Debra

    2003-01-01

    While disease management has been described as an important strategy for the care of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in the managed care setting, little is known about the impact of this approach on overall health-related quality of life. In this study the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was administered to all patients entering CHF disease management at the time of program entry and at 1 year following entry. Scores on the eight subscales and the two composite scales were calculated and compared before and after. Patients were enrolled from a mixed-model health maintenance organization (HMO) with 34,740 Medicare + Choice enrollees residing in 38 counties in central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Two hundred sixty-eight continuously enrolled patients in an HMO-sponsored CHF disease state management program with completed baseline and follow-up SF-36 surveys were sampled. All patients entered into disease management received primary care based, nurse-directed education about CHF self-management including instruction on etiology of CHF, the importance of medication compliance, home care services if indicated, monitoring weight gain, increased understanding of the warning signs of worsening CHF, and coaching on strategies to contact a physician in a timely manner when CHF worsens. Nurses also facilitated for CHF guidelines among primary care physicians, including the need to obtain a baseline assessment of cardiac function, prescribe angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers when appropriate, and initiated appropriate specialist referral. Compared with enrollees who did not complete a pair of SF-36 surveys, the 268 respondents were younger and had a significantly higher rate of cardiac imaging as well as use of ACE inhibitors and beta blocker medications. Analysis of the SF-36 data revealed that three of the eight (Role Physical, General Health Perceptions, and Role Emotional) subscales increased in a statistically significant manner, as

  10. Chronic administration of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor suppresses renal production of endothelin-1 in dogs with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Wada, Atsuyuki; Ohnishi, Masato; Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Fujii, Masanori; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Takayama, Tomoyuki; Wang, Xinwen; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    2002-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) play important roles in the regulation of body fluid balance in congestive heart failure (CHF). Renal production of ET-1 increases in CHF and it is a significant independent predictor of sodium excretion. ANP inhibits the ET system through cGMP, a second messenger of ANP. However, in severe CHF, plasma cGMP levels reached a plateau despite the activation of ANP secretion. Thus, ANP does not seem to sufficiently oppose exaggerated ET-1 actions in severe CHF, partially due to the accelerated degradation of cGMP, through phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). We examined the chronic effects of a PDE5 inhibitor, T-1032 (1 mg/kg per day, n=5), on renal function and renal production of ET-1 in dogs with CHF induced by rapid ventricular pacing (270 beats/min). Vehicle dogs were given a placebo (n=5) and normal dogs (n=5) served as normal controls without pacing. In this experimentally produced CHF, plasma levels of ET-1, ANP and cGMP were elevated and renal production of cGMP was increased compared with the normal group, associated with increases in renal expression of preproET-1 mRNA and the number of ET-1-positive cells in glomeruli. In the T-1032 group, systemic and renal production of cGMP were further increased compared with the vehicle group despite no significant difference in plasma ANP levels between the two groups. Subsequently, the agent significantly improved urine flow rate, sodium excretion rate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) associated with reductions in renal expression of preproET-1 mRNA and the number of ET-1-positive cells compared with the vehicle group. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the number of ET-1-positive cells and GFR (r=-0.802 and P<0.001 respectively). Our results indicate that chronic PDE5 inhibition ameliorates the antagonistic relationship between renal ANP and ET-1 through the cGMP pathway, subsequently preventing renal dysfunction during the

  11. Severe starvation hypoglycemia and congestive heart failure induced by thyroid crisis, with accidentally induced severe liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Sasaki, Hideo; Kosuge, Keiichiro; Miyakita, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Masahumi; Suzuki, Akiko; Abe, Eri; Suzuki, Katsunori; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2005-03-01

    A 69-year-old woman caught a cold resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and severe anorexia. Then she suffered progressively from dyspnea and leg edema, and finally became delirious. On admission severe hypoglycemia, hypothermia, marked tachycardia, generalized edema, mild jaundice and cachexy were noted. EKG showed atrial fibrillation. A chest X-ray, chest CT and echocardiography showed congestive heart failure. Therapeutic use of diuretics induced shock leading to serious liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, combined therapy by intravenous glucose, digitalis, diuretics, anti-fibrinolytic drug and hydrocortisone were effective. Addition of antithyroid therapy brought a further favorable outcome.

  12. Influence of Left Ventricular Stroke Volume on Incident Heart Failure in a Population With Preserved Ejection Fraction (from the Strong Heart Study).

    PubMed

    De Marco, Marina; Gerdts, Eva; Mancusi, Costantino; Roman, Mary J; Lønnebakken, Mai Tone; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B; de Simone, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    At a given level of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, LV pump performance (assessed by stroke index [SVi]) may differ, depending on LV size. We evaluated whether low SVi may be considered a marker of risk for incident congestive heart failure (HF), independent of LV geometry and systolic function, assessed by ejection fraction (EF) or midwall fractional shortening (MFS), in a large population-based sample with normal EF. Clinical and echocardiographic data from the second Strong Heart Study (SHS) examination, including 2,885 American Indians (59 ± 8 years; 63% women) with normal EF (EF ≥51% in men and EF ≥55% in women) and without prevalent HF or significant valve disease, were analyzed. Low SVi was defined as SVi ≤22 ml/m(2.04). Low SVi was more common among men and associated with lower body mass index, systolic blood pressure, LV mass index, left atrial dimension, EF, and MFS and with higher relative wall thickness. During a mean 12-year follow-up, 209 participants developed HF and 246 had acute myocardial infarction. In Cox regression analysis, low SVi was associated with higher risk of incident HF (hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.80), independently of age, gender, body mass index, heart rate, hypertension, prevalent cardiovascular disease, left atrial dimension index, LV mass index, LV concentric geometry, EF or MFS, and abnormal wall motion, also accounting for myocardial infarction as a competing risk event. In conclusion, in the SHS, low SVi was associated with higher incident rate of HF, independently of LV geometry and systolic function and other major confounders.

  13. Diabetes and incident heart failure in hypertensive and normotensive participants of the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    de Simone, Giovanni; Devereux, Richard B.; Chinali, Marcello; Lee, Elisa T.; Galloway, James M.; Barac, Ana; Panza, Julio A.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Type 2 diabetes is accepted as a cause of heart failure (HF), but direct cause-effect evidence independent of incident myocardial infarction, hypertension and other coexisting risk factors is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes predisposes to HF independently of hypertension and intercurrent myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We evaluated 12-year incident HF in 2740 participants (1781 women) without prevalent cardiovascular (CV) or severe kidney disease, at the time of the 1st exam of the Strong Heart Study cohort. Intercurrent myocardial infarction was censored as a competing risk event. Results Diabetes was present in 1206 individuals (44%), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in 391 (14%). Diabetic participants more frequently had hypertension and central obesity (both p<0.0001). Incident HF was ascertained in 64 participants with normal fasting glucose (NFG, 6%), 26 (7%) with IFG and 201 with diabetes (17%, Hazard ratio [HR]= 4.04 vs. NFG; p<0.0001). In Cox analysis adjusting for age, sex, obesity, central fat distribution, hypertension, antihypertensive medications, prevalent atrial fibrillation, GFR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, plasma cholesterol, Hb1Ac, smoking habit, alcohol use, educational level and physical activity, diabetes was associated with a 2-fold greater risk of incident HF than NFG (HR=2.45, p<0.0001). Diabetes maintained 1.5-fold greater risk of HF than NFG (p<0.03) even when intercurrent myocardial infarction (n=221) was censored as a competing risk event, similar to the adjusted HR for HF in hypertension. Conclusion Type 2 diabetes is a potent, independent risk factor for HF. Risk of HF in diabetic subjects cannot be fully explained by incident MI and coexisting CV risk factors. Mechanisms directly related to diabetes and impairing cardiac function should be studied and identified. PMID:19844184

  14. Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, A Z; Mead, L A; Liang, K Y; Thomas, C B; Pearson, T A

    1986-10-16

    We conducted a prospective investigation of the effect of coffee consumption on coronary heart disease in 1130 male medical students who were followed for 19 to 35 years. Changes in coffee consumption and cigarette smoking during follow-up were examined in relation to the incidence of clinically evident coronary disease in comparisons of three measures of coffee intake--base-line intake, average intake, and most recent intake reported before the manifestation of coronary disease. Clinical evidence of coronary disease included myocardial infarction, angina, and sudden cardiac death. In separate analyses for each measure of coffee intake, the relative risks for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day, as compared with nondrinkers, were approximately 2.80 for all three measures in the univariate analyses (maximum width of 95 percent confidence intervals, 1.27 to 6.51). After adjustment for age, current smoking, hypertension status, and base-line level of serum cholesterol, the estimated relative risk for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day (using the most recent coffee intake measure), as compared with those drinking none, was 2.49 (maximum width of 95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 5.77). The association between coffee and coronary disease was strongest when the time between the reports of coffee intake and the coronary event was shortest. These findings support an independent, dose-responsive association of coffee consumption with clinically evident coronary heart disease, which is consistent with a twofold to threefold elevation in risk among heavy coffee drinkers.

  15. Two Statistical Methods for Resolving Healthy Individuals and Those with Congestive Heart Failure Based on Extended Self-similarity and a Recursive Method

    PubMed Central

    Atyabi, F.; Livari, M. A.; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two methods for measuring irregularities in human heartbeat time series (HHTS). First we consider the multi-fractal structure of HHTS to distinguish healthy individuals and from those with congestive heart failure. In this way we modify the Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) method and apply it to HHTS. Our second approach is based on the recursive method, which we use to predict the duration of the next heartbeat by considering a few previous ones. We use standard physiological data and show that these approaches lead to very satisfactory methods to resolve the healthy and CHF individuals. These methods can be used potentially in portable electronic heart alarm systems. PMID:19669436

  16. Novel Use of Tolvaptan in a Pediatric Patient With Congestive Heart Failure Due to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sami, Sarah A; Moffett, Brady S; Karlsten, Melissa L; Cabrera, Antonio G; Price, Jack F; Dreyer, William J; Denfield, Susan W; Jeewa, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Successful management of hyponatremia in heart failure patients requires a multifaceted approach in order to preserve end-organ function. We describe the novel use of a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist, tolvaptan, for management of hyponatremia in a 17-year-old Caucasian male with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congestive heart failure (CHF), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The medical history was significant for recurrent admissions for hyponatremia secondary to adrenal crises, which was also exacerbated by his CHF. After initiation of tolvaptan and its extended administration, he had no further hyponatremia-related admissions and no adverse reactions. The complexity of this combination of conditions is presented, and the efficacy of the drug and the rationale behind the treatment approach is discussed.

  17. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  18. Veterans' Voice Through the Lens of Their Medical Records: What It Reveals About Congestive Heart Failure Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Payne, Kattie

    The medical record is a sea of information that can reveal what patients are trying to tell us about their health condition. It can reveal hints and trends as to why veterans with congestive heart failure (CHF) are being readmitted within 30 days after hospital discharge. These hints and trends lead caregivers to key contributing variables to veterans' readmission. Furthermore, these variables can be used to predict patient outcomes such as readmission and even prognosis. This article looks at readmissions for CHF from documentation within the medical record to see what was driving the 30-day readmissions. Second, it examines whether the driving forces can be used to predict a veteran's increased risk for readmission or other poor prognosis. The study was conducted at a rural 84-bed Veterans Health Administration hospital in the Western United States. A retrospective screen was performed on 1,279 veterans' admissions of which 217 were identified as having CHF as a primary or secondary diagnosis on admission. The descriptive statistics, odds ratio (OR) and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the data. The multivariate logistic regression equation was p = 1/1 + e, which can be found in the biostatistics textbook by . developed and validated the equation and used it to screen for undiagnosed diabetic patients. The equation was refined by . The variables selected for this study were based on a literature review of 30 articles. The probability and OR for 30-day readmissions for all ages increased as the age increased. The ORs for 30-day readmissions for the variables selected were as follows: brain natriuretic peptide 6.21 (95% CI [0.36, 108.24]), ejection fraction 1.298 (95% CI [0.68, 2.49]), hypertension 1.795 (95% CI [0.83, 3.85]), comorbid conditions 1.02 (95% CI [0.04, 25.02]), Stage III and below were protective, Stage IV 2.057 (95% CI [0.63, 9.32]), lack of discharge education 0.446 (95% CI [0.19, 6.45]). The impact of these variables on

  19. Oral amrinone for the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure: results of a multicenter randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled withdrawal study.

    PubMed

    DiBianco, R; Shabetai, R; Silverman, B D; Leier, C V; Benotti, J R

    1984-11-01

    A placebo-controlled study was employed to evaluate the effects of oral amrinone in patients with congestive heart failure. After a baseline period of at least 4 weeks of standard treatment for refractory congestive heart failure, oral amrinone was added to the treatment regimen of 173 patients. Patients were predominantly male (89%), aged 24 to 76 years (mean 54), with ischemic (52%) or idiopathic (37%) dilated cardiomyopathy, in New York Heart Association functional class II (40%), III (59%) and IV (1%) and having a mean (+/- standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction of 25 +/- 15%. Phase 1: After the addition of amrinone (113 +/- 33 mg three times daily), 52 patients (30%) showed a maximal increase in treadmill exercise time exceeding 2 minutes (Naughton protocol), 72 (42%) had a lesser increase, 24 (14%) developed limiting adverse reactions, 20 (12%) died and 5 dropped out of the study. Fifty-two "responders" (30%) who were free of limiting side effects and had a greater than 2 minute increase in exercise time were randomized in double-blind fashion to continued amrinone or switched to placebo (each plus standard treatment) for an additional 12 weeks. Phase 2: Comparison of 31 of these 52 responders who continued to receive amrinone with the remaining 21 randomized to placebo revealed no significant differences in vital signs, indexes of left ventricular size and function, systolic time intervals or maximal exercise time. Continued follow-up study of patients receiving either amrinone or placebo revealed decreases in exercise times of 7 and 10%, respectively (both p less than 0.05 compared with before randomization). Episodes of worsened congestive heart failure severe enough to mandate termination of double-blind treatment were as frequent in patients taking placebo (4[18%] of 21) as in those taking amrinone (4[13%] of 31; p = NS). The average symptom score and functional class of each treatment group remained comparable. Adverse effects such as

  20. Rate of change in physical fitness and quality of life and depression following exercise training in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Smart, Neil A; Murison, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training appears to improve peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) and quality of life (QOL) in heart failure patients, although disease etiology, patient demographics and medication may alter the rate of adaptation. The authors sought to identify rate of change from baseline in fitness, QOL, and depression following exercise training in a cohort of patients with congestive heart failure. Thirty male systolic heart failure patients (aged 63.8±8.3 years, baseline peak VO(2) 12.2±4.8 mL/kg/min, left ventricular ejection fraction 28.2±9.4%, New York Heart Association class II/II 22/8) undertook 52 weeks of exercise training, 16 weeks as an outpatient and a further 36 weeks of home exercise. Peak VO(2) and QOL was measured using the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure (MLWHF) questionnaire and depression using the Hare-Davis scale. The authors analyzed the rate of change in peak VO(2) and MLWHF after grouping patients according to clinical, demographic, and pharmacologic characteristics. Peak VO(2) measurements varied over time, with no effect of disease pathology or β-blocker on peak VO(2) . The rate of change in physical MLWHF score was significantly greater (improved) during 0 to 16 weeks in patients with dilated pathology, but was not significantly affected by β-blocker use or age. The exercise training venue and supervision, or lack thereof, is the major determinant of adaptation to the intervention in heart failure patients, although age, β-adrenergic medication, and heart failure etiology also explain some of the variation in adaptive responses observed.

  1. Effects of clopidogrel and aspirin combination versus aspirin alone on platelet aggregation and major receptor expression in patients with heart failure: the Plavix Use for Treatment Of Congestive Heart Failure (PLUTO-CHF) trial.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Malinin, Alex I; Jerome, Scott D; Lowry, David R; Morgan, Athol W; Sane, David C; Tanguay, Jean-François; Steinhubl, Steven R; O'connor, Christopher M

    2003-10-01

    Persistent platelet activation may contribute to thrombotic events in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Chronic use of mild platelet inhibitors could therefore represent an independent avenue to improve morbidity, mortality, and quality of life in this expanding population. Although clopidogrel is widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke, the ability of this novel ADP-receptor antagonist to inhibit platelet function in patients with CHF is unknown. We assessed antiplatelet properties of clopidogrel with aspirin (C+A) versus aspirin alone (A) in patients with CHF with heightened platelet activity. Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, or CHF symptoms in the setting of preserved systolic function and New York Heart Association class II-IV were screened. Patients were considered to have platelet activation when 4 of the following 5 parameters were met: ADP-induced platelet aggregation >60%; collagen-induced aggregation >70%; whole blood aggregation >18 ohms; expression of GP IIb/IIIa >220 log MFI; and P-selectin cell positivity >8%. All patients were treated with 325 mg of acetylsalycilic acid (ASA) for at least 1 month. Patients receiving an antithrombotic agent other than ASA were excluded. Patients meeting clinical and laboratory criteria were randomly assigned to C+A (n=25), A (n=25) groups, or represent screen failures (n=38). Platelet studies (conventional and whole blood aggregometry, shear-induced activation, expression of 10 major receptors and formation of platelet-leukocyte microparticles) were performed at baseline and after 30 days of therapy. There were no deaths, hospitalizations, or serious adverse events. There were no changes in platelet parameters in the A group. In contrast, therapy with C+A resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet activity assessed by ADP-induced (P =.00001), and epinephrine-induced (P =.0016) aggregation, closure time (P =.04), expression of PECAM-1 (P =.009

  2. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, Nobuyuki; HORI, Yasutomo; HIDAKA, Yuichi; CHIKAZAWA, Seishiro; KANAI, Kazutaka; HOSHI, Fumio; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of plasma natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) remains unclear. We investigated whether plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are useful for assessing the congestive signs of right-sided heart failure in dogs. This retrospective study enrolled 16 healthy dogs and 51 untreated dogs with presence (n=28) or absence (n=23) of right-sided CHF. Medical records of physical examinations, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were reviewed. The plasma concentration of canine ANP was measured with a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with right-sided CHF were significantly higher than in healthy controls and those without right-sided CHF. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration >3,003 pmol/l used to identify right-sided CHF had a sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 90.3%. An area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.93. The AUC for NT-proBNP was significantly higher than the AUCs for the cardiothoracic ratio, vertebral heart score, ratio of right ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter to body surface area, tricuspid late diastolic flow and ratio of the velocities of tricuspid early to late diastolic flow. These results suggest that plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations increase markedly in dogs with right-sided CHF. Particularly, NT-proBNP is simple and helpful biomarkers to assess the right-sided CHF. PMID:26607133

  3. Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Jackson Heart and Framingham Offspring Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Parag H; Khokhar, Arif A; Massaro, Joseph M; Lirette, Seth T; Griswold, Michael E; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Correa, Adolfo; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jones, Steven R; Toth, Peter P

    2016-04-29

    Remnant lipoproteins (RLPs), the triglyceride-enriched precursors to low-density lipoprotein, are an emerging risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to determine the association of RLP cholesterol (RLP-C) levels with incident CHD in 2 diverse, prospective, longitudinal observational US cohorts. We analyzed cholesterol levels from serum lipoprotein samples separated via density gradient ultracentrifugation in 4114 US black participants (mean age 53.8 years, 64% women) from the Jackson Heart Study and a random sample of 818 predominantly white participants (mean age 57.3 years, 52% women) from the Framingham Offspring Cohort Study. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for RLP-C (the sum of very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were derived to estimate associations with incident CHD events consisting of myocardial infarction, CHD death, and revascularizations for each cohort separately and as a combined population. There were 146 CHD events in the combined population. After adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, and lipid-lowering therapy for the combined population, RLP-C (HR 1.23 per 1-SD increase, 95% CI 1.06-1.42, P<0.01) and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.26 per 1-SD increase, 95% CI 1.08-1.47, P<0.01) predicted CHD during an 8-year follow-up. Associations were attenuated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ultimately lost significance with inclusion of real low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which excludes Lp(a) and IDL cholesterol fractions. Similar associations were seen in multivariable analyses within each cohort. RLP-C levels are predictive of incident CHD in this diverse group of primary prevention subjects. Interventions aimed at reducing RLP-C to prevent CHD warrant further intensive investigation. URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00415415. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of

  4. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult cat with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided congestive heart failure: hemodynamic evaluation and clinical outcome following ductal closure.

    PubMed

    Novo-Matos, José; Hurter, Karin; Bektas, Rima; Grest, Paula; Glaus, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) developed secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in an 8-year-old cat with a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Vascular reactivity was tested prior to shunt ligation by treatment with oxygen and sildenafil. This treatment was associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary artery pressure as assessed by echocardiography. Subsequently surgical shunt ligation was planned. During thoracotomy, digital occlusion of the PDA was performed for 10 min with simultaneous catheter measurement of right ventricular pressure, which did not increase. Permanent shunt ligation resulted in a complete and sustained clinical recovery. A lung biopsy sample obtained during thoracotomy demonstrated histopathological arterial changes typical of PH. Cats can develop clinically severe PH and right-sided CHF secondary to a left-to-right PDA even at an advanced age. Assuming there is evidence of pulmonary reactivity, PDA occlusion might be tolerated and can potentially produce long-term clinical benefits.

  5. A comparative study of a new wireless continuous cardiorespiratory monitor for the diagnosis and management of patients with congestive heart failure at home.

    PubMed

    Andrews, D; Gouda, M S; Higgins, S; Johnson, P; Williams, A; Vandenburg, M

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major and increasing chronic disease in Western society, with a high mortality, morbidity and cost for unplanned hospital admissions. Continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring is required to detect Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We have tested a new wireless monitoring system and compared it with polysomnography (PSG) and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) in six CHF patients with CSR in a sleep laboratory. The wireless system compared well with RIP for the detection of CSR but less well with PSG, which had unexpected but significant respiratory sensing errors that led to misclassification of the respiratory disorder present. The wireless system could be used to select CHF patients for better-customized treatment at home as part of a specialist-supported community telemedicine programme.

  6. Exercise Heart Rate Reserve and Recovery as Predictors of Incident Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Zaccardi, Francesco; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Carnethon, Mercedes; Franklin, Barry A

    2016-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that selected exercise heart rate responses, specifically those providing indices of autonomic dysfunction, may be associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2231 apparently healthy men with normal baseline fasting glucose levels. Heart rate reserve was calculated as the difference between the maximal attained heart rate and the supine resting heart rate, whereas heart rate recovery was defined as the maximal heart rate minus the heart rate measured at 2 minutes of recovery after peak or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Type 2 diabetes was defined as glycated hemoglobin >6.5% or fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dL at the follow-up examination. During a median follow-up interval of 5 years, 90 of the 2231 men (4.0%) developed type 2 diabetes. The relative risks of incident type 2 diabetes in men within the lowest quartiles of heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery versus men comprising the highest quartiles of heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery were 2.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.11) and 2.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.78) after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Each unit increment (1 beat/min) in heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery was associated with a 2% to 3% decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Exercise heart rate reserve and recovery predicted incidence of type 2 diabetes in healthy men, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction may be associated with an increased likelihood for the development of this cardiometabolic risk factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of vasodilator therapy in patients with severe congestive heart failure: limitations of measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, B.G.; Dehmer, G.J.; Markham, R.V. Jr.; Willerson, J.T.; Hillis, L.D.

    1982-11-01

    Although noninvasive techniques are often used to assess the effect of vasodilator therapy in patients with congestive heart failure, it is unknown whether changes in noninvasively determined left ventricular ejection fraction, volume, or dimension reliably reflect alterations in intracardiac pressure and flow. Accordingly, we compared the acute effect of sodium nitroprusside on left ventricular volume and ejection fraction (determined scintigraphically) with its effect on intracardiac pressure and forward cardiac index (determined by thermodilution) in 12 patients with severe, chronic congestive heart failure and a markedly dilated left ventricle. Nitroprusside (infused at 1.3 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- standard deviation) microgram/kg/min) caused a decrease in mean systemic arterial, mean pulmonary arterial, and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as well as a concomitant increase in forward cardiac index. Simultaneously, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes decreased, but the scintigraphically determined cardiac index did not change significantly. Left ventricular ejection fraction averaged 0.19 +/- 0.05 before nitroprusside administration and increased by less than 0.05 units in response to nitroprusside in 11 of 12 patients. The only significant correlation between scintigraphically and invasively determined variables was that between the percent change in end-diastolic volume index and the percent change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (r . 0.68, p . 0.01). Although nitroprusside produced changes in scintigraphically determined left ventricular ejection fraction, end-systolic volume index, and cardiac index, these alterations bore no predictable relation to changes in intracardiac pressure, forward cardiac index, or vascular resistance. Furthermore, nitroprusside produced a considerably greater percent change in the invasively measured variables than in the scintigraphically determined ones.

  8. [Dynamics of structural functional parameters of cardiovascular system in patients with Stable Angina and Congestive Heart Failure treated with Ivabradine for six months].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, N A; Rebrov, A P

    2010-01-01

    URGENCY: Frequency of warm reductions (FWR) is the independent risk factor increasing frequency of the general death rate, sudden death rate and death rate from cardiovascular diseases. Aim of the work was to study dynamics of parameters of cardiovascular system in Patients with Stable Angina (SA) and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) treated with Ivabradin within six months were investigated. 78 patients having symptoms of SA and CHF and also FWR more than 70 per 1 minute treated the maximum dose blokatorov, are divided into 2 groups. The patient of the first group (40 people) to standard therapy was added ivabradin. Patients of the second group (38 people) received the standard treatment of a SA and CHF. Before and after six months of the treatment the following findings were evaluated: the 6 minute walk test results, echocardiographic parameters, of heart rate variability (HRV), von Willebrand factor, endothelium dependent and independent vasodilation, main arteries rigidity. The complex therapy including ivabradin, at examined patients promotes heart rate fall, to reduction of quantity of attacks of a stable angina and number of the accepted tablets of nitroglycerine, increase of CHF functional class, increase in shock volume left ventricular (LV) and certainly diastolichesky volume LV, to decrease in activity of the factor of Willebrand, quality of life. Indicators of HRV, endothelium dependent and independent vasodilation, main arteries rigidity during against 6 monthly therapies improve, but do not reach reliability degree.

  9. Impact of heart failure on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Jordan L; Gilles, Emmanuelle; Geller, Ari B; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Mathew, Staicy; Malieckal, Deepa; DeVita, Maria V; Michelis, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    We randomized patients with chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dl or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m²) in a double-blind fashion to receive saline or sodium bicarbonate prior to and after cardiac or vascular angiography. The primary endpoint was contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), defined as an increase in serum creatinine by 25% or by 0.5 mg/dl from baseline. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac ejection fraction (EF) <30%, or GFR < 20 ml/min/1.73 m² were excluded. The study was discontinued (after 142 patients were randomized) due to a low incidence of CIN (1.5%). We retrospectively identified all cases of CIN (n = 30) at our institution during the same time period to see if these patients differed from our trial sample. There was no difference in serum creatinine (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 mg/dL), GFR (42.7 ± 9.7 vs. 45.3 ± 3.2 ml/min), incidence of diabetes (51.8% vs. 63.3%), contrast volume (121.7 ± 63.8 vs. 122.7 ± 68.3 ml), ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use (54.0% vs 63.3%), and periprocedure diuretic use (33.1% vs 26.7%). On multivariate analysis, only a cardiac ejection fraction (EF) of less than 40% was significantly associated with CIN (odds ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-15.71; P = 0.02). In all, 22/30 patients (73.3%) who developed CIN had at least one or more characteristics that would have excluded their enrollment in our randomized trial including evidence of congestive heart failure (17/30 patients), EF less than 30% (9 patients), age greater than 85 years (2 patients), or advanced renal failure with a baseline GFR of less than 20 cc/min (1 patient). In summary, patients with CKD without evidence of CHF who receive adequate hydration appear to have a very low risk of CIN associated with angiography. A low EF (less than 40%) appeared to be the most significant risk factor for CIN in our population.

  10. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    SciTech Connect

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local /sup 133/Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients.

  11. Cardiac troponin-I concentration, myocardial arteriosclerosis, and fibrosis in dogs with congestive heart failure because of myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Falk, T; Ljungvall, I; Zois, N E; Höglund, K; Olsen, L H; Pedersen, H D; Häggström, J

    2013-01-01

    Few previous studies have investigated the association between biomarkers and cardiac disease findings in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). To investigate if histopathological changes at necropsy could be reflected by in vivo circulating concentrations of cTnI and aldosterone, and renin activity, in dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure because of MMVD. Fifty privately owned dogs with MMVD and heart failure. Longitudinal Study. Dogs were prospectively recruited and examined by clinical and echocardiographical examination twice yearly until time of death. Blood was stored for batched analysis of concentrations of cTnI and aldosterone, and renin activity. All dogs underwent a standardized necropsy protocol. cTnI were associated with echocardiographic left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (P < .0001) and proximal isovolumetric surface area radius (P < .004). Furthermore, in vivo cTnI concentrations reflected postmortem findings of global myocardial fibrosis (P < .001), fibrosis in the papillary muscles (P < .001), and degree of arterial luminal narrowing (P < .001) Aldosterone or renin activity did not reflect any of the cardiac disease variables investigated. Cardiac fibrosis and arteriosclerosis in dogs with MMVD are reflected by circulating cTnI concentration, but not by aldosterone concentration or renin activity. Cardiac troponin I could be a valuable biomarker for myocardial fibrosis in dogs with chronic cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. What can a pilot congestive heart failure disease management program tell us about likely return on investment?: A case study from a program offered to federal employees.

    PubMed

    vanVonno, Catherine J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Smith, Mark W; Thomas, Eileen G; Kelley, Doniece; Goetzel, Ron; Berg, Gregory D; Jain, Susheel K; Walker, David R

    2005-12-01

    In 1999, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Federal Employee Program (FEP) implemented a pilot disease management program to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) among members. The purpose of this project was to estimate the financial return on investment in the pilot CHF program, prior to a full program rollout. A cohort of 457 participants from the state of Maryland was matched to a cohort of 803 nonparticipants from a neighboring state where the CHF program was not offered. Each cohort was followed for 12 months before the program began and 12 months afterward. The outcome measures of primary interest were the differences over time in medical care expenditures paid by FEP and by all payers. Independent variables included indicators of program participation, type of heart disease, comorbidity measures, and demographics. From the perspective of the funding organization (FEP), the estimated return on investment for the pilot CHF disease management program was a savings of $1.08 in medical expenditure for every dollar spent on the program. Adding savings to other payers as well, the return on investment was a savings of $1.15 in medical expenditures per dollar spent on the program. The amount of savings depended upon CHF risk levels. The value of a pilot initiative and evaluation is that lessons for larger-scale efforts can be learned prior to full-scale rollout.

  13. Serum C-Reactive Protein and Congestive Heart Failure as Significant Predictors of Herpes Zoster Vaccine Response in Elderly Nursing Home Residents.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Chris P; Lelic, Alina; Parsons, Robin; Evelegh, Carole; Bramson, Jonathan L; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark B; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2017-07-15

    Elderly long-term care residents often exhibit a myriad of risk factors for immune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and multiple comorbid conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to infection. Hence, understanding the factors required for optimal vaccine responsiveness is critical. We examined 187 elderly nursing home residents (aged 80-102 years) and 50 community-dwelling seniors (aged 60-75 years) immunized with the live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine. Specifically, we examined whether vaccine responsiveness was associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1β, 6, and 10, leukocyte telomere length, chronic disease status, and frailty. Elderly participants had significantly higher levels of CRP, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 6 and shorter leukocyte telomere length. Vaccine responsiveness was inversely related to the CRP level in elderly participants, but not seniors, and those with congestive heart failure were less likely to achieve a 2-fold response (odds ratio, 0.08). The latter relationship is probably due to immunosenescence, because heart failure was associated with increased senescent CD4+ T cells, and reduced naive and effector and central memory CD8+ T cells. In summary, these data improve our understanding of vaccine responsiveness for those in long-term care, suggesting that certain risk factors are associated with a greater likelihood of vaccine failure.

  14. Human atrial natriuretic peptide infusion for a neonate with congestive heart failure after total correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Hamawaki, M; Tomino, T; Sato, H; Imura, M; Suzuki, T; Hibino, N

    2000-09-01

    A successful case of human atrial natriuretic peptide (HANP) infusion therapy for a neonate who developed congestive heart failure (CHF) after total repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection was performed on the first day of life. Following 14h of HANP infusion at incremental doses of 0.125-0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) urine output and hemodynamics dramatically improved. Urine output increased from 1.1 to 10.6 ml/h (p<0.0001) and good urinary output (13.0 ml/h) was maintained even after discontinuation of the infusion. During the infusion, the heart rate decreased from 166 to 152 beats/min (p<0.0001), and the systemic systolic blood pressure increased from 82 to 103 mmHg (p<0.0001). Central venous pressure was not significantly affected by HANP infusion. This is the first successful case of HANP infusion therapy as the first treatment of post-operative pulmonary hypertension in this age group. This therapy can be used safely and may be useful in neonates with CHF resulting from other causes, but more investigation is needed.

  15. [Hospital outcome and short-term follow-up of elderly patients presenting to the emergency unit with congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Villacorta, H; Rocha, N; Cardoso, R; Gaspar, S; Maia, E R; Bonates, T; Kopiler, D; Dohmann, H J; Mesquita, E T

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the in-hospital (IH) outcome and the short-term follow-up of predominantly elderly patients presenting to an emergency room (ER) with congestive heart failure (CHF). In an 11 month period, 57 patients presenting to the ER with CHF were included. Mean age was 69 +/- 15 years (27 to 94) and 39 (68.4%) were male. CHF diagnosis was based on the Boston criteria. We evaluated IH outcome and prognosis in a mean follow-up of 5.7 +/- 2.7 months (1 to 12). In addition, some mortality predictors and mechanisms of death according on the ACME system were identified. Eight patients (14%) died in the IH period. Modes of death were circulatory failure (CF) in 7, and peri-operative (PO) in one (aortic valve replacement). During follow-up 9 deaths occurred. Five were due to CF, 2 were sudden and 2 were PO (mitral valve replacement and ventriculectomy). Six-months and 1-year survival rates of the patients who were discharged were 82% and 66%, respectively. Sodium lower than 135 mEq/l (p = 0.004) and female gender (p = 0.038) were independent predictors of mortality. Elderly patients with CHF admitted to the ER have high in-hospital and short-term follow up mortalities. The majority die from CF due to worsening heart failure.

  16. Association of Blood Pressure Trajectory With Mortality, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, and Heart Failure in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Smitson, Christopher C; Scherzer, Rebecca; Shlipak, Michael G; Psaty, Bruce M; Newman, Anne B; Sarnak, Mark J; Odden, Michelle C; Peralta, Carmen A

    2017-06-01

    Common blood pressure (BP) trajectories are not well established in elderly persons, and their association with clinical outcomes is uncertain. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to identify discrete BP trajectories among 4,067 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study using repeated BP measures from years 0 to 7. We then evaluated associations of each BP trajectory cluster with all-cause mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, defined as stroke or myocardial infarction) (N = 2,837), and incident congestive heart failure (HF) (N = 3,633) using Cox proportional hazard models. Median age was 77 years at year 7. Over a median 9.3 years of follow-up, there were 2,475 deaths, 659 CVD events, and 1,049 HF events. The cluster analysis identified 3 distinct trajectory groups. Participants in cluster 1 (N = 1,838) had increases in both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BPs, whereas persons in cluster 2 (N = 1,109) had little change in SBP but declines in DBP. Persons in cluster 3 (N = 1,120) experienced declines in both SBP and DBP. After multivariable adjustment, clusters 2 and 3 were associated with increased mortality risk relative to cluster 1 (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.37 and hazard ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.36, respectively). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 3 had higher rates of incident CVD but associations were not statistically significant in demographic-adjusted models (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.39). Findings were similar when stratified by use of antihypertensive therapy. Among community-dwelling elders, distinct BP trajectories were identified by integrating both SBP and DBP. These clusters were found to have differential associations with outcomes.

  17. Effects of hope promoting interventions based on religious beliefs on quality of life of patients with congestive heart failure and their families

    PubMed Central

    Binaei, Niloufar; Moeini, Mahin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mostafa; Mohagheghian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure is one of the most important and prevalent diseases that may have negative effects on the quality of life (QOL). Today, the promotion of QOL in patients with heart failure is important in nursing care programs. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of hope-promoting interventions based on religious beliefs on the QOL of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial (IRCT2014100619413N1) conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 46 adult patients with CHF were selected and randomly assigned to study and control groups. Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI) was completed by both groups before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention. For the study group participants and their families, 60-min sessions of hope-promoting interventions based on religious beliefs were held twice a week for 3 weeks. Independent t, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, Mann–Whitney, and Fisher's exact tests were adopted for data analysis. Results: The mean (standard deviation) overall QOL score in the area of satisfaction significantly increased in the study group, compared to the controls, immediately [70.7 (8.5) vs. 59.2 (12.5)] and 1 month after the intervention [75.2 (7.4) vs. 59.4 (12.9)] (P < 0.05). There was also a similar difference between the two groups in the area of importance immediately [73.6 (5.8) vs. 65.7 (7.5)] and 1 month after the intervention [76.3 (8.1) vs. 66.8 (8.5)] (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hope-promoting intervention based on religious beliefs is a useful method for improving QOL in patients with CHF. PMID:26985226

  18. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - surgery; Congestive heart failure - surgery; Cardiomyopathy - surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure

  19. Is inotropic therapy appropriate for patients with chronic congestive heart failure? Or is the digitalis leaf withering?

    PubMed Central

    Uretsky, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    The appropriateness of inotropic therapy in chronic heart failure was examined by critically reviewing five assumptions upon which this form of therapy has been justified. Only the first, that cardiac performance can be acutely improved by inotropic therapy, has been empirically proven. That such acute improvement is sustained appears to be true with non-catecholamine agents whereas the chronic haemodynamic efficacy of oral catecholamines remains in doubt. That any inotropic agent can improve exercise tolerance, make the patient feel better, or effect a change without deleteriously affecting the myocyte is very much in doubt. Thus, although the prospect of using powerful inotropic therapy in the patient with heart failure is theoretically appealing, its utility remains to be proven. PMID:2946034

  20. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on pump function and cardiac contractility in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Baur, L H; Schipperheyn, J J; Baan, J; van der Laarse, A; Buis, B; van der Wall, E E; Manger Cats, V; van Dijk, A D; Blokland, J A; Frölich, M

    1991-01-01

    Eleven patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure were studied before and three months after the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril was added to their frusemide medication. The following were measured: left ventricular pressure and volume with transient occlusion of the inferior vena cava, radionuclide angiography, and hormone concentrations in plasma. As in other reported studies, the clinical condition of the patients improved and their exercise tolerance increased moderately. Addition of enalapril reduced end diastolic and systolic pressure, reduced ventricular volume, and concomitantly increased the ejection fraction. The end systolic pressure-volume relation shifted to the left as it did in a similar animal study. In the animal study unloading by a vasodilator did not induce a leftward shift, so it can be inferred that in the present study unloading combined with a decrease in the angiotensin concentration was instrumental in remodelling the heart. Though unloading was expected to have a beneficial effect on the oxygen supply/demand ratio of the heart, the patients still showed the same drop in the ejection fraction during exercise as they did before treatment with enalapril, and early diastolic filling did not improve. Normally, regression of cardiac dilatation is only found if pump function improves; the present study showed that unloading in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition reshapes the ventricle without improving intrinsic pump function. PMID:2015121

  1. Habitual chocolate consumption and the risk of incident heart failure among healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C S; Loke, Y K; Welch, A A; Luben, R N; Lentjes, M A H; Boekholdt, S M; Pfister, R; Mamas, M A; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Myint, P K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of incident heart failure in a UK general population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this association. We used data from a prospective population-based study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Chocolate intake was quantified based on a food frequency questionnaire obtained at baseline (1993-1997) and incident heart failure was ascertained up to March 2009. We supplemented the primary data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which evaluated risk of incident heart failure with chocolate consumption. A total of 20,922 participants (53% women; mean age 58 ± 9 years) were included of whom 1101 developed heart failure during the follow up (mean 12.5 ± 2.7 years, total person years 262,291 years). After adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors, we found 19% relative reduction in heart failure incidence in the top (up to 100 g/d) compared to the bottom quintile of chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-0.98) but the results were no longer significant after controlling for comorbidities (HR 0.87 95%CI 0.71-1.06). Additional adjustment for potential mediators did not attenuate the results further. We identified five relevant studies including the current study (N = 75,408). The pooled results showed non-significant 19% relative risk reduction of heart failure incidence with higher chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-1.01). Our results suggest that higher chocolate intake is not associated with subsequent incident heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [CircuLite Synergy ventricular assist device: a new approach to end-stage congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Barbone, Alessandro; Pini, Daniela; Ornaghi, Diego; Visigalli, Maria Maddalena; Ardino, Laura; Bragato, Renato; Curzi, Mirko; Cioccarelli, Sara Anna; Di Diodoro, Lara; Basciu, Alessio; Cappai, Antioco; Settepani, Fabrizio; Citterio, Enrico; Cappelleri, Alessio; Calcagnino, Margherita; Mangiavacchi, Maurizio; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Lettino, Maddalena; Vitali, Ettore

    2014-02-01

    The Synergy system, a miniature partial circulatory support device, is implanted by an off-pump, minimally invasive surgical approach. The system has been optimized to improve performance in an EU clinical trial for chronic ambulatory heart failure. This therefore offers the possibility of treating elderly chronic heart failure patients who might not usually be considered for long-term circulatory support. From June 2007 to December 2012, 63 patients were implanted with the Synergy system (12 patients ≥70 years) using four different releases of the device. Briefly, the system draws blood through the inflow cannula from the left atrium into the micro-pump (placed in a right subclavicular pocket) and pumps it through an outflow graft to the right subclavian artery. In this paper, we present an intermediate analysis of the clinical trial as performed on April 30, 2013, leading to the placing of the CE mark. Mean duration of support is ongoing at 230 days (range 23-1387). Follow-up showed improved hemodynamic response, with additional improvements in 6-min walk distance (299 ± 144 to 420 ± 119 m) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (69.5 ± 20.4 to 49.2 ± 24.3). Older patients had longer mean durations of support (337 vs 188 days). On average, elderly and younger patients showed similar improvements in hemodynamics and 6-min walk distance (107 ± 120 vs 130 ± 121 m). Major adverse cardiac events included bleeding (n=4) with one bleeding related to renal failure resulting in death. Clinical use of the Synergy device was associated with a significant functional improvement. Very low adverse event rates were reported with the latest device release. Older patients had smaller body sizes and worse renal function than younger patients. Both groups experienced similar hemodynamic benefits and functional improvements. The risk of bleeding and renal dysfunction appears to be increased in the elderly, though still within acceptable ranges compared to

  3. Validation of the health ABC heart failure model for incident heart failure risk prediction: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Psaty, Bruce M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Smith, Andrew L; Smith, Nicholas L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Wilson, Peter W F; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Butler, Javed

    2010-07-01

    The recently developed and internally validated Health ABC HF model uses 9 routinely available clinical variables to determine incident heart failure risk. In this study, we sought to externally validate the Health ABC HF model. Observed 5-year incidence of heart failure, defined as first hospitalization for new-onset heart failure, was compared with 5-year risk estimates derived from the Health ABC HF model among participants without heart failure at baseline in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up, 400 of 5335 (7.5%) participants developed heart failure over 5 years versus 364 (6.8%) predicted by the Health ABC HF model (predicted-to-observed ratio, 0.90). Observed versus predicted 5-year heart failure probabilities were 3.2% versus 2.8%, 9.0% versus 7.0%, 15.9% versus 13.7%, and 24.6% versus 30.8% for the <5%, 5% to 10%, 10% to 20%, and >20% 5-year risk categories, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow chi(2) was 14.72 (degrees of freedom, 10; P=0.14), and the C index was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.76). Calibration and discrimination demonstrated adequate performance across sex and race overall; however, risk was underestimated in white men, especially in the 5% to 10% risk category. Model performance was optimal when participants with normal left ventricular function at baseline were assessed separately. Performance was consistent across age groups. Analyses with death as a competing risk yielded similar results. The Health ABC HF model adequately predicted 5-year heart failure risk in a large community-based study, providing support for the external validity of the model. This tool may be used to identify individuals to whom to target heart failure prevention efforts.

  4. Usefulness of left atrial volume in predicting first congestive heart failure in patients > or = 65 years of age with well-preserved left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Barnes, Marion E; Seward, James B; Lester, Steven J; Appleton, Christopher A; Gersh, Bernard J; Bailey, Kent R; Tsang, Teresa S M

    2005-09-15

    Left atrial (LA) volume is a barometer of diastolic dysfunction. Whether it predicts congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function is not known. Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged > or = 65 years referred for transthoracic echocardiography from 1990 to 1998, who were in sinus rhythm without a history of CHF were followed in the medical records to 2003 (mean follow-up duration 4.3 +/- 2.7 years). Of the 1,495 patients identified, 1,375 (92%) with LV ejection fractions > or = 50% (mean age 75 +/- 7 years; 59% women) constituted the study population, 138 (10%) of whom developed CHF. Baseline LA volume > or = 32 ml/m2 was an independent predictor of first CHF (p <0.001). Of the 138 patients who had first CHF, ejection fractions were assessed within 4 weeks of diagnosis in 98 subjects, 74 (76%) of whom had ejection fractions remaining at > or = 50%, with a mean increase in LA volume of 8 +/- 10 ml/m2 (p <0.001) from baseline. The age-adjusted CHF-free survival rates for LA volume tertiles (< 28, 28 to < or = 37, and > 37 ml/m2) were 95%, 91%, and 83%, respectively (p <0.001). In conclusion, LA volume independently predicted first CHF in an elderly cohort with well-preserved LV systolic function.

  5. Differential contractile impairment of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim; Korkusuz, Petek; Onur, Rustu

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with exercise intolerance that cannot be entirely explained by hypoperfusion of the skeletal muscles. We studied the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus; EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus; SOL) skeletal muscles in doxorubicin-induced CHF in rats, and evaluated the defective steps of excitation-contraction coupling. Both types of muscles-obtained from CHF rats displayed significant reduction in twitch and tetanic contractions. Twitch half-relaxation times of CHF SOL muscles were prolonged while there was no significant difference in EDL muscles. High K(+) application induced lower contracture amplitudes in CHF muscles. Caffeine-induced contractures were significantly diminished in CHF SOL. Verapamil application depressed tetanic contractions in all preparations while depression was more pronounced in CHF SOL. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-1 and -2 in CHF EDL and in CHF SOL, respectively. Sarcolemmal excitability and spontaneous neurotransmitter release were unaffected since resting membrane potential, action potential and miniature end-plate potentials were unaltered in CHF muscles. We conclude that CHF induces contractile impairment that occurs predominantly in rat slow-twitch skeletal muscles. Our results suggest that this muscle-type-specific effect of CHF is related to the defective intracellular Ca(2+) release and uptake mechanisms and reduced sarcolemmal-dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) channel activity.

  6. Poor acute outcome in congestive heart failure is associated with increases in the plasma static oxidation-reduction potentials (sORP) in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Bjugstad, Kimberly B; Lalama, Jeffrey; Rael, Leonard T; Salottolo, Kristin; Dauber, Ira; Bar-Or, David

    2017-08-28

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), men are younger, more likely to have reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF), and to be diabetic compared to women. Despite this, sex differences in oxidative stress have yet to be explored in CHF. Data from 67 males and 63 females hospitalized for CHF were collected. Static oxidation-reduction potential (sORP), a relative indicator of oxidative stress, and capacity ORP (icORP), a relative indicator of antioxidant capacity, were measured from plasma samples. We examined whether sex modified the relationship between ORP and hospital discharge disposition (poor outcome: death, hospice), along with other demographics, medications, and diagnostic parameters. Males with poor outcomes had higher sORP and icORP values than females (P < 0.05). For those with a good outcome, there were no differences between the sexes (P > 0.05). Males were younger and more likely to have HF-rEF and diabetes. Controlling for these variables did not account for the sex differences in ORP measures. Regardless of sex, higher creatinine was related to higher sORP and icORP, while lower magnesium and potassium were related to higher sORP and icORP, respectively. Increases in sORP during CHF are partially affected by sex and acute outcomes, but are also related to variables without sexual biases.

  7. Survival and echocardiographic data in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by mitral valve disease and treated by multiple drugs: a retrospective study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N; Strehlau, Günther; White, Regina Valle

    2011-11-01

    This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m(2) for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate.

  8. Automated diagnosis of congestive heart failure using dual tree complex wavelet transform and statistical features extracted from 2s of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Adam, Muhammad; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Ru San

    2017-04-01

    Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients. From these DTCWT coefficients, statistical features are extracted and ranked using Bhattacharyya, entropy, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), Wilcoxon, t-test and reliefF methods. Ranked features are subjected to k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and decision tree (DT) classifiers for automated differentiation of CHF and normal ECG signals. We have achieved 99.86% accuracy, 99.78% sensitivity and 99.94% specificity in the identification of CHF affected ECG signals using 45 features. The proposed method is able to detect CHF patients accurately using only 2s of ECG signal length and hence providing sufficient time for the clinicians to further investigate on the severity of CHF and treatments.

  9. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) in anemic patients with congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure: lack of effect of anemia treatment.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, M; Silverberg, D S; Schwartz, D; Oksenberg, A

    2010-08-20

    To assess the prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) in anemic patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) and to evaluate the effect of anemia treatment on RLS. 38 anemic CHF-CRF patients were treated with subcutaneous Erythropoietin (EPO) and intravenous (IV) iron over 1 year. They were questioned initially and at 3 months post treatment about symptoms of RLS according to standard criteria. They were also contacted by telephone about RLS symptoms 12 months after onset of anemia treatment. RLS was found in 15 (39.5%) of the 38 patients. In 10 (66.7%) patients it was present at least 6 days a week. The prevalence of the RLS initially was not related to Hb, to serum iron or % Transferrin Saturation. Diabetes and lower serum ferritin were more common in the RLS group (p<0.05). After 3 months of treatment, Hb increased from 10.4+/-0.8 to 12.3+/-1.2 g/dl, but RLS symptoms did not change. By 12 months the prevalence and frequency of RLS complaints was similar to what it had been initially. RLS is common and often undiagnosed and untreated in anemic CHF-CRF patients. Unfortunately, successful treatment of anemia with EPO and IV iron did not improve this condition. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of Congenital Heart Disease: The 9-Year Experience of the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jian; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Jimei; Gong, Wei; Gao, Xiangmin; Wu, Yong; Nie, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    There are 16.5 million newborns in China annually. However, the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) has not been evaluated. In 2004, we launched an active province-wide hospital-based CHD registry in the Guangdong Province of southern China. In this study, we examined the incidence of CHD and its subtypes from 2004 to 2012 and compared our findings to the literature. Our results indicate there is an increasing trend of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence occurred mainly for single lesion and the most common subtypes (e.g., ventricular or atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus). There were no increases found for multiple lesions or more complex subtypes. The proportion of CHD cases that were detected early (e.g., 1 week) increased over time. The incidence of CHD stabilized in 2010–2012 with the average cumulative incidences of 9.7, 9.9, and 11.1 per 1,000 live births at 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, respectively. The incidences of CHD subtypes were comparable with recent international results. The data did not support previous reports that Asian children have a higher incidence of pulmonary outflow obstructions and lower incidence of transposition of the great arteries. However, there was a lower incidence of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions observed in our series. The increase in CHD incidence observed over time was due to improved detection and diagnosis. The true incidence of CHD in China was approximately 11.1 per 1,000 live births, which is higher than previously reported. PMID:27409588

  11. The Prognostic Value of Non-Linear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure—A Pilot Study of Multiscale Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Lwun; Lin, Chen; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Aims The influences of nonstationarity and nonlinearity on heart rate time series can be mathematically qualified or quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of parameters derived from MSE in the patients with systolic heart failure. Methods and Results Patients with systolic heart failure were enrolled in this study. One month after clinical condition being stable, 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was recording. MSE as well as other standard parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were assessed. A total of 40 heart failure patients with a mea age of 56±16 years were enrolled and followed-up for 684±441 days. There were 25 patients receiving β-blockers treatment. During follow-up period, 6 patients died or received urgent heart transplantation. The short-term exponent of DFA and the slope of MSE between scale 1 to 5 were significantly different between patients with or without β-blockers (p = 0.014 and p = 0.028). Only the area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 (Area6–20) showed the strongest predictive power between survival (n = 34) and mortality (n = 6) groups among all the parameters. The value of Area6–2021.2 served as a significant predictor of mortality or heart transplant (p = 0.0014). Conclusion The area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 is not relevant to β-blockers and could further warrant independent risk stratification for the prognosis of CHF patients. PMID:21533258

  12. Acute and 3-month treatment effects of candesartan cilexetil on hemodynamics, neurohormones, and clinical symptoms in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, V; Willenbrock, R; Miric, M; Seferovic, P; Spinar, J; Dabrowski, M; Kiowski, W; Marks, D S; Alegria, E; Dukát, A; Lenz, K; Arens, H A

    2003-03-01

    This study evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan cilexetil on hemodynamics, neurohormones, and clinical symptoms in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). In this multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, 218 patients with CHF (New York Heart Association class II or III) with impaired left ventricular function (ejection fraction < or =40%) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > or =13 mm Hg were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of treatment with placebo (n = 44) or candesartan cilexetil (2 mg [n = 45], 4 mg [n = 46], 8 mg [n = 39], or 16 mg [n = 44]) once daily after a 2-week placebo run-in period. Hemodynamic measurements were performed by right heart catheterization over a 24-hour period after single (day 1) and repeated (3-month) treatment with the study drug. On regression analysis of the time-response curves, single and multiple doses of candesartan cilexetil produced sustained, significant, and dose-dependent reductions in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (short-term effect P =.036, long-term effect P =.035) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (short-term effect P =.031, long-term effect P =.042). Systemic vascular resistance showed a trend toward decreasing with dose on short-term and long-term treatments. No consistent changes were seen in cardiac index. Compensatory increases in plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels with decreases in aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide were dose-dependent and significant. Candesartan cilexetil improved clinical symptoms, stabilized patient New York Heart Association status compared with placebo, and was judged to be an efficacious treatment by the investigators. More patients receiving placebo stopped the trial prematurely because of an adverse event than in any candesartan cilexetil group, and there was no excess of deaths in any treatment group. Candesartan was safe and well tolerated at all dosages. Candesartan

  13. Doxorubicine-congestive heart failure-increased big endothelin-1 plasma concentration: reversal by amlodipine, losartan, and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 in rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Sikiric, Predrag; Hanzevacki, Jadranka S; Seiwerth, Sven; Rogic, Dunja; Kusec, Vesna; Aralica, Gorana; Konjevoda, Pasko; Batelja, Lovorka; Blagaic, Alenka B

    2004-05-01

    Overall, doxorubicine-congestive heart failure (CHF) (male Wistar rats and NMRI mice; 6 challenges with doxorubicine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout 15 days and then a 4-week-rest period) is consistently deteriorating throughout next 14 days, if not reversed or ameliorated by therapy (/kg per day): a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, promisingly studied for inflammatory bowel disease (Pliva; PL 10, PLD-116, PL 14736)) (10 microg, 10 ng), losartan (0.7 mg), amlodipine (0.07 mg), given intragastrically (i.g.) (once daily, rats) or in drinking water (mice). Assessed were big endothelin-1 (BET-1) and plasma enzyme levels (CK, MBCK, LDH, AST, ALT) before and after 14 days of therapy and clinical status (hypotension, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and ascites) every 2 days. Controls (distilled water (5 ml/kg, i.g., once daily) or drinking water (2 ml/mouse per day) given throughout 14 days) exhibited additionally increased BET-1 and aggravated clinical status, while enzyme values maintained their initial increase. BPC157 (10 microg/kg) and amlodipine treatment reversed the increased BET-1 (rats, mice), AST, ALT, CK (rats, mice), and LDH (mice) values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) and losartan opposed further increase of BET-1 (rats, mice). Losartan reduces AST, ALT, CK, and LDH serum values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) reduces AST and ALT serum values. Clinical status of CHF-rats and -mice is accordingly improved by the BPC157 regimens and amlodipine.

  14. Clinical pathologic profiles of dogs and turkeys with congestive heart failure, either noninduced or induced by rapid ventricular pacing, and turkeys with furazolidone toxicosis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; O'Grady, M; Lumsden, J H; Holmberg, D L; Shen, H; Weiler, J E; Horn, R D; Mirsalimi, S M; Julian, R J

    1993-01-01

    Characteristic alterations in the serum and urine biochemical profiles of Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (CHF) resulting from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were determined. We compared these alterations with those observed in 2 other models of CHF: rate overload induced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs, and biventricular hypertrophy and dilatation induced in turkey poults by furazolidone toxicosis. Serum and urine biochemical changes in both models of CHF in dogs were mild to moderate in degree, and were moderately consistent. They could be attributed to secondary neurohumoral, hepatic, and renal effects of heart failure. The most marked and consistent changes observed were mildly decreased anion gap that developed, in part, because of decreased serum sodium concentration, moderately increased catecholamine concentrations, moderate lactaciduria, hyposthenuria, and mildly increased urea concentrations and liver enzyme activities. In birds with furazolidone cardiomyopathy, we observed mild increases in serum urate concentration, liver and muscle enzyme activities, but moderately increased sodium concentration with decreased chloride concentration. In the pacing and furazolidone models, in which CHF was rapidly induced, moderate to marked hypoproteinemia was attributable to decreases in albumin and globulin concentrations. Using the avian model we found that the hypoproteinemia could be largely attributed to blood volume expansion, and to a lesser extent, inanition. Development of hypoalbuminemia during rapid ventricular pacing and furazolidone treatment may contribute to the effects of rate overload or drug toxicity in the pathogenesis of CHF, because hypoalbuminemia may contribute to altered hemodynamics and neuroendocrine system activation. Our data indicate that clinical biochemical analysis of serum and urine may be useful for assessing progression of CHF.

  15. Long-term effects of dietary sodium intake on cytokines and neurohormonal activation in patients with recently compensated congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Licata, Giuseppe; Torres, Daniele; Giammanco, Marco; Fasullo, Sergio; Mezzero, Manuela; Paterna, Salvatore

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the fluid accumulation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and that the inflammatory and neurohormonal activation contribute strongly to the progression of this disorder. The study evaluated the long-term effects of 2 different sodium diets on cytokines neurohormones, body hydration and clinical outcome in compensated HF outpatients (New York Heart Association Class II). A total of 173 patients (105 males, mean age 72.5+/-7) recently hospitalized for worsening advanced HF and discharged in normal hydration and in clinical compensation were randomized in 2 groups (double blind). In Group 1, 86 patients received a moderate restriction in sodium (120mmol to 2.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid); in Group 2, 87 patients: received a low-sodium diet (80mmol to 1.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid). Both groups were followed for 12 months and the treatment was associated with a drink intake of 1000mL daily. Neurohormonal (brain natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, plasma rennin activity) and cytokines values (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6) were significantly reduced with a significant increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 at 12 months in normal, P < .0001) than low-sodium group. The low-sodium diet showed a significant activation of neurohormones and cytokines and worsening the body hydration, whereas moderate sodium restriction maintained dry weigh and improved outcome in the long term. Our results appear to suggest a surprising efficacy of a new strategy to improve the chronic diuretic response by increasing Na intake and limiting fluid intake. This counterintuitive approach underlines the need for a better understanding of factors that regulate sodium and water handling in chronic congestive HF. A larger sample of patients and further studies are required to evaluate whether this is due to the high dose of diuretic used or the low-sodium diet.

  16. Sleep-disordered Breathing and Incident Heart Failure in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.; Redline, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The directionality of the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and heart failure is controversial. Objectives: We assessed whether elevations in the obstructive or central sleep apnea index or the presence of Cheyne-Stokes breathing are associated with decompensated and/or incident heart failure. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of 2,865 participants derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, a prospective multicenter observational study of community-dwelling older men. Participants underwent baseline polysomnography and were followed for a mean 7.3 years for development of incident or decompensated heart failure. Our main exposures were the obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), central apnea index (CAI ≥5), and Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Covariates included age, race, clinic site, comorbidities, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco use. Measurements and Main Results: CAI greater than or equal to five and presence of Cheyne-Stokes breathing but not obstructive AHI were significant predictors of incident heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.77 for CAI ≥5) (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.45–3.43 for Cheyne-Stokes breathing). After excluding those with baseline heart failure, the incident risk of heart failure was attenuated for those with CAI greater than or equal to five (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.92–2.66) but remained significantly elevated for those with Cheyne-Stokes breathing (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.10–3.30). Conclusions: An elevated CAI/Cheyne-Stokes breathing, but not an elevated obstructive AHI, is significantly associated with increased risk of decompensated heart failure and/or development of clinical heart failure in a community-based cohort of older men. PMID:26502092

  17. Sleep-disordered Breathing and Incident Heart Failure in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Sogol; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L; Redline, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The directionality of the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and heart failure is controversial. We assessed whether elevations in the obstructive or central sleep apnea index or the presence of Cheyne-Stokes breathing are associated with decompensated and/or incident heart failure. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of 2,865 participants derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, a prospective multicenter observational study of community-dwelling older men. Participants underwent baseline polysomnography and were followed for a mean 7.3 years for development of incident or decompensated heart failure. Our main exposures were the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), central apnea index (CAI ≥ 5), and Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Covariates included age, race, clinic site, comorbidities, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco use. CAI greater than or equal to five and presence of Cheyne-Stokes breathing but not obstructive AHI were significant predictors of incident heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.77 for CAI ≥ 5) (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.45-3.43 for Cheyne-Stokes breathing). After excluding those with baseline heart failure, the incident risk of heart failure was attenuated for those with CAI greater than or equal to five (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.92-2.66) but remained significantly elevated for those with Cheyne-Stokes breathing (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.10-3.30). An elevated CAI/Cheyne-Stokes breathing, but not an elevated obstructive AHI, is significantly associated with increased risk of decompensated heart failure and/or development of clinical heart failure in a community-based cohort of older men.

  18. Dynamic cardiac output regulation at rest, during exercise, and muscle metaboreflex activation: impact of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Coutsos, Matthew; Li, Zhenhua; Ichinose, Tomoko K; Dawe, Elizabeth; Fano, Dominic; O'Leary, Donal S

    2012-10-01

    We tested whether mild and moderate dynamic exercise and muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) affect dynamic baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO), and the influence of stroke volume (SV) fluctuations on CO regulation in normal (N) and pacing-induced heart failure (HF) dogs by employing transfer function analyses of the relationships between spontaneous changes in left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and HR, LVSP and CO, HR and CO, and SV and CO at low and high frequencies (Lo-F, 0.04-0.15 Hz; Hi-F, 0.15-0.6 Hz). In N dogs, both workloads significantly decreased the gains for LVSP-HR and LVSP-CO in Hi-F, whereas only moderate exercise also reduced the LVSP-CO gain in Lo-F. MMA during mild exercise further decreased the gains for LVSP-HR in both frequencies and for LVSP-CO in Lo-F. MMA during moderate exercise further reduced LVSP-HR gain in Lo-F. Coherence for HR-CO in Hi-F was decreased by exercise and MMA, whereas that in Lo-F was sustained at a high level (>0.8) in all settings. HF significantly decreased dynamic HR and CO regulation in all situations. In HF, the coherence for HR-CO in Lo-F decreased significantly in all settings; the coherence for SV-CO in Lo-F was significantly higher. We conclude that dynamic exercise and MMA reduces dynamic baroreflex control of HR and CO, and these are substantially impaired in HF. In N conditions, HR modulation plays a major role in CO regulation. In HF, influence of HR modulation wanes, and fluctuations of SV dominate in CO variations.

  19. Dynamic cardiac output regulation at rest, during exercise, and muscle metaboreflex activation: impact of congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Masashi; Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Coutsos, Matthew; Li, ZhenHua; Ichinose, Tomoko K.; Dawe, Elizabeth; Fano, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether mild and moderate dynamic exercise and muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) affect dynamic baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO), and the influence of stroke volume (SV) fluctuations on CO regulation in normal (N) and pacing-induced heart failure (HF) dogs by employing transfer function analyses of the relationships between spontaneous changes in left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and HR, LVSP and CO, HR and CO, and SV and CO at low and high frequencies (Lo-F, 0.04–0.15 Hz; Hi-F, 0.15–0.6 Hz). In N dogs, both workloads significantly decreased the gains for LVSP-HR and LVSP-CO in Hi-F, whereas only moderate exercise also reduced the LVSP-CO gain in Lo-F. MMA during mild exercise further decreased the gains for LVSP-HR in both frequencies and for LVSP-CO in Lo-F. MMA during moderate exercise further reduced LVSP-HR gain in Lo-F. Coherence for HR-CO in Hi-F was decreased by exercise and MMA, whereas that in Lo-F was sustained at a high level (>0.8) in all settings. HF significantly decreased dynamic HR and CO regulation in all situations. In HF, the coherence for HR-CO in Lo-F decreased significantly in all settings; the coherence for SV-CO in Lo-F was significantly higher. We conclude that dynamic exercise and MMA reduces dynamic baroreflex control of HR and CO, and these are substantially impaired in HF. In N conditions, HR modulation plays a major role in CO regulation. In HF, influence of HR modulation wanes, and fluctuations of SV dominate in CO variations. PMID:22855278

  20. Ratio of urine and blood urea nitrogen concentration predicts the response of tolvaptan in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Keisuke; Doi, Kent; Imamura, Teruhiko; Noiri, Eisei; Yahagi, Naoki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kinugawa, Koichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the ratio of urine and blood urea nitrogen concentration (UUN/BUN) as a new predictive factor for the response of an arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist tolvaptan (TLV) in decompensated heart failure patients. This study enrolled 70 decompensated heart failure patients who were administered TLV at University of Tokyo Hospital. We collected the data of clinical parameters including UUN/BUN before administering TLV. Two different outcomes were defined as follows: having over 300 mL increase in urine volume on the first day (immediate urine output response) and having any decrease in body weight within one week after starting TLV treatment (subsequent clinical response). Among the 70 enrolled patients, 37 patients (52.9%) showed immediate urine output response; 51 patients (72.9%) showed a subsequent clinical response of body weight decrease. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed good prediction by UUN/BUN for the immediate response (AUC-ROC 0.86 [0.75-0.93]) and a significantly better prediction by UUN/BUN for the subsequent clinical response compared with urinary osmolality (AUC-ROC 0.78 [0.63-0.88] vs. 0.68 [0.52-0.80], P < 0.05). We demonstrated that a clinical parameter of UUN/BUN can predict the response of TLV even when measured before TLV administration. UUN/BUN might enable identification of good responders for this new drug. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. A Prospective Study of the Association Between Dispositional Optimism and Incident Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Smith, Jacqui; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although higher optimism has been linked with an array of positive health behaviors, biological processes, and cardiovascular outcomes, the relationship between optimism and heart failure has not been examined. In the United States, 80% of heart failures occur in adults aged 65+. Therefore, we examined whether higher optimism was linked with a reduced incidence of heart failure among older adults. Methods and Results Prospective data were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of older U.S adults. Our sample included 6,808 participants who were followed for four years. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess if optimism was independently associated with incident heart failure. We adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychological covariates. Higher optimism was associated with a lower risk of incident heart failure over the follow-up period. In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, each standard deviation increase in optimism had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63–0.85) for heart failure. Effects of optimism persisted even after adjusting for a wide range of covariates. There was also evidence of a dose-response relationship. As optimism increased, risk of developing heart failure decreased monotonically, with a 48% reduced odds among people with the highest versus lowest optimism. Conclusions This is the first study to suggest that optimism is associated with a lower risk of heart failure. If future studies confirm these findings, they may be used to inform new strategies for preventing or delaying the onset of heart failure. PMID:24647117

  2. Congestive Hepatomegaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... or out of the liver? Gallstones Gluten intolerance Heart failure High blood pressure Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Better Efforts Could Help Rid the U.S. of Hepatitis B, C: Report TUESDAY, March 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Improved prevention, screening and treatment could ...

  3. Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2013-08-15

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors.

  4. Associations Between Metabolomic Compounds and Incident Heart Failure Among African Americans: The ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A.; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987–2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45–64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:23788672

  5. Heart failure in children - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth defect of the heart - heart ...

  6. Determinants of the blood pressure response to the first dose of ACE inhibitor in mild to moderate congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Lilian; Squire, Iain B; Reid, John L; Lees, Kennedy R

    1998-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship in patients with heart failure between BP response to the first dose of ACE inhibitor and (1) plasma drug concentration and (2) baseline clinical and laboratory variables. Methods We studied individual placebo-corrected BP responses to initiation of treatment with one of a number ACE inhibitor preparations in 132 patients with mild to moderate CHF. Various pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were compared. We assessed the strength of association between baseline physiological and laboratory variables and the BP response as assessed directly from the AUC(0,10 h) and indirectly from the slope of the PK/PD relationship. Predictive models for response variables were developing using regression analysis. Results BP response was primarily related to plasma drug concentration. The association between the fall in BP and baseline variables was weak. The strongest single predictor of BP response was baseline mean arterial pressure (r2 = 5.8%, P = 0.02). The best combinations of predictor variables contained mean arterial pressure, plasma renin activity, creatinine concentration and age (r2 = 14.4%, P = 0.37). When the choice of ACE inhibitor was added, the predictive power of the model increased (r2 = 23.6%, P < 0.01) but left the majority of the variability in response unexplained. Conclusions The first-dose blood pressure response to ACE inhibition cannot be accurately predicted from baseline pathophysiological variables in patients with mild to moderate CHF. The choice of ACE inhibitor accounts for a small proportion of the variability in response but wide inter-individual variability exists in the response to each treatment. PMID:9663811

  7. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  8. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  9. Associations of Conventional Echocardiographic Measures with Incident Heart Failure and Mortality: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Deo, Rajat; Bansal, Nisha; Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Peter; Go, Alan S; Keane, Martin; Townsend, Ray; Porter, Anna; Budoff, Matthew; Malik, Shaista; He, Jiang; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright, Jackson; Cappola, Thomas; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-01-06

    Heart failure is the most frequent cardiac complication of CKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy is common and develops early in CKD, but studies have not adequately evaluated the association of left ventricular mass index with heart failure incidence among men and women with CKD. We evaluated echocardiograms of 2567 participants without self-reported heart failure enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed at the year 1 study visit and interpreted at a central core laboratory. Left ventricular mass index was calculated using the linear method, indexed to height(2.7), and analyzed using sex-specific quartiles. The primary outcomes of incident heart failure and all-cause mortality were adjudicated over a median of 6.6 (interquartile range, 5.7-7.6) years. Among 2567 participants, 45% were women, and 54% were nonwhite race; mean (SD) age was 59±11 years old, and mean eGFR was 44±17 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). During a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, 262 participants developed heart failure, and 470 participants died. Compared with participants in the first quartile of left ventricular mass index, those in the highest quartile had higher rates of incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 8.02) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.85), even after adjustment for B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T, mineral metabolism markers, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Those in the lowest quartile of ejection fraction had higher rates of incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.94 to 4.67) but similar mortality rates (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.57) compared with those in the highest quartile. Diastolic dysfunction was not significantly associated with heart failure or death. Among persons with CKD and without history of cardiovascular disease, left ventricular mass index is

  10. Prognostic impact of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in severe chronic congestive heart failure: a substudy of the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Franz; Packer, Milton; Coats, Andrew J S; Fowler, Michael B; Krum, Henry; Mohacsi, Paul; Rouleau, Jean L; Tendera, Michal; Castaigne, Alain; Anker, Stefan D; Amann-Zalan, Ildiko; Hoersch, Silke; Katus, Hugo A

    2004-09-28

    The utility of N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) to predict the occurrence of death and hospitalization was prospectively evaluated in the COPERNICUS study, which enrolled patients with an ejection fraction <25% and symptoms of chronic congestive heart failure at rest or on minimal exertion. Baseline plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP were measured in a subgroup of 814 men and 197 women with symptoms at rest or on minimal exertion who were enrolled in the COPERNICUS study and were randomized to placebo (n=506) or carvedilol (n=505). Values of NT-proBNP were markedly increased despite the requirement that patients be euvolemic before the start of treatment (mean+/-SD, 3235+/-4392 pg/mL; median, 1767 pg/mL). By univariate Cox regression analysis, NT-proBNP was found to be a powerful predictor of subsequent all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.3; P=0.0001 for above versus below median) and all-cause mortality or hospitalization for heart failure (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 3.4; P=0.0001 for above versus below median). The predictive value of NT-proBNP was similar when both placebo and carvedilol patients were analyzed separately. No significant interaction was found between NT-proBNP and treatment group (P=0.93 for above- versus below-median NT-proBNP). NT-proBNP was consistently associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality and for all-cause mortality or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with severe congestive heart failure, even in those who were clinically euvolemic. This marker therefore may be a useful tool in risk stratification of patients with severe congestive heart failure.

  11. Associations of Pentraxin-3 with Cardiovascular Events, Incident Heart Failure and Mortality Among Persons with Coronary Heart Disease: Data from the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ruth; Li, Yongmei; Ix, Joachim H.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Whooley, Mary; Peralta, Carmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentraxin-3 is an inflammatory marker thought to be more specific to vascular inflammation than C-reactive protein (CRP). Whether pentraxin-3 is independently associated with adverse events among persons with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), independently of CRP, and whether kidney dysfunction influences these associations, is not known. Methods We evaluated the associations of baseline pentraxin-3 levels with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke or CHD death), and incident heart failure during 37 months among ambulatory persons with stable CHD participating in the Heart and Soul Study. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and CRP. Results Among 986 persons with stable CHD, each one unit increase in log pentraxin-3 at baseline was associated with an 80% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.1), a 50% increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2–1.9), and an 80% greater risk of incident heart failure (HR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.3–2.5). Further adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) attenuated these associations to 1.6 (1.3–1.9) for mortality, 1.3 (1.0–1.6) for cardiovascular events and 1.5 (1.1–2.1) for incident heart failure. Stratification by eGFR above or below 60 ml/min/1.73m2 did not affect these associations (p interaction >0.3 for all outcomes). Conclusions Among persons with stable CHD, higher pentraxin-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and incident heart failure independently of systemic inflammation. Adjustment for eGFR modestly attenuated these associations, suggesting that future studies of pentraxin-3 should adjust for kidney function. PMID:22305847

  12. Acute hemodynamic effects of right ventricular pacing site and pacing mode in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to either ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gold, M R; Brockman, R; Peters, R W; Olsovsky, M R; Shorofsky, S R

    2000-05-01

    The hemodynamic effects of pacing in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remain controversial. Early studies reported that pacing from the right ventricular (RV) apex improved acute hemodynamic parameters in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, but these findings were not confirmed in subsequent controlled studies. More recently, it has been proposed that pacing from the RV side of the ventricular septum improves hemodynamic function compared with intrinsic conduction or apical pacing. Either dual-chamber or ventricular pacing have been evaluated, again with inconsistent findings. To assess the effects of pacing site and mode on acute hemodynamic function, we evaluated 21 subjects with CHF and intrinsic conduction disease. Hemodynamics were compared in AAI, VVI, and DDD modes with pacing from the RV apex or high septum. The pacing rate was constant in each patient and the order of testing was randomized. In the absence of ventricular pacing (AAI mode), the mean systemic arterial pressure was 85 +/- 11 mm Hg, the right atrial pressure was 11 +/- 4 mm Hg, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 18 +/- 8 mm Hg and the cardiac index was 2.4 +/- 0.7 L/min/m(2). Compared with AAI pacing, there were no improvements in any hemodynamic parameter with DDD pacing from either RV site. Hemodynamic function worsened with VVI pacing from both RV sites. Subgroup analyses of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, with prolonged PR interval, or with significant mitral regurgitation also failed to demonstrate an improvement with pacing. We conclude that pacing mode but not RV pacing site affects acute hemodynamic function. Pacing in the DDD mode prevents the deleterious effects of VVI pacing in this patient population.

  13. Cautious application of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in diagnosis of congestive heart failure pleural effusions among critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Chun-Ta; Liu, Chia-Hsiung; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Chien, Ying-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Ku, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on diagnostic accuracy of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for effusions from congestive heart failure (CHF) conclude that pleural NT-pro-BNP is a useful biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing CHF effusions. However, its applicability in critical care settings remains uncertain and requires further investigations. NT-proBNP was measured in pleural fluid samples of a prospective cohort of intensive care unit patients with pleural effusions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy of pleural NT-proBNP for prediction of CHF effusions. One hundred forty-seven critically ill patients were evaluated, 38 (26%) with CHF effusions and 109 (74%) with non-CHF effusions of various causes. Pleural NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with CHF effusions. Pleural NT-pro-BNP demonstrated the area under the curve of 0.87 for diagnosing effusions due to CHF. With a cutoff of 2200 pg/mL, pleural NT-proBNP displayed high sensitivity (89%) but moderate specificity (73%). Notably, 29 (27%) of 109 patients with non-CHF effusions had pleural NT-proBNP levels >2200 pg/mL and these patients were more likely to experience septic shock (18/29 vs. 10/80, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (19/29 vs. 9/80, P<0.001). Among critically ill patients, pleural NT-proBNP measurements remain a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of pleural effusions. However, patients with non-CHF effusions may exhibit high pleural NT-proBNP concentrations if they suffer from septic shock or acute kidney injury. Accordingly, it is suggested that clinical context should be taken into account when interpreting pleural NT-proBNP values in critical care settings.

  14. Cautious Application of Pleural N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure Pleural Effusions among Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Chun-Ta; Liu, Chia-Hsiung; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Chien, Ying-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Ku, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Several studies on diagnostic accuracy of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for effusions from congestive heart failure (CHF) conclude that pleural NT-pro-BNP is a useful biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing CHF effusions. However, its applicability in critical care settings remains uncertain and requires further investigations. Methods NT-proBNP was measured in pleural fluid samples of a prospective cohort of intensive care unit patients with pleural effusions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy of pleural NT-proBNP for prediction of CHF effusions. Results One hundred forty-seven critically ill patients were evaluated, 38 (26%) with CHF effusions and 109 (74%) with non-CHF effusions of various causes. Pleural NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with CHF effusions. Pleural NT-pro-BNP demonstrated the area under the curve of 0.87 for diagnosing effusions due to CHF. With a cutoff of 2200 pg/mL, pleural NT-proBNP displayed high sensitivity (89%) but moderate specificity (73%). Notably, 29 (27%) of 109 patients with non-CHF effusions had pleural NT-proBNP levels >2200 pg/mL and these patients were more likely to experience septic shock (18/29 vs. 10/80, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (19/29 vs. 9/80, P<0.001). Conclusions Among critically ill patients, pleural NT-proBNP measurements remain a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of pleural effusions. However, patients with non-CHF effusions may exhibit high pleural NT-proBNP concentrations if they suffer from septic shock or acute kidney injury. Accordingly, it is suggested that clinical context should be taken into account when interpreting pleural NT-proBNP values in critical care settings. PMID:25502236

  15. MET-88, a gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase inhibitor, improves cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake activity in rats with congestive heart failure following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Ishida, H; Hoshiai, M; Hoshiai, K; Kirimoto, T; Kanno, T; Nakano, M; Tajima, K; Miyake, H; Matsuura, N; Nakazawa, H

    2000-06-01

    We previously reported that MET-88, 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate, improved left ventricular diastolic dysfunction induced by congestive heart failure (CHF) in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which MET-88 improved the cardiac relaxation impaired in CHF rats. The left coronary artery of the animals was ligated, and the rats were then orally administered vehicle (control), MET-88 at 50 or 100 mg/kg or captopril at 20 mg/kg for 20 days. Myocytes were isolated from the non-infarcted region in the left ventricle, and cell shortening and [Ca2+]i transients were measured with a video-edge detector and by fluorescence analysis, respectively. In CHF control rats, the diastolic phase of cell shortening was prolonged compared with that of the sham-operated (sham) rats. This prolongation was prevented by treatment with MET-88 at 100 mg/kg or captopril at 20 mg/kg. CHF control rats also showed an increase in the decay time of [Ca2+]i transients compared with sham rats. MET-88 at 100 mg/kg and captopril at 20 mg/kg attenuated the increase in decay time of [Ca2+]i transients. Ca2+ uptake activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) isolated from the non-infarcted region in the left ventricle was measured, and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of the activity was performed. CHF control rats revealed a decrease in the Vmax for SR Ca2+ uptake activity without alteration in Kd. MET-88 at 100 mg/kg significantly prevented the decrease in Vmax, but had no effect on Kd. Also, treatment with MET-88 at 100 mg/kg improved myocardial high-energy phosphate levels impaired in CHF rats. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which MET-88 improved cardiac relaxation in CHF rats is based on the amelioration of [Ca2+]i transients through increase of SR Ca2+ uptake activity.

  16. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase counteracts the development of renal dysfunction and progression of congestive heart failure in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats with aorto-caval fistula.

    PubMed

    Červenka, Luděk; Melenovský, Vojtěch; Husková, Zuzana; Škaroupková, Petra; Nishiyama, Akira; Sadowski, Janusz

    2015-07-01

    The detailed mechanisms determining the course of congestive heart failure (CHF) in hypertensive subjects with associated renal dysfunction remain unclear. In Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), a model of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, CHF was induced by volume overload achieved by creation of the aorto-caval fistula (ACF). In these rats we investigated the putative pathophysiological contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and compared it with the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We found that untreated ACF TGR exhibited marked intrarenal and myocardial deficiency of EETs and impairment of renal function. Chronic treatment of these rats with cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (c-AUCB, 3 mg/L in drinking water), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) which normally degrades EETs, increased intrarenal and myocardial EETs, markedly improved survival rate, and increased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and fractional sodium excretion, without altering RAS activity. Chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi) with trandolapril, (6 mg/L in drinking water) improved survival rate even more, and also inhibited the development of renal dysfunction; these beneficial actions were associated with significant suppression of the vasoconstrictor/sodium retaining axis and further activation of the vasodilatory/natriuretic axis of the systemic and intrarenal RAS, without modifying tissu